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Minimising the Mechanical Specific Energy

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th

International Conference on Vibration Problems

Z. Dimitrovov a et.al. (eds.)

Lisbon, Portugal, 912 September 2013

MINIMISING THE MECHANICAL SPECIFIC ENERGY WHILE

DRILLING USING EXTREMUM SEEKING CONTROL

Stephen D. Banks*

1

1

Drilling Mechanics Group, CSIRO, Kensington WA, Australia

stephen.banks@csiro.au

Keywords: Mechanical Specic Energy, Extremum Seeking Control, Impregnated Diamond,

Drilling.

Abstract. The mapping of velocity (rate of penetration and RPM), to torque-on-bit and weight-

on-bit varies with the design and wear status of Impregnated Diamond (ID) drill bits. Bench-

marking of ID drill bits must consider this to avoid biasing. Minimising the mechanical specic

energy achieves this, but requires continual monitoring as the drill bit wears. To automatically

do so, extremum seeking control was used by inputting a perturbation in the penetration per

revolution to estimate the local gradient of the mechanical specic energy, and drive the system

to the minimum mechanical specic energy. Results indicate that this control method is stable,

and hence can be used in the benchmarking of different drill bits.

Stephen D. Banks

1 INTRODUCTION

Although varying from driller to driller, on some level, the selection of an Impregnated

Diamond (ID) drill bit is typically weighed up in terms of the rate of penetration versus wear

rate. Generally, benchmarking of these drill bits is conducted by imposing a xed weight-

on-bit or penetration per revolution, and then monitoring its wear, and rate of penetration or

weight-on-bit over time [1]. However, this is not ideal as ID drill bit performance varies with

weight/penetration per revolution, and is dependent on the balance between diamond and matrix

wear rates [2]. Therefore, benchmarking in this fashion can lead to a biased evaluation of a

ID drill bits performance. To avoid biasing imposed by the current method, an alternative

approach is proposed to evaluate IDdrill bits based on their performance at operating parameters

corresponding to the minimum mechanical specic energy, which has been shown to result in

sustainable drilling, without excess polishing or matrix wear. However, the challenge is in

identifying the operating parameters that result in the minimum mechanical specic energy,

and accounting for the fact that they may change as the drill bit wears.

This paper presents a technique to automatically adjust the penetration per revolution, for

a constant RPM, to nd and maintain the mechanical specic energy at a minimum using ex-

tremum seeking control [3].

2 METHODS

The mechanical specic energy, e, is dened as the work done per unit volume of rock

drilled. It is given by the following [4]:

e =

+Fv

Av

=

1

A

d

+F

(1)

where is the torque-on-bit, is the drill bits rotational speed, F is the weight-on-bit, v is the

drill bits downward velocity, A is the cross-sectional area of the hole, and d is the penetration

per revolution of the drill bit.

The typical shape of the mechanical specic energy with respect to penetration per revolution

is shown in Figure 1. At very low values of penetration per revolution, the mechanical specic

energy is very large given the cutting component is smaller relative to the frictional component,

and hence efciency is worse.

Figure 1: Typical shape of torque and weight (left), and the mechanical specic energy (right) with respect to

penetration per revolution

To use extremum seeking control, the derivative of Eq. 1 must be estimated with respect

to the controller output, namely the penetration per revolution, d, using a perturbation in the

2

Stephen D. Banks

output, and the response should ideally be linear. However, as can be seen from Figure 1, the

mechanical specic energy is not linear (nor should it be for a minimum to occur), whilst

and F are quite strongly linear. Therefore, it is preferential to estimate the derivative from its

individual constituents, as per Eq. 2.

de

dd

=

1

A

d

d

2

+F

(2)

To estimate the terms in Eq. 2, it must be considered that a phase shift can exist between the

input d, and the outputs and F, and that it can vary over time. This phase shift can be due to

drill string dynamics, the angular separation between cutters (diamonds), etc. To allow for an

unknown phase shift, frequency response function estimator methods can be used [5]. The gain

between the input d and outputs and F at the perturbation frequency is then used to estimate

and F

, respectively, and mean over the analysis window used to estimate d, , and F.

