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1. DIRECTIONS for questions 1 to 4: Answer the questions on the basis of the information given below.

## * Speed in km/hr = Mach Number × 1200 km/hr

** Excluding weapons
*** Weaponry comprises Missiles, Ordinary Munitions and Laser-guided Munitions

How many types of aircraft have a maximum speed in excess of 1800 km/hr and can also engage at most
ten targets?

(1) 8
(2) 9
(3) 10
(4) 11

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(5) 12

2. If each missile weighs 200 kg, then what is the total weight of weaponry carried by the aircraft having
the highest µ coefficient?

(1) 1200 kg
(2) 12000 kg
(3) 5200 kg
(4) 4800 kg
(5) None of these

3. What is the maximum distance that can be covered in three hours by the aircraft with the maximum fire
power at its disposal?

(1) 3000 km
(2) 3600 km (Correct Answer: 2)
(3) 10800 km
(4) 9600 km
(5) None of these

4. During a certain military exercise, it was decided to fly all the types of aircraft which met each of the
following four criteria.
(I) The bore diameter of the machine gun is greater than 40 mm.
(II) Machine gun capacity is at least 1200 rounds/minute.
(III) The number of missiles carried is at least 12.
(IV) The number of targets engaged is at least 6.

How many types of aircraft listed in the table given qualify to be part of this military exercise?

## (1) Less than 7 (Correct Answer: 1)

(2) More than 6 but less than 9
(3) More than 8 but less than 11
(4) More than 10 but less than 13
(5) More than 12

5. DIRECTIONS for questions 5 to 9: Answer the questions on the basis of the information given below.
A person went to the market and bought a bag, a bat and a pen drive for a total amount of Rs.1019. He
had money in notes of only three denominations - Rs.10, Rs.2 and Re.1 - and he had a total of 180 notes
with him. He used all the money with him in purchasing these things. It is known that the bag is the least
expensive, whereas the pen-drive is the most expensive. It is also known that,
(1) in purchasing each item, he used at least two and at most 35 notes of each denomination.
(2) the total number of Rs.2 notes used in purchasing the bat and the bag put together is 54.
(3) the worth of the bat and the bag put together is Rs.635.
(4) the number of Rs.10 notes used in purchasing the pen-drive is 35 and that of Re.1 notes used in
(5) the number of Rs.10 notes and the number of Rs.2 notes used in purchasing the bag are prime
numbers, but the number of Rs.10 notes and the number of Rs.2 notes used in purchasing the bat are not
prime numbers.

What is the total number of Rs.2 notes that the person had?

(1) 73
(3) 57
(4) 71

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## (5) Cannot be determined

6. What is the number of Re.1 notes that he used in purchasing the bag?

## (1) 2 (Correct Answer: 1)

(2) 15
(3) 12
(4) 7
(5) Cannot be determined

## 7. What is the cost of the bag?

(1) Rs.290
(2) Rs.270
(3) Rs.280
(4) Rs.230
(5) Cannot be determined (Correct Answer: 5)

8. How many Rs.10 notes did the person use to purchase the bat?

(1) 35
(3) 23
(4) 19
(5) Cannot be determined

9. If it is known that the number of Rs.2 notes used in purchasing the bag is 19, then what is the
difference between the cost of the bat and the cost of the bag?

(1) Rs.83
(2) Rs.74
(3) Rs.70
(5) Rs.85

10. DIRECTIONS for questions 10 to 13: Answer the questions on the basis of the information given
below.
Software and Hardware are the two divisions of a company. Software was established in 1996 and
Hardware was established in 2002. For both these divisions, 20% of the employees who join in any year
will leave the company after exactly two years, while the remaining 80% stay with company for at least
ten years. It is known that 20 employees of Software left the company in 2002. The following figures show
the number of employees of the Software and the Hardware divisions working in the company from 2000
to 2005.

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How many employees of Hardware left the company by the end of 2005?

(1) 22
(3) 62
(4) 18
(5) Cannot be determined

## 11. How many employees joined Hardware in 2004?

(1) 60
(3) 48
(4) 50
(5) Cannot be determined
Solution

## 12. How many employees joined Software in 2004?

(1) 76
(2) 80
(4) 84
(5) Cannot be determined
Solution

## 13. How many employees of Software left the company in 2005?

(1) 16
(2) 26
(3) 36
(4) 28
(5) Cannot be determined (Correct Answer: 5)

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Solution

14. DIRECTIONS for questions 14 to 16: Answer the questions on the basis of the information given
below.
One of the functions of the RBI is to mobilize funds for the government of India by issuing securities. The
following table shows the details of the funds mobilized during the period July 2007-July 2008. Note that
on each date there were two rounds of issues, each with a different maturity.

How many times was the issue of securities under-subscribed, i.e., on how many occasions did the total
amount mobilized fall short of the amount notified?

## (1) 1 (Correct Answer: 1)

(2) 2
(3) 3
(4) 4
(5) 0
Solution

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## 15. Which of the following is true?

(1) Second round issues have a higher maturity than the first round for all dates.
(2) The second round issues on any date have a lower maturity (than that of the issues in the first round) only when
the notified amount in the first round exceeds that in the second round.
(3) On at least one occasion, the second round issue having lower maturity received a higher number of competitive
bids, when compared to the first round issue. (Correct Answer: 3)
(4) On exactly three occasions, in the second round issue the number of competitive bids received was more and the
number of non-competitive bids received was less, when compared to the respective values in the second round issue
on 7th Oct-07.
(5) None of the above
Solution

## 16. Which of the following statements is NOT true?

(1) The number of competitive bids received always exceed the number of the non-competitive bids received.
(2) The number of competitive bids accepted does not always exceed the number of non-competitive bids accepted.
(3) The value of competitive bids accepted on any particular date is never higher for higher maturity.
(4) The value of non-competitive bids accepted in the first round is always greater than that in the second
(5) None of the above

17. DIRECTIONS for questions 17 to 20: Answer the questions on the basis of the information given
below.
Four levels - A, B, C and D, in no specific order, are awarded for excellence in software project
management. Companies which earn a certain number of points, known as sigma points, are awarded these
levels based on the points they earn. The difference between any two consecutive levels of excellence is
200 sigma points.

Companies are reviewed at the end of each year and are awarded levels based on the sigma points they
earn that year. The sigma points required for each of the levels A, B, C and D remains constant from one
year to the next.

A total of 324 companies were awarded the four levels in the year 2008. After the review of these
companies in 2009, the jury, before announcing it kept some part of the information confidential, by
encoding the information in the following character codes:

12AB72, 00BC96
00AC24, 36BD00

## The interpretation of the format of the character codes is as follows:

For e.g., 12AB72 implies that 12 companies moved from level A to level B, while 72 companies moved from
level B to level A. Similarly, 00CD00 implies no company moved from level C to level D or vice versa.

If the change in the sigma points of each company is added and the result is the minimum possible, then
find the difference in the sigma points between levels C and D.

(1) 200
(2) 400
(4) Either (1) or (2)
(5) Either (1) or (3)

18. What is the minimum possible change in the total sigma points for the year 2009, when compared to
the year 2008?

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(1) 76800
(3) 2400
(4) 38400
(5) None of these

19. If level C and level A are given the least and the most number of sigma points respectively, which of
the following could be the change in the total sigma points of all the companies put together for the year
2009, when compared to the year 2008?

