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CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION


1.1 OBJECTIVE

The composite will be fabricated using Kevlar and leather at macroscopic level. Since Kevlar
is very expensive fibre hence tried to replace it by few layers of leather in prepared specimen
which provide strength to specimen and helps to increase the impact strength of Kevlar
composite. To check impact strength of developed we also designed impact testing rig which
capable of performing low and high impact velocity test on prepared specimen. And their
strength on different layer combination is measured.



1.2 INTRODUCTION OF MATERIALS

Materials can be of natural origin or synthetically processed and manufactured. According to
their chemical nature they are broadly grouped traditionally into inorganic and organic
materials. Their physical structure can be crystalline, or amorphous. Composites are
combinations of materials assembled together to obtain properties superior to those of their
single constituents. Composites are classified according to the nature of their matrix: metal,
ceramic or polymer composites, often designated MMCs, CMCs and PMCs, respectively.

1.3 Types of material

It has been estimated that there are between 40 000 and 80 000 materials which are used or
can be used in todays technology. Figure 3.3 lists the main conventional families of
materials together with examples of classes, members, and attributes. For the examples of
attributes, sufficient characterization methods are named.

Table 1: Material and its Family
Subject
Materials
Family
Natural
Ceramic
Polymers
Metals
Semiconductor
Composites
Biomaterials
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1.3.1 Processing of material

For their use, materials have to be engineered by processing and manufacture in order to fulfil
their purpose as the physical basis of products designed for the needs of the economy and
society. There are the following main technologies to transform matter into engineered
materials:
Machining, i. e. shaping, cutting, drilling, etc. Of solids,
Net forming of suitable matter, e.g. liquids, moulds,
Nanotechnology assembly of atoms or molecules.
In addition to these methods, there are also further technologies, like surfacing and joining,
which are applied to process, shape and assemble materials and products. The design of
materials may also be supported by computational methods. It has been estimated that there
are at least 1000 different ways to produce materials.

1.3.2 Properties of material

According to their properties, materials can be broadly classified into the following groups:
Structural materials: engineered materials with specific mechanical or thermal properties
Functional materials: engineered materials with specific electrical, magnetic or optical
properties
Smart materials: engineered materials with intrinsic or embedded sensors and actuators
which are able to react in response to external loading, aiming at optimising the materials
behaviour according to given requirements for the materials performance

1.4 Classification of Materials Characterization Methods

From a realization concerning the application of all material, a classification of materials
characterization methods can be outlined in a simplified manner: Whenever a material is
being created, developed, or produced the properties or phenomena the material exhibits are
of central concern. Experience shows that the properties and performance associated with a
material are intimately related to its composition and structure at all levels, including which
atoms are present and how the atoms are arranged in the material, and that this structure is the
result of synthesis, processing and manufacture. The final material must perform a given task
and must do so in an economical and socially acceptable manner. These main elements:
Composition and structure,
Properties,
Performance
And the interrelationship among them defines the main categories of materials
characterization methods to be applied to these elements, the materials characterization
methods comprise analysis, measurement, testing, modelling, and simulation. These methods
are described in detail in the following parts of this book:
Methods to analyze the composition and structure of materials with respect to chemical
composition, nano-scopic architecture and microstructure, surfaces and interfaces are
compiled in Part B.
Methods to measure the mechanical, thermal, electrical, magnetic and optical material
properties are described in Part C.
Methods of testing material performance through the determination of mechanisms which
are detrimental to materials integrity, like corrosion, wear, bio-deterioration, materials-
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environment interactions, are outlined in Part D , which also contains the description of
methods for performance control and condition monitoring.
Methods of modelling and simulation by mathematical and computational approaches
ranging from Molecular Dynamics Modelling to Monte Carlo simulation are described in
Part E .
Supporting the presentation of the materials characterization methods, in the Appendix
relevant International Standards of Materials Measurement Methods are compiled.

1.3.5 Application of materials

For the application of materials, their quality, safety and reliability as constituents of products
and engineered components and systems are of special importance. This adds performance
attributes to the characteristics to be determined by materials measurement and testing. In this
context the materials cycle must be considered. Figure 1 illustrates that all materials
(accompanied by the necessary flow of energy and information) move in cycles through the
techno-economic system: from raw materials to engineering materials and technical products,
and finally, after the termination of their task and performance, to deposition or recycling.
From the materials cycle, which applies to all branches of technology, it is obvious that
materials and their properties to be determined through measurement and testing are of
crucial importance for the performance of technical products. This is illustrated in Table 1 for
some examples of products and technical systems from the energy sector.