Given it is the derivative estimate that acts as the extremum seeking controllers feedback, it

is useful to modify it in two ways to aid in maintaining stability and to help maximise controller

performance.

The rst is to make the controller feedback independent of any scaling of e, which could be

caused, for example, by a change in rock formation. To do so, it is preferable to divide Eq. 2 by

Eq. 1 giving the fractional rate of change in e for a small change in d:

de

dd

1

e

=

1

d

2 (

d ) +F

d

2

2 +Fd

(3)

The second is to help linearise the relationship between controller output and controller feed-

back so that the gain is approximately constant regardless of distance from the minimum. For

example, as d 0, Eq. 3 will approach innity. Therefore. it is preferential to multiply Eq. 3

by d, as in Eq. 4, which is the nal form used as the controller feedback for the extremum

seeking controller:

Q =

de

dd

d

e

=

2 (

d ) +F

d

2

2 +Fd

(4)

To choose a suitable perturbation frequency, a chirp penetration per revolution input was

used while drilling. This allowed the determination of both the range of frequencies that had a

gain representative of the static (0hz) gain, and which had a suitable signal to noise ratio.

To design the controller, the process was modelled by a moving average lter (due to the

frequency response function estimation method used) with a static (0hz) gain, k, the latter being

determined by stepping d, measuring Q, and then least squares tting a 1st order polynomial

to the data. Then, considering that the minimum e location may move as the drill bit wears,

a double integrator with roll off was used for the controller. The nal form of the controller

(shown in Eq. 5) had a modulus margin of 0.71 to give some degree of stability robustness

against discrepancies between the assumed process model, and the actual process.

C =

0.5

k

s +

2

4nT

p

2

s

2

(5)

where s is the Laplace variable, n is the number of perturbation periods used in the estimation

of the parameters in Q, and T

p

is the perturbation period.

3

Stephen D. Banks

To test the extremum seeking controller, an initial penetration per revolution was set that

was known to be well below that corresponding to the minimum mechanical specic energy,

and then the controller allowed to optimise the penetration per revolution while drilling through

approximately 300mm of rock.

3 APPARATUS AND MATERIALS

Figure 2: Echidna, a laboratory drill rig that operates under position feedback control, and has an open-loop

bandwidth of approximately 25hz for both the rotary and linear penetration

A closed loop position controlled drill rig known as Echidna was used to impose a set

RPM and penetration per revolution while drilling into rock by electronically gearing the linear

(penetrative) motion to the rotation. Motion is achieved using two servo-motors with feedback

to maximise the possible precision from each axis. Sensors are used to accurately measure

weight and torque.

Operating parameter Range Precision

Rate of penetration (mm/s) 0.1 to 20 0.05

RPM 9 to 1800 4.5

Torque (Nm) 94 0.1

Weight (kN) 25 0.02

Drilling uid ow rate (ltr/min) 3 to 30 1

Table 1: Echidna operating parameters.

This study was performed using a soft matrix ID core bit with 21.7mm inner diameter and

36mm outer diameter. The granite drilled was American Black granite, which had a compres-

sive strength of 300 MPa, a quartz content of 3%, and a Mohrs hardness of 3.5. While drilling,

water was used at the drilling uid at a ow rate of 10 ltr/min.

4

Stephen D. Banks

4 RESULTS

To identify a suitable perturbation frequency, an up-chirp signal was used (see Figure 3).

Above 0.75hz, the gain and phase become increasingly noisy, and began to depart from the

static (0hz) gain values. Furthermore, there was a step decrease in coherence above 0.75hz.

Therefore, a perturbation frequency of 0.5hz was chosen to be used with the extremum seeking

control algorithm.

