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KH-1 CORONA main features

KH-2 CORONA main features


KH-3 CORONA main features
KH-4 CORONA M (Agena-B service
module) main features
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Corona program was a series of American strategic reconnaissance satellites
produced and operated by the Central Intelligence Agency Directorate of Science &
Technology with substantial assistance from the U.S. Air Force. The Corona satellites
were used for photographic surveillance of the Soviet Union (USSR), the People's
Republic of China, and other areas beginning in June 1959 and ending in May 1972.
The name of this program is sometimes seen as "CORONA", but its actual name
"Corona" was a codeword, not an acronym.
The Corona satellites were designated KH-1, KH-2, KH-3, KH-4, KH-4A and
KH-4B. KH stood for "Key Hole" or "Keyhole" (Code number 1010),
[1]
with the name
being an analogy to the act of spying into a person's room by peering through their
door's keyhole. The incrementing number indicated changes in the surveillance
instrumentation, such as the change from single-panoramic to double-panoramic
cameras. The "KH" naming system was first used in 1962 with KH-4 and the earlier
numbers were retroactively applied. There were 144 Corona satellites launched, of
which 102 returned usable photographs.
1 History and costs
2 Technology
2.1 Corona launches with system types
3 Discoverer
4 ELINT subsatellites
5 Declassification
6 Launches
7 Photo gallery
8 See also
9 Popular culture
10 References
11 Bibliography
12 External links
Corona started under the name "Discoverer" as part of the WS-117L satellite
reconnaissance and protection program of the US Air Force in 1956. The WS-117L was
based on recommendations and designs from the RAND Corporation.
[2]
The United
States Air Force credits the Onizuka Air Force Station as being the "birthplace of the Corona program."
[3]
In May 1958, the
Department of Defense directed the transfer of the WS-117L program to Advanced Research Projects Agency. In FY1958,
WS-117L was funded by the AF at a level of US$108.2 million (inflation adjusted US$0.88 billion in 2014). For Discoverer,
the Air Force and ARPA spent a combined sum of US$132.3 million in FY1959 (inflation adjusted US$1.07 billion in 2014)
and US$101.2 million in FY1960 (inflation adjusted US$0.81 billion in 2014).
[4]
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KH-4 CORONA M (Agena-D service
module) main features
KH-4A CORONA J1 main features
KH-4B CORONA J3 main features
KH-4B Corona satellite
The Corona project was pushed forward rapidly following the shooting down of a U-2
spy plane over the Soviet Union in May 1960.
The Corona satellites used special 70 millimeter film with a 24-inch (610 mm) focal
length camera.
[5]
Manufactured by Eastman Kodak, the film was initially 0.0003 inches
(7.6 m) thick, with a resolution of 170 lines per 0.04 inches (1.0 mm) of film.
[6][7]
The
contrast was 2-to-1.
[6]
(By comparison, the best aerial photography film produced in
World War II could produce just 50 lines per 0.04 inches (1.0 mm) of film.)
[6]
The
acetate-based film was later replaced with a polyester-based film stock that was more
durable in earth orbit.
[8]
The amount of film carried by the satellites varied over time.
Initially, each satellite carried 8,000 feet (2,400 m) of film for each camera, for a total
of 16,000 feet (4,900 m) of film.
[6]
But a reduction in the thickness of the film stock
allowed more film to be carried.
[8]
The amount of film carried was doubled (both by
reductions in film thickness and by the addition of additional film capsules) by the time
the fifth generation of the satellite was built, to 16,000 feet (4,900 m) of film for each
camera for a total of 32,000 feet (9,800 m) of film.
[9]
Most of the film shot was black
and white. Infrared film was used on mission 1104, and color film on missions 1105
and 1008. Color film proved to have lower resolution, however, and was never used
again.
[10]
The cameras were manufactured by the Itek Corporation.
[11]
A 12-inch (30 cm), f/5
triplet lens was designed for the cameras.
[12]
Each lens was 7 inches (18 cm) in
diameter.
[6]
They were quite similar to the Tessar lenses developed in Germany by
Zeiss.
[13]
The cameras themselves were initially 5 feet (1.5 m) long, but later extended
to 9 feet (2.7 m) in length.
[14]
Beginning with the KH-4 satellites, these lenses were
replaced with Petzval f/3.5 lens.
[10]
The lenses were panoramic, and moved through a
70 arc perpendicular to the direction of the orbit.
[6]
A panoramic lens was chosen
because it could obtain a wider image. Although the best resolution was only obtained
in the center of the image, this could be overcome by having the camera sweep
automatically ("reciprocate") back and forth across 70 of arc.
[15]
The lens on the camera
was constantly rotating, to counteract the blurring effect of the satellite moving over the
planet.
[10]
The first Corona satellites had a single camera, but a two-camera system was quickly
implemented.
[16]
The front camera was tilted 15 forward, and the rear camera tilted 15
aft, so that a stereoscopic image could be obtained.
[6]
Later in the program, the satellite
employed three cameras.
[16]
The third camera was employed to take "index" photographs
of the objects being stereographically filmed.
[17]
The J-3 camera system, first deployed in 1967, placed the camera in a drum.
This "rotator camera" (or drum) moved back and forth, eliminating the need to move the camera itself on a reciprocating
mechanism.
[18]
The drum permitted the use of up to two filters and as many as four different exposure slits, greatly improving
the variability of images that Corona could take.
[19]
The first cameras could resolve images on the ground down to 40 feet
(12 m) in diameter. Improvements in the imaging system were rapid, and the KH-3 missions could see objects 10 feet (3.0 m)
in diameter. Later missions would be able to resolve objects just 5 feet (1.5 m) in diameter.
[20]
A single mission was completed
with a 1 foot (0.30 m) resolution but the limited field of view was determined to be detrimental to the mission. 3 feet (0.91 m)
resolution was found to be the optimum resolution for quality of image and field of view.
The initial Corona missions suffered from mysterious border fogging and bright streaks which appeared irregularly on the
returned film. Eventually, a team of scientists and engineers from the project and from academia (among them Luis Alvarez,
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Recovery of Discoverer 14 return
capsule (typical for the Corona
series)
Diagram of "J-1" type
stereo/panoramic constantly
rotating Corona reconnaissance
satellite camera system used on
KH-4A missions from 1963 to
1969.
Lockheed's covert "advanced projects"
facility at Hiller Aircraft in Menlo Park,
California.
Sidney Beldner, Malvin Ruderman, and Sidney Drell) determined that electrostatic
discharges (called corona discharges) caused by some of the components of the cameras
were exposing the film.
[21][22]
Corrective measures included better grounding of the
components, improved film rollers that did not generate static electricity, improved
temperature controls, and a cleaner internal environment.
[22]
Although improvements were
made to reduce the corona, the final solution was to load the film canisters with a full load
of film and then feed the unexposed film through the camera onto the take-up reel with no
exposure. This unexposed film was then processed and inspected for corona. If none was
found or the corona observed was within acceptable levels, the canisters were certified for
use and loaded with fresh film for a launch mission.
The first satellites in the program orbited at altitudes 100 miles (160 km) above the surface
of the Earth, although later missions orbited
even lower at 75 miles (121 km)).
[10]
Originally, Corona satellites were designed to
spin along their main axis so that the satellite
would remain stable. Cameras would take
photographs only when pointed at the Earth.
The Itek camera company, however, proposed
to stabilize the satellite along all three
axeskeeping the cameras permanently
pointed at the earth.
[13]
Beginning with the
KH-3 version of the satellite, a horizon camera
took images of several key stars.
[17]
A sensor
used the satellite's side thruster rockets to align
the rocket with these "index stars," so that it was correctly aligned with the Earth and the
cameras pointed in the right direction.
[23]
Beginning in 1967, two horizon cameras were
used. This system was known as the Dual Improved Stellar Index Camera (DISIC).
[19]
Film was retrieved from orbit via a reentry capsule (nicknamed "film bucket"), designed
by General Electric, which separated from the satellite and fell to earth.
[24]
After the fierce heat of reentry was over, the heat
shield surrounding the vehicle was jettisoned at 60,000 feet (18 km) and parachutes deployed.
[25]
The capsule was intended to