Fig 1: Material Cycle
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Table 2: Application examples of materials and relevant materials properties


1.5 Composite Material

Generally speaking, composites are hybrid creations made of two or more materials that
maintain their identities when combined. The materials are chosen so that the properties of
one constituent enhance the deficient properties of the other. Usually, a given property of a
composite lies between the values for each constituent, but not always. Sometimes, the
property of a composite is clearly superior to those of either of the constituents. The potential
for such a synergy is one reason for the interest in composites for high-performance
applications. However, because manufacturing of composites involves many steps and is
labour intensive, composites may be too expensive to compete with metals and polymers,
even if their properties are superior. In high-tech applications of advanced composites it
should also be borne in mind that they are usually difficult to recycle.
Advanced composite fabrics are those materials which have been used for a number of years
in aerospace applications, replacing standard fibreglass fabrics. Todays materials - Kevlar,
graphite, S glass and ceramics - are now making the transition from aerospace to homebuilt
aircraft.




Table 3 - Properties of Composite Fibres
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Of course, these materials are not generally usable as fibres alone, and typically they are
impregnated by a matrix material that acts to transfer loads to the fibres. The matrix also
protects the fibres from abrasion and environmental attack. The matrix dilutes the properties
to some degree, but even so very high specific (weight-adjusted) properties are available from
these materials. Metal and glass are available as matrix materials, but these are currently very
expensive and largely restricted to R&D laboratories. Polymers are much more commonly
used, with unsaturated styrene-hardened polyesters having the majority of low-to-medium
performance applications and epoxy or more sophisticated thermo sets having the higher end
of the market. Thermoplastic matrix composites are increasingly attractive materials, with
processing difficulties being perhaps their principal limitation.

1.5.1 Classification of composite

Composite are classified broadly in three forms according to their formation of process:
Particle Reinforced
Fiber Reinforced
Structural
These composite are further classified according to their properties which are given in fig2:











Fig 2: Classification of composite

1.5.2 Advantages
Lower density (20 to 40%)
Higher directional mechanical properties (specific tensile strength ratio of material
strength to density) 4 times greater than that of steel and aluminium.
Higher Fatigue endurance.
Higher toughness than ceramics and glasses.
Versatility and tailoring by design.
Easy to machine.
Can combine other properties (damping, corrosion).
Cost.

1.5.3. Disadvantages
Not often environmentally friendly.
Low recyclability.
Cost can fluctuate.
Large-
particle
Dispersion-
strengthened
Particle-reinforced
Continuous
(aligned)
Aligned Randomly
oriented
Discontinuous
(short)
Fiber-reinforced
Laminates Sandwich
panels
Structural
Composites
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Can be damaged.
Anisotropic properties.
Matrix degrades.
Low reusability.

1.6 Sandwich panels:

When design requirements demand superior strength to weight ratios, sandwich structure is
indicated. In addition to its high strength, inherent rigidity and minimum weight, sandwich
provides the desirable side benefits of thermal and acoustical insulation.
Sandwich, by its very nature, is generally used as sheeting or flat panel form, applied to open
framework as a transverse web to carry shear loading. In other applications, it acts as a
support diaphragm. It serves as both a primary and secondary load member. And, it is capable
of transmitting extremely high loads when properly attached to the framework.
Other applications take advantage of its favourably low weight-to-area ratio. Typically, these
include curtain walls for decoration or the baffling of sound and light. Such applications do
not generally consider the inherent load capabilities of the structure. Initially sandwich was
used only in flat panel applications-a logical step away from plywood and other sheet panels.
Recent improvements, however, in fabrication techniques and growing industry awareness of
sandwich potential have spurred bolder forms. Today these include compound curves,
skeletonised sections and many complex shapes previously considered impossible.

1.6.1 Principle

Sandwich-structured composites are a special class of composite materials with the typical
features of low weight, high stiffness and high strength. Sandwich is fabricated by attaching
two thin, strong, and stiff skins to a lightweight and relatively thick core.