## (1) 57600 (Correct Answer: 1)

(2) 55200
(3) 220800
(4) 44000
(5) None of these

20. If the total of the change in the sigma points of all the companies for 2009, when compared to 2008,
add up to 96000, and the difference in the sigma points between levels C and D is 400, then find the
difference in the sigma points between levels A and D?

## (1) 200 (Correct Answer: 1)

(2) 400
(3) 600
(4) Either (1) or (3)
(5) Data inconsistent

21. DIRECTIONS for questions 21 to 25: Answer the questions on the basis of the information given
below.
Six teams took part in a football tournament in which each team plays every other team exactly once. Six
points are awarded for a win, two points for a draw and zero points for a loss. At the end of all the
matches, the teams are ranked from 1 to 6, on the basis of the points they scored, with the team scoring
the highest points ranked 1, the next one second and so on. If two or more teams end up with the same
number of points, the team with the highest goal difference (Goals for - Goals against) is placed higher,
the next one scored and so on. The teams ranked 1 and 2 qualify for the finals.

The following table gives the information after the first two rounds of the tournament.

In the third round, A played D, B played C and E played F. All the third round matches were drawn.

The following are some results from the fourth and fifth round matches.
(i) F won both fourth and fifth round matches.
(ii) Both C and D won exactly one match each in the last two rounds, with 2 goals to 1 in each case.
(iii) A lost both fourth and fifth round matches.

Which of the following statements is true about the matches played in the first two rounds?

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## (1) E beat B by 1 goal to 0.

(2) A beat C by 2 goals to 1.
(3) D beat C by 3 goals to 0. (Correct Answer: 3)
(4) F beat D by 1 goal to 0.
(5) None of these
Solution

22. Which of the following statements is true about the matches played in the first two rounds?

## (1) E beat C by 2 goals to 0.

(2) D beat C by 2 goals to 0.
(3) A beat B by 1 goal to 0.
(4) A beat F by 1 goal to 0.
(5) E beat D by 1 goal to 0. (Correct Answer: 5)
Solution

23. If F qualified as one of the two teams, then which was the other team that qualified?

## (1) E (Correct Answer: 1)

(2) D
(3) C
(4) A
(5) Cannot be determined
Solution

24. If in the fourth round D played E, then who played D in the first two rounds?

(1) A and E
(2) B and C
(3) B and F (Correct Answer: 3)
(4) C and A
(5) Cannot be determined
Solution

25. Who among the following, definitely did not play B in the first two rounds?

(1) D
(2) E
(3) F
(5) Cannot be determined
Solution

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L&DI QA VA

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26. DIRECTIONS for questions 26 to 37: Answer the questions independently of each other

Three positive real numbers p, q and r satisfy the equations q - p = r - q and pqr = 6. Find the minimum
possible value of q.

(1) 2
(2) 1
(3)

## (5) None of these

27. In the figure below, chord BC is parallel to the diameter DE of the circle. If ÐBAC = 40o, find ÐEBC.

(1) 40o
(2) 30o
(3) 50o
o
(5) 32.5

28. Train A travels from Secunderabad to Surat and train B travels from Surat to Secunderabad. Trains A
and B leave Secunderabad and Surat on Monday at 1:00 a.m. and 6:00 a.m. respectively. The trains
travel on parallel tracks and cross each other at 20 minutes past 10:00 p.m. on the same day. If both
the trains reach their destinations simultaneously at time T, then T must be

## (1) 5:05 p.m. on Tuesday.

(2) 5:10 p.m. on Tuesday.
(3) 4:40 p.m. on Tuesday.
(4) 5:00 p.m. on Tuesday. (Correct Answer: 4)
(5) 5:20 p.m. on Tuesday.

## 29. Find the number of non-negative real roots of 2y - 1 =y.

(1) 3

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(3) 1
(4) 0
(5) 4

30. There are three containers - M, W and H - of equal capacities, containing milk, water and honey
respectively. Each container is filled upto 75% of its capacity. Now, W is topped up to its brim (i.e.,
filled completely), with the contents of M. The contents of W are then thoroughly mixed. Then H is
topped up to its brim with the contents of W. The contents of H are then thoroughly mixed. Finally, the
contents of H are used to fill M again up to 75% of its capacity. Which among the following statements
is true regarding m, w and h, which are the respective final concentrations of milk in M, water in W and
honey in H?

## (1) m > w > h

(2) w > h > m
(3) m = w = h
(4) m > h > w
(5) None of the above (Correct Answer: 5)

31. Find the remainder when (17) (9!) + 18! is divided by (9!) 8704.

(1) 1
(2) 10!
(3) 8!
(4) 17(10!)

32. Using an inlet pipe P it was planned to fill a tank by exactly noon one day. P was opened at a certain
time that day, but after some time, a leak was spotted. It was immediately closed. In order to fill the
tank by noon, another inlet pipe Q of the same flow rate as P was then opened. Had the leak not been
spotted, the tank would have been 50% full by noon and completely full by 3:00 p.m. that day. Find the
time when Q was opened.

## (1) 9:45 a.m.

(2) 11:00 a.m. (Correct Answer: 2)
(3) 10:30 a.m.
(4) 10:00 a.m.
(5) 10:15 a.m.

33. Avinash attended a job interview, wherein he was asked to choose among three offers - I, II, and III.

Offer I : A starting salary of Rs.16,000 per year, with an increase of Rs.800 every year.
Offer II : A starting salary of Rs.8,000 per half year, with an increase of Rs.200 every half year.
Offer III : A starting salary of Rs.4,000 per quarter year, with an increase of Rs.100 every quarter
year.

## The most profitable choice for Avinash would be

(1) I
(2) II
(4) Both I and II
(5) All are equally profitable

34. Ankur plays a game, in which three rings of different sizes, small, medium and large, are given in that
order, to throw on a teddy bear, from a distance. If in any throw, a ring surrounds the teddy bear, the

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game ends and Ankur will win the teddy bear. For Ankur, the probabilities of successfully throwing the
small, medium and the large rings around the teddy bear are 1/4, 1/3 and 1/2 respectively. If it is
known that Ankur finally won the teddy bear, then what is the probability that he failed in throwing the
small ring around the teddy bear?

(1) 1/4
(2) 1/2
(4) 3/4
(5) 1/3

35. There is a field of grass represented in the xy co-ordinate plane as x > 0, y > 0 and 3x + 4y ≤ 60. A
cow is tied with a cord to a pole situated exactly at the point x = 0, y = 0. If the length of the cord is
12 units, find the area (in sq.units) of the field over which the cow cannot graze?

## (1) 600 - 144π

(2) 300 - 144π
(3) 150 - 36π (Correct Answer: 3)
(4) 500 - 72π
(5) 150 - 18π

36. A1, A2, A3, ….. A∞ represents a sequence of numbers satisfying AN + 1 = AN + AN + 2. Find the sum of
the first 3002 terms of this sequence, given that A1 = 65 and A2 = -13.

## (1) 52 (Correct Answer: 1)

(2) 78
(3) 39
(4) 91
(5) -39

37. The circumference of a circle is divided into 26 equal parts by marking 26 equidistant points on it.
Now, using these points as vertices, triangles are drawn such that the circumcentre of each of those
triangles lies on one of its sides. How many such triangles can be drawn?

(1) 156
(2) 676
(3) 182
(4) 650

38. DIRECTIONS for questions 38 and 39: Answer the questions on the basis of the information given
below.
N is a natural number formed by writing the first 1002 whole numbers one after another.