be caught in mid-air by a passing airplane
[26]
towing an airborne claw which would then winch it aboard, or it could land at
sea.
[27]
A salt plug in the base would dissolve after two days, allowing the capsule to sink if it was not picked up by the United
States Navy.
[28]
After Reuters reported on a reentry vehicle's accidental landing and discovery by Venezuelan farmers in
mid-1964, capsules were no longer labeled "Secret" but offered a reward in eight languages for their return to the United
States.
[29]
Beginning with flight number 69, a two-capsule system was employed.
[21]
This also allowed the satellite to go into
passive (or "zombie") mode, shutting down for as many as 21 days before taking images again.
[9]
Beginning in 1963, another
improvement was "Lifeboat", a battery-powered system that allowed for ejection and recovery of the capsule in case power
failed.
[30][31]
The film was processed at Eastman Kodak's Hawkeye facility in Rochester, New York.
[32]
Coronas were launched by a Thor-Agena rocket, which used a Thor first stage and an Agena booster (which served as the
second stage of the rocket lifting the Corona into orbit).
[33]
With the implementation of the J-1 camera system in 1963, a
Thorad rocket was used for the first stage, leading to large improvements in launch reliability.
[30]
Later launches were made
using the Thrust Augmented Thor (TAT).
[34]
Maneuvering rockets were also added to the satellite beginning in 1963. These
were different from the attitude stabilizing thrusters which had been incorporated from the beginning of the program. Corona
orbited in very low orbits to enhance resolution of its camera system. But at perigee (the lowest point in the orbit), Corona
endured drag from the Earth's atmosphere. In time, this could cause its orbit to decay and force the satellite to re-enter the
atmosphere prematurely. The new maneuvering rockets were designed to boost Corona into a higher orbit, and lengthen the
mission time even if low perigees were used.
[35]
For use during unexpected crises, the National Reconnaissance Office (NRO)
kept a Corona in "R-7" status, meaning ready for launch in seven days. By summer 1965 NRO was able to maintain Corona for
launch within one day.
[36]
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The procurement and maintenance of the Corona satellites was managed by the Central Intelligence Agency, which used cover
arrangements lasting from April 1958 to 1969 to get access to the Palo Alto plant of the Hiller Helicopter Corporation for the
production.
[37]
At this facility, the rocket's second stage Agena, the cameras, film cassettes, and reentry capsule were
assembled and tested before shipment to Vandenberg Air Force Base.
[38]
In 1969, assembly duties were relocated to the
Lockheed facilities in Sunnyvale, California.
[39]
(The NRO was worried that, as Corona was phased out, skilled technicians
worried about their jobs would quit the programleaving Corona without staff. The move to Sunnyvale ensured that enough
skilled staff would be available.)
The decisions regarding what to photograph were made by the Corona Target Program. Corona satellites were placed into
near-polar orbits.
[20]
This software, run by an on-board computer, was programmed to operate the cameras based on the
intelligence targets to be imaged, the weather, the satellite's operational status, and what images the cameras had already
captured.
[40]
Ground control for Corona satellites was initially conducted from Stanford Industrial Park, an industrial park on
Page Mill Road in Palo Alto, California. It was later moved to Sunnyvale Air Force Base near Sunnyvale, California.
[41]
Corona launches with system types
Below is a list of Corona launches, as compiled by the United States Geological Survey.
[42]
This table lists government's
designation of each type of satellite (C, C-prime, J-1, etc.), the resolution of the camera, and a description of the camera
system.
Time period No. Nickname Resolution Notes Number
Jun 1959
Sep 1960
KH-1 "Corona", C 7.5 m
First series of American imaging spy satellites.
Each satellite carried a single panoramic camera
and a single return vehicle.
10 systems; 1
recovery.
Oct 1960
Oct 1961
KH-2
Corona, C (or
"C-prime")
*
7.5 m
Single panoramic camera and a single return
vehicle.
7 systems; 4
recoveries.
Aug 1961
Jan 1962
KH-3
Corona, C (or
"C-triple-prime")
*
7.5 m
Single panoramic camera and a single return
vehicle.
9 systems; 5
recoveries.
Feb 1962
Dec 1963
KH-4 Corona-M, Mural 7.5 m Film return. Two panoramic cameras.
26 systems; 20
recoveries.
Aug 1963
Oct 1969
KH-4A Corona J-1 2.75 m
Film return with two reentry vehicles and two
panoramic cameras. Large volume of imagery.
52 systems; 94
recoveries.
Sep 1967
May 1972
KH-4B Corona J-3 1.8 m
Film return with two reentry vehicles and two
panoramic rotator cameras.
17 systems; 32
recoveries.
Feb 1961
Aug 1964
KH-5 Argon 140 m
Low-resolution mapping missions; single frame
camera.
12 systems; 5
recoveries.
Mar 1963
July 1963
KH-6 Lanyard 1.8 m Experimental camera in a short-lived program.
3 systems; 2
recoveries.
*
(The stray "quote marks" are the original designations of the first three generations of cameras.)
The first dozen or more Corona satellites and their launches were cloaked with disinformation as being part of a space
technology development program called the Discoverer program. The first test launches for the Corona/Discoverer were
carried out early in 1959. The capsule of Discoverer 2 might have been recovered by the Soviets, after landing on Spitsbergen
Island.
[38]
The first Corona launch containing a camera was carried out in June 1959 with the cover name Discoverer 4. This
was a 750 kilogram satellite launched by a Thor-Agena rocket.
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Corona image of The Pentagon, 25
Sep 1967
Corona film bucket payload
Corona film recovery maneuver
The return capsule of the Discoverer 13 mission, which launched August 10, 1960, was
successfully recovered the next day.
[43]
This was the first time that any object had been
recovered successfully from orbit. After the mission of Discoverer 14, launched on
August 18, 1960, its film bucket was successfully retrieved two days later by a C-119
Flying Boxcar transport plane. This was the first successful return of photographic film
from orbit. In comparison, Sputnik 5 was launched into orbit on August 19, 1960, one
day after the launch of Discoverer 14. Sputnik 5 was a biosatellite that took into orbit
the two Soviet space dogs, Belka and Strelka, and then safely returned them to the
Earth .
[44]
At least two launches of Discoverers were used to test satellites for the Missile Defense
Alarm System (MIDAS), an early missile-launch-detection program that used infrared
cameras to detect the heat signature of rockets launching to orbit.
The Corona film bucket was later adapted for the KH-7 GAMBIT satellite, which took
higher resolution photos.
The last launch under the Discoverer cover name was Discoverer 38 on February 26,
1962. Its bucket was successfully recovered in midair during the 65th orbit (the 13th
recovery of a bucket; the ninth one in midair).
[45]
Following this last use of the
Discoverer name, the remaining launches of Corona satellites were entirely top secret.
The last Corona launch was on May 25, 1972. The project ended when Corona was
replaced by the KH-9 Hexagon program. The best sequence of Corona missions was
from 1966 to 1971, when there were 32 consecutive successful missions, including film
recoveries.
An alternative program to the Corona program
was named SAMOS. This program included
several types of satellite which used a different
photographic method. This involved capturing
an image on photographic film, developing the
film on board the satellite and then scanning the
image electronically. The image was then
transmitted via telemetry to ground stations. The
Samos E-1 and E-2 satellite programs used this system, but they were not able to take
very many pictures and then relay them to the ground stations each day. Two later
versions of the Samos program, such as the E-5 and the E-6, used the bucket-return
approach, but neither of these programs carried out any successful missions.
Nine of the KH-4A and KH-4B missions included ELINT subsatellites, which were launched into a higher orbit.
[46][47]
The Corona program was officially classified top secret until 1992. Then, on February 22, 1995, the photos taken by the
Corona satellites, and also by two contemporary programs (Argon and KH-6 Lanyard) were declassified under an Executive
Order signed by President Bill Clinton.
[48]
The further review by photo experts of the "obsolete broad-area film-return systems
other than Corona" mandated by President Clinton's order led to the declassification in 2002 of the photos from the KH-7 and
the KH-9 low-resolution cameras.
[49]
The declassified imagery has since been used by a team of scientists from the Australian National University to locate and
