35 vistas

Cargado por Anshuman Aggarwal

Acute

- Math copied
- GeoGebra_WS_2
- In Euclidean geometry.doc
- USA-AMC_12-1966-44-182
- 13 Three Special Triangles Problem - Pg3specialtri
- chapter 2 book answers
- 9.1 circle geo
- Đề Thi Các Nước Và Khu Vực 2013
- 2009 Nsw Bos General Mathematics Solutionsv2
- 45851980 38159924 MATH Portfolio I Stellar Numbers
- CAT 2008 Question Paper With Detailed Solutions and Answer Key
- Class 11
- 5th to 6th grade math summer packet
- Mock Cmat Qa
- Mathematics Engg Practice Test Paper-1
- Class VI.pdf
- Latih Tubi Mate Akhir_2 2012
- Guided Notes
- RMO_2013
- geo t7 1

Está en la página 1de 6

June 14, 2013

Abstract

We discuss twelve methods for randomly choosing a triangle, and compute the probability of

the triangles being acute for each method.

A popular riddle, known as the Bertrand paradox [3], asks: If you draw a random chord in a

circle, what is the probability that it is longer than one edge of an equilateral triangle inscribed in

the circle? (See Figure 1.) Its a trick question, but one with an elegant answer, which explains its

popularity among mathematicians.

Figure 1: An equilateral triangle inscribed in a circle, and several chords

This is a trick question because the answer depends on how the random chord is chosen (see

Figure 2):

Method 1: Fix one endpoint of the chord, say at a vertex of the equilateral triangle. Randomly

choose a point on the circle for the other endpoint. The triangle divides the circle into three equal

parts; only points on the far side will yield chords longer than an edge of the triangle, so the

probability is 1/3.

Method 2: Consider a radius of the circle, say one that is perpendicular to one of the triangles

edges. Randomly choose a point on this radius, and construct the chord through that point that is

perpendicular to the radius. The triangles edge bisects the radius, so the probability that the chord

is longer than an edge of the triangle is 1/2.

Method 3: Randomly choose a point on the interior of the circle, and construct the chord that has

this point as its midpoint. The chord will be longer than an edge of the triangle if the point lies

inside a circle of half the radius of the larger circle, which occurs with probability 1/4.

1

.

Figure 2: Three methods for choosing a chord in a circle

In this paper, we consider a similarly poorly-dened, yet interesting, question: If you randomly

choose a triangle, what is the probability that it is acute?

Remark. This paper grew out of conversations between the two authors in 2008: Diana Davis was

convinced that the method illustrated in Figure 3 gave the correct answer to the question, and Rick

Parris countered with numerous other methods. Following Parriss untimely death in 2012, Davis

compiled all the methods they had found, and added proofs.

Method 1 (Simple): The largest angle of a triangle ranges from 60

to 180

produces an acute triangle, so the probability of an acute triangle is 25%.

Despite its simplicity, this answer is not very satisfying, because no triangles were actually

selected. To justify this 25% probability (or any other answer), a suitable triangle-selection process

must be described, in which every possible triangle shape has a chance of appearing. We give

numerous different methods for this selection, each of which essentially puts coordinates on the

space of triangles, and then computes the measure of the set of acute triangles with respect to the

area form associated to those coordinates.

Method 2 (Angle dart board): The shape of a triangle is determined by its angles, so each shape is

represented by a triple (, , ) of positive numbers that satises the condition + + = and

, , > 0. The conguration of all such triples is an equilateral triangle in 3-space, whose vertices

are (, 0, 0), (0, , 0), and (0, 0, ) (see Figure 3). Randomly selecting a triangular shape can be

accomplished by simply throwing a dart at this triangular dart board (without aiming). The acute

case is dened by the three conditions , , < /2. These triples lie within the triangular region

whose vertices are the midpoints (/2, /2, 0), (/2, 0, /2), and (0, /2, /2). It is easily seen that

this region encloses 1/4 of the area of the whole dart board.