## Find the remainder when N is divided by 9.

(1) 2
(2) 1
(3) 4
(5) 6

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39. The number N is written horizontally, from left to right, and then a vertical line is drawn, dividing it
such that the number of digits on either side of the line is the same. Find the remainder when the
number formed by the digits on the left of that line is divided by 125.

(1) 48
(3) 18
(4) 28
(5) 70

40. DIRECTIONS for questions 40 to 50: Answer the questions independently of each other

## If 25 ≤ p ≤ 49, and q is defined as , then which of the following is true of q?

(1) 18 ≤ q < 36
(2) 19 < q ≤ 37
(3) 20 ≤ q < 45
(4) 23 ≤ q < 29
(5) 19 ≤ q < 38 (Correct Answer: 5)

41. A natural number is expressed in the number system to the base 2, base 3 and base 7. If the first and
the last digits are 1 in each case, the number could be

(1) 43
(2) 126
(4) 169
(5) More than one of the above

42. The following data is available for the monsoon season of the Hyderabad racing club. The data is for a
total of y days.
(i) There were races on 11 days - morning or evening.
(ii) Whenever there was a race in the morning, there was no race in the evening.
(iii) There were 8 mornings without any race.
(iv) There were 5 evenings without any race.

## What is the value of y?

(1) 10
(3) 14
(4) 13
(5) Cannot be determined

43. Find the minimum number of coins required to pay the amounts of 67 paise, Rs.1.03 and 83 paise to
three persons A, B and C, respectively, using only coins of the denominations of 2 paise, 5 paise, 10
paise, 25 paise and 50 paise.

(1) 17

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(3) 19
(4) 20
(5) 16

44. The figure PQRSTUVW is a cube. If the lengths of PV, WU and TR are equal to the sides of a triangle,
the radius of the circle inscribed in that triangle equals

(2)

(4)

## (5) None of these

45. Ajay and Balu started a business together by investing some money. At the end of the first year, out
of a total profit of Rs.2000, Ajay received Rs.400 more than Balu. If Ajay had invested Rs.6000 more
and Balu had invested Rs.6000 less, Ajay would have received 25% more than what he actually
received. What would have been the profit share of Balu, if Ajay's investment and Balu's investment
had been less by Rs.3000 and Rs.7000 respectively, and the profit had decreased by 20%?

## (1) Rs.480 (Correct Answer: 1)

(2) Rs.288
(3) Rs.336
(4) Rs.360
(5) Rs.390

46. There are 90 questions in a test. Each correct answer fetches 1 mark, each wrong answer attracts a
penalty of 1/4 mark and each unanswered question attracts a penalty of 1/8 mark. If a candidate
scored 23 marks in the test, what is the minimum possible number of questions wrongly answered by
him?

(1) 4
(2) 7
(3) 12
(5) 16

47. Among all the four-digit natural numbers divisible by 24, how many have the number 24 in them?

(1) 24
(2) 26
(3) 28
(5) None of these

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48. Ram and Sita had a son named Bala. The sum of the present ages of Ram and Bala is 120 years. When
Ram was as old as Sita is, Sita was twice as old as Bala. Find the present age of Bala (in years).

(1) 35
(2) 30
(4) 20
(5) Cannot be determined

49. If log23, log2 (3x - 15) and log2 (3x + 21) are in arithmetic progression, find x.

(1) 2
(3) 4
(4) log36
(5) More than one of the above

50. Evaluate :

(1)

(2)

(3)

(5)

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51. DIRECTIONS for questions 51 to 56:Read the following passage and answer the questions that

Some of the ways in which parents want their children to be "the best they can be" involve what are
traditionally called virtues. Parents may want their children to possess certain "prudential" virtues: to be
temperate or moderate in emotions and appetites, self-controlled, judicious, resourceful, persevering,
determined, far-sighted, affable, and reflective. They may want them to possess certain moral virtues as
well: to have courage - especially moral courage - and to be fair, benevolent, kind, and forgiving.

Early eugenicists thought that one of their central goals was the production of morally better and socially
more efficient societies: They looked to genetics to improve the distribution of virtues in a society. Less
desirable traits - like lack of self-control, inability to plan ahead and delay gratification, intemperance, and
imprudence were believed more prevalent among lower classes and nonwhite races. More desirable traits -
self discipline, foresight, creativity, resourcefulness - were thought more prevalent among the ruling
classes and race.

The appeal of the Social Darwinists and of the eugenics movement more generally was to the idea of
building superior societies - where virtues were more directly selected for. In its current reincarnation,
eugenic thinking - bemoaning the low reproduction rates of the upper classes and the high rates of the
lower, for example - concentrates on what might appear to be somewhat simpler traits, such as IQ, that
are used to explain differential success of different groups. Still, the considerable interest in the
sociobiological and ethics literature on the evolution of altruism indicates a continuing belief that moral
virtues or character traits have genetic origins.

Most virtues of interest whether prudential or moral virtues, are exceedingly complex traits. They are
contextually highly sensitive and specific, they require considerable perception and discrimination for their
exercise, and their exercise often requires balancing their appeal with other virtues. Many underlying
capabilities or dispositions that might enhance virtues, such as sensitivity to the feelings of others,
intelligence, ability to modulate emotional response - all capabilities that we might think have some
significant genetics basis - can just as easily be put into the service of vice as well as virtue.

Consider Cynthia, for example. Cynthia has great intuition about the feelings of others. She can read their
emotions well, she knows how to feel their pain and anxiety. Indeed, people find her empathetic: They see
that she resonates with their pain. At the same time, she does not lapse into pity, and she is not
incapacitated by her emotions. She keeps a level head. She puts people at ease, and is able to say the right
things to them. Without being condescending or pandering, which would put people off if they too were
perceptive, she judiciously exhibits her responsiveness.

Cynthia is blessed in other ways: She is extremely good at planning a detailed but flexible course of action.
She is willing to make sacrifices, even painful ones, in the short term to improve her situation or that of
others she is advising in the long run. She knows how others will respond to the steps she takes and how
to anticipate their reactions. Like a good chess player, she thinks her way through several courses of
action, but she does not seem calculating or cunning to others so much as careful and thoughtful. She does
not seem calculating because she seems responsive to the wishes of others in her planning: She builds on
their intentions and encourages their desires to do well for themselves. She incorporates their desires and
goals into her own planning.

Cynthia exhibits many of the dispositions and traits that would make her an excellent social worker. She
might even win an award for excellence: Virtuous Social Worker of the Year. Alas, Cynthia is a very
successful con artist, not a social worker: She sells phoney real estate to unsuspecting retirees. Or at least
she was successful until she met an equally successful former con artist who ran a sting operation for the
FBI. She clearly lacks the direct concern for the well-being of others that would make her many capabilities
serve as components of a moral virtue.

The moral of Cynthia's story is that we should be leery of any genetic (or environmental) intervention that
enhances a trait or disposition that is merely a necessary condition for having a virtue that would result in
morally better offspring. If we could genetically enhance the various capabilities that contribute to
Cynthia's arsenal, it does not follow that she will be morally virtuous. These are component capabilities,
the mechanical underpinnings as it were, not the virtue itself. Similarly, if her parents had read literature to

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her in order to make her grasp better the sensitivities of others, the capacity that results may not be moral
empathy but the ability to manipulate. We do not intend to make moral virtue mysterious with these
remarks, but neither do we want it viewed in a simplistic, reductionist way.

## (1) A person is virtuous because of the traits he possesses.

(2) One is born with virtues.
(3) Virtues can't be inculcated.
(4) Altruism is not an inherent trait. (Correct Answer: 4)
(5) Morality is a virtue of the elite.