explore ancient habitation sites, pottery factories, megalithic tombs, and Palaeolithic archaeological remains in northern Syria.
[50][51]
Similarly, scientists at Harvard have used the imagery to identify prehistoric traveling routes in Mesopotamia.
[52][53]
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The "CORONA Digital Atlas of the Middle East Project (http://corona.cast.uark.edu/index.html)" hosts a large number of
KH-4B imagery where users can view and download spatially corrected images.
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Mission
No.
Cover
Name
Launch
Date
NSSDC ID No.
Alt.
Name
Camera Notes
R&D Discoverer
21 Jan
1959
1959-E01 (http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov
/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=1959-E01)
1959-E01 none
Mission Failed.
Failed to
achieve orbit
R&D Discoverer 1
28 Feb
1959
1959-002A (http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov
/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=1959-002A)
1959 BET none
First object in
polar orbit
R&D Discoverer 2
13 Apr
1959
1959-003A (http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov
/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=1959-003A)
1959
GAM
none
First three-axis
stabilized
satellite;
capsule
recovery failed
R&D Discoverer 3
03 Jun
1959
DISCOV3 (http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov
/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=DISCOV3)
1959-F02 none
Mission failed.
Failed to
achieve orbit
9001 Discoverer 4
25 Jun
1959
DISC4 (http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov
/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=DISC4)
1959-U01 KH-1
Mission failed.
Failed to
achieve orbit.
9002 Discoverer 5
13 Aug
1959
1959-005A (http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov
/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=1959-005A)
1959 EPS
1
KH-1
Mission failed.
Power supply
failure. No
recovery.
9003 Discoverer 6
19 Aug
1959
1959-006A (http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov
/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=1959-006A)
1959 ZET KH-1
Mission failed.
Retro rockets
malfunctioned
negating
recovery.
9004 Discoverer 7
07 Nov
1959
1959-010A (http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov
/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=1959-010A)
1959 KAP KH-1
Mission failed.
Failed to
achieve orbit.
9005 Discoverer 8
20 Nov
1959
1959-011A (http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov
/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=1959-011A)
1959 LAM KH-1
Mission failed.
Eccentric orbit
negating
recovery.
9006 Discoverer 9
04 Feb
1960
DiSC9 (http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov
/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=DiSC9)
1960-F01 KH-1
Mission failed.
Failed to
achieve orbit.
9007 Discoverer 10
19 Feb
1960
DISC10 (http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov
/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=DISC10)
1960-F02 KH-1
Mission failed.
Destroyed just
after launch
due to erratic
attitude.
9008 Discoverer 11
15 Apr
1960
1960-004A (http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov
/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=1960-004A)
1960 DEL KH-1
Mission failed.
Attitude
control system
malfunctioned.
R&D Discoverer 12
29 Jun
1960
DISC12 (http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov
/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=DISC12)
1960-F08 none Failed to orbit
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Mission
No.
Cover
Name
Launch
Date
NSSDC ID No.
Alt.
Name
Camera Notes
R&D Discoverer 13
10 Aug
1960
1960-008A (http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov
/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=1960-008A)
1960 THE none
Tested capsule
recovery
system; first
successful
capture.
9009 Discoverer 14
18 Aug
1960
1960-010A (http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov
/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=1960-010A)
1960 KAP KH-1
First successful
recovery of
IMINT from
space. Cameras
operated
satisfactorily.
9010 Discoverer 15
13 Sep
1960
1960-012A (http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov
/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=1960-012A)
1960 MU KH-1
Mission failed.
Attained orbit
successfully.
Capsule sank
prior to
retrieval.
9011 Discoverer 16
26 Oct
1960
1960-F15 (http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov
/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=1960-F15)
1960-F15 KH-2
Mission failed.
Satellite failed
to separate
from booster.
Failed to
achieve orbit.
9012 Discoverer 17
12 Nov
1960
1960-015A (http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov
/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=1960-015A)
1960 OMI KH-2
Mission failed.
Obtained orbit
successfully.
Film separated
before any
camera
operation
leaving only
1.7 ft (0.52 m)
of film in
capsule.
9013 Discoverer 18
07 Dec
1960
1960-018A (http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov
/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=1960-018A)
1960 SIG KH-2
First successful
mission
employing
KH-2 camera
system.
RM-1 Discoverer 19
20 Dec
1960
1960-019A (http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov
/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=1960-019A)
1960 TAU none
Test of Midas
missile-
detection
system
9014A Discoverer 20
17 Feb
1961
1961-005A (http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov
/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=1961-005A)
1961 EPS
1
KH-5 See KH-5
RM-2 Discoverer 21
18 Feb
1961
1961-006A (http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov
/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=1961-006A)
1961 ZET none
Test of
restartable
rocket engine
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Mission
No.
Cover
Name
Launch
Date
NSSDC ID No.
Alt.
Name
Camera Notes
9015 Discoverer 22
30 Mar
1961
DISC22 (http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov
/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=DISC22)
1961-F02 KH-2
Mission failed.
Second stage
failed to obtain
orbital velocity.
9016A Discoverer 23
08 Apr
1961
1961-011A (http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov
/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=1961-011A)
1961 LAM
1
KH-5 See KH-5
9018A Discoverer 24
16 Jun
1961
DISC24 (http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov
/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=DISC24)
1961-F05 KH-5 See KH-5
9017 Discoverer 25
16 Jun
1961
1961-014A (http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov
/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=1961-014A)
1961 XI 1 KH-2
Capsule
recovered from
water on orbit
32. Streaks
throughout
film.
9019 Discoverer 26
07 Jul
1961
1961-016A (http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov
/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=1961-016A)
1961 PI KH-2
Main camera
malfunctioned
on pass 22.
9020A Discoverer 27
21 Jul
1961
DISC27 (http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov
/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=DISC27)
1961-F07 KH-5 See KH-5
9021 Discoverer 28
03 Aug
1961
DISC28 (http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov
/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=DISC28)
1961-F08 KH-2
Mission failed.
No orbit.
Satellite
guidance
system failed.
9022 Discoverer 30
12 Sep
1961
1961-024A (http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov
/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=1961-024A)
1961 OME
1
KH-3
Best mission to
date. Same
out-of-focus
condition as in
9023.
9023 Discoverer 29
30 Aug
1961
1961-023A (http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov
/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=1961-023A)
1961 PSI KH-3
First use of
KH-3 camera
system. All
frames out of
focus.
9024 Discoverer 31
17 Sep
1961
1961-026A (http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov
/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=1961-026A)
1961 A
BET
KH-3
Mission failed.
Power failure
and loss of
control gas on
orbit 33.
Capsule was
not recovered.
9025 Discoverer 32
13 Oct
1961
1961-027A (http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov
/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=1961-027A)
1961 A
GAM 1
KH-3
Capsule
recovered on
orbit 18. 96%
of film out of
focus.
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9 of 25 7/29/2014 1:41 PM
Mission
No.
Cover
Name
Launch
Date
NSSDC ID No.
Alt.
Name
Camera Notes
9026 Discoverer 33
23 Oct
1961
DISC33 (http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov
/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=DISC33)
1961-F10 KH-3
Mission failed.
Satellite failed
to separate
from Thor
booster. No
orbit.
9027 Discoverer 34
05 Nov
1961
1961-029A (http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov
/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=1961-029A)
1961 A
EPS 1
KH-3
Mission failed.