(0,,0)

(/2,/2,0)

(,0,0)

(0,/2,/2)

(/2,0,/2)

(0,0,)

Figure 3: A tilted triangular dart board

2

Method 3 (Circumcircle): Randomly select three points on a circle; these are the vertices of a

triangle. Because every triangle has a circumcircle, every possible triangular shape has a chance

of being selected in this way. It is no loss of generality to mark a xed point A on the circle at

angle 0, and form a triangle APQ by selecting P and Q randomly on the circle at angles and

(see Figure 4). Let A

be diametrically

opposite P. The positions for Q that produce acute triangles APQ are on the minor arc from A

to

P

. The shaded region in the graph on the right side of Figure 4 corresponds to 0 2,

which represents all possible triangles. The darker shaded region corresponds to the acute triangle

constraints < , < +, > , and covers 1/4 of the shaded region, so the probability that

APQ is acute is 1/4.

Q

A

P

P

A

2

2

Figure 4: The probability that three randomly chosen points on a circle form an acute

triangle is the proportion of the shaded region in the graph that is dark, which is 1/4

Method 4 (Discrete circumcircle): Let A = A

0

be one of the vertices of regular (2n + 1)-gon

A

0

A

1

A

2

A

2n

inscribed in a circle, and let A

inscribed in this circle is approximated by selecting two vertices P = A

i

and Q = A

j

. There are

2n

2

and Q

is on the other (see Figure 5). There are n choices for the position of P, and 1+2+ +n =

1

2

n(n+1)

choices for Q that make the triangle acute. Thus the probability of obtaining an acute triangle is

(n + 1)/(4n

2

2), which approaches 1/4 as n approaches .

A

A

P

Q

P

A

P

A

P

Q

Figure 5: For a triangle with A and P as vertices, Q must be one of the gray points in

order for APQ to be acute

3

Method 5 (Incircle): Randomly select three points on a xed circle and draw the three lines that are

tangent to the circle at these points. Because every triangle has an incircle, every possible triangular

shape has a chance of being selected in this way. It is no loss of generality to mark a xed point A

on a unit circle and select P and Q randomly on the circle at angles and , measured in opposite

directions from A (see Figure 6). For the shape whose incircle has points of tangency A, P, Q to be

a triangle, and must satisfy < , < , < , the shaded region in the graph in Figure

6. For the triangle to be acute, they must satisfy > /2, > /2, < 3/2 . This is the dark

shaded region, which is 1/4 of the entire region, so the probability that APQ is acute is 1/4.

A

P

Q

/2

/2

Figure 6: The probability that three randomly chosen points on an incircle determine an

acute triangle is the proportion of the shaded region that is dark, which is 1/4

Method 6 (Broken stick): Given a stick of unit length, independently choose two break points.

The probability that these three pieces form a triangle is the proportion of Figure 7 that is shaded,

which is 1/4. Let x and y be the positions of the breaks on the stick, with 0 < x < y < 1, which

restricts us to one of the triangles in the gure. The lengths of the three pieces are then x, y x and

1 y, so the restriction to acute triangles is x

2

+ (y x)

2

> (1 y)

2

, x

2

+ (1 y)

2

> (y x)

2

, and

(y x)

2

+ (1 y)

2

> x

2

, which is the dark region in Figure 7. The proportion of the triangle that is

dark is the probability that the triangle is acute, which is 12 ln 2 8 0.318.

first break

is here

second break

can be

anywhere here

first break

1/2 1

1

1/2

x

y

s

e

c

o

n

d

b

r

e

a

k

Figure 7: The probability that the three pieces of a broken stick form a triangle is the

proportion of the square that is shaded, which is 1/4. The acute triangles lie in the dark

region (triangle enlarged to show detail), which is about 31.8% of the shaded area

4

Method 7 (Unit cube): Select a randompoint (a, b, c) fromthe unit cube, whose coordinates represent

the triangles edge lengths. Of these, half represent triangles: The intersection of the region satisfying

z < x +y, y < x +z, x < y +z with the cube occupies half the volume of the cube. Within the

region representing triangles, the region representing acute triangles consists of the points that

satisfy z

2

< x

2

+y

2

, y

2

< x

2

+z

2

, x

2

< y

2

+z

2

. By symmetry, this volume is

1

2

3

x=1

x=0

y=1

yx

y

2

x

2

(y x)

dy dx = 1

4

0.2146.