## 52. From the passage, we can infer that eugenicists

(1) believed that genetics holds the key to improving the ethical standards in society.
(2) were upset with the dwindling numbers of the upper classes.
(4) promoted racism.
(5) were all of the above. (Correct Answer: 5)

## (1) an egalitarian society.

(2) an exclusive society. (Correct Answer: 2)
(3) an inclusive society.
(4) a prudential society.
(5) a prudish society.

54. In this passage, the author does all of the following EXCEPT

## (1) underline the complexities involved in understanding the term 'virtue'.

(2) discredit the idea of promoting a virtuous society. (Correct Answer: 2)
(3) reject the view that virtuous human beings can be created.
(4) dismiss the idea that human beings are born virtuous.
(5) invalidate the belief that the possession of virtues makes a person virtuous.

55. In the Cynthia story, which of the following proved detrimental to society?

## (1) Her nature

(2) Circumstances
(3) Her motives
(4) Her behaviour
(5) Her actions (Correct Answer: 5)

## (1) Strategist, extrovert, resourceful, artful (Correct Answer: 1)

(2) Manipulative, sentimental, responsive, prudent

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## (3) Scheming, balanced, altruistic, empathetic

(4) Clever, outgoing, thoughtful, friendly
(5) Swindler, practical, persevering, domineering

57. DIRECTIONS for questions 57 to 62:Read the following passage and answer the questions that

Insofar as the academic discourse of history-that is, "history" as a discourse produced at the institutional
site of the university-is concerned, "Europe" remains the sovereign, theoretical subject of all histories,
including the ones we call "Indian," "Chinese," "Kenyan," and so on. There is a peculiar way in which all
these other histories tend to become variations on a master narrative that could be called "the history of
Europe." In this sense, "Indian" history itself is in a position of subalternity; one can only articulate
subaltern subject positions in the name of this history.

While the rest of this article will elaborate on this proposition, let me enter a few qualifications. "Europe"
and "India" are treated here as hyperreal terms in that they refer to certain figures of imagination whose
geographical referents remain somewhat indeterminate. As figures of the imaginary they are, of course,
subject to contestation, but for the moment I shall treat them as though they were given, reified
categories, opposites paired in a structure of domination and subordination. I realize that in treating them
thus I leave myself open to the charge of nativism, nationalism, or worse, the sin of sins, nostalgia.
Liberal-minded scholars would immediately protest that any idea of a homogeneous, uncontested "Europe"
dissolves under analysis. True, but just as the phenomenon of orientalism does not disappear simply
because some of us have now attained a critical awareness of it, similarly a certain version of "Europe,"
reified and celebrated in the phenomenal world of everyday relationships of power as the scene of the birth
of the modern, continues to dominate the discourse of history. Analysis does not make it go away.

That Europe works as a silent referent in historical knowledge itself becomes obvious in a highly ordinary
way. There are at least two everyday symptoms of the subalternity of non-Western, third-world histories.
Third-world historians feel a need to refer to works in European history; historians of Europe do not feel
any need to reciprocate. Whether it is an Edward Thompson, a Le Roy Ladurie, a George Duby, a Carlo
Ginzberg, a Lawrence Stone, a Robert Darnton, or a Natalie Davis-to take but a few names at random from
our contemporary world-the "greats" and the models of the historian's enterprise are always at least
culturally "European." "They" produce their work in relative ignorance of non-Western histories, and this
does not seem to affect the quality of their work. This is a gesture, however, that "we" cannot return. We
cannot even afford an equality or symmetry of ignorance at this level without taking the risk of appearing
"oldfashioned" or "outdated."

The problem, I may add in parenthesis, is not particular to historians. An unselfconscious but nevertheless
blatant example of this "inequality of ignorance" in literary studies, for example, is the following sentence
on Salman Rushdie from a recent text on postmodernism: "Though Saleem Sinai [of Midnight's Children]
narrates in English . . . his intertexts for both writing history and writing fiction are doubled: they are, on
the one hand, from Indian legends, films, and literature and, on the other, from the West-The Tin Drum,
Tristram Shandy, One Hundred Years of Solitude, and so on." It is interesting to note how this sentence
teases out only those references that are from "the West." The author is under no obligation here to be
able to name with any authority and specificity the "Indian" allusions that make Rushdie's intertexuality
"doubled." This ignorance, shared and unstated, is part of the assumed compact that makes it "easy" to
include Rushdie in English department offerings on postcolonialism.

This problem of asymmetric ignorance is not simply a matter of "cultural cringe" (to let my Australian self
speak) on our part or of cultural arrogance on the part of the European historian. These problems exist but
can be relatively easily addressed. Nor do I mean to take anything away from the achievements of the
historians I mentioned. Our footnotes bear rich testimony to the insights we have derived from their
knowledge and creativity. The dominance of "Europe" as the subject of all histories is a part of a much
more profound theoretical condition under which historical knowledge is produced in the third world. This
condition ordinarily expresses itself in a paradoxical manner. It is this paradox that I shall describe as the
second everyday symptom of our subalternity, and it refers to the very nature of social science
pronouncements themselves.

For generations now, philosophers and thinkers shaping the nature of social science have produced
theories embracing the entirety of humanity. As we well know, these statements have been produced in
relative, and sometimes absolute, ignorance of the majority of humankind-i.e., those living in non-Western
cultures.

This in itself is not paradoxical, for the more self-conscious of European philosophers have always sought
theoretically to justify this stance. The everyday paradox of third-world social science is that we find these
theories, in spite of their inherent ignorance of "us," eminently useful in understanding our societies.

What allowed the modern European sages to develop such clairvoyance with regard to societies of which

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they were empirically ignorant? Why cannot we, once again, return the gaze?

There is an answer to this question in the writings of philosophers who have read into European history an
entelechy of universal reason, if we regard such philosophy as the self-consciousness of social science.
Only "Europe," the argument would appear to be, is theoretically (i.e., at the level of the fundamental
categories that shape historical thinking) knowable; all other histories are matters of empirical research
that fleshes out a theoretical skeleton which is substantially "Europe."

What does the author say is the contention of the liberal-minded scholars?

## (1) That Europe is a homogenous entity

(2) That Europe has a corporeal presence that the author cannot wish away
(3) That Europe is not an entity that will successfully withstand the onslaught of reification (Correct Answer: 3)
(4) That there are huge differences between Europe and India that cannot be bridged
(5) That Europe will continue to dominate the intellectual world

58. "Analysis does not make it go away." What is it that does not go away with analysis?

(1) The dominant concept of Europe as a physical location of critical import (Correct Answer: 1)
(2) The idea that Europe is the most powerful nation of the world
(3) The notion that Europe has a physical location that cannot be wished away
(4) The concept that Europe is a homogenous, uncontested entity
(5) The larger-than-life image of Europe

59. From your reading of the given passage, what is the most probable meaning of 'subalternity'?

(1) Destitution
(2) Deference
(3) Indigence
(5) Counterfeit

60. "This is a gesture, however, that "we" cannot return." Why can we not return the gesture?