Improper
launch angle
resulted in
extreme orbit.
Gas valve
failed
9028 Discoverer 35
15 Nov
1961
1961-030A (http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov
/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=1961-030A)
1961 A
ZET 1
KH-3
All cameras
operated
satisfactorily.
Grainy
emulsion
noted.
9029 Discoverer 36
12 Dec
1961
1961-034A (http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov
/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=1961-034A)
1961 A
KAP 1
KH-3
Best mission to
date. Launch
carried
OSCAR 1 to
orbit.
9030 Discoverer 37
13 Jan
1962
DISC37 (http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov
/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=DISC37)
1962-F01 KH-3
Mission failed.
No orbit.
9031 Discoverer 38
27 Feb
1962
1962-005A (http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov
/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=1962-005A)
1962 EPS
1
KH-4
First mission of
the KH-4
series. Much of
film slightly
out of focus.
9032 Discoverer 39
18 Apr
1962
1962-011A (http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov
/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=1962-011A)
1962 LAM
1
KH-4
Best mission to
date.
9033 FTV 1125
28 Apr
1962
1962-017A (http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov
/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=1962-017A)
1962 RHO
1
KH-4
Mission failed.
Parachute
ejector squibs
holding
parachute
container cover
failed to fire.
No recovery.
9034A FTV 1126
15 May
1962
1962-018A (http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov
/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=1962-018A)
1962 SIG
1
KH-5 See KH-5
9035 FTV 1128
30 May
1962
1962-021A (http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov
/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=1962-021A)
1962 PHI
1
KH-4
Slight corona
static on film.
9036 FTV 1127
02 Jun
1962
1962-022A (http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov
/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=1962-022A)
1962 CHI
1
KH-4
Mission failed.
During air
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10 of 25 7/29/2014 1:41 PM
Mission
No.
Cover
Name
Launch
Date
NSSDC ID No.
Alt.
Name
Camera Notes
catch. Launch
carried
OSCAR 2 to
orbit.
9037 FTV 1129
23 Jun
1962
1962-026A (http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov
/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=1962-026A)
1962 A
BET
KH-4
Corona static
occurs on some
film.
9038 FTV 1151
28 Jun
1962
1962-027A (http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov
/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=1962-027A)
1962 A
GAM
KH-4
Severe corona
static.
9039 FTV 1130
21 Jul
1962
1962-031A (http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov
/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=1962-031A)
1962 A
ETA
KH-4
Aborted after 6
photo passes.
Heavy corona
and radiation
fog.
9040 FTV 1131
28 Jul
1962
1962-032A (http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov
/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=1962-032A)
1962 A
THE
KH-4
No filters on
slave horizon
cameras.
Heavy corona
and radiation
fog.
9041 FTV 1152
02 Aug
1962
1962-034A (http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov
/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=1962-034A)
1962 A
KAP 1
KH-4
Severe corona
and radiation
fog.
9042A FTV 1132
01 Sep
1962
1962-044A (http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov
/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=1962-044A)
1962 A
UPS
KH-5 See KH-5
9043 FTV 1133
17 Sep
1962
1962-046A (http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov
/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=1962-046A)
1962 A
CHI
KH-4
placed in
highly
eccentric orbit
(207 km x
670 km),
caspule called
down after one
day, film
suffered severe
radiation fog
due to SAA
crossing
[54]
[55][56]
9044 FTV 1153
29 Aug
1962
1962-042A (http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov
/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=1962-042A)
1962 A
SIG
KH-4
Erratic vehicle
attitude.
Radiation fog
minimal.
9045 FTV 1154
29 Sep
1962
1962-050A (http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov
/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=1962-050A)
1962 B
BET
KH-4
First use of
stellar camera
9046A FTV 1134
09 Oct
1962
1962-053A (http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov
/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=19762-053A)
1962 B
EPS
KH-5 See KH-5
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Mission
No.
Cover
Name
Launch
Date
NSSDC ID No.
Alt.
Name
Camera Notes
9047 FTV 1136
05 Nov
1962
1962-063A (http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov
/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=1962-063A)
1962 B
OMI
KH-4
Camera door
malfunctioned
9048 FTV 1135
24 Nov
1962
1962-065A (http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov
/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=1962-065A)
1962 B
RHO
KH-4
Some film
exposed
through base.
9049 FTV 1155
04 Dec
1962
1962-066A (http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov
/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=1962-066A)
1962 B
SIG
KH-4
Mission failed.
During air
catch chute
tore
9050 FTV 1156
14 Dec
1962
1962-069A (http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov
/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=1962-069A)
1962 B
PHI
KH-4
Best mission to
date.
9051 OPS 0048
07 Jan
1963
1963-002A (http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov
/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=1963-002A)
1963-002A KH-4
Erratic vehicle
attitude. Frame
ephemeris not
created.
9052 OPS 0583
28 Feb
1963
1963-F02 (http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov
/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=1963-F02)
1963-F02 KH-4
Mission failed.
Destroyed by
range safety
officer
9053 OPS 0720
01 Apr
1963
1963-007A (http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov
/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=1963-007A)
1963-007A KH-4
Best imagery
to date.
9054 OPS 0954
12 Jun
1963
1963-019A (http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov
/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=1963-019A)
1963-019A KH-4
Some imagery
seriously
affected by
corona.
9055A OPS 1008
26 Apr
1963
1963-F07 (http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov
/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=1963-F07)
1963-F07 KH-5 See KH-5
9056 OPS 0999
26 Jun
1963
1963-025A (http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov
/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=1963-025A)
1963-025A KH-4
Experimental
camera carried.
Film affected
by light leaks.
9057 OPS 1266
19 Jul
1963
1963-029A (http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov
/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=1963-029A)
1963-029A KH-4
Best mission to
date.
9058A OPS 1561
29 Aug
1963
1963-035A (http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov
/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=1963-035A)
1963-035A KH-5 See KH-5
9059A OPS 2437
29 Oct
1963
1963-042A (http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov
/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=1963-042A)
1963-042A KH-5 See KH-5
9060 OPS 2268
09 Nov
1963
1963-F14 (http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov
/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=1963-F14)
1963-F14 KH-4
Mission failed.
No orbit.
9061 OPS 2260
27 Nov
1963
1963-048A (http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov
/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=1963-048A)
1963-048A KH-4
Mission failed.
Return capsule
separated from
satellite but
remained in
orbit.
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Mission
No.
Cover
Name
Launch
Date
NSSDC ID No.
Alt.
Name
Camera Notes
9062 OPS 1388
21 Dec
1963
1963-055A (http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov
/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=1963-055A)
1963-055A KH-4
Corona static
fogged much
of film.
9065A OPS 2739
21 Aug
1964
1964-048A (http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov
/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=1964-048A)
1964-048A KH-5 See KH-5
9066A OPS 3236
13 Jun
1964
1964-030A (http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov
/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=1964-030A)
1964-030A KH-5 See KH-5
1001 OPS 1419
24 Aug
1963
1963-034A (http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov
/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=1963-034A)
1963-034A KH-4A
First mission of
KH-4A. Some
film was
fogged. Two
buckets but
1001-2 was
never
recovered.
1002 OPS 1353
23 Sep
1963
1963-037A (http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov
/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=1963-037A)
1963-037A KH-4A
Severe light
leaks
1003 OPS 3467
24 Mar
1964