The proportion of points that represent acute triangles, out of all those that represent triangles, is

thus this number divided by 1/2, which is 2

2

0.429.

Method 8 (Square dart board): Without aiming, throw three darts at a square dart board. In

other words, generate three independent random points with uniform distribution in the unit

square. Langford [2] showed that the probability that the three points form an acute triangle is

53/150 /40 0.275. (For a 1 2 rectangle, the probability is only 1/1200 13/128 +

3

4

ln 2

0.202, and the probability unsurprisingly decreases to 0 as the width increases.)

Method 9 (Circular dart board): Without aiming, throw three darts at a circular dart board. In other

words, generate three independent random points with uniform distribution in the unit disk. Hall

[1] showed that the probability that the three points form an acute triangle is 4/

2

1

8

0.28.

Method 10 (Longest side): Every triangle has a longest side call it AB, and suppose that AB = 2.

Let ABC be equilateral, and replace the edges CA and CB by 60-degree arcs drawn with A and B

as centers (see Figure 8). If the third point is randomly selected inside this curvilinear triangle

ABC, then AB will be the longest side of triangle ABP, and every possible triangular shape is

obtainable by this process. Obtuse triangles occur when P lands inside the semicircular region that

has AB as diameter. The probability that ABP is acute is the area of region R in Figure 8 divided

by the area of the union of regions Q and R, which is

5

6

3

4

3

3

=

5 6

3

8 6

3

0.36062.

B

longest, acute

A

acute

inter.,

acute

inter.,

shortest side,

acute triangle

shortest side, shortest side,

R

C

intermediate side,

obtuse triangle

obtuse triangle

obtuse triangle

obtuse triangle

intermediate side,

S

P

T

longest, obtuse

Q

Figure 8: The relative size of side AB, and the acute/obtuse status of triangle ABP,

depending on the position of P. The shaded regions extend to the upper halfplane

5

Method 11 (Intermediate side): Every triangle has an intermediate side call it AB, and suppose

that AB = 2. Let ABC be equilateral, and replace the edge CB by a 60-degree arc drawn with A

as the center (see Figure 8). If P is randomly selected outside this curvilinear triangle ABC, but

inside a circle with radius AB centered at A or B, then AB will be the intermediate side of triangle

ABP. By symmetry, we can restrict to a quarter of this area, which is the union of regions S and T

in Figure 8. Every possible triangular shape appears as some triangle ABP with P in region S or

T. The only angle that can be obtuse is B, so the probability that ABP is acute is the area of region

S in Figure 8 divided by the area of the union of regions S and T, which is

3

3

3 +

2

3

=

3

3

3

3 + 2

0.17898.

Method 12 (Upper halfplane): In triangle ABP, assume that A is the origin, B is the point (1, 0),

and the third vertex P is selected in the upper halfplane. The angles at A and B are acute if P falls

in the vertical strip 0 < x < 1. The angle at P is acute of P falls outside the circle whose diameter is

AB. Triangle ABP is acute when P falls in the dark shaded region in Figure 8, and is obtuse when

P is anywhere else in the upper halfplane, so the probability that ABP is acute is 0.

References

[1] Glen Richard Hall, Acute triangles in the n-ball. Journal of Applied Probability. 19 (1982), no. 3,

712 715.

[2] Eric Langford, A problem in geometrical probability. Mathematics Magazine, Nov.-Dec. 1970:

237 244.

[3] P.E. Tissler, Bertrands Paradox. The Mathematical Gazette, 68 (443), March 1984: 15 19.

