Está en la página 1de 48

CHAPTER 5: FREE SHEAR FLOWS

Turbulent Flows
Stephen B. Pope
Cambridge University Press, 2000
c Stephen B. Pope 2000
fluid
supply
nozzle
d
U

r
W
U
V
x
quiescent
surroundings
J
Figure 5.1: Sketch of a round jet experiment, showing the polar-
cylindrical coordinate system employed.
1
CHAPTER 5: FREE SHEAR FLOWS
Turbulent Flows
Stephen B. Pope
Cambridge University Press, 2000
c Stephen B. Pope 2000
0 10 20
0.0
0.1
0.2
U/U
J
x/d = 30
x/d = 60
x/d = 100
r/d
Figure 5.2: Radial proles of mean axial velocity in a turbulent round
jet, Re = 95, 500. The dashed lines indicate the half-width, r1
2
(x),
of the proles. (Adapted from the data of Hussein et al. (1994).)
2
CHAPTER 5: FREE SHEAR FLOWS
Turbulent Flows
Stephen B. Pope
Cambridge University Press, 2000
c Stephen B. Pope 2000
0.5
1.0
0.0
0.0
1.0 2.0
r/r
1/2
U
U
0
Figure 5.3: Mean axial velocity against radial distance in a turbulent
round jet, Re 10
5
; measurements of Wygnanski and Fiedler
(1969). Symbols: , x/d = 40; , 50; , 60; , 75; , 97.5.
3
CHAPTER 5: FREE SHEAR FLOWS
Turbulent Flows
Stephen B. Pope
Cambridge University Press, 2000
c Stephen B. Pope 2000
0 40 80 120
0
5
10
15
20
25
x/d
U
J
U
0
(x)
Figure 5.4: Centerline mean velocity variation with axial distance in a
turbulent round jet, Re = 95, 500: symbols, experimental data of
Hussein et al. (1994), lineEq. (5.6) with x
0
/d = 4, B = 5.8.
4
CHAPTER 5: FREE SHEAR FLOWS
Turbulent Flows
Stephen B. Pope
Cambridge University Press, 2000
c Stephen B. Pope 2000
0.0 1.0 2.0
0.0
0.5
1.0
f
r/r
1/2
0.0 0.1 0.2
r/(x-x
0
)
Figure 5.5: Self-similar prole of the mean axial velocity in the self-
similar round jet. Curve t to the LDA data of Hussein et al.
(1994).
5
CHAPTER 5: FREE SHEAR FLOWS
Turbulent Flows
Stephen B. Pope
Cambridge University Press, 2000
c Stephen B. Pope 2000
1.0 2.0
-0.02
0.00
0.02
V/U
o
r/r
1/2
Figure 5.6: Mean lateral velocity in the self-similar round jet. From
the LDA data of Hussein et al. (1994).
6
CHAPTER 5: FREE SHEAR FLOWS
Turbulent Flows
Stephen B. Pope
Cambridge University Press, 2000
c Stephen B. Pope 2000
0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0
0.00
0.02
0.04
0.06
0.08
0.10
u
i
u
j

U
0
2
r/r
1/2
u
2

v
2

w
2

uv
0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3

Figure 5.7: Proles of Reynolds stresses in the self-similar round jet.


Curve t to the LDA data of Hussein et al. (1994).
7
CHAPTER 5: FREE SHEAR FLOWS
Turbulent Flows
Stephen B. Pope
Cambridge University Press, 2000
c Stephen B. Pope 2000
0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0
0.0
1.0
2.0
3.0
4.0
5.0
U
r/r
1/2
0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3

