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Sabrina Distad
English 1010
Nkenna Onwuzuruoha
August 4, 2014

Is there a negative affect on animals kept in captivity.
Annotated Bibliography

"Captivity- Animals." N.p., n.d. Web. 4 Aug. 2014.

This source is posted from wikipedia, this is a well-known source to find all sorts of
different types of information. On this particular topic, it explains the history of how animals
started being kept in captivity and also explains different types of behaviors that animals kept it
captivity may have. Some of these behaviors such as pacing, biting themselves, retracing steps
and constantly grooming themselves are called stereotypical behaviors, purposeless behaviors
that these animals pick up and start to replicate. It also talks about how animals also develop
behaviors that cause self-injury. Things like pulling out hair, scratching, biting, hitting and
eye-poking are all behaviors that animals can develop due to captivity. This source mainly
discusses downsides of animals kept in captivity as well.


HowStuffWorks "Zoo Pros"" HowStuffWorks. N.p., n.d. Web. 04 Aug. 2014.

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This source talks about the pros and upsides of zoos and animals kept in captivity. It talks
about how zoos have improved drastically over the past decade or so and how the quality and
life-like features have improved dramatically. This source talks about how most of zoos animals
are born into captivity or rescued due to injuries versus being caught straight from the wild. It
also talks about how many of the zoos residents are species that were near extinction and how
with the help of zoos their numbers have started to increase. This source also talks about a really
good point being that much of these animals natural habitats are being destroyed due to
deforestation and building of new suburbs and cities and how these zoos are providing homes for
these otherwise homeless animals.

Nakate, Shashank. "Pros and Cons of Zoos." Buzzle. Buzzle.com, n.d. Web. 07 Aug.
2014.

This source talks about many pros and cons of keeping animals in confinement such as
zoos. It goes over both sides, good and bad and discuss the different advantages and
disadvantages of having places like zoos, sea world, and safari experiences. This sources touches
on how zoos are great for helping endangered animals regain population numbers and help
preserve nature. It talks about how poaches are killing animals for material things like ivory and
fur and how zoos help protect them from awful things like this. This source also talks about how
zoos are great for research and learning purposes and how they help us to better understand
nature and the animals that inhabit it. This source also talks about the reverse side and how no
matter what the quality of the zoo may be, the fact is, it cannot fully replicate an animals natural
habitat. It talks about how no matter what legal expectations zoos may have to abide by, that
animals in zoos still seem to suffer physiological issues throughout there stays.
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"Wild Animals in Captivity - Wild Animals in Captivity - Zoos, Circuses & Performing
Animals." Wild Animals in Captivity - Wild Animals in Captivity - Zoos, Circuses & Performing
Animals. N.p., n.d. Web. 01 Aug. 2014.

This source explains how animals can adapt to any environment as long as they are
properly suited. It explains how although tough and very difficult, wild animals can adapt to
enclosed and domesticated environments as long as they are properly suited and built for the
animal that will be inhabiting it. This source explains how many people that care for wild
animals have to abide by an animal welfare act to ensure that they are properly cared for. It does
however, briefly touch on the fact that animals that are put in unsuitable and unfit habitats can
have stress and behavioral issues. It also states that animals that are kept in environments such as
elephants in zoos, circus animals, dolphins and whales at sea-world and primates as pets cannot
be properly cared for or have their needs met and so it is not recommended to have animals in
these environments.

"Zoos: Pitiful Prisons." PETA. N.p., n.d. Web. 04 Aug. 2014.

This source is posted from PETA, a known source that strongly represents all animals
and is publicly and clearly against any form of animal cruelty. The name of the post is Zoos:
pitiful prisons that alone lets readers know that this post is going to speak for the animals. This
source explains how no matter how much a zoo tries to recreate a wildlife habitat for an animal,
the actual wild environment cannot be duplicated. It explains how animals kept in captivity
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suffer from boredom, cramped spaces, sadness and depression, anxiety, and loneliness. It touches
on how animals who are kept in captivity act out and rebel in ways like attacking zookeepers and
escaping, thus resulting in animals being shot and killed.