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Equations

SIMPLE EQUATIONS & SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS


Simple equations and Simultaneous equations in 2 variables.
A simple equation is an equation in a single variable, whose value must be
determined.
(1) ax + b =
a
b
x = is !alled a simple equation in one un"nown.
(2) ax + b# + ! = is the general $orm o$ a linear equation in two variables.
(%) ax + b# + ! = is a single linear equation in two variables whi!h admits o$
in$inite number o$ solutions.
(&) a1x + b1# + !1 = ''''' (1)
a2x + b2# + !2 = ''''' (2)
(or the above equations (1) and (2) in two variables x and #, the solution is
1 2 2 1
1 2 2 1
b a b a
! b ! b
x

=
and
1 2 2 1
1 2 2 1
b a b a
a ! a !
#

=
(i) )he above s#stem o$ equations has a unique solution i$
2
1
2
1
b
b
a
a

. Su!h a
s#stem is a !onsistent s#stem. )he graph !onsists o$ two interse!ting lines.
(ii) *$
2
1
2
1
2
1
!
!
b
b
a
a
=
, then there is no solution to the s#stem. *t is !alled
in!onsistent. )he graph !onsists o$ two parallel lines.
*$
2
1
2
1
2
1
!
!
b
b
a
a
= =
, the s#stem has in$inite solutions. )he graph !onsists o$ two
!oin!ident lines.
1. Solve
2
1
+
%
12
,x
=
Solution-
+
.
+
%
2
1
12
x ,
= + =
1 . 2
1
21
,
12
+
.
x = = =
2. (ind a number su!h that the di$$eren!e between nine times the number and $our
times the number is ,,.
Solution-
/et the number be 0x1 sa#.
2x 3 &x = ,,
,x = ,,
x = 11
3. A $ather is now three times as old as his son. (ive #ears ago. he was $our times as
old as his son. (ind their present ages.
Solution-
/et the present age o$ the son be 0x1 #ears, sa#.
(ather1s present age = %x #ears
(ive #ears ago, age o$ the son = (x 3 ,) #ears
(athers age = (%x 3 ,) #ears
4iven that, , #ears ago. (ather1s age = & son1s age
%x 3 , = &(x 3 ,)
= &x 3 2
x = 1,
Son1s present age = 1, #ears
(ather1s present age = &, #ears
4. (ind $our !onse!utive odd numbers whose sum is ,5.
Solution-
/et the $irst odd number be assumed as 0x1.
)he other three !onse!utive odd numbers in as!ending order will be x + 2, x
+ &, x + 5.
4iven x + (x + 2) + (x + &) + (x + 5) = ,5
&x + 12 = ,5
&x = &&
11
&
&&
x = =
6en!e the $our !onse!utive odd numbers are 11, 1%, 1,, 1..
5. 0A1 is . #ears older than 071. 1, #ears ago, 071 is age was
&
%
o$ A1s age. (ind their
present ages.
Solution-
/et the present ages o$ 7 and A be 0x1 and (x + .) respe!tivel#.
1, #ears ago, 071s age was (x 3 1,) #ears
1, #ears ago, 0A1 is age was 8(x + .) 3 1,9 = (x 3 +) #ears
4iven 71s age =
&
%
(A1s age) 1, #ears ago
x 3 1, =
&
%
(x 3 +)
&x 3 5 = %x 3 2&
x = 5 3 2& = %5 = 71s present age
A1s present age = x + . = %5 + . = &% #ears
6. *$ 0A1 gives 7 :s.&. 7 will have twi!e as mu!h as A. *$ 7 gives A :s.1,, A will have
1 times as mu!h as 7. 6ow mu!h ea!h has originall#;
Solution-
/et the amounts with 0A1 and 071 be 0x1 rupees 0#1 rupees respe!tivel#
A gives & rupees to 7.
A will have (x 3 &)
7 will have (# + &)
4iven, # + & = 2(x 3 &) = 2x 3 +
2x 3 # = 12 '''''''''''''''''''(1)
Se!ondl#, i$ 7 gives 1, rupees to A.
7 will have # 3 1,
A will have x + 1,