## (1) Because we are not well-read

(2) Because all the important events have occurred in Europe
(3) Because we do not have the wherewithal that Europeans have
(4) Because European works are produced in relative ignorance of the non-western world
(5) Because Europe is the unmentioned object that all references point to (Correct Answer: 5)

61. What, according to the author, enables the wise men of Europe to make accurate pronouncements on
the non-West?

## (1) Their great wisdom that knows no boundaries

(2) The fact that all the frameworks of knowledge are European, into which other histories may be fed like
(3) The fact that the entire world can be understood through common humanitarian principles
(4) The fact that areas other than Europe are not able to produce histories for themselves that lend themselves to
borrowing by European scholars
(5) Their experience in writing histories of various countries

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62. As inferred from the passage, which of the following is NOT the author's opinion?

(1) Historians from third world countries cannot afford to ignore established European historians.
(2) The Westerner's ignorance of non-westerners pervades other areas like literature also.
(3) Indian writers, whose works are accorded a place in the western university curriculum, show the same disregard
for non-Western writers.
(4) European historians do not merit the high regard accorded to them. (Correct Answer: 4)
(5) Philosophers and thinkers of the West have propounded on humanity ignoring the vast majority of non-west
humans.

63. DIRECTIONS for questions 63 to 65: There are two blanks in each of the following sentences. From
the pairs of words given below, choose the pair that fills the blanks most appropriately

If Darwin could rise from the grave he would be deeply ________ that despite the overwhelming weight
of scientific evidence that has accumulated in favour of evolution, opposition from those believing in a
fundamentalist biblical view of creation has not ________.

## (1) dejected . . . waned

(2) upset . . . moderated
(3) depressed . . . escalated
(4) disheartened . . . intensified

64. Earnest Hemingway had a voracious literary appetite which made him a/an ________ hoarder who
never ________ anything but magazine wrappers and three-year-old newspapers.

## (1) dedicated . . . abandoned

(3) confirmed . . . discharged
(4) compulsive . . . threw
(5) oppressive . . . jettisoned

65. In the modern world we often see that the ________ state of mind is determined not only in the
ignorant who believe in rumours but also in those who are ________ of scientific education, those who
haven't bothered to investigate, at even a lay level, the complicated and ever expanding worlds that
science conquers.

## (1) credulous . . . absolved

(2) nascent . . . blamed
(3) paranoic . . . oblivious (Correct Answer: 3)
(4) delusive . . . denied
(5) perplexed . . . vindicated

66. DIRECTIONS for questions 66 to 68: Each question has a pair of CAPITALISED words followed by five
pairs of words. Choose the pair of words that best expresses a relationship similar to that expressed by
the capitalized pair.

BUTTRESS : ARCH

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## (1) Banister : Staircase

(2) Lintel : Window
(3) Gazebo : Garden
(4) Pylon : Electric wires (Correct Answer: 4)
(5) Belfry : Church

## 67. DRIZZLE : DELUGE

(2) Avalanche : Blizzard
(3) Zephyr : Cyclone (Correct Answer: 3)
(4) Sleet : Frost
(5) Gale : Hurricane

## (1) Lecture : Listen

(2) Merchandise : Shoplift (Correct Answer: 2)
(3) Performance : Stage
(4) Traveller : Roam
(5) Suspect : Arrest

69. (1) Dr Andrew Wakefield is now facing a General Medical Council Investigation for knowingly
falsifying scientific data and tracing a connection between the MMR vaccine, which is given to children
to prevent them from getting measles, mumps and rubella, and autism.
(2) Any one who says that multinational drug companies have plans to murder us all for profit will find
a blind and not inconsiderable following in our world.
(3) The chief medical officer of Britain, with the best medical advice at his disposal, examined the
allegations of the link and found the drug to be completely safe.
(4) Obviously Dr. Wakefield was trying to find a link between MMR vaccine and the disease as he was
an employee of JABS, an anti-vaccination project which assists people to sue drug companies if they
can prove links between a drug company's product and a harmful side effect.

(1) FIFJ
(2) JJFI
(3) FFFI
(5) JIFJ

70. DIRECTIONS for questions 69 to 71: Each question has a set of four sequentially ordered statements.
Each statement can be classified as one of the following.
- Facts, which deal with pieces of information that one has heard, seen or read, and which are open to
discovery or verification (the answer option indicates such a statement with an 'F').
- Inferences, which are conclusions drawn about the unknown, on the basis of the known (the answer
option indicates such a statement with an 'I').
- Judgements, which are opinions that imply approval or disapproval of persons, objects, situations and
occurrences in the past, the present or the future (the answer option indicates such a statement with a 'J').

Select the answer option that best describes the set of four statements.

(1) Judges work only for 180 days in the Supreme Court and 210 days in the High Courts.
(2) The pendency of cases is mounting and, needless to say, the dilatory tactics and leisurely disposal of
cases aggregate the arrears.
(3) Some judges are ready to grant easy adjournments where another hour or two would have been
sufficient to decide the case.
(4) How does one expect the executive, which is directed to dispose of representations within a

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prescribed timeframe, to do so, when judges themselves do not work within the time?

(1) FJIJ
(3) FFJJ
(4) FJJJ
(5) FIIJ

71. (1) With the gradual and continuing fall in air traffic, domestic airlines in the country seem to have
hit a rough patch.
(2) As an instance of cartelisation, the domestic airlines have together gone in for a fare hike.
(3) It is unfortunate that the private airlines have chosen to push up the fares even as the price of
Aviation Turbine Fuel dropped sharply over the past few months.
(4) The data provided by the Directorate General of Civil Aviation shows that domestic traffic in
January this year was down by 14.65 per cent compared to what it was in the same month last year.

(1) IIIJ
(2) IJJF
(3) IJIF
(4) JIJF

72. DIRECTIONS for questions 72 to 75: Each question presents a pair of segmented circles. The
alphabets in each circle, when read clockwise, present a word, from which two alphabets have been
removed. When complete, the pair of words are synonymous and one of the choices that follow each
pair is the third synonym. Mark the correct choice in each case.

(1) devious
(2) gullible
(4) fortunate
(5) catastrophic

73.

## (1) imperil (Correct Answer: 1)

(2) disperse
(3) expel
(4) transcend
(5) stimulate

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74.

(1) expertise
(2) finesse
(3) humiliation
(5) scarcity

75.

(1) contentious
(3) precise
(4) exhaustive
(5) luscious

76. DIRECTIONS for questions 76 to 82: Read the following passage and answer the questions that

Humans have a natural capacity for language, it takes an enormous amount of effort to train a chimp to
produce the most basic of sentences. Chimps in the wild do not talk to each other. Chimps in captivity do
not talk to each other - even those with language. And even with humans, chimps use language only as the
last resort, when they cannot obtain a reward in any other way. What is important about language is its
ability to generate meaning. This is because humans not only have a natural facility for language but also a
social need for it. Language has evolved because we live in complex societies that require us to
communicate with each other. It is our social lives that give words their meaning and language its content.
Since chimps do not have the kind of social networks in which humans live, meaning in the human sense is
irrelevant to them. As the psychologist Steven Pinker puts it, what impresses one most about chimpanzee
signing is that fundamentally, deep down, chimps just don't "get it". They know that the trainers like them
to sign and that signing often gets them what they want, but they never seem to feel in their bones what
language is and how to use it. Kanzi the conversationalist is as much a work of fiction as was Emily the
seductress.

There is no evidence that animals, even apes, possess language, can form concepts or can think abstractly.
There is no evidence, in short, that they are symbolic creatures. And without symbols - without language -
an animal may be able to react to the world, but it cannot in any significant sense, think about it, nor have
beliefs about it. Animals can, and clearly do, represent the world in their heads, and act upon such
representations. But what an animal cannot do, because it lacks the capacity for symbolic thought, is to
distinguish between itself, its thought and the world. For an animal, therefore there can be no distinction
between itself and its picture of the world, in other words an animal cannot be self-aware. And without an
awareness of self, it cannot separate the world as it is from the world as it seems. For animals, their
picture of the world is the world. There is no Jeff Daniels in the animal world.

