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Modelling of Smart Materials Modelling of Smart Materials

Bishakh Bhattacharya and Nachiketa Tiwari


Department of Mechanical Engineering Department of Mechanical Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur
LECTURE 8
Modelling of Piezoelectric Material
(Part 1) (Part 1)
Organization Organization
Piezoelectric Property
Crystal Structure Crystal Structure
Constitutive Relationship
Active Strain Evaluation
Output Current/Charge Magnetization Strain Temperature Light Output
Input
Current/Charge Magnetization Strain Temperature Light
Electric
Fi ld
Conductivity
P itti it
Electromagnetic
Eff t
Reverse
Pi l t i
Ohmic
R i t
Electro-Optic
ff t Field Permittivity Effect Piezoelectric
Effect
SA
Resistance effect
Magnetic Eddy Current Effect Joule Effect Magneto caloric Magneto Optic Magnetic
Field
Eddy Current Effect
Permeability
Joule Effect
Magnetostriction
SA
Magneto-caloric
Effect
Magneto-Optic
effect
Stress Direct Piezoelectric
Effect
SS
Villary Effect
SS
Elastic Modulus
Thermo-
Mechanical
Effect SS
Photo-elastic
Effect
SS
Heat Pyroelectric Effect Thermo-
magnetization
Thermal
Expansion/Phase
Transition
Specific Heat
Thermo-
luminescence
Transition
SA
Light Photo-voltaic Effect Photo- Photostriction Photo-thermal Refractive
magnetization SA effect Index
Properties
important
for
Piezoelectric Material Magnetostrictive
Material
Phase-transition dependent
Material
Pi PVDF T f l D Niti l FSMA
for
Actuation
Piezo-
ceramic
PVDF Terfenol-D Nitinol FSMA
Maximum 2000 700 2000 20,000 30,000 Maximum
free strain
(A)
i i
2000 700 2000 20,000 30,000
in microns
Youngs
Modulus
60-70 2-3 48 27.5 M-
phase, 90 A-
0.45 0.82
(GPa) phase
Bandwidth 0.1 Hz-
GHz
0.1 Hz-GHz 0.1 Hz-10KHz 0-10 Hz 100 Hz
Fundamental equations of piezoelectricity
k
ij
k kl
E
ijkl ij
E e S C = o
k
ij
k kl ijkl ij
S
j
j
S
i kl
kl
i i
E S e D c + =
where, the subscripts i, j, k, l = 1, 2, 3 denotes tensorial indices.
The stress tensor is represented by o S is the strain tensor The stress tensor is represented by o, S is the strain tensor,
E is the electric field intensity and D is the electric displacement field.
Elastic stiffness matrix is denoted by the symbol C
E
, where
the superscript E denotes that the elastic constant is measured the superscript E denotes that the elastic constant is measured
under constant electric field;
e is the piezoelectric stress-charge matrix and the permittivity matrix,
similar to C is measured under constant strain-condition similar to C, is measured under constant strain condition.
Different Axes
x, 1
Di Hexagonal Crystal Symmetry
Greenockite Crystal
Tetragonal Wulfenite
Perovskite Structure with 4mm Perovskite Structure with 4mm
crystal symmetry
Outcome of Symmetry
The crystal structure of common piezoelectric materials shows 4mm The crystal structure of common piezoelectric materials shows 4mm
or 6mm symmetry. Following material symmetry conditions could be
applied to the constitutive relationship
klij jikl ijkl
C C C = =
j j j
e e =
kji kij
e e
c c =
=
.
ji ij
c c =

(
(

31 13 12 11
0 0 0 0 0
S
e C C C
x
x
o

(
(
(
(

33 33 13 13
31 13 11 12
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
S
S
e C C C
e C C C
z
y
z
y
o
o

(
(
(
(

15 44
15 44
0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0
S
S
e C
e C
xz
yz
xz
yz
o
o

(
(
(
(

1
1 15
66
1
0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
E
S
e
C
D
xy
xy
c
o

(
(
(

3
2
3 33 31 31
2 15
3
2
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0
E
E
e e e
e
D
D
c
c
)
The electro-mechanical coupling is shown inside the bordered boxes . Axes
1, 2 and 3 used for the electrical system are identical with x, y and z, y y
corresponding to the mechanical system.
Simplified Equation for Piezo patch Simplified Equation for Piezo-patch
Ignoring the normal stress o
z
and the
shear stresses o
xz
and o
yz
for plane stress
xz yz
p
assumption:

(
(
(

32
31
0 / 1 /
0 / / 1
d E E
d E E
S
S
x p p x
o
o
u
u

(
(
(

+
=

32
0
0 / ) 1 ( 2 0 0
0 / 1 /
E d d
E
d E E
D
S
S
xy
y
p
p p
xy
y
o
o
u
u

3 33 32 31 3
0 E d d D c
E
p
is the modulus of elasticity of the piezoelectric material, v is the
Poissons ratio and d
ij
are the piezoelectric strain-charge constants
Active Strain Expression Active Strain Expression
If a piezoelectric thin slab is subjected to mechanical load, the total
strain S developed in an active layer would consist of two parts the strain S developed in an active layer, would consist of two parts the
structural or elastic strain S
s
and the piezoelectric strain S
a
such that
S = S + S S = S
s
+ S
a
where S =[-d
31
E
3
-d
32
E
3
0]
T
where, S
a
[ d
31
E
3
, d
32
E
3
, 0] .
To generate strains along the direction of the thickness of the specimen,
ceramics with different crystal-cuts are used which are commonly ceramics with different crystal cuts are used which are commonly
known as Piezo-stacks. The electro elastic coupling components in the
3-3 directions, like d
33
or e
33,
become important in such cases.
References References
Gauenzi, P., Smart Structures, Wiley,
2009
Cady, W. G., Piezoelectricity, Dover
Publication 1950 Publication, 1950
Crawley, E. F., Intelligent Structures for
Aerospace: a technology overview and
assessment, AIAA, 33 (8), 1994, pp. 1689- assessment, AIAA, 33 (8), 1994, pp. 1689
1699
END OF LECTURE 8