4iven x + 1, = 1(# 3 1,) = 1# 3 1,
'x + 1# =15, ''''''(2)
(2) 2 '2x + 2# = %% '''''''' (%)
2x 3 # = 12 '''''''' (1)
(%) + (1) 12# = %&2
1+
12
%&2
# = =
<ut # = 1+ in (1), we get 2x 3 1+ = 12
2x = %
x = 1,
A1s original possession = :s.1,
71s original possession = :s.1+
7. (ind two numbers whi!h are su!h that one'$i$th o$ the greater ex!eeds one'sixth
o$ the smaller b# 0&1= and su!h that one'hal$ o$ the greater plus one'quarter o$ the
smaller equals 0%+1.
Solution-
/et the two numbers be 0x1 and 0#1 sa#
/et x > #, sa#
4iven & #
5
1
x
,
1
=
5x 3 ,# = 12 ''''''''''' (1)
4iven se!ondl# %+ #
&
1
x
2
1
= +
2x + # = 1,2 ''''''''''''''' (2)
Solve $or 0x1 and 0#1 $rom (1) ? (2)
(2) , 1x + ,# = .5 '''''''''' (%)
(1) + (%) 15x = ++
,,
15
++
x = =
(rom (2), 11 + # = 1,2
# = 1,2 3 11 = &2
)he numbers are ,, and &2.
8. A man le$t :s.1., to be divided among his two daughters and $our sons. @a!h
daughter was to re!eive three times as mu!h as a son. 6ow mu!h did ea!h son and
daughter re!eive;
Solution-
/et a son1s share be x rupees
)he share o$ a daughter = %x rupees.
)otal amount $ather le$t = :s.1.,, to be divided among 2 daughters and &
sons.
2 %x + &x = 1.,
1x = 1.,
x = 1., rupees
@a!h son1s share = :s.1., and ea!h daughter1s share = :s.,2,.
. )he sum o$ a !ertain number and its square root is 2. (ind the number.
Solution-
/et the number be 0x1, sa#
4iven 2 x x = + '''''''''' (1)
x 2 x =
Squaring x = (2 3 x)
2
= +1 3 1+x + x
2
x
2
3 1+1x + +1 =
x
2
3 1x 3 +1x + +1 =
x(x 3 1) 3 +1(x 3 1) =
(x 3 1) (x 3 +1) =
x = 1 or +1
x = 1 is invalid , a!!ording to equation (1).
)here$ore x = +1.
1!. *n a $amil#, eleven times the number o$ !hildren is greater b# 12 than twi!e the
square o$ the number o$ !hildren. 6ow man# !hildren are there in the $amil#;
Solution-
/et the number o$ !hildren in the $amil# be 0x1, sa#
4iven 11x = 2x
2
+ 12
2x
2
3 11x + 12 =
2x
2
3 +x 3 %x + 12 =
2x(x 3 &) 3%(x 3 &) =
x = & x =
2
%
is invalid. So delete
)he number o$ !hildren in the $amil# = &
11. (ind three !onse!utive positive integers su!h that the square o$ their sum
ex!eeds the sum o$ their squares b# 21&.
Solution-
/et the three !onse!utive +ve integers be x, x + 1, x + 2
4iven (x + x + 1 + x +2)
2
= x
2
+(x + 1)
2
+ (x + 2)
2
+ 21&
(%x + %)
2
= x
2
+ x
2
+ 2x + 1 + x
2
+ &x + & + 21&
2(x
2
+ 2x + 1) = %x
2
+ 5x + 212
2x
2
+ 1+x + 2 = %x
2
+ 5x + 212
5x
2
+ 12x 3 21 =
x
2
+ 2x 3%, = (Aividing through out b# 5.)
(x + .) (x 3 ,) =
x = , or 3. 8x = '. is to be deleted. Sin!e we have to ta"e onl# +ve integers
as per given data9
)he three !onse!utive positive integers are ,, 5, ..
12. * have a !ertain number o$ apples to be divided equall# among 1+ !hildren. *$
the number o$ apples and the number o$ !hildren were in!reased b# 021, ea!h !hild
would get , apples less. 6ow man# apples have to distribute;
Solution-
/et the number o$ apples be 0x1, sa#
Bumber o$ !hildren = 1+
Sin!e ea!h should get equal number o$ apples,
Bo o$ apples $or ea!h !hild =
1+
x
Bow, when the number o$ apples and the number o$ !hildren were in!reased b# 2,
ea!h !hild gets , apples less.
,
1+
x
2
2 x
=
+
,
2
2 x
1+
x
=
+