6

- Math copiedCargado porMohammed Abdul Kader Sabuj
- GeoGebra_WS_2Cargado pormathandmultimedia
- In Euclidean geometry.docCargado porGilar Jatisunda
- USA-AMC_12-1966-44-182Cargado porasharma_380004
- 13 Three Special Triangles Problem - Pg3specialtriCargado porNora
- chapter 2 book answersCargado porapi-247437524
- 9.1 circle geoCargado porMaria DeeTee Nguyen
- Đề Thi Các Nước Và Khu Vực 2013Cargado porHoang Anh Tran
- 2009 Nsw Bos General Mathematics Solutionsv2Cargado porBob Cross
- 45851980 38159924 MATH Portfolio I Stellar NumbersCargado porMEGANGILLETT
- CAT 2008 Question Paper With Detailed Solutions and Answer KeyCargado porgauthamcranky
- Class 11Cargado porvaibhav.mystery007
- 5th to 6th grade math summer packetCargado porapi-284747919
- Mock Cmat QaCargado porHarsh Jain
- Mathematics Engg Practice Test Paper-1Cargado porIndra Pratap Sengar
- Class VI.pdfCargado porRabi Kumar Patra
- Latih Tubi Mate Akhir_2 2012Cargado porcgnash
- Guided NotesCargado porCristina
- RMO_2013Cargado porSurya Prakash
- geo t7 1Cargado porapi-261379705
- IITJEECargado porLeandro Silva
- area under a curve - polar system 12-16-2017Cargado porapi-323045358
- geometry-tiebreaker-solutions_3.pdfCargado porSahabudeen Salaeh
- SISTEMAS DE UNIDADES.pdfCargado porChamo Pobre El Batraciosh
- Pages From Chapter 17-16Cargado porta
- 2009 Geometry regents.pdfCargado porrohitrgt4u
- CAT -1 metrics on small cancellation groupsCargado porCafazaro
- ITPROGX3 - Practical Examination No. 1Cargado porjocansino4496
- Detailed Lesson Plan in Mathematics II AndreaCargado porJorgen De Guzman-Salon
- Class X E Book Maths Chapter IX Tangents to a CircleCargado porSaketh Maddamsetty

- Hollo-bolt by Lindapter UsaCargado poraxiomata
- Arri_D21Cargado porbfantini
- ME4225-1-Introduction.pdfCargado porDivij Sood
- Parts List Xerox 6279Cargado porvladimir2426
- Das Holontalo, Glossar und grammatische SkizzeCargado porLinas Kondratas
- Computer ForensicsCargado portkrshilpa
- Unifying User-based and Item-based Collaborative Filtering Approaches by Similarity FusionCargado por.xml
- Architectural Design of Multi-Agent Systems - H. Lin (IGI, 2007) WWCargado porRicardo Ortega Magaña
- aribaCargado porkhalala
- IRJET-Smart Home System Using Service Robot and Wireless Sensor NetworkCargado porIRJET Journal
- 10 4 14 New Long Srp PriceCargado porJon Snow-Stark
- Lecture 19Cargado porOasi Joseph
- Fibonacci number.pdfCargado porFiloktitis
- Aws foundational and platform services Module 1 parts 2 3 Awsomeday 2017Cargado porRicardo Bolanos
- FSMO Roles in ShortCargado pornlsam
- A100-BAS16Cargado porRobert Gabriel
- Apl 5930Cargado porzanatur
- User ManualCargado porOswaldo Alvarado Hidalgo
- Vi3 Installation GuideCargado porimnicky22
- Freeform Reflector Design With Extended SourcesCargado porSolidWorks
- 1438 Learning Path Distributions Using Nonequilibrium Diffusion NetworksCargado porNina Brown
- Downloads.microsurvey.com Training MSCAD Fundamentals Online Course OutlineCargado portopogcarlos
- 2014 Null Oded Raz Mysql for Oracle DBA ManuskriptCargado porduongatna
- Process ValidationCargado porNarongchai Pongpan
- Converting S-Parameters from 50Ω to 75Ω Impedance - Tutorial - MaximCargado porSrinivas Karatlapelli
- ASVAB Math Knowledge Practice Test 4Cargado porASVABTestBank
- 8697_Aeronautical Chart ManualCargado porbenis
- Project SuccessCargado porMohd Saleh
- ESRIGWToolsCargado porAnonymous lKQDfeAHo
- Huawei Mrfu Tda 2012 TocCargado pornipuna22