Figure 5.8: Prole of the local turbulence intensityu


2

1
2
/Uin
the self-similar round jet. From the curve t to the experimental
data of Hussein et al. (1994).
8
CHAPTER 5: FREE SHEAR FLOWS
Turbulent Flows
Stephen B. Pope
Cambridge University Press, 2000
c Stephen B. Pope 2000
0.0 1.0 2.0
0.0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
r/r
1/2

uv
uv/k
0.0 0.1 0.2

Figure 5.9: Proles of uv/k and the u-v correlation coecient


uv
in
the self-similar round jet. From the curve t to the experimental
data of Hussein et al. (1994).
9
CHAPTER 5: FREE SHEAR FLOWS
Turbulent Flows
Stephen B. Pope
Cambridge University Press, 2000
c Stephen B. Pope 2000
0.0 1.0 2.0
0.00
0.01
0.02
0.03
r/r
1/2

T
^
0.0 0.1 0.2

Figure 5.10: Normalized turbulent diusivity


T
(Eq. (5.34)) in the
self-similar round jet. From the curve t to the experimental data
of Hussein et al. (1994).
10
CHAPTER 5: FREE SHEAR FLOWS
Turbulent Flows
Stephen B. Pope
Cambridge University Press, 2000
c Stephen B. Pope 2000
0.0 1.0 2.0
0.00
0.05
0.10
0.15
r/r
1/2
r
1/2
l
0.0 0.1 0.2

Figure 5.11: Prole of the lengthscale dened by (Eq. (5.35)) in the


self-similar round jet. From the curve t to the experimental data
of Hussein et al. (1994).
11
CHAPTER 5: FREE SHEAR FLOWS
Turbulent Flows
Stephen B. Pope
Cambridge University Press, 2000
c Stephen B. Pope 2000
0.0 1.0 2.0
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
r/r
1/2
L
22
/r
1/2
L
11
/r
1/2
0.0 0.1 0.2

Figure 5.12: Self-similar proles of the integral lengthscales in the tur-


bulent round jet. From Wygnanski and Fiedler (1969).
12
CHAPTER 5: FREE SHEAR FLOWS
Turbulent Flows
Stephen B. Pope
Cambridge University Press, 2000
c Stephen B. Pope 2000
1.0
0.5
R (x,0,s)
11
1 2 3 4 5
s/L
11
0
0.0
Figure 5.13: Longitudinal autocorrelation of the axial velocity in the
self-similar round jet. From Wygnanski and Fiedler (1969).
13
CHAPTER 5: FREE SHEAR FLOWS
Turbulent Flows
Stephen B. Pope
Cambridge University Press, 2000
c Stephen B. Pope 2000
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
<U>
plane jet
y
U = U
c s
x
<U>
plane mixing layer
y
U
c
x

U
s
<U>
plane wake
y
U
c
x

U
s
boundary layer
y
x

U = U
c s
Figure 5.14: Sketch of plane two-dimensional shear ows showing the
characteristic ow width (x), the characteristic convective veloc-
ity U
c
, and the characteristic velocity dierence U
s
.
14
CHAPTER 5: FREE SHEAR FLOWS
Turbulent Flows
Stephen B. Pope
Cambridge University Press, 2000
c Stephen B. Pope 2000
0.0 0.1 0.2

0.0 1.0 2.0


0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
U
U
0
r/r
1/2
Figure 5.15: Mean velocity prole in the self-similar round jet: solid
line, curve t to the experimental data of Hussein et al. (1994);
dashed line, uniform turbulent viscosity solution (Eq. 5.82).
15
CHAPTER 5: FREE SHEAR FLOWS
Turbulent Flows
Stephen B. Pope
Cambridge University Press, 2000
c Stephen B. Pope 2000
Production
Mean-flow
convection
Turbulent
transport
Dissipation
0.0 1.0 2.0
r/r
1/2
0.00
0.01
0.01
0.02
0.02
G
a
i
n
L
o
s
s
Figure 5.16: Turbulent kinetic energy budget in the self-similar round
jet. Quantities are normalized by U
0
and r1
2
. (From Panchapake-
san and Lumley (1993a).)
16
CHAPTER 5: FREE SHEAR FLOWS
Turbulent Flows
Stephen B. Pope
Cambridge University Press, 2000
c Stephen B. Pope 2000
-1.0 -0.5 0.0 0.5 1.0

