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VOZ PASIVA.

CARACTERISTICAS
1. Se dice que una oracin est en VOZ ACTIVA cuando la significacin del verbo es
producida por la persona gramatical a quien aqul se refiere:
Pedro de Mendoza founded Buenos Aires.
(Pedro de Mendoza fund Buenos Aires).
2. Se dice que una oracin est en VOZ PASIVA cuando la significacin del verbo es
recibida por la persona gramatical a quien aqul se refiere:
Buenos Aires was founded by Pedro de Mendoza.
(Buenos Aires fue fundada por Pedro de Mendoza).
3. Se forma con el auxiliar del verbo to be y el participio pasado del verbo que se
conjuga.
4. El complemento de la oracin activa pasa a sujeto de la pasiva. Como en castellano,
el sujeto de la activa se puede conservar como sujeto agente.
5. Cuando un verbo tiene dos complementos se pueden hacer dos estructuras de
pasiva:
a) A book was sent to Tom by Mr. Smith, Un libro fue enviado a Tom por Mr. Smith.
b) Tom was sent a book by Mr. Smith (pasiva idiomtica). Esta estructura no es
posible en castellano.
MODELO DE VERBO EN VOZ PASIVA
TO BE SEEN = SER VISTO
PRESENTE
I am seen, soy visto
you are seen, eres visto
he is seen, es visto
we are seen, somos vistos
you are seen, sois vistos
they are seen, son vistos

PRETERITO PERFECTO
I have been seen, he sido visto
you have been seen, has sido visto
he has been seen, ha sido visto
we have been seen, hemos sido vistos
you have been seen, habis sido vistos
they have been seen, han sido vistos
PASADO
I was seen, fui visto
you were seen, fuiste visto
he was seen, fue visto
we were seen, fuimos vistos
you were seen, fuisteis vistos
they were seen, fueron vistos

FUTURO
I shall be seen, ser visto
you will be seen, sers visto
he will be seen, ser visto
we shall be seen, seremos vistos
you will be seen, seris vistos
they will be seen, sern vistos
PRETERITO PLUSCUAMPERFECTO: I had been seen, haba sido visto
CONDICIONAL: I should be seen, sera visto
FUTURO PERFECTO: I shall have been seen, habr sido visto
CONDICIONAL PERFECTO: I should have been seen, habra sido visto




VOZ ACTIVA Y PASIVA: REGLAS PRACTICAS EN 4 PASOS.
1. La voz pasiva se forma con el verbo to be conjugado ms el participio del
verbo principal. En ingls es mucho ms frecuente que en espaol y, normalmente,
aparece cuando no es importante quien realiza una accin sino el hecho en s. Por
eso, no siempre que veamos una pasiva, tenemos que traducirlo literalmente, puesto
que en espaol suena ms forzado. Slo es posible el uso de la voz pasiva con
verbos transitivos (verbos que llevan complemento directo).
VOZ ACTIVA
Tom writes a letter
Tom is writing a letter
Tom was writing a letter
Tom wrote a letter
Tom has written a letter
Tom had written a letter
Tom will write a letter
Tom is going to write a letter
Tom can write a letter
Tom could write a letter
Tom must write a letter
Tom may write a letter
Tom might write a letter
VOZ PASIVA
A letter is written by Tom
A letter is being written by Tom
A letter was being written by Tom
A letter was written by Tom
A letter has been written by Tom
A letter had been written by Tom
A letter will be written by Tom
A letter is going to be written by Tom
A letter can be written by Tom
A letter could be written by Tom
A letter must be written by Tom
A letter may be written...
A letter might be written...
