1964-F04 (http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov
/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=1964-F04)
1964-F04 KH-4A
Mission failed.
Guidance
system failed.
No orbit.
1004 OPS 3444
15 Feb
1964
1964-008A (http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov
/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=1964-008A)
1964-008A KH-4A
Main cameras
operated
satisfactorily.
Minor
degradations
due to static
and light leaks.
1005 OPS 2921
27 Apr
1964
1964-022A (http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov
/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=1964-022A)
1964-022A KH-4A
Mission failed.
Recovery
vehicle
impacted in
Venezuela.
1006 OPS 3483
04 Jun
1964
1964-027A (http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov
/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=1964-027A)
1964-027A KH-4A
Highest quality
imagery
attained to date
from the KH-4
system.
1007 OPS 3754
19 Jun
1964
1964-032A (http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov
/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=1964-032A)
1964-032A KH-4A
Out-of-focus
area on some
film.
1008 OPS 3491
10 Jun
1964
1964-037A (http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov
/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=1964-037A)
1964-037A KH-4A
Cameras
operated
satisfactorily
1009 OPS 3042
05 Aug
1964
1964-043A (http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov
/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=1964-043A)
1964-043A KH-4A
Cameras
operated
successfully.
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Mission
No.
Cover
Name
Launch
Date
NSSDC ID No.
Alt.
Name
Camera Notes
1010 OPS 3497
14 Sep
1964
1964-056A (http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov
/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=1964-056A)
1964-056A KH-4A
Small out of
focus areas on
both cameras at
random times
throughout the
mission.
1011 OPS 3333
05 Oct
1964
1964-061A (http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov
/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=1964-061A)
1964-061A KH-4A
Primary mode
of recovery
failed on
second portion
of the mission
(1011-2).
Small out of
focus areas
present at
random on
both cameras.
1012 OPS 3559
17 Oct
1964
1964-067A (http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov
/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=1964-067A)
1964-067A KH-4A
Vehicle attitude
became erratic
on the second
portion of the
mission
necessitating
an early
recovery.
1013 OPS 5434
02 Nov
1964
1964-071A (http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov
/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=1964-071A)
1964-071A KH-4A
Program
anomaly
occurred
immediately
after launch
when both
cameras
operated for
417 frames.
Main cameras
ceased
operation on
rev 52D of first
portion of
mission
negating
second portion.
About 65% of
aft camera film
is out of focus.
1014 OPS 3360
18 Nov
1964
1964-075A (http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov
/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=1964-075A)
1964-075A KH-4A
Cameras
operated
successfully.
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14 of 25 7/29/2014 1:41 PM
Mission
No.
Cover
Name
Launch
Date
NSSDC ID No.
Alt.
Name
Camera Notes
1015 OPS 3358
19 Dec
1964
1964-085A (http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov
/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=1964-085A)
1964-085A KH-4A
Discrepancies
in planned and
actual coverage
due to
telemetry
problems
during the first
6 revolutions.
Small
out-of-focus
areas on film
from aft
camera.
1016 OPS 3928
15 Jan
1965
1965-002A (http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov
/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=1965-002A)
1965-002A KH-4A
Smearing of
highly
reflective
images due to
reflections
within camera.
1017 OPS 4782
25 Feb
1965
1965-013A (http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov
/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=1965-013A)
1965-013A KH-4A
Capping
shutter
malfunction
occurred
during last 5
passes of
mission.
1018 OPS 4803
25 Mar
1965
1965-026A (http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov
/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=1965-026A)
1965-026A KH-4A
Cameras
operated
successfully.
First KH-4A
reconnaissance
system to be
launched into a
retrograde
orbit.
1019 OPS 5023
29 Apr
1965
1965-033A (http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov
/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=1965-033A)
1965-033A KH-4A
Cameras
operated
successfully.
Malfunction in
recovery mode
on 1019-2
negated
recovery.
1020 OPS 8425
09 Jun
1965
1965-045A (http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov
/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=1965-045A)
1965-045A KH-4A
All cameras
operated
satisfactorily.
Erratic attitude
caused an early
recovery after
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Mission
No.
Cover
Name
Launch
Date
NSSDC ID No.
Alt.
Name
Camera Notes
the second day
of 1020-2.
1021 OPS 8431
18 May
1965
1965-037A (http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov
/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=1965-037A)
1965-037A KH-4A
Aft camera
ceased
operation on
pass 102.
1022 OPS 5543
19 Jun
1965
1965-057A (http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov
/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=1965-057A)
1965-057A KH-4A
All cameras
operated
satisfactorily.
1023 OPS 7208
17 Aug
1965
1965-067A (http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov
/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=1965-067A)
1965-067A KH-4A
Program
anomaly
caused the fore
camera to
cease operation
during
revolutions
103-132.
1024 OPS 7221
22 Sep
1965
1965-074A (http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov
/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=1965-074A)
1965-074A KH-4A
All cameras
operated
satisfactorily.
Cameras not
operated on
passes
88D-93D.
1025 OPS 5325
05 Oct
1965
1965-079A (http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov
/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=1965-079A)
1965-079A KH-4A
Main cameras
operated
satisfactorily.
1026 OPS 2155
28 Oct
1965
1965-086A (http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov
/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=1965-086A)
1965-086A KH-4A
All cameras
operated
satisfactorily.
1027 OPS 7249
09 Dec
1965
1965-102A (http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov
/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=1965-102A)
1965-102A KH-4A
Erratic attitude
necessitated
recovery after
two days of
operation. All
cameras
operated
satisfactorily.
1028 OPS 4639
24 Dec
1965
1965-110A (http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov
/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=1965-110A)
1965-110A KH-4A
Cameras
operated
satisfactorily.
1029 OPS 7291
02 Feb
1966
1966-007A (http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov
/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=1966-007A)
1966-007A KH-4A
Both
panoramic
cameras were
operational
throughout.
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Mission
No.
Cover
Name
Launch
Date
NSSDC ID No.
Alt.
Name
Camera Notes
1030 OPS 3488
09 Mar
1966
1966-018A (http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov
/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=1966-018A)
1966-018A KH-4A
All cameras
operated
satisfactorily.
1031 OPS 1612
07 Apr
1966
1966-029A (http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov
/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=1966-029A)
1966-029A KH-4A
The aft-looking
camera
malfunctioned
after the
recovery of
bucket 1. No
material was
received in
bucket 2
(1031-2).
1032 OPS 1508
3 May
1966
1966-F05A (http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov
/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=1966-F05A)
1966-F05 KH-4A
Mission failed.
Vehicle failed
to achieve
orbit.
1033 OPS 1778
24 May
1966
1966-042A (http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov
/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=1966-042A)
1966-042A KH-4A
The stellar
camera shutter
of bucket 2
remained open
for
approximately
200 frames.
1034 OPS 1599
21 Jun
1966
1966-055A (http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov
/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=1966-055A)
1966-055A KH-4A
Failure of
velocity
altitude
programmer
produced poor
imagery after
revolution 5.
1035 OPS 1703
20 Sep
1966
1966-085A (http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov
/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=1966-085A)
1966-085A KH-4A
All cameras
operated
satisfactorily.
First mission
flown with pan
geometry
modification.
1036 OPS 1545
09 Aug
1966
1966-072A (http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov
/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=1966-072A)
1966-072A KH-4A