U
l
+0.1(U
h
-U
l
)
y
0.1
y
0.9

U
h
U
c
U
l
U
l
+0.9(U
h
-U
l
)
y
0.4
0.5
0.0
-0.5
-0.4
f()
Figure 5.21: Sketch of the mean velocity U against y, and of
the scaled mean velocity prole f(), showing the denitions of
y
0.1
, y
0.9
and .
17
CHAPTER 5: FREE SHEAR FLOWS
Turbulent Flows
Stephen B. Pope
Cambridge University Press, 2000
c Stephen B. Pope 2000
x = 39.5 cm.
x = 49.5 cm.
x = 59.5 cm.
-1.0 -0.5 0.0 0.5 1.0
-0.5
0.0
0.5
f ()

Figure 5.22: Scaled velocity proles in a plane mixing layer. Symbols,


experimental data of Champagne et al. (1976); line, error-function
prole (Eq. (5.224)) shown for reference.
18
CHAPTER 5: FREE SHEAR FLOWS
Turbulent Flows
Stephen B. Pope
Cambridge University Press, 2000
c Stephen B. Pope 2000
0 20 40 60 80
0
4
y(cm)
x(cm)
y
0.5
y
0.95
y
0.1
Figure 5.23: Axial variation of y
0.1
, y
0.5
and y
0.95
in the plane mixing
layer, showing the linear spreading. Experimental data of Cham-
pagne et al. (1976).
19
CHAPTER 5: FREE SHEAR FLOWS
Turbulent Flows
Stephen B. Pope
Cambridge University Press, 2000
c Stephen B. Pope 2000
-1 0 1
-0.5
0.0
0.5

U
U
s
Figure 5.24: Scaled mean velocity prole in self-similar plane mixing
layers. Symbols, experiment of Bell and Mehta (1990) (U

/U
h
=
0.6); solid line, DNS data for the temporal mixing layer (Rogers
and Moser 1994); dashed line error-function prole with width
chosen to match data in the center of the layer.
20
CHAPTER 5: FREE SHEAR FLOWS
Turbulent Flows
Stephen B. Pope
Cambridge University Press, 2000
c Stephen B. Pope 2000
1 0 1
0.000
0.015
0.030
n
u
i
u
j

U
s
2
u
2
/U
s
2
v
2
/U
s
2
1 0 1
0.015
0.000
0.015
n
w
2
/U
s
2
uv/U
s
2
u
i
u
j

U
s
2
Figure 5.25: Scaled Reynolds stress proles in self-similar plane mixing
layers. Symbols, experiment of Bell and Mehta (1990) (U

/U
h
=
0.6); solid line, DNS data for the temporal mixing layer (Rogers
and Moser 1994).
21
CHAPTER 5: FREE SHEAR FLOWS
Turbulent Flows
Stephen B. Pope
Cambridge University Press, 2000
c Stephen B. Pope 2000
-3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3
0
1
f ()

Figure 5.26: Normalized velocity defect prole in the self-similar


plane wake. Solid line, from experimental data of Wygnanski
et al. (1986); dashed line, constant-turbulent-viscosity solution,
Eq. (5.240).
22
CHAPTER 5: FREE SHEAR FLOWS
Turbulent Flows
Stephen B. Pope
Cambridge University Press, 2000
c Stephen B. Pope 2000
-2 -1 0 1 2
0.0
0.5
1.0
f()

Figure 5.27: Mean velocity decit proles in a self-similar axisymmetric


wake. Symbols, experimental data of Uberoi and Freymuth (1970);
line, constant-turbulent-viscosity solution f() = exp (
2
ln 2)
23
CHAPTER 5: FREE SHEAR FLOWS
Turbulent Flows
Stephen B. Pope
Cambridge University Press, 2000
c Stephen B. Pope 2000
0.0 -2.0 -4.0 2.0 4.0

0.5
1.0

u /U
2
1/2
S
w /U
2
1/2
S
v /U
2
1/2
S
0.0
Figure 5.28: R.m.s. velocity proles in a self-similar axisymmetric
wake. Experimental data of Uberoi and Freymuth (1970).
24
CHAPTER 5: FREE SHEAR FLOWS
Turbulent Flows
Stephen B. Pope
Cambridge University Press, 2000
c Stephen B. Pope 2000
0.0 -3.0 3.0