LISTA VERBOS IRREGULARES.
INFINITIVO PASADO SIMPLE
PARTICIPIO
PASADO
TRADUCCIN
Arise Arose Arisen Surgir, Levantarse
Awake Awoke Awoken Despertarse
Be/ am, are,
is
Was / Were Been Ser / Estar
Bear Bore Borne / Born Soportar, dar a luz
Beat Beat Beaten Golpear
Become Became Become Llegar a Ser
Begin Began Begun Empezar
Bend Bent Bent Doblar
Bet Bet Bet Apostar
Bind Bound Bound Atar, encuadernar
Bid Bid Bid Pujar
Bite Bit Bitten Morder
Bleed Bled Bled Sangrar
Blow Blew Blown Soplar
Break Broke Broken Romper
Breed Bred Bred Criar
Bring Brought Brought Traer Llevar
Broadcast Broadcast Broadcast Radiar
Build Built Built Edificar
Burn Burnt /Burned Burnt / Burned Quemar
Burst Burst Burst Reventar
Buy Bought Bought Comprar
Cast Cast Cast Arrojar
Catch Caught Caught Coger
Come Came Come Venir
Cost Cost Cost Costar
Cut Cut Cut Cortar
Choose Chose Chosen Elegir
Cling Clung Clung Agarrarse
Creep Crept Crept Arrastrarse
Deal Dealt Dealt Tratar
Dig Dug Dug Cavar
Do (Does) Did Done Hacer
Draw Drew Drawn Dibujar
Dream
Dreamt /
Dreamed
Dreamt / Dreamed Soar
Drink Drank Drunk Beber
Drive Drove Driven Conducir
Eat Ate Eaten Comer
Fall Fell Fallen Caer
Feed Fed Fed Alimentar
Feel Felt Felt Sentir
Fight Fought Fought Luchar
Find Found Found Encontrar
Flee Fled Fled Huir
Fly Flew Flown Volar
Forbid Forbade Forbidden Prohibir
Forget Forgot Forgotten Olvidar
Forgive Forgave Forgiven Perdonar
Freeze Froze Frozen Helar
Get Got Got / Gotten Obtener
Give Gave Given Dar
Go (Goes) Went Gone Ir
Grow Grew Grown Crecer
Grind Ground Ground Moler
Hang Hung Hung Colgar
Have Had Had Haber o Tener
Hear Heard Heard Oir
Hide Hid Hidden Ocultar
Hit Hit Hit Golpear
Hold Held Held Agarrar Celebrar
Hurt Hurt Hurt Herir
Keep Kept Kept Conservar
Know Knew Known Saber Conocer
Kneel Knelt Knelt Arrodillarse
Knit Knit Knit Hacer punto
Lay Laid Laid Poner
Lead Led Led Conducir
Lean Leant Leant Apoyarse
Leap Leapt Leapt Brincar
Learn Learnt / Learned Learnt / Learned Aprender
Leave Left Left Dejar
Lend Lent Lent Prestar
Let Let Let Permitir
Lie Lay Lain Echarse
Light Lit Lit Encender
Lose Lost Lost Perder
Make Made Made Hacer
Mean Meant Meant Significar
Meet Met Met Encontrar
Mistake Mistook Mistaken Equivocar
Overcome Overcame Overcome Vencer
Pay Paid Paid Pagar
Put Put Put Poner
Read Read Read Leer
Ride Rode Ridden Montar
Ring Rang Rung Llamar
Rise Rose Risen Levantarse
Run Ran Run Correr
Say Said Said Decir
See Saw Seen Ver
Seek Sought Sought Buscar
Sell Sold Sold Vender
Send Sent Sent Enviar
Set Set Set Poner(se)
Sew Sewed Sewed / Sewn Coser
Shake Shook Shaken Sacudir
Shear Shore Shorn Esquilar
Shine Shone Shone Brillar
Shoot Shot Shot Disparar
Show Showed Shown Mostrar
Shrink Shrank Shrunk Encogerse
Shut Shut Shut Cerrar
Sing Sang Sung Cantar
Sink Sank Sunk Hundir
Sit Sat Sat Sentarse
Sleep Slept Slept Dormir
Slide Slid Slid Resbalar
Smell Smelt Smelt Oler
Sow Sowed Sowed / Sown Sembrar
Speak Spoke Spoken Hablar
Speed Sped Sped Acelerar
Spell Spelt Spelt Deletrear
Spend Spent Spent Gastar
Spill Spilt / Spilled Spilt / Spilled Derramar
Spin Spun Spun Hilar
Spit Spat Spat Escupir
Split Split Split
Hender / partir /
rajar
Spoil Spoilt / Spoiled Spoilt / Spoiled Estropear
Spread Spread Spread Extender
Spring Sprang Sprung Saltar
Stand Stood Stood Estar en pie
Steal Stole Stolen Robar
Stick Stuck Stuck Pegar Engomar
Sting Stung Stung Picar
Stink Stank/Stunk Stunk Apestar
Stride Strode Stridden Dar zancadas
Strike Struck Struck Golpear
Swear Swore Sworn Jurar
Sweat Sweat Sweat Sudar
Sweep Swept Swept Barrer
Swell Swelled Swollen Hinchar
Swim Swam Swum Nadar
Swing Swung Swung Columpiarse
Take Took Taken Coger
Teach Taught Taught Ensear
Tear Tore Torn Rasgar
Tell Told Told Decir
Think Thought Thought Pensar
Throw Threw Thrown Arrojar Tirar
Thrust Thrust Thrust Introducir
Tread Trod Trodden Pisar, hollar
Understand Understood Understood Entender
Undergo Underwent Undergone Sufrir
Undertake Undertook Undertaken Emprender
Wake Woke Woken Despertarse
Wear Wore Worn Llevar puesto
Weave Wove Woven Tejer
Weep Wept Wept Llorar
Wet Wet Wet Mojar
Win Won Won Ganar
Wind Wound Wound Enrollar
Withdraw Withdrew Withdrawn Retirarse
Wring Wrung Wrung Torcer
Write Wrote Written Escribir