Figure 3: Up-chirp response used to identify a suitable perturbation frequency (50 m/rev amplitude, 60 m/rev

offset, 800 RPM)

To identify the process static (0hz) gain, the penetration per revolution was stepped over a

large range to encompass the minimum mechanical specic energy, and Q calculated at each

step (see Figure 4). The result was relatively linear with a 0.8 coefcient of determination, R

2

,

and the least squares t slope found to be approximately k = 4700 rev/m.

Figure 4: Static gain identication showing approximately linear response between d and Q. A 0.5hz, 10 m/rev

amplitude perturbation was used, and the drill bit rotated at 1600 RPM.

5

Stephen D. Banks

To test the extremum seeking control algorithm an initial penetration per revolution of 50

m/rev was chosen, which was below that corresponding to the minimum mechanical specic

energy, and then the mechanical specic energy recorded as the extremum seeking controller

was allowed to optimise the penetration per revolution (see Figure 5). Although it is not possi-

ble to know what and where the minimum mechanical specic energy is at any point in time,

two observations can be made. One, the extremum seeking controller appears to maintain the

penetration per revolution about a point that appears to correspond, on average, to the mini-

mum mechanical specic energy. Two, when comparing the penetration per revolution and the

various minima observed in the time evolution of the mechanical specic energy, it is observed

that the neither the minimum mechanical specic energy, nor its location in the penetration per

revolution space, is constant in time.

Figure 5: Extremum seeking control test results showing input d (penetration per revolution) and output e (me-

chanical specic energy) after using a notch lter to remove the 0.5hz, 10 m/rev amplitude perturbation, and a

0.5hz low pass Bessel lter to help smooth results. Test was conducted at 1600 RPM.

5 CONCLUSIONS

This work has proven the potential of using extremum seeking control to maintain the

minimum mechanical specic energy while drilling, and therefore ID drill bit perfor-

6

Stephen D. Banks

mance (in terms of weight-on-bit, penetration per revolution, and wear rate, etc) can be

evaluated under this operating condition condition.

The minimummechanical specic energy is not constant in value, nor xed in the penetra-

tion per revolution space (potentially due to the continuous change of the cutting face due

to wear), which further justies having a testing condition that adapts to these changes.

The design of the controller feedback resulted in a fairly linear response, which is ideal

as it allows linear controller design techniques to be used, which are well established.

There are challenges in calculating the penetration per revolution using sensors with ana-

log output due to noise, even if the measurement technique itself is sufciently accurate.

This is due to the very small displacements that must be measured relative to the over-

all measurement range. For this reason, sensors with a digital output should be used in

measuring these very small displacements.

REFERENCES

[1] Y. Burhan, Diamond Impregnated Materials Lab Test on Granite, Condential report for

Smith Bits, 2009

[2] D. Miller, A. Ball, Rock Drilling with Impregnated Diamond Microbits - An Experimental

Study. Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci. & Geomech. Abstr, 27, No. 5, 363-371, 1990.

[3] K. Ariyur, M. Krstic, Real-Time Optimization by Extremum-Seeking Control. John Wiley

& Sons, Hoboken, New Jersey, 2003.

[4] R. Teale, The Concept of Specic Energy in Rock Drilling. Int. J. Rock Mech. Mining Sci.,

2, 5773

[5] G. Thomas Rocklin, J. Crowley, H. Vold, A comparison of H

1

, H

2

, and H

V

Frequency

Response Functions. Proceedings of the 3rd international modal analysis conference, Or-

lando, 1985.

[6] L. Franca, E. Lamine, Cutting Action of Impregnated Diamond Segments: Modeling and

Experimental Validation. 44th US Rock Mechanics Symposium and 5th U.S-Canada Rock

Mechanics Symposium, ARMA 10-439, Salt Lake City, 16, 2010.

[7] M. Mosto, L. Franca, T. Richard, Drilling Response of Impregnated Diamond Bits: An

Experimental Investigation. 47th US Rock Mechanics/Geomechanics Symposium, ARMA

13-440, San Francisco, 2326, 2013.

7

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