1.6.2 Sandwich Structure Details

The principal form of sandwich structure is the honeycomb configuration. This consists of
top and bottom face sheets attached to an inner core material; the core is made of hexagonal
cells having walls perpendicular to the face sheet planes (See Figure 1). Many materials have
been used successfully in honeycomb sandwich including aluminium, steel, high-temperature
alloys, paper, wood, fiber glass and plastics. In some applications honeycomb cells are filled
with a foam-in-place expanding plastic.
Other forms of sandwich consist of face sheets bonded to homogeneous cores such as foamed
plastics or wood. The variety is limited only by the state of the art and the imagination of the
designer.

1.6.3 Method for joining

Regardless of form, the methods for joining the two face skins and inner core into a rigid
member are numerous. By far the most widely used is that of adhesives applied by any of
several techniques, and activated chemically or thermally.
1. One method consists of brushing or spraying the adhesive film over one surface, and
subsequently mating with the second part pre-coated with activator.
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2. A second approach use prefabricated sheet adhesive. Adhesive, rolled into a thin sheet
partially cured to retain form, is stored between temporary non-adhering film, ready for use.
3. Another bonding technique consists of applying the adhesive with rollers to a scrim or grid
cloth, which is then cut to size and applied between core and face skins.
4. Still another method simply calls for an even coating of adhesive on the face skin, which is
subsequently activated and applied before setup.

In all methods, development of optimum strength depends on proper preparation of face skins
and controlled application of adhesive to form optimum fillets between mated ends or faces
of the core structure. Such bonding optimization achieves even transmission of loads from
face skins to core without bond rupture.

Other forms of sandwich structure which offer excellent high temperature strength
performance are composed of all steel honey-comb and face skin. These are most often
resistance welded or of brazed construction.

1.6.4 TYPICAL SANDWICH PANEL APPLICATIONS

AIRCRAFT INDUSTRY
Floor Panels
Interior Walls
Food Handling Galley Assemblies
Wing Control Surfaces
Passenger Storage Racks
Thrust Deflector Assemblies
AEROSPACE INDUSTRY
Capsule Panels
Ablative Shields for Nose Cones
Instrumentation Enclosures & Shelves
Bulkhead Panels
Space Satellites

ELECTRONICS INDUSTRY
Electronic Redone Construction
Large Antenna or Disk Reflectors
Military Electronic Instrumentation Shelters

TRANSPORTATION INDUSTRY
Cargo Pallets
Shipping Containers
Refrigeration Panels
Rapid Transit Floor Panels
Special Automobile Bodies

CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY
Architectural Curtain Walls
Partitions & Divider Panels
Expandable Hospital Shelters
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1.7 Advantages of Composites over metals:

Composites bring many performance advantages to the designer of structural devices, among
which we can list:

Composites have high stiffness, strength, and toughness, often comparable with
structural metal alloys. Further, they usually provide these properties at substantially
less weight than metals: their specific strength and modulus per unit weight is
near five times that of steel or aluminium. This means the overall structure may
be lighter ,and in weight - critical devices such as airplanes or spacecraft this
weight savings might be a compelling advantage.
Composites can be made anisotropic, i.e. have different properties in different
directions, and this can be used to design a more efficient structure. In many
Structures the stresses are also different in different directions; for instance in
closed end pressure vessels such as a rocket motor case the circumferential
stresses are twice the axial stresses. Using composites, such a vessel can be made
twice as strong in the circumferential direction as in the axial.
Many structures experience fatigue loading, in which the internal stresses vary with
time. Axles on rolling stock are examples; here the stresses vary sinusoid ally from
tension to compression as the axle turns. These fatigue stresses can eventually lead to
failure, even when the maximum stress is much less than the failure strength of the
material as measured in a static tension test. Composites of then have excellent fatigue
resistance in comparison with metal alloys, and often show evidence of accumulating
fatigue damage, so that the damage can be detected and the part replaced before a
catastrophic failure occurs.
Materials can exhibit damping, in which a certain fraction of the mechanical strain
energy deposited in the material by a loading cycle is dissipated as heat. This can be
advantageous, for instance in controlling mechanically-induced vibrations.
Composites generally offer relatively high levels of damping, and furthermore the
damping can often be tailored to desired levels by suitable formulation and
processing.
Composites can be excellent in applications involving sliding friction, with
tribological (wear) properties approaching those of lubricated steel.
Composites do not rust as do many ferrous alloys, and resistance to this common form
of environmental degradation may offer better life-cycle cost even if the original
structure is initially more costly.
Many structural parts are assembled from a number of subassemblies, and the
assembly process adds cost and complexity to the design. Composites offer a lot of
flexibility in processing and property control, and this often leads to possibilities for
part reduction and simpler manufacture.