Humans, on the other hand, because we possess language, do not simply have experiences, desires and
needs, and react to them. We are also aware that we have them, that there is an 'I' which is the subject of
these experiences, and which is a possessor of beliefs, desires and needs. In other words, humans are
aware of themselves as agents, and of the world towards which their agency is directed. Because we can

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distinguish between ourselves, our thoughts and the world, we can debate, discuss and negotiate among
ourselves about the world and our relationship to it. We can, if we wish deliberately make our picture of
the world discordant with reality - as in a fantasy. Or we can attempt to make the two as harmonious as
possible, with a scientific model. Because we can distinguish between how the world is and how we would
like it to be, or how it ought to be, so we can talk about morals and norms.

But if language is a necessary condition of being able to think about the world, it is not a sufficient
condition. To understand this, we need to return to a problem: the problem with the Cartesian view of the
world. Descartes believed that he would doubt everything apart from his own existence for if he did not
exist he could not doubt his existence. For Descartes, therefore, the only certainties were the thoughts in
his head. The mind, in the Cartesian world, is the private possession of the individual. No one else has
and connected only fortuitously with the outside world.

But the Cartesian approach raises a central problem: how do I know who 'I' am and what I mean by 'self'
or what a 'thought' is? How do I know the meaning of pain, as opposed to its sensation? Feelings are
internal, known only to me, but meanings are external. One answer is that we cannot understand any one
else's inner world. We can simply infer that, for instance, another human being is in pain because he is
acting as I would if I were in pain, or he is in a situation in which I would feel pain.

The philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein showed that if the only things of which I was certain were the
contents of my own mind, then I would not be able to communicate those contents to anyone else. For
language is a public activity, words get their sense by being attached to publicly accessible conditions that
warrant their application. Language provides the means to bridge the gap between our private worlds,
because language is itself a social activity. A language that only one person understands is not a language
but a private code. Language necessarily has to be social. Paradoxically, then our inner feelings are not
located entirely inside our heads. They are also the products of our existence as social beings.

According to Descartes, knowledge of one's own mind is the starting point for knowledge of other minds.
But Wittgenstein reminded us that without knowledge of other minds it is impossible to have knowledge
of our own. Far from inferring other humans experiences from our own, we can only truly know what goes
on inside our own heads by relating to other humans. It is only because we live not as individuals, but
within a social community and, moreover within a community bound together by language, that we can
make sense of our own inner thoughts and feelings. No animal possesses either language or a social
network like ours. Therefore, it is simply not valid to assume that they have inner experiences as we do.

Here then is a crucial distinction between humans and animals. Animals are Cartesian beings, trapped
inside their heads. A bat, a cat or a chimpanzee has no possibility of knowing what is in the mind of
another bat, cat or chimpanzee, and hence of knowing what is in their own mind. From a scientific point of
view animals are zombies. By zombies I don't mean the living dead that populate horror films but a being
who seems perfectly natural, normal and alert but is in reality not conscious at all, but is rather some sort
of automaton.

## (1) the role of language in making humans what they are.

(2) showing the innate superiority of man over all other creatures of the world. (Correct Answer: 2)
(3) exploring what makes language an effective tool in the case of humans.
(4) showing why any comparison between man and apes is immaterial.
(5) analyzing the mind and behaviour of man and animal.

## (1) we act upon our representations of the world.

(2) we can react to our experiences, desires and needs through language.
(3) we have relationships with one another and with the world we live in.
(4) we can imagine a world different from what it is in reality.
(5) we can form concepts and think about them in abstraction. (Correct Answer: 5)

78. When Steven Pinker says that '… chimps just don't 'get it',' he means that

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(1) they don't understand the communicative purpose that underlines language. (Correct Answer: 1)
(2) chimps cannot learn a language however much we may try to teach them.
(3) the simplicity of animal society precludes the need for something as complex as language.
(4) animals lack the ability to manipulate others through the use of language.
(5) even when chimps have been taught to speak or write, they don't want to do so.

79. The problem with the Cartesian approach, in the context of language, is that

(1) there is no 'one to one' match between feelings and the expression of it.
(2) one would interpret the feelings of another through his own ability to feel it.
(3) it regards the mind as totally private and therefore makes it incapable of communication. (Correct Answer: 3)
(4) there is no correlation between feelings and thoughts.
(5) each of us would become a zombie.

## 80. Which of the following would Wittgenstein NOT agree with?

(1) We know our own thoughts and feelings only through knowing the thoughts and feelings of others.
(2) Language and social life are essential for us to understand ourselves.
(3) Animals lack language and social living, hence cannot have the kind of thoughts that we have.
(4) We can understand the feelings of others by interpreting them in terms of our own. (Correct Answer: 4)
(5) Our inner feelings are also the result of our social relationships.

81. Which of the following is true regarding language, as seen from the passage?

(1) It is language that enables us to react to our experiences, needs and desires.
(2) Chimps can be taught to use language as seen from the one that can sign its name.
(3) Language is not only a means but an end in itself.
(4) Language is what distinguishes man from animals and makes him what he is. (Correct Answer: 4)
(5) Language alone is enough to enable man to think.

82. "There is no Jeff Daniels in the animal world" - We can infer from the line that

(1) Jeff Daniels is an example of the perfect human being so far as the use of language is concerned.
(2) unlike Jeff Daniels, animals are not confused by the apparent and real. (Correct Answer: 2)
(3) Jeff Daniels is a human being who confuses between appearance and reality the way animals do.
(4) unlike Jeff Daniels animals are aware of being a part of and being apart from nature.
(5) Jeff Daniels, like animals, was incapable of symbolic representations.

83. DIRECTIONS for questions 83 to 89:Read the following passage and answer the questions that

In the final days of the election many Republicans seem to have given up the fight for power. But don't be
fooled: that doesn't mean they are relaxing. If you want to see real Republican elbow grease, check out the
energy going into chucking great chunks of the \$700bn bail-out out the door. At a recent Senate banking
committee hearing, the Republican Bob Corker was fixated on this task, and with a clear deadline in mind:
inauguration. "How much of it do you think may be actually spent by January 20 or so?" Corker asked Neel
Kashkari, the 35-year-old former banker in charge of the bail-out. When European colonialists realised that
they had no choice but to hand over power to the indigenous citizens, they would often turn their attention
to stripping the local treasury of its gold and grabbing valuable livestock. If they were really nasty, like the
Portuguese in Mozambique in the mid-1970s, they poured concrete down the elevator shafts. Nothing so
barbaric for the Bush gang. Rather than open plunder, it prefers bureaucratic instruments, such as

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"distressed asset" auctions and the "equity purchase program". But make no mistake: the goal is the same
as it was for the defeated Portuguese - a final, frantic looting of the public wealth before they hand over
the keys to the safe.