2x 3 1+(x + 2) = %5 ,
2x 3 1+x 3 %5 = 1+
2x = 1+ + %5 = 1+%5
21+
2
1+%5
x = =
)he number o$ apples is 021+1, so that equal distribution among 01+1 !hildren is quite
li"el#.
13. A $ra!tion is su!h that i$ 021 is added to the numerator and 0,1 to the denominator,
the $ra!tion be!omes
2
1
. *$ the numerator o$ the original $ra!tion is trebled and the
denominator in!reased b# 1,, the resulting $ra!tion is
%
1
. (ind the original $ra!tion.
Solution-
/et the original $ra!tion be
#
x
.
4iven
2
1
, #
2 x
=
+
+
2x + & = # + ,
2x 3 # = 1 '''''''''''''' (1)
Also given
%
1
1, #
x %
=
+
2x = # + 1,
2x 3 # = 1, ''''''''''''' (2)
(2) 3 (1) .x = 1&
x = .
(rom (1) we get # = 2x 3 1 = 1& 3 1 = 1%
6en!e, the original $ra!tion is
1%
.
14. )wo $riends A and 7 start on a holida# together, A with :s.%+ and 7 with
:s.25. Auring the holida#, 7 spends & rupees more than A and when holida#s end,
A has , times as mu!h as 7. 6ow mu!h has ea!h spent;
Solution-
/et 0x1 rupees be the amount spent b# A.
(x + &) rupees would have been spent b# 7.
*nitiall# A had :s.%+ and 7 had :s.25.
At the end o$ the holida#s 0A1 had an amount o$ %+ 3 x
071 had an amount o$ 25 3 (x + &)
i.e., 2,5 3 x
4iven, %+ 3 x = ,(2,5 3 x)
= 12+ 3 ,x
&x = 12+ 3 %+ = 2
22,
&
2
x = = :upees
0A1 spent :s.22, and 071 spent :s.222.
QUA"#ATI$ EQUATIONS
(1) ax
2
+ bx + ! = is !alled a general quadrati! equation. )he solution $or 0x1 is
2a
&a! b b
x
2

=
(2) *$ , are the roots o$ the equations, then + =
a
b
=
a
!
CD =
(%) b
2
3 &a! is !alled the 0dis!riminant1 o$ the quadrati!, denoted b#
(&) *$ > and not a per$e!t square, the roots are real and unequal.
(,) *$ > and also a per$e!t square, the roots are unequal and rational
(5) *$ = , the roots are equal and real
(.) *$ E , the roots are imaginar#
P%o&'()s*
1. Solve- 2x
2
+1,x'1& =
6ere 0a1 = 2= b =1,= ! = '1&
x =
1+
1& 2 & 22, 1, +
=
1+
12
1+
2. 1,
=

or
1+
&2
=
%
.
or
%
2
2. Solve (x+,) (x',) = %2
x
2
3 2, = %2
x
2
= 5&
x = +
%. Solve-
5% x + x +
2
%
2
%
=

<ut
# x
2
%
=
5%
#
+
# + =
+#
2
3 + = 5%#
+#
2
' 5%# 3 + =
+#
2
3 5&# +# 3+ =
+#(#'+) + 1( #'+) =
(#'+) (+#+1) =
#=+ or # =
+
1

7ut, # = x
8
2
3
=
F= +
& 5&
% %
2
= =
Gr, # = x
%H2
= '
+
1
F =
%
% H 2
5&
1
+
1
=