All cameras
operated
satisfactorily.
1037 OPS 1866
08 Nov
1966
1966-102A (http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov
/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=1966-102A)
1966-102A KH-4A
Second pan
geometry
mission.
Higher than
normal base
plus fog
encountered on
both main
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Mission
No.
Cover
Name
Launch
Date
NSSDC ID No.
Alt.
Name
Camera Notes
camera records.
1038 OPS 1664
14 Jan
1967
1967-002A (http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov
/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=1967-002A)
1967-002A KH-4A
Fair image
quality.
1039 OPS 4750
22 Feb
1967
1967-015A (http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov
/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=1967-015A)
1967-015A KH-4A
Normal KH-4
mission. Light
from horizon
camera on both
main camera
records during
1039-1.
1040 OPS 4779
30 Mar
1967
1967-029A (http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov
/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=1967-029A)
1967-029A KH-4A
Satellite flown
nose first.
1041 OPS 4696
9 May
1967
1967-043A (http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov
/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=1967-043A)
1967-043A KH-4A
Due to the
failure of the
booster cut-off
switch, the
satellite went
into a highly
eccentric orbit.
There was
significant
image
degradation.
1042 OPS 3559
16 Jun
1967
1967-062A (http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov
/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=1967-062A)
1967-062A KH-4A
Small
out-of-focus
area in forward
camera of
1042-1.
1043 OPS 4827
07 Aug
1967
1967-076A (http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov
/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=1967-076A)
1967-076A KH-4A
Forward
camera film
came out of the
rails on pass
230D. Film
degraded past
this point.
1044 OPS 0562
02 Nov
1967
1967-109A (http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov
/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=1967-109A)
1967-109A KH-4A
All cameras
operated fine.
1045 OPS 2243
24 Jan
1968
1968-008A (http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov
/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=1968-008A)
1968-008A KH-4A
All cameras
operated
satisfactorily.
1046 OPS 4849
14 Mar
1968
1968-020A (http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov
/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=1968-020A)
1968-020A KH-4A
Image quality
good for
1046-1 and fair
for 1046-2.
1047 OPS 5343
20 Jun
1968
1968-052A (http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov
/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=1968-052A)
1968-052A KH-4A
Out-of-focus
imagery is
present on both
main camera
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Mission
No.
Cover
Name
Launch
Date
NSSDC ID No.
Alt.
Name
Camera Notes
records.
1048 OPS 0165
18 Sep
1968
1968-078A (http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov
/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=1968-078A)
1968-078A KH-4A
Film in the
forward
camera
separated and
camera failed
on mission
1048-2
1049 OPS 4740
12 Dec
1968
1968-112A (http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov
/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=1968-112A)
1968-112A KH-4A Degraded film
1050 OPS 3722
19 Mar
1969
1969-026A (http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov
/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=1969-026A)
1969-026A KH-4A
Due to
abnormal
rotational rates
after revolution
22
1051 OPS 1101
2 May
1969
1969-041A (http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov
/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=1969-041A)
1969-041A KH-4A
Imagery of
both pan
camera records
is soft and
lacks crispness
and edge
sharpness.
1052 OPS 3531
22 Sep
1969
1969-079A (http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov
/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=1969-079A)
1969-079A KH-4A
Last of the
KH-4A
missions
1101 OPS 5089
15 Sep
1967
1967-087A (http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov
/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=1967-087A)
1967-087A KH-4B
First mission of
the KH-4B
series. Best
film to date.
1102 OPS 1001
09 Dec
1967
1967-122A (http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov
/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=1967-122A)
1967-122A KH-4B
Noticeable
image smear
for forward
camera
1103 OPS 1419
1 May
1968
1968-039A (http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov
/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=1968-039A)
1968-039B KH-4B
Out-of-focus
imagery is
present on both
main camera
records.
1104 OPS 5955
07 Aug
1968
1968-065A (http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov
/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=1968-065A)
1968-065A KH-4B
Best imagery
to date on any
KH-4 systems.
Bicolor and
color infrared
experiments
were
conducted on
this mission,
including
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Mission
No.
Cover
Name
Launch
Date
NSSDC ID No.
Alt.
Name
Camera Notes
SO-180 IR
camouflage
detection
film.
[57]
1105 OPS 1315
03 Nov
1968
1968-098A (http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov
/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=1968-098A)
1968-098A KH-4B
Image quality
is variable and
displays areas
of soft focus
and image
smear.
1106 OPS 3890
05 Feb
1969
1969-010A (http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov
/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=1969-010A)
1969-010A KH-4B
The best image
quality to date.
1107 OPS 3654
24 Jul
1969
1969-063A (http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov
/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=1969-063A)
1969-063A KH-4B
Forward
camera failed
on pass 1 and
remained
inoperative
throughout the
rest of the
mission.
1108 OPS 6617
04 Dec
1969
1969-105A (http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov
/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=1969-105A)
1969-105A KH-4B
Cameras
operated
satisfactorily
and the mission
carried 811 ft
(247 m) of
aerial color
film added to
the end of the
film supply.
1109 OPS 0440
04 Mar
1970
1970-016A (http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov
/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=1970-016A)
1970-016A KH-4B
Cameras
operated
satisfactorily
but the overall
image quality
of both the
forward and aft
records is
variable.
1110 OPS 4720
20 May
1970
1970-040A (http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov
/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=1970-040A)
1970-040A KH-4B
The overall
image quality
is less than that
provided by
recent missions
and 2
1111 OPS 4324
23 Jun
1970
1970-054A (http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov
/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=1970-054A)
1970-054A KH-4B
The overall
image quality
is good.
Corona (satellite) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Corona_(satellite)
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Mission
No.
Cover
Name
Launch
Date
NSSDC ID No.
Alt.
Name
Camera Notes
1112 OPS 4992
18 Nov
1970
1970-098A (http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov
/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=1970-098A)
1970-098A KH-4B
The forward
camera failed
on pass 104
and remained
inoperative
throughout the
rest of the
mission.
1113 OPS 3297
17 Feb
1971
1971-F01A (http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov
/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=1971-F01A)
1971-F01 KH-4B
Mission failed
due to failure
of Thor
booster.
Destroyed
shortly after
launch.
1114 OPS 5300
24 Mar
1971
1971-022A (http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov
/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=1971-022A)
1971-022A KH-4B
The overall
image quality
is good and
comparable to
the best of past
missions.
On-board
program failed
after pass 235
1115 OPS 5454
10 Sep
1971
1971-076A (http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov
/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=1971-076A)
1971-076A KH-4B
Overall image
quality is good.
1116 OPS 5640
19 Apr
1972
1972-032A (http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov
/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=1972-032A)
1972-032A KH-4B
Very successful
mission and
image quality
was good.
1117 OPS 6371
25 May
1972
1972-039A (http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov
/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=1972-039A)
1972-039A KH-4B
Last KH-4B
mission. Very
successful
mission, failure
to deploy one
solar panel and
leak in Agena
gas system
shortened
mission from
19 to 6 days
[56]
Corona (satellite) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Corona_(satellite)
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AF Sat Ctrl Facility during recovery ops