How else can one make sense of the bizarre decisions that have governed the allocation of the bail-out
money? When the Bush administration announced it would be injecting \$250bn into U.S. banks in
exchange for equity, the plan was widely referred to as "partial nationalisation" - a radical measure
required to get banks lending again. Henry Paulson, the treasury secretary, had seen the light, we were
told, and was following the lead of Gordon Brown. In fact, there has been no nationalisation, partial or
otherwise. American taxpayers have gained no meaningful control over the banks, which is why the banks
are free to spend the new money as they wish. At Morgan Stanley, it looks as if much of the windfall will
cover this year's bonuses. Citigroup has been hinting it will use its \$25bn buying other banks, while John
Thain, the chief executive of Merrill Lynch, told analysts: "At least for the next quarter, it's just going to be
a cushion." The U.S. government, meanwhile, is reduced to pleading with the banks that they at least
spend a portion of the taxpayer windfall for loans - officially, the reason for the entire programme.

What, then, is the real purpose of the bail-out? My fear is this rush of dealmaking is something much more
ambitious than a one-off gift to big business: that the Bush version of "partial nationalisation" is rigged to
turn the U.S. treasury into a bottomless cash machine for the banks for years to come. Remember, the main
concern among the big market players, particularly banks, is not the lack of credit but their battered share
prices. Investors have lost confidence in the honesty of the big financial players, and with good reason.
This is where the treasury's equity pays off big time. By purchasing stakes in these financial institutions,
the treasury is sending a signal to the market that they are a safe bet. Why safe? Not because their level of
risk has been accurately assessed at last. Not because they have renounced the kind of exotic instruments
and outrageous leverage rates that created the crisis. But because the market will now be banking on the
fact that the U.S. government won't let these particular companies fail. If they get themselves into trouble,
investors will now assume that the government will keep finding more cash to bail them out, since
allowing them to go down would mean losing the initial equity investments, many of them in the billions.
(Just look at the insurance giant AIG, which has already gone back to taxpayers for a top-up, and seems
likely to ask for a third.)

This tethering of the public interest to private companies is the real purpose of the bail-out plan: Paulson
is handing all the companies admitted to the programme - a number potentially in the thousands - an
implicit treasury department guarantee. To skittish investors looking for safe places to park their money,
these equity deals will be even more comforting than a triple-A from Moody's rating agency. Insurance like
that is priceless. But for the banks, the best part is that the government is paying them to accept its seal of
approval. For taxpayers, on the other hand, this entire plan is extremely risky, and may well cost
significantly more than Paulson's original idea of buying up \$700bn in toxic debts. Now taxpayers aren't
just on the hook for the debts but, arguably, for the fate of every corporation that sells them equity.

To further boost market confidence, the federal government has also unveiled unlimited public guarantees
for many bank deposit accounts. Oh, and as if this were not enough, the treasury has been encouraging the
banks to merge, ensuring that the only institutions left will be "too big to fail", thereby guaranteed a
bail-out. In three ways, the market is being told loud and clear that Washington will not allow the financial
institutions to bear the consequences of their behaviour. This may be Bush's most creative innovation: no
risk capitalism. It is risky, of course, to interrupt the bail-out process. Nothing could be riskier, however,
than allowing the Bush gang their parting gift to big business - the gift that will keep on taking.

The Bush government's parting gift to big business, as suggested by the passage, is

(1) help in putting back on feet big business whose fall might jeopardize the economy.
(2) a last desperate attempt to save the economy by ensuring that banks continue to give loans.
(3) an attempt to revive the economy by helping business in the red.
(4) Robinhood upside down - robbing the poor to pay the rich. (Correct Answer: 4)
(5) to provide a buffer to society as it faces the impending slowdown.

## 84. The 'no risk capitalism' mentioned by the author refers to

(1) a capitalism that would always be safe for people and society.
(2) a capitalism where profits are privatised while risk is socialised. (Correct Answer: 2)
(3) a capitalism where the government stands guarantee for banks.
(4) a capitalism where the government protects the shareholders when they are affected by the failures of a
company.

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(5) a system that does not pose any risk for the people.

85. The real purpose of the financial rescue plan, according to the author, is

(1) a government guarantee to assure investors looking for safe places to invest their money.
(2) a government plan to attract surplus funds from the public to business ventures.
(3) to deal out largesse to cronies who have been useful to the ruling party.
(4) to ensure that banks continue to make loans available to the common man.
(5) to safeguard private interests through public funds even in the future. (Correct Answer: 5)

86. The author quotes the examples of the colonialists to show that

(1) the focus of the Republicans is now on plundering as much as possible. (Correct Answer: 1)
(2) the Republicans are reconciled to surrendering power even as the colonialists became reconciled.
(3) the ruling party seeks to weaken public institutions before the opposition takes charge.
(4) those in power are so brazen that they don't hesitate to carry on shady deals openly.
(5) the Republicans are sophisticated unlike the barbaric colonialists in the past.

## 87. Partial nationalisation

(1) is what the Bush government seeks to achieve through the bail out plan.
(2) is the radical measure undertaken to save the bank and the economy.
(3) is the purported objective of injecting billions into U.S. banks. (Correct Answer: 3)
(4) appeared to be the solution to the problem, for the treasury secretary.
(5) was what the banks had to settle for in order to get the much-needed funds.

88. With which of the following would the author NOT agree?

## (1) The common man has every reason to be wary of banks.

(2) The government action indirectly encourages profligate behaviour in financial institutions.
(3) Banks have been put in the unenviable position of being controlled by the government or
(4) Distressed assets and equity purchase programs are euphemisms for misappropriation of funds.
(5) The government's action has been lacking in transparency.

## (1) insurance that has a triple A rating from Moody's.

(2) insurance that is in the public-private domain.
(3) banks whose equity is owned by the government.
(4) private companies that are backed by the treasury department. (Correct Answer: 4)
(5) companies whose shares are sold to the public.

90. DIRECTIONS for questions 90 to 93: In each question, there are five sentences / paragraphs. The
sentence/paragraph labelled A is in its correct place. The four that follow are labelled B, C, D and E,
and need to be arranged in the logical order to form a coherent paragraph / passage. From the given
options, choose the most appropriate option.

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(A) As an important joint session of Pakistan's Parliament continues, discussions on the challenge posed
by Al Qaeda and Taliban to the state, the fog of confusion surrounding the issues of military extremism and
terrorism has stubbornly refused to lift.
(B) But going by opinions voiced by some parliamentarians about the confidential session, the divisions
between the political parties are intact or may have even deepened.
(C) The extraordinary joint session of the National Assembly and Senate, only the third in Pakistan's
history to discuss a sensitive issue of national importance, was summoned recently and was aimed at
forging a national consensus on dealing with the terror threat to the country. The session was thought
necessary as Pakistan's policy has been extremely divided over what this threat is and where it is coming
from.
(D) The conflation of the issues facing Pakistan with the opposition to the U.S.-led war on terror
continues.
(E) Questions such as what is the threat to Pakistan and where is it coming from are still deemed
unresolved.

(1) CEDB
(2) CEBD
(4) CBDE
(5) CDBE

91. (A) Four square meters of rainforest are destroyed for every gram of cocaine snorted in the U.K., a
conference of senior police officers was told recently.
(B) Mr. Santos said 300,000 hectares of rainforest were destroyed each year in Columbia to clear land
for cocaine plant cultivation, predominantly controlled by illegal groups, including the Revolutionary
Armed Forces of Columbia, known as FARC.
(C) He said that while the green agenda would not persuade addicts to give up, the middle class social
user who drove a hybrid car and was concerned about the environment might not take the drug if he
knew of the impact.
(D) Francisco Santos Calderon, the Vice President of Columbia, appealed to British users of the drug to
consider the impact on the environment.
(E) Mr. Santos outlined to the Association of Chief Police Officers how lives were lost in the illegal
cocaine trade in Colombia. He said landmines that were used to protect crops and processing labs killed
almost 900 civilians in one year.