=
&
1
&. Solve
1 a a
1 a a
1 x x
1 x x
2
2
2
2
+ +
+
=
+ +
+
(x
2
'x+1)(a
2
+a+1) = (x
2
+x+1) (a
2
'a+1)
x
2
(a
2
+a+1'a
2
+a'1) +x('a
2
'a'1'a
2
+a'1) + (a
2
+a+1'a
2
+a'1) =
2ax
2
'2x(a
2
+1) +2a =
ax
2
'x(a
2
+1) + a =
ax
2
'a
2
x'x+a =
ax(x'a) 31(x'a) =
(x'a)(ax'1) =
x = a or
a
1
,. Show that (x'1)(x'%)(x'&)(x'5) + 1 is positive $or real values o$ x
Ionsider, (x'1)(x'5)(x'%)(x'&) + 1 =(x
2
'.x+5) (x
2
'.x+12) + 1
<ut x
2
'.x+5 = t
t(t+5) + 1
= t
2
+5t+1
= (t
2
+5t+2) + 1
= (t+%)
2
+1 = (x
2
'.x+2)
2
+1 whi!h is !learl# positive $or real values o$ 0x1.
5. A two digit number is less than % times the produ!t o$ its digits b# + and the digit
in the ten1s pla!e ex!eeds the digit in the unit1s pla!e b# 021.(ind the number.
/et the numbers have x in ten1s pla!e and # in the unit pla!e
1x+# = %x# 3 +JJJ.(1)
x'# = 2 JJJJ...(2)
(rom (2) x= #+2
*n (1), 1(#+2)+# = %#(#+2)'+
1# + 2 + # = %#
2
+5#'+
%#
2
',#'2+ =
%#
2
'12#+.#'2+ =
%#(#'&) + .(#'&) =
(#'&) (%#+.) =
#=& or '
%
.
( # = '.H% is deleted)
x = #+2 => x = 5
)he number is 05&1.
.. A !arpet whose length is
5
1
1 times its width is laid on the $loor o$ a re!tangular
room, with a margin o$ 1 $oot all around. )he area o$ the $loor is & times that o$
the margin. (ind the width o$ the room.
/et x and # be the length and breadth o$ the !arpet.
4iven, x=
5
.#
5x = .#JJJJ(1)
/ength o$ the $loor = x+2
7readth o$ the $loor = #+2
D C
S R
1 y
P Q
x

A B

Area o$ the margin = Area o$ the $loor 3 Area o$ the !arpet
=(x+2)(#+2) 3 x#
= x# +2x + 2# + & 3 x#
= 2x+2#+&
4iven, Area o$ the $loor = & Area o$ the margin.
(x+2)(#+2) = & (2x+2#+&)
x# + 2x + 2# + & = +x + +# + 15
x# 3 5x 3 5# 3 12 = JJJ..(2)
put, x =
5
.#
in (2)

12 5# .#
5
.#
2
=
.#
2
'.+# 3 .2 =
.#
2
' +&# + 5# 3.2 =
.#(#'12) +5(.#'12) =
(#'12 (.#+5) =
# =12 = # = '
.
5
is deleted.
x = 1&
5
12 .
5
# .
=

=
Kidth o$ the room = 12 $eet
/ength o$ the room = 1& $eet
Bote-
01x+#1 is the value o$ the number
+. )he sum o$ the $irst 0x1 natural numbers is
2
) 1 x ( x +
. 6ow man# numbers must
be ta"en to get %,1 as the sum;
351
2
1) x(x
=
+
x
2
+x = .2
x
2
+x'.2 =
x
2
+2.x'25x'.2 =
x (x+2.) 3 25(x+2.) =
(x'25) (x'2.) =
x = 25 (x= '2. is to be deleted)
)he $irst 25 natural numbers must be ta"en to get a sum o$ 0%,11.
2. Solve- x + # = x
2
'#
2
= 2%
x+#= 2%JJ..(1)
x
2
3 #
2
= 2%JJ(2)
(x+#) (x'#) = 2%
2%(x'#) = 2%
x'# = 1JJJ(%)
x+# = 2%JJJ.(1)
(1) + (%) ,
2x = 2&
x = 12
#= 11