CORONA re-entry parameters
"A Point in Time: The CORONA Story" - a document
movie about the first in history project of spy satellites.
Created by the CIA and NRO in 1995 to commemorate
declassification of CORONA project.
KH-5-ARGON, KH-6-LANYARD, KH-7, KH-8-GAMBIT
SAMOS
KH-9 Hexagon "Big Bird"
KH-10-DORIAN or Manned Orbital Laboratory
KH-11, KH-12, KH-13.
Satellite imagery
Cold War
Zenit
The 1963 thriller novel Ice Station Zebra and its 1968 film adaptation were inspired, in part, by news accounts from April 17,
Corona (satellite) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Corona_(satellite)
22 of 25 7/29/2014 1:41 PM
1959, about a missing experimental Corona satellite capsule (Discoverer II) that inadvertently landed near Spitzbergen on
April 13. While Soviet agents may have recovered the vehicle,
[38][58]
it is more likely that the capsule landed in water and
sank.
[29]
They are also mentioned in the video-game Call of Duty: Black Ops 2.
^ Yenne, Bill (1985). The Encyclopedia of US Spacecraft.
Exeter Books (A Bison Book), New York.
ISBN 0-671-07580-2.p.82 Key Hole
1.
^ Rich, Michael D. "RAND's Role in the CORONA Program"
(http://www.rand.org/pubs/papers/P8017.html). RAND
Corporation. Retrieved 9 March 2014.
2.
^ " 'Mission accomplished' for NRO at Onizuka AFS"
(http://www.schriever.af.mil/news/story.asp?id=123050054).
USAF. 2007-04-23.
3.
^ "Chronology of Air Force space activities"
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National Reconnaissance Office.
4.
^ Yenne, p. 63; Jensen, p. 81. 5.
^
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b