(1) DECB
(3) DBCE
(4) EDBC
(5) EDCB

92. (A) The recent U.N. Habitat report on the world's cities finds addressing inequality and achieving
sustainability as the two major challenges facing them.
(B) Access to urban services and housing, and participation in the "formal sector of the economy" have
not been the same for everyone in a city.
(C) The Indian cities are showing an increasing trend in inequality and this is attested by the rising
values of the Gini coefficient, a tool used to evaluate inequalities. To their credit cities have served as
engines of growth and functioned as sites for wealth production. Their contribution to the national
GDP, according to a World Bank estimate, is more than 60 per cent.
(D) The Spread of slums, lack of sanitation, and rising deficit in housing stock for the poor are both the
constituents and manifestations of these inequalities, and the situation is likely to worsen as cities
register higher economic growth.
(E) While acknowledging this kind of urbanization as the best opportunity to "stave off entrenched
poverty", the report points out that cities are turning into contested terrains where spatial inequalities
are pronounced.

## (1) CEBD (Correct Answer: 1)

(2) BCED
(3) CBED
(4) CDBE
(5) BDEC

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93. (A) The U.S. financial crisis has had its reverberations on both the developed and the developing
world.
(B) Effectively speaking, the Indian banks and financial institutions have not experienced the kinds of
losses and write downs that even venerable banks and financial institutions in the western world have
faced.
(C) The relative freedom from the contagion spreading from the global tsunami to the Indian financial
system owes much to the wise and judicious policies of our central bank and the government of India.
(D) By and large, India has been spared the panic that followed the collapse of banking institutions,
such as Fortis in Europe, and Merrill Lynch and Lehman Brothers and Washington Mutual in the U.S.
(E) It is not possible to insulate Indian economy completely from what is happening in the financial
systems of the world.

(1) BCDE
(2) BCED
(3) EDBC
(4) DBCE

94. DIRECTIONS for questions 94 to 97: The following question has a paragraph from which the last
sentence has been deleted. From the given options, choose the one that completes the paragraph in
the most appropriate way.

Elliot, a photographer, surveyor and developer, had been looking for an unusual site to work on for some
time. When he viewed a plot in Highgate, complete with a 70s building in blue aluminium, Elliot was
certain he had found what he was looking for. His surveyor advised against buying such a steep bit of land;
his mother thought he was crazy. __________

(1) But the first time she visited the site, she understood him completely. (Correct Answer: 1)
(2) But Elliot was fascinated with the history of the place.
(3) It was just 45 mts from the historic Highgate cemetery in North London.
(4) But he felt he belonged to the place.
(5) To him it was a peaceful place away from the noise of the city.

95. Kiton - which employs 330 tailors who create its garments by hand - produces only a few thousand
pieces a year. It takes 25 hours to make a jacket. Fans of Kiton clothes, and it is a devoted cult, say the
garments are soft, light and exquisitely made. __________

(1) Small and fine details of sartorial workmanship mark this brand.
(2) They are absolutely wrinkle-free and can be crushed into the crevice of an airline seat.
(3) They are said to fit like a second skin. (Correct Answer: 3)
(4) Once you start wearing it you won't feel like switching over to anything else.
(5) Customers searching for value end up buying Kiton clothes.

96. The Indian toy industry has never been in a state of good health, but the past two decades have been
particularly bad. What little drive there was to invent and innovate got washed away by the flood of
Chinese toys. They came in millions. They were colourful and diverse, loud and crude, but their greatest
attraction was their low price. __________

(1) Even in the International Trade Fair, the presence of Chinese toys has grown to overwhelming proportions.
(2) The public will soon realise, however, that they are not built to last.
(3) But some still feel that the wooden toys of Saharanpur and the musical string toys of Delhi are immeasurably
superior to the cacophonic, garish electronic toys imported from China.
(4) The heavy import of Chinese toys had always been hurting the Indian toy manufacturing trade.

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(5) But now the Indian government has decided to encourage indigenous production of toys and has imposed a ban
on the import of Chinese toys. (Correct Answer: 5)

97. To accept anything as true means to incur the risk of error. If I limit myself to knowledge that I
consider true beyond doubt, I minimize the risk of error, but at the same time I maximise the risk of
missing out on what may be the subtlest, most important and most rewarding things in life. Saint
Thomas Aquinas taught that the slenderest knowledge that may be obtained of the highest things is
more desirable than the most certain knowledge obtained of lesser things. "Slender" knowledge is here
put in opposition to 'certain' knowledge, and indicates uncertainty. May be it is necessarily so that the
higher things cannot be known with the same degree of certainty as the lesser things. __________

(1) But the gaining of even the slenderest knowledge about the higher things should not be given up.
(2) In such a case it would be a very great loss indeed if knowledge were limited to things beyond the possibility of
(3) After all, matters that are beyond doubt are in a sense dead, they constitute no challenge to the living.
(4) Even then it is irrational to doubt the existence of higher things, which have no physical proof of existence.
(5) And this uncertainty is mainly because of our inability to prove the existence of the higher things.

98. DIRECTIONS for questions 98 to 100: In each of the following sentences, a part of the sentence is
underlined. Beneath each sentence, five different ways of phrasing the underlined part are indicated.

At the outset of the French Revolution its advocates boasted that it furnished a security forever, not to
France only, but to all countries in the world against military despotism; as the forces of standing armies
were in vain and delusive; as no artificial power could resist public opinion and that it was upon the
foundation of public opinion alone that any government could stand.

(1) not to France only, but to all countries in the world against military despotism; as the forces of standing armies
were in vain and delusive, as no artificial power could resist
(2) not only to France, but also to all other countries of the world against military despotism; as the forces of the
standing armies was in vain and delusive; as no artificial power could resist
(3) not only to France, but also to all countries of the world, against military despotism; that the forces of the
standing armies were vain and delusive; that no artificial power could resist. (Correct Answer: 3)
(4) not only to France, but to all countries of the world also against military despotism; that the forces of the
standing armies were in vain and delusive and that no artificial power resists
(5) not to France only, but also to all countries of the world, against military despotism as the forces of the standing
armies were vain and delusive and no artificial power ever resisted

99. Economists warn that the benefits of working abroad may prove short-lived, especially when the
global economic downturn will force workers to return home to an economy that no longer will absorb
them.

(1) especially when the global economic downturn will force workers to return home to an economy that no longer will
absorb them
(2) particularly if the global economic downturn will be forcing the workers returning home to an economy that would
no longer absorb them
(3) mainly when the global economic turndown may force workers to return back home to economies that might no
longer absorb them
(4) chiefly if the global economic turndown forces the workers to return home to economies which might not absorb
them
(5) especially if the global economic turndown forces workers to return home to an economy that can no longer

100. Even as evolutionary biologists are using modern tools to fill up the gaps and redraw Charles
Darwin's tree of life, most American students are learning a little or nothing about evolution unlike
the Europeans because about 40 per cent of the American adults only accept the basic idea of
evolution and the rest still believe in creationism.

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(1) most American students are learning a little or nothing about evolution unlike the Europeans because about 40
percent of the American adults only
(2) many American students are learning little or nothing about evolution because, unlike the Europeans, only about
(3) most of the American students still learn little or nothing because unlike the Europeans about 40 percent of the
(4) many of the American students are still learning just a little or nothing on evolution unlike the Europeans because
(5) many American students are still learning little or nothing about evolution because, only unlike the Europeans, 40

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