0.0
G
a
i
n
L
o
s
s
Mean Flow
Convection
Production
Dissipation
Turbulent
Transport
Figure 5.29: Turbulent kinetic energy budget in a self-similar axisym-
metric wake. Experimental data of Uberoi and Freymuth (1970).
25
CHAPTER 5: FREE SHEAR FLOWS
Turbulent Flows
Stephen B. Pope
Cambridge University Press, 2000
c Stephen B. Pope 2000
U
h
y
0
U
c
Figure 5.30: Sketch of the mean velocity prole in homogeneous shear
ow.
26
CHAPTER 5: FREE SHEAR FLOWS
Turbulent Flows
Stephen B. Pope
Cambridge University Press, 2000
c Stephen B. Pope 2000
4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
0.003
0.002
0.001
0
x / h
u u
i j
U
c
2
Figure 5.31: Reynolds stresses against axial distance in the homoge-
neous shear ow experiment of Tavoularis and Corrsin (1981): ,
u
2
; , v
2
; , w
2
.
27
CHAPTER 5: FREE SHEAR FLOWS
Turbulent Flows
Stephen B. Pope
Cambridge University Press, 2000
c Stephen B. Pope 2000
M
M
d
Figure 5.32: Sketch of a turbulence generating grid composed of bars
of diameter d, with mesh spacing M.
28
CHAPTER 5: FREE SHEAR FLOWS
Turbulent Flows
Stephen B. Pope
Cambridge University Press, 2000
c Stephen B. Pope 2000
10
4
10
3
10
500
x/M
U
0
2
u
2

Figure 5.33: Decay of Reynolds stresses in grid turbulence: squares


u
2
/U
2
0
; circles v
2
/U
2
0
; triangles k/U
2
0
; lines, proportional to
(x/M)
1.3
. (From Comte-Bellot and Corrsin (1966).)
29
CHAPTER 5: FREE SHEAR FLOWS
Turbulent Flows
Stephen B. Pope
Cambridge University Press, 2000
c Stephen B. Pope 2000
0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0
0.5
1.0

()
f()
Figure 5.34: Normalized mean velocity decit f() and scalar, () =
/
y=0
in the self-similar plane wake. Symbols (solid f,
open ) experimental data of Fabris (1979); solid line, f() =
exp(
2
ln 2); dashed line, () = exp(
2

T
ln 2) with
T
= 0.7.
30
CHAPTER 5: FREE SHEAR FLOWS
Turbulent Flows
Stephen B. Pope
Cambridge University Press, 2000
c Stephen B. Pope 2000
0.0 1.0 2.0
0.0
0.1
0.2
0.3

y=0

1/2
r/r
1/2
0.0 0.1 0.2

Figure 5.35: Normalized r.m.s. scalar uctuations in a round jet. From


the experimental data of Panchapakesan and Lumley (1993b).
31
CHAPTER 5: FREE SHEAR FLOWS
Turbulent Flows
Stephen B. Pope
Cambridge University Press, 2000
c Stephen B. Pope 2000
0.02
0.02
0.01
0.00
0.01
G
a
i
n
L
o
s
s
r/r
1/2
0.0 1.0 2.0
Production
Mean-flow
convection
Turbulent
transport
Dissipation
Figure 5.36: Scalar variance budget in a round jet: terms in Eq. (5.281)
normalized by
y=0
, U
s
and r1
2
. (From the experiment data of
Panchapakesan and Lumley (1993b).)
32
CHAPTER 5: FREE SHEAR FLOWS
Turbulent Flows
Stephen B. Pope
Cambridge University Press, 2000
c Stephen B. Pope 2000

/

1.0 2.0 0.0


0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
r/r
1/2
Figure 5.37: Scalar-to-velocity timescale ratio in a round jet. (From
the experimental data of Panchapakesan and Lumley (1993b).)
33
CHAPTER 5: FREE SHEAR FLOWS
Turbulent Flows
Stephen B. Pope
Cambridge University Press, 2000
c Stephen B. Pope 2000
10
3
10
4
10
5
0.00
0.05
0.10
0.15
0.20
Re

Figure 5.38: Normalized scalar variance on the axis of self-similar round


jets at dierent Reynolds numbers. Triangles, air jets (experiments
of Dowling and Dimotakis (1990); circles, water jets (experiments
of Miller (1991)). (From Miller (1991).)
34
CHAPTER 5: FREE SHEAR FLOWS
Turbulent Flows
Stephen B. Pope
Cambridge University Press, 2000
c Stephen B. Pope 2000
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
=0.0
=0.25
=0.75
=0.95
t
t
t
t
I(t)
I(t)
I(t)
I(t)
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
Figure 5.39: Sketch of the intermittency function vs. time in a free
shear ow (a) in the irrotational non-turbulent surroundings (b)
in the outer part of the intermittent region (c) in the inner part of
the intermittent region and (d) close to the center of the ow.
35
CHAPTER 5: FREE SHEAR FLOWS
Turbulent Flows
Stephen B. Pope
Cambridge University Press, 2000
c Stephen B. Pope 2000

1.0
0.5
0
0 1 2
y / y

Figure 5.40: Prole of the intermittency factor in the self-similar plane


wake. The mean scalar prole shown for comparison: y

is the
half-width. From the experimental data of LaRue and Libby (1974,
1976).
36
CHAPTER 5: FREE SHEAR FLOWS
Turbulent Flows
Stephen B. Pope
Cambridge University Press, 2000
c Stephen B. Pope 2000
1.0
0.5
0.0

1.0 2.0 0.0


y/y

(a) (b)
y/y

'
1/2
2
'
T
0.0 1.0 2.0
0.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
Figure 5.41: Comparison of unconditional and turbulent mean (a) and
r.m.s. (b) scalar proles in the self-similar plane wake. From the
experimental data of LaRue and Libby (1974).
37
CHAPTER 5: FREE SHEAR FLOWS
Turbulent Flows
Stephen B. Pope
Cambridge University Press, 2000
c Stephen B. Pope 2000
viscous
superlayer
U
s

O
s

s=0
E
Figure 5.42: Sketch of a turbulent round jet showing the viscous super-
layer, and the path of a uid particle from a point in the quiescent
ambient, O, to the superlayer, E.
38
CHAPTER 5: FREE SHEAR FLOWS
Turbulent Flows
Stephen B. Pope
Cambridge University Press, 2000
c Stephen B. Pope 2000


U
T

U
N

U


U
U
S

0
1.0
1 -1 0
0.5
Figure 5.43: Proles of the intermittency factor , the unconditional
mean axial velocity U and the turbulent U
T
and non-turbulent
U
N
conditional mean velocities in a self-similar mixing layer.
From the experimental data of Wygnanski and Fiedler (1970).
39
CHAPTER 5: FREE SHEAR FLOWS
Turbulent Flows
Stephen B. Pope
Cambridge University Press, 2000
c Stephen B. Pope 2000

u
2
T
2
(u' )
N
2
(u' )


u
2
U
S
2
-1 0 1

0
0.01
0.02
0.03
Figure 5.44: Proles of unconditional u
2
, turbulent (u

T
)
2
and non-
turbulent (u

N
)
2
variances of axial velocity in a self-similar mix-
ing layer. From the experimental data of Wygnanski and Fiedler
(1970).
40
CHAPTER 5: FREE SHEAR FLOWS
Turbulent Flows
Stephen B. Pope
Cambridge University Press, 2000
c Stephen B. Pope 2000
-3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3
0.1
0.2
-3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3
0.1
0.2
-3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3
0.1
0.2
-3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.3 0.3
0.3
f
^
u
f
^
w
f
^
v
f
^

V
1
V
3
V
2
(a) (c)
(b)
(d)
Figure 5.45: Standardized PDFs of (a) u, (b) v, (c) w and (d) in
homogeneous shear ow. Dashed lines are standardized Gaussians.
(From Tavoularis and Corrsin (1981).)
41
CHAPTER 5: FREE SHEAR FLOWS
Turbulent Flows
Stephen B. Pope
Cambridge University Press, 2000
c Stephen B. Pope 2000
-2
-1
-2
-1
-2
-1
1
0 3 -2 -3 -1 1 2
0 3 -2 -3 -1 1 2
0 3 -2 -3 -1 1 2
2
1
2
1
2
V
1
V
1
V
2
V
2

(a)
(b)
(c)
Figure 5.46: Contour plots of joint PDFs of standardized variables
measured in homogeneous shear ow: (a) u and v, (b) and v,
(c) u and . Contour values are 0.15, 0.10, 0.05 and 0.01. Dashed
lines are corresponding contours for joint-normal distributions with
the same correlation coecients. (From Tavoularis and Corrsin
(1981).)
42
CHAPTER 5: FREE SHEAR FLOWS
Turbulent Flows
Stephen B. Pope
Cambridge University Press, 2000
c Stephen B. Pope 2000
0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0
1
2
0

f ()

= 0 = 0.22
= 0.43
= 0.65
= 0.86
Figure 5.47: PDFs of a conserved passive scalar in the self-similar
temporal mixing layer at dierent lateral positions. From direct
numerical simulations of Rogers and Moser (1994).
43
CHAPTER 5: FREE SHEAR FLOWS
Turbulent Flows
Stephen B. Pope
Cambridge University Press, 2000
c Stephen B. Pope 2000
y/y

1.0 0.0 2.0


y/y

0.0
-1.0
1.0
2.0
3.0
4.0
S

S
T
0.0 1.0 2.0
1.0
3.0
5.0
7.0
9.0
K

K
T
Figure 5.48: Proles of unconditional (S

, K

) and conditional tur-


bulent (S
T
, K
T
) skewness and kurtosis of a conserved passive
scalar in the self-similar plane wake. From the experimental data
of LaRue and Libby (1974).
44
CHAPTER 5: FREE SHEAR FLOWS
Turbulent Flows
Stephen B. Pope
Cambridge University Press, 2000
c Stephen B. Pope 2000
-0.5 0.0 0.5
0
5
10
V / U
s
U
s
f
u
(V)
=0
=0.22
=0.44
=0.66
Figure 5.49: PDFs of axial velocity in a temporal mixing layer. The
distance from the center of the layer is = y/. The dashed line
corresponds to the freestream velocity U
h
. From the DNS data of
Rogers and Moser (1994).
45
CHAPTER 5: FREE SHEAR FLOWS
Turbulent Flows
Stephen B. Pope
Cambridge University Press, 2000
c Stephen B. Pope 2000
1.0 2.0
3.0
r/r
1/2
20
10
K
u
2.0
4.0
S
u
3
Figure 5.50: Proles of skewness (solid line) and kurtosis (dashed line)
in the self-similar round jet. From the experimental data of Wyg-
nanski and Fiedler (1969).
46
CHAPTER 5: FREE SHEAR FLOWS
Turbulent Flows
Stephen B. Pope
Cambridge University Press, 2000
c Stephen B. Pope 2000
Figure 5.51: Flow visualization of a plane mixing layer. Spark shadow
graph of a mixing layer between helium (upper) U
h
= 10.1m/s
and nitrogen (lower) U

= 3.8m/s at a pressure of 8 atm. (From


Brown and Roshko (1974).)
47
CHAPTER 5: FREE SHEAR FLOWS
Turbulent Flows
Stephen B. Pope
Cambridge University Press, 2000
c Stephen B. Pope 2000
20
15
10
5
500 1000 1500
x (mm)

(mm) 60
50
40
30
0
f (Hz)
Figure 5.53: Mixing layer thickness, , against axial distance, x, for dif-
ferent forcing frequencies, f. (From Oster and Wygnanski (1982).)
48