Of course, composites are not perfect for all applications, and the designer needs to be aware
of their drawbacks as well as their advantages. Among these cautionary notes we can list:

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Not all applications are weight-critical. If weight-adjusted properties not relevant,
steel and other traditional materials may work fine at lower cost.
Anisotropy and other special features are advantageous in that they provide a great
deal of design flexibility, but the flip side of this coin is that they also complicate the
design. The well-known tools of stress analysis used in isotropic linear elastic design
must be extended to include anisotropy, for instance, and not all designers are
comfortable with these more advanced tools.
Even after several years of touting composites as the material of the future,
economies of scale are still not well developed. As a result, composites are almost
always more expensive often much more expensive than traditional materials, so
the designer must look to composites various advantages to offset the extra cost.
During the energy-crisis period of the 1970s, automobile manufacturers were so
anxious to reduce vehicle weight that they were willing to pay a premium for
composites and their weight advantages. But as worry about energy efficiency
diminished, the industry gradually returned to a strict lowest-cost approach in
selecting materials. Hence the market for composites in automobiles returned to a
more modest rate of growth.
Although composites have been used extensively in demanding structural applications
for a half-century, the long-term durability of these materials is much less certain than
that of steel or other traditional structural materials. The well-publicized separation of
the tail fin of an American Airlines A300-600 Airbus after takeoff from JFK airport
on November 12, 2001 is a case in point. It is not clear that this accident was due to
failure of the tails graphite - epoxy material, but NASA is looking very hard at this
possibility. Certainly there have been media reports expressing concern about the
material, and these points up the uncertainty designers must consider in employing
composites.



1.8 Impact Strength:
Impact strength of any material is decided according to limit of sudden load or force applied
on that material which it can wear without failure. It is used to limit the sudden load applied
to it. As the considered composite is used as armour shield in which impact is generated by
bullet or projectile, so there should be high impact strength in that material to protect human
body from that impact. Kevlar have high impact strength but it is costly due to which we can
substitute it with some other layer of material along with it.
1.8.1 Impact property of sandwich panels
In sandwich panels impact strength of any prepared composite can be altered or manipulated
according to the requirements, because by using layers of different composite having specific
properties, when they combine with other properties of each composite combines and gives
another specific property which can be regulated and manipulated. To improve impact
strength composite should be attached with another composite having high impact strength
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and to improve another properties of any developed sandwich composite following table 4
options can be used.
Almost any structural materials which are available in the form of thin sheet may be used to
form the faces of a sandwich panel. The properties of primary interest for the faces are :
High stiffness giving high flexural rigidity
High tensile and compressive strength
Impact Resistance
Surface finish
Environmental resistance
Wear resistance