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e

f

g
Drell, "Physics and U.S. National Security," p.
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7.
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b
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8.
^
a

b
Peebles, p. 157. 9.
^
a

b

c

d
Olsen, p. 57. 10.
^ Yenne, p. 64. 11.
^ Smith, p. 111-114. 12.
^
a

b
Lewis, p. 93. 13.
^ Monmonier, p. 24. 14.
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^
a

b
Ruffner, p. 37. 16.
^
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b
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^ Ruffner, p. 34, 36. 18.
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b
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b
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b
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b
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Friday December 5, 2008, Base newspaper from Hickam AFB
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b
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29.
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b
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^ National Reconnaissance Office. "National Reconnaissance
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Declassification of 25-Year-Old Information. Version 1.0,
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Accessed 2012-06-06.
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^ National Aeronautics and Space Administration, p. 292. 33.
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/article/1283/1). The Space Review. Retrieved June 11, 2012.
36.
^ Peebles, p. 51. 37.
^
a

b

c
National Reconnaissance Office. "National
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Version 1.0, 2006 edition, p. 154. (http://www.fas.org/irp/nro
/declass.pdf) Accessed 2012-06-06.
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^ National Reconnaissance Office. The Corona Story. BYE
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2006 edition, p. 118. (http://www.fas.org/irp/nro/declass.pdf)
Accessed 2012-06-06.
40.
^ Chien, Phillip. "High Spies." Popular Mechanics. February
1996, p. 49.
41.
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^ "Declassified intelligence satellite photographs fact sheet
090-96" (http://erg.usgs.gov/isb/pubs/factsheets
/fs09096.html). United States Geological Survey. February
1998.
42.
^ "Discoverer 13 - NSSDC ID: 1960-008A"
(http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov
/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=1960-008A). NASA NSSDC.
43.
^ "Sputnik 5 - NSSDC ID: 1960-011A"
(http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov
/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=1960-011A). NASA NSSDC.
44.
^ Yenne, Bill (1985). The Encyclopedia of US Spacecraft.
Exeter Books (A Bison Book), New York.
ISBN 0-671-07580-2.p.37 Discoverer
45.
^ "1967-043B" (http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov
/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=1967-043B). NASA National
Space Science Data Center. 2010-10-08.
46.
^ "1970-098B" (http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov
/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=1970-098B). NASA National
Space Science Data Center. 2010-10-08.
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^ Executive Order 12951 48.
^ Broad, William J. (12 September 1995). "Spy Satellites'
Early Role As 'Floodlight' Coming Clear"
(http://www.nytimes.com/1995/09/12/science/spy-satellites-
early-role-as-floodlight-coming-clear.html?pagewanted=all&
src=pm). The New York Times.
49.
^ "Satellite images spy ancient history in Syria"
(http://www.physorg.com/news73840698.html). PhysOrg.
August 3, 2006.
50.
^ Britt, Robert Roy (August 7, 2006). "Ancient Syrian
Settlements Seen in Spy Satellite Images"
(http://www.livescience.com/history
/060807_syria_satellite.html). LiveScience.
51.
^ Ur, Jason. "Ancient Communication Networks in Northern
Mesopotamia" (http://www.fas.harvard.edu/~anthro
/ur/remote_hollow.html). Harvard University. Retrieved 20
March 2013.
52.
^ Ur, Jason. "Archaeological Applications of Declassified
Satellite Photographs" (http://www.fas.harvard.edu/~anthro
/ur/remote_corona.html). Harvard University. Retrieved 20
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53.
^ "MISSION 9043 SUCCESSFUL AIR RECOVERY"
(http://www.nro.gov/foia/CAL-Records/Cabinet3/DrawerE
/3%20E%200085.pdf). National Reconnaissance Office. 21
September 1962.
54.
^ "Photographic Evaluation Report: Mission 9043"
(http://www.nro.gov/foia/CAL-Records/Cabinet3/DrawerE
/3%20E%200091.pdf). National Reconnaissance Office. 31
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^
a

b
Robery Perry (October 1973). "A History of Satellite
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(http://www.foia.cia.gov/docs/DOC_0000940279
/DOC_0000940279.pdf). Central Intelligence Agency.
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^ "MEMO: PHOTOGRAPHIC RECONNAISSANCE
SYSTEMS, PROGRESS TOWARDS OBJECTIVES"
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/6%20A%200054.pdf). NRO. 1972-09-05.
57.
^ Taubman, Secret Empire, p. 287. 58.
Burrows, William E. This New Ocean: The Story of the First Space Age. New York: Random House, 1998.
Chun, Clayton K.S. Thunder Over the Horizon: From V-2 rockets to Ballistic Missiles. Westport: Praeger Security
International, 2006.
Collins, Martin. After Sputnik: 50 Years of the Space Age. New York: Smithsonian Books/HarperCollins, 2007.
"Corona." Mission and Spacecraft Library. Jet Propulsion Laboratory. National Aeronautics and Space Administration.
No date. (http://space.jpl.nasa.gov/msl/Programs/corona.html) Accessed 2012-60-06.
Day, Dwayen A.; Logsdon, John M.; and Latell, Brian, eds. Eye in the Sky: The Story of the Corona Spy Satellites.
Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1998. ISBN 978-1560988304
"Discoverer/Corona: First U.S. Reconnaissance Satellite. National Air and Space Museum. Smithsonian Institution.
2002. (http://www.nasm.si.edu/exhibitions/gal114/SpaceRace/sec400/sec420.htm) Accessed 2012-06-06.
Drell, Sidney D. "Physics and U.S. National Security." Reviews of Modern Physics. 71:2 (1999), p. S460-S470.
Drell, Sidney D. "Reminiscences of Work on National Reconnaissance." in Nuclear Weapons, Scientists, and the
Post-Cold War Challenge: Selected Papers on Arms Control. Sidney D. Drell, ed. Hackensack, N.J.: World Scientific,
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2007.
Jensen, John R. Remote Sensing of the Environment: An Earth Resource Perspective. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Pearson
Prentice Hall, 2007.
Kramer, Herbert J. Observation of the Earth and Its Environment: Survey of Missions and Sensors. Berlin: Springer,
2002.
Lewis, Jonathan E. Spy Capitalism: Itek and the CIA. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 2002.
Monmonier, Mark S. Spying With Maps: Surveillance Technologies and the Future of Privacy. Chicago: University of
Chicago Press, 2004.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Societal Impact of Spaceflight. Washington, D.C.: NASA, 2009.
Olsen, Richard C. Remote Sensing From Air and Space. Bellingham, Wash.: SPIE Press, 2007.
Peebles, Curtis. The Corona Project: America's First Spy Satellites. Annapolis, Md.: Naval Institute Press, 1997.
Ruffner, Kevin C., ed. Corona: America's First Satellite Program. New York : Morgan James, 1995.
Smith, F. Dow. "The Design and Engineering of Corona's Optics." in CORONA: Between the Sun & the Earth: The First
NRO Reconnaissance Eye in Space. Robert McDonald, ed. Bethesda, Md.: ASPRS, 1997.
Taubman, Phil. Secret Empire: Eisenhower, the CIA, and the Hidden Story of Americas Space Espionage. New York:
Simon & Schuster, 2003. ISBN 0-684-85699-9
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Rapids, Mich.: Publishers Group Worldwide, 2006.
US Geological Survey Satellite Images (http://eros.usgs.gov/#/Find_Data/Products_and_Data_Available
/Declassified_Satellite_Imagery_-_1): Photographic imagery from the CORONA, ARGON and LANYARD satellites
(1959 to 1972).
Corona page at NRO (http://www.nro.gov/history/csnr/corona/factsheet.html)
GlobalSecurity.org: Imagery Intelligence (http://www.globalsecurity.org/space/systems/imint.htm)
A Point in Time (http://www.archive.org/details/point_in_time), a documentary, is available at the Internet Archive
Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Corona_(satellite)&oldid=618059417"
Categories: 1960 in spaceflight 1961 in spaceflight 1962 in spaceflight 1971 in spaceflight 1972 in spaceflight
Artificial satellites formerly orbiting Earth Reconnaissance satellites of the United States National Reconnaissance Office
Black projects Military space program of the United States Lockheed Corporation
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