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# Aerodynamics Wing assignment

1. Introduction
Aircraft fly because they possess an aerofoil (or airfoil) which
when it cuts the air creates a lower pressure region of air
above the wing and a higher pressure region below. Since
high pressure air moves towards lower pressure air the high
pressure air pushes the wing up. The faster the airplane
travels the greater the difference in pressure and the more
lift is generated. When the lift force is large enough to
overcome the force of gravity the airplane will begin to fly.
As this is such a fundamental part of flight it stands to reason
that the aerofoil chosen when designing an aircraft must
specifically match the aircrafts purpose.

2. Boeing 747-400
First released in 1989 by Boeing Commercial
Airplanes they sold almost 700 of these planes. It
utilised a glass cockpit layout which eliminated the
need for a flight engineer lowering costs for
companies and greatly contributing to its success as
a commercial carrier plane.
It uses a four-engine wide-body design and is among
the fastest airliners in service with a high-subsonic
cruise speed of Mach 0.855 (920 km/h). It is able to
carry up to 660 passengers in its 2-floor frame.
Another feature of this plane is its horizontal fuel
tank in the tail that gives it a range of 13,450 km. The wing structure features 6 ft. (1.8m) extensions on the
wingtips and winglets that greatly improve fuel efficiency.
The Boeing 747-400 is primarily purposed for transporting large numbers of passengers over large distances as
efficiently as possible.
Dimensions:
Wing Span - 64.4 m
Wing Area - 560 m
Aspect Ratio - 7.4
Aerofoil - BAC 463
FLIGHT CALCULATIONS TAKEN AT CRUISING ALTITUDE OF 35 000 ft.
Reynolds Number:

Density = 0.3737581 kgm
-3

Velocity = 260 ms
-1
Characteristic Length = 9.35 m
Dynamic Viscosity = 1.414 10
-5
kgm
-1
s
-1

Reynolds Number = 6.27 10
7

Mach Number (At 35 000 ft.):

Aircraft Speed = 253 ms
-1
Speed of Sound = 295 ms
-1
(At 35 000 ft.)

Mach Number = 0.858
Control Surfaces:
The Boeing 747-400 incorporates many innovative features with respect to control surfaces. Fowler
flaps that extend from the back of the wing before hinging downwards enable it to overcome the
potential for increased drag whilst still being able to increase the area of the wings and generating
additional lift. On the other side of the wing Krueger flaps function like slats that lie flat when stowed
under the wing but form a curve shape when brought forward. This increases the wing area, and hence
lift, at increasing angles of attack without adding much weight.
Deployed during landing, the 747 also has speed brakes made up of 6 panels on each wing which stop
lift being generated by the wings and increase the efficiency of the wheel braking by increasing friction
due to the increase in weight on the wheels and the ground. The panels greatly reduce the length of
runway needed for landing.
On each wing there are two sets of ailerons, an outboard and an inboard one on the trailing edge of the
wings which enable rolling of the plane. At low speeds when flaps are used both sets must be used as
roll wont occur without additional drag. Outboard ailerons may be locked during cruise with pilots only
using inboard ailerons for course correction as this will be sufficient for roll to occur. If both sets are
used at high speed the aircraft may become uncontrollable.

3. Cessna O-2 Skymaster
First entered service in 1967 the O-2 Skymaster made by Cessna
features a push-pull style piston engine configuration. This
configuration features two engines working simultaneously with
one pulling the aircraft and the back one pushing the aircraft
forward. This centre line thrust layout eliminates many problems
in other twin engine layouts especially asymmetric flight handling
when only one engine is in use e.g. engine failure. Another feature
that combats this problem with twin engine planes are the twin
horizontal stabilisers which further help a pilot combat
asymmetrical flight handling conditions. The primary purpose of
this plane was to be able to effectively fly with one or two engines
operating and especially in the case of the O-2 which was mostly
used for aerial reconnaissance or scout flying where pilots may
come under fire which could likely cause an engine failure.

Dimensions:
Wing Span 11.6 m
Wing Area - 18.8 m
Aspect Ratio - 7.2
Aerofoil NACA 2412

Reynolds Number:
Density = 0.697244 kgm
-3

Velocity = 89.44 ms
-1
Characteristic Length = 1.6 m
Dynamic Viscosity = 1.604 10
-5
kgm
-1
s
-1

Reynolds Number = 6.2 10
6

Mach Number (At 20 000 ft.):
Aircraft Speed = 89.4 ms
-1
Speed of Sound = 315.9 ms
-1

Mach Number = 0.28

Control Surfaces:
Slotted flaps on the inboard trailing edge hinge downwards creating a gap allowing higher pressure air from under
the wing travel over the upper surface of the flap increasing lift generated. The aircraft has ailerons on the
outboard side of the flaps as because of the Skymasters relatively low speeds the change in the wings shape must
be significant for roll to occur.

4. McDonnell Douglas AV-8B Harrier II
The McDonnell Douglas AV-8B Harrier II made its
maiden flight in 1981. It is a V/STOL (Vertical or Short
Takeoff and Landing) aircraft specialising in light attack
and multi role missions such as ground attack, close air
support and armed reconnaissance.
nozzles around the turbine as well as valve controlled
nozzles in the wingtips, nose and tail for control at low.
Many weight reducing technologies have been utilised
in this aircraft such as widespread use of carbon fibre composites.
The harrier is made more versatile by the variety of configurations in which it can be used as a weapons platform.
One centreline fuselage hardpoint and 6 on the wings as well as two fuselage mounts for GAU-12 cannons give it
the ability to carry 4 200 kg of weaponry consisting of air-to-air missiles, air-to-surface missiles, air-to-ship missiles
in addition to both guided and unguided bombs.

Dimensions:
Wing Span 9.25 m
Wing Area 22.6 m
Aspect Ratio 4.0
Reynolds Number:
Density = 0.1936448 kgm
-3

Velocity = 666.67 ms
-1

Characteristic Length = 4.7 m
Dynamic Viscosity = 1.414 10
-5
kgm
-1
s
-1

Reynolds Number = 4.3x10^7
Mach Number (At 20 000 ft.):
Aircraft Speed = 89.4 ms
-1
Speed of Sound = 315.9 ms
-1

Mach Number = 0.28
Control Surfaces:
It has horizontal stabilisers and shoulder mounted wings with a prominent anhedral slope. This one-piece
supercritical wing increases the lift-to-drag ration and improves performance. The wing has a high lift
configuration that uses flaps and drooped ailerons when manoeuvring for increased control.

5. Antonov An-72 Coaler
The Antonov An-72 is a Soviet era
Russian troop transport that was
designed for short takeoff and
landing operations. It had a specially
strengthened undercarriage which
could allow it to land at unprepared
airfields where a normal landing
surface wasnt available. It is highly
able to be optimised for a range or
troop transport or cargo carrying
operations. It is also allows for airdropping of troops/cargo.
Dimensions:
Wing Span 39.8 m
Wing Area 98.6 m
Aspect Ratio 16.1
Reynolds Number:
Density = 0.412659 kgm
-3

Velocity = 166.7 ms
-1
Characteristic Length = 3.1 m
Dynamic Viscosity = 1.449 10
-5
kgm
-1
s
-1

Reynolds Number = 1.47 10
8
Mach Number (At 30 000 ft.):
Aircraft Speed = 166.7 ms
-1
Speed of Sound = 301.7 ms
-1
(At 35 000 ft.)
Mach Number = 0.55

Control Surfaces:
The An-72 has fowler flaps to increase the surface area of the wing in order to increase the surface area and lift of
the wing without increasing drag at small angles of attack like when taking off. It also features slats on the wing
that extend forward from the leading edge to allow air to pass over the top of the wing creating more lift. Like the
747 it has two sets of ailerons and only the inboard ones are used at high speeds to avoid control issues. Also
similar to the 747 it has spoiler panels which allow much shorter landings via large increases in drag.

6. English Electric Canberra
Designed and built by English Electric the Canberra the Canberra is partly
made out of wood in order to keep the weight down as it is intended to be a
light weight bomber capable of evading interceptors due to its high
maximum speed and altitude (it set the world altitude record in 1957 with a
max height of 70 310 ft.). It featured a cantilevered wing and conventional
controls consisting of ailerons, four-section flaps and airbrakes on both the
top and bottom of the wings.
It had a crew of 3 and could carry a total bomb payload of 4.5 tonnes in
bomb bays and a further 900 kg on underwing pylons. It was powered by a
pair of 30kN turbojet engines which were significantly more advanced than
contemporary piston-engine aircraft.
Dimensions:

Wing Span 19.5 m
Wing Area 89.2 m
Aspect Ratio 4.27
Aerofoil NACA 64012
Reynolds Number:
Density = 0.412659 kgm
-3

Velocity = 166.7 ms
-1
Characteristic Length = 3.1 m
Dynamic Viscosity = 1.449 10
-5
kgm
-1
s
-1

Reynolds Number = 1.47 10
8
Mach Number (At 30 000 ft.):
Aircraft Speed = 166.7 ms
-1
Speed of Sound = 301.7 ms
-1
(At 35 000 ft.)
Mach Number = 0.55

Control Surfaces:
Slotted flaps on the trailing edge of the wings with one outside the engine and one between engine and fuselage
on each wing can be extended to both increase the area of the wing and increase drag. Unlike other high speed
planes only outboard hinged ailerons are used as the ability to quickly turn is very useful for outrunning fighters.
Spoilers are used as speed brakes on the upper surface of the wings allowing for shorter landing distances.
Aircraft Critical Analysis
Boeing 747-400
Cl Cruise = 0.26
Cl Max = 2.50
Cd Cruise (80% Thrust) = 0.03
V Stall = 84.88m/s
The 747-400 is capable of carrying 660 passengers with a total weight almost 400 000 Kg.
For this reason a huge amount of lift is required in order to lift the aircraft into the air.
Such lift is enabled through the deployment of both the aircrafts fowler and Krueger
flaps. These flap types have been chosen as unlike alternatives they are lighter in weight
and dont result in unwanted drag when set to take-off configuration. As well as a heavy
lifter this aircraft promises to deliver its passengers and freight to their destination in a
timely manner thanks to its swept back wings at an angle of 37.5 delaying the onset of
transonic wave drag allowing high speeds to be efficiently reached and maintained.
0-2 Skymaster
Cl Cruise = 0.46
Cl Max = 6.06
Cd Cruise (80% Thrust) = 0.05
V Stall = 24.59m/s
The high wing design of the 0-2 Skymaster has effectively enabled its use as a military
observation aircraft through its ability to offer pilots a clear view of the ground below.
This high wing structure also enables the aircraft to achieve greater lift as the top of the
aircraft fuselage essentially works to increase the surface area of the wing. The inline
positioning of the aircrafts two engines enables fuels to be delivered through a simple
straight fuel line especially to the rear engine from tanks found in the wing. Wing and tail
configuration as well as having both engines in the centreline of the fuselage solves many
problems associated with twin engine aircraft when operating on only one engine.
AV-8B Harrier II
Cl Cruise = 0.14
Cl Max = 19.15
Cd Cruise (80% Thrust) = 0.04
V stall = 56.77m/s
The AV-8B Harrier II was designed to be a versatile V/STOL fighter with a diverse range of
combat package options ensuring it can fly a range of mission types. With a specially
designed supercritical aerofoil made out of a carbon fibre composite that worked to
delay the onset of wave drag while at transonic speeds the harrier II was a significant
development in military jet aircraft engineering. Slotted flaps, additional air-lift devices
and a retractable lateral fence that assists in capturing a cushion of air while in hover
mode. The wings had their sweep specially configured and were extended for better
lateral control and cruising. This also had the effect of improving rolling as the thrusters
were set further apart.
An-72 Coaler
Cl Cruise = 0.56
Cl Max = 7.62
Cd Cruise (80% Thrust) = 0.18
V stall = 45m/s
The An-72 Coaler was purpose build to enable military operations in remote
undeveloped regions where long suitable airstrips are unavailable but supplies must still
be received. For this reason the Coaler was engineered to make these short field take-
offs and landings by placing the aircrafts two Lotarev D-36 turbofan engines on top of the
aircrafts high mounted wings. This location of the engines sees the intake section of the
engines extend over the leading edge of the wing enabling the engines exhaust gases to
blow over the aircrafts wings upper surface. This part of the wing is constructed out of
titanium to withstand these extremely hot exhaust gases. The result of this process is
that lift is increased due to the air travelling over the top travelling at a far greater speed
than if it were moved only at the velocity created by the aerofoil moving through the air.
English Electric Canberra
Cl Cruise = 0.27
Cl Max = 5.37
Cd Cruise (80% Thrust) =0.08
V Stall = 55.56m/s
The Canberra is a bomber designed with the capability to out fly enemy interceptors. For
this to be achieved it had to be able to manoeuvre and handle at both low and high
altitudes. In order to achieve this, a combination of long characteristic length, low aspect
aircraft means that a large amount of lift can be achieved at high or low speeds ensure
stability when the aerofoil is at almost all angles of roll. The extremely low wing loading
as a result of the aircrafts massive wing area results in a decreased stall speed which can
again be used as an evasive or attacking manoeuvre.

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