Table 4: Properties of sandwich layers











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CHAPTER 2
LITERATURW REVIEW

Currently, Kevlar has many applications, ranging from bicycle tires and racing sails to body
armor because of its high tensile strength-to-weight ratio; by this measure it is 5 times
stronger than steel on equal weight basis .it is also used to make modern drumheads that hold
up withstanding high impact. When used as woven material, it is suitable for mooring and
underwater applications.
We have gone through the previous papers and research works and those are in short:
Body armor history at early stage:
One of the earliest forms of soft body armor was animal skin. These offered more protection
than other forms of armor with the advantage of light-weight. While this armor was quite
effective for the threats of the time ,it was extremely heavy in weighing about 60 lbs.
Body made of flak jacket:
During World War II, the next step toward the soft body armor was when the military began
using the flak jacket which was constructed of ballistic polyamides. This flak jacket helped
shield personnel against munitions fragment but could not protect against most rifles and
pistols.
Today , nonwoven materials are being used in ballistic protection application because of their
light weight and flexibility. The use of nonwoven fabrics in market began in the late 1960s.
In a study by US Department of Defence, needle-punched nonwoven structure containing
fibres was produced at one third the weight of woven fabric while retaining 80%of its
ballistic resistance.[1]
Fibrous materials for ballistic protection were significantly improved in the last few decades.
Nylon fibers were leading the industry prior to 1970s. These fibres showed considerable non-
linearity in stress-strain behaviour, with relatively high strain values to failure.[2]
The current state-of the art body armor system being fielded by the US army is Interceptor,
consisting of an outer tactial vest made of Kevlar KM2 weave that is able to stop high-
powered handgun ammunition. The interceptor body armor system weighs 16.4 lbs. Where
the previous body armor the flak jacket, weighted 25.1 lbs[5]. These polymers include
aramids(e.g. Kevlar, Tawron, Technora ), highly oriented polythene (e.g. Spectra , Dyneema)
and PBO(e.g. Zylon).[3]
Experimental and numerical studies were carried out to determine the ballistic response of
laminated Kevlars 29 and 129 composite panels, commonly used in protective body armor.
These panels were impacted at velocities between 130 to 250m/s, which were below the
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penetration limit of panels. Experimental testing showed that kevlars 29 exhibited a lower
BFS than Kevlar 129 at low velocities; however this changed for higher velocity impacts.[4]
Carbon fibre sandwich composites have relatively low impact properties. In an attempt
to improve upon the impact properties while maintaining the high stiffness, lightweight
nature of the carbon fibre, Kevlar or hybrid were added to the face sheet. The impact and
compression after impact data characterized how adding Kevlar or hybrid to the face sheet
improved the sandwich composite performance during and after impact. The elastic
modulidata helped characterize the loss in stiffness resulting from the addition of Kevlar or
hybrid to the face sheet.[5]
The test configuration described here was designed to be somewhat representative of
fabric containment systems used in jet engines, while maintaining repeatability and simplicity
in the test. The results show that under the conditions of this test, KEVLAR is able to absorb
over twice as much energy as ZYLON when compared on an overall weight basis. The
normalized energy absorbed is relatively insensitive to the number of layers of material.
These results are consistent with results of those of an earlier study (Pereira and Revilock,
2004). This allows for a fairly simple design procedure if the assumption is made that the
amount of energy absorbed per unit weight is independent of the number of layers of
material. Except in cases where the yaw angle was high, the heavier weight Zylon material
performed better than the lighter material, for the same overall weight. The energy absorbed
by the fabric when normalized by the overall areal weight of the fabric ring is approximately
linearly related to the presented area of the projectile at impact and, within the parameters of
this study, is independent of the actual shape of the projectile. The limited testing performed
under conditions of no fabric tension indicate that there is no significant difference in energy
absorption between the two tested conditions. However, this should be validated by
additional testing [6]
A numerical model that describes the ballistic impact of a fragment - simulating
projectile with fabric armor can be developed and it will more helpful for predicting the
behavior of composite during impact test it also include that Kevlar having really best impact
strength compared to other composite. The model predicts the residual velocity curve and the
ballistic limit for ballistic impact of a single layer of fabric and also for woven fabric with the help of
residual velocity we can easily calculate the energy absorbed lamina. The model accurately indicates
the effect of changing the projectile kinetic energy and impact area as well as the effect on the
impact process of changing the size of the panel boundary .[7]
The proposed correlation on the energy absorption for Kevlar-29/polyester materials
is well to predict the behaviour of energy impact for the composite material. The results
inferred from the work presented described formulation of the energy absorption for
composite material plate target against 7.62 mm of conical nose projectiles are suitable to
compute accurate result within an error of maximum 3.6% of experimental work. The energy
absorption of the composites were increased as the initial velocity increases and the
numerical simulation was developed and combined with academic AUTODYN-software by
explicit mesh to calculate time vs. velocity curves and energy absorption of
kevlar29/polyester composite laminated plates. The impact energy absorptions of numerical
simulation compared with experimental work which it was calculated by using equation. The
good agreements of the comparisons with maximum errors were 3.6% .The increasing of
thickness of plate affected on the behaviour of energy absorption and ballistic limit for the
projectile that the structure obtained of 20mm thickness was optimum structure to resist the
impact loading under 320m/s impact velocity as armour application [8].
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Kevlar-29, of various thread thicknesses (44, 66, 88 and 132 tex), was used as the
through-thickness stitch fibre in the Interlaminar tension test (ITT) experiments. ITT load
displacement curves show similar features and could be characterised into various force and
displacement parameters[9]
Impact of a rigid sphere onto a high-strength plain-weave Kevlar KM2 fabric was modeled
using LSDYNa. Results indicate that ballistic performance depends upon friction, elastic
modulus and strength of the yarns. While friction improves ballistic performance by
maintaining the integrity of the weave pattern, material properties of the yarns have a
significant influence on the effect of friction. It is shown that fabrics comprised of yarns
characterized by higher stiffness and strength relative to the baseline Kevlar KM2, exhibited
a stronger influence on ballistic performance.[10]

The impact of three different projectiles (0.357 Magnum, 9-mm FMJ and 0.30 cal FSP) onto
Kevlar was modeled using a commercial finite-element program. For one-layer and multiple-
layer targets validation consisted on matching experimental data of pyramid formation
recorded by an ultra-high-speed camera. This paper shows that the main features of the
impact physics are well reproduced by the finite-element model. Prediction of ballistic limits
for the 9-mm FMJ and FSP projectiles were within the scatter of the tests, while for the 0.357
projectile the difference was only 15%[11].
The following conclusions were drawn from this study [12]:
1. The addition of Kevlar to the face sheet improved the maximum absorbed energy
and average maximum impact force of the 1Kevlar4Kevlar samples by
approximately 10% compared to the Carbon Fibre samples.
2. The addition of hybrid to the face sheet improved the maximum absorbed energy
of the 1K4K samples by approximately 5% and the average maximum impact
force by approximately 14% compared to the CF samples.
3. The addition of Kevlar or hybrid minimized the reduction in compression after
impact strength when considering non-impacted samples and those that
experienced complete striker penetration. However, the compression strength of
the non-impacted samples was the highest for the CF samples.
4. The elastic moduli, E1 and E2, were reduced when Kevlar or hybrid were added
to the facesheet. However, the reduction can be minimized to around 9% by
replacing only one layer of carbon fiber with Kevlar or hybrid.
5. The advantages and disadvantages of using 1K samples over CF are:
Advantage:
(a) 12.5% higher average absorbed energy (3545 J),
(b) 11.9% higher average maximum force.
Disadvantage
(c) 12.7% lower non-impacted compressive strength,
(d) reduction in stiffness .
It was also mentioned that the Kevlar is best suited for aerospace it with stand up-to
high temperature and its strength of impact is also high which is beneficial to protect it from
unwanted condition it also help full in war condition to protect it from normal injury
condition it can resist up-to 600m/s normally with metal impregmentation [13].
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The predicted damages by Autodyn-3D v12.1 software of the composite Kevlar29/epoxy-
Al2O3 laminated plates perforating in with different (4, 8 and 12mm) thicknesses at range of
(160 - 400 m/s) strike velocities of steel 4340 bullet, an example of (100 x 100 x 4mm) target
under 240 m/s is much accurate and by which we can say that Kevlar have high impact
strength compared to other composite material.[14]

The study presented here shows the significant effects of boundary conditions on the energy
absorption mechanisms, and subsequent ballistic performance of fabric structures. Fixed
boundaries promote a more rapid development of strain energy within the fabric and an
increase in strain localisation, with relatively small panel deformation prior to complete
impact energy absorption or failure. Free-free boundaries are more likely to promote gross
translation of impact energy into kinetic energy of the panel with relatively little strain
localisation and failure. The current version of the numerical model accurately predicts the
trends and instantaneous values of the projectile velocity and energy absorption by the panel.
However, the predictive capability of this model needs to be further enhanced by
incorporation of realistic failure criteria that account for conditions that lead to the failure
(perforation) of the fabric during impact.[15]
The current and also new perspective ballistic materials can be evaluated with use of results
of free fall test carried out with falling weight of suitable mass and shape, especially from the
point of view of their stiffness that is one of the components of ballistic resistance against
small arms projectiles, or its capability to eliminate deformation of rear side of Kevlar
adjoined to the body. The deformation behaviour of the Kevlar is the essential criterion for
the assessment of the ballistic resistance against small arms projectiles.[17]
In the experimental field, studying the various failure modes and their mechanisms in woven
fabrics is of interest as these results could be useful to design better performing armor
systems. The failure modes for fabrics are numerous, coupled and dependent on many factors
internal and external to the fabric. The progress of deformation for these fabrics in an in-
service condition occurs at a very high speed and capturing all the details of interest requires
the use of new technologies and equipment. The next general personal armors will
incorporate sensors, micro-fluidic and micro-electronic devices embedded in them. The effect
of these devices on the overall performance of the system presents interesting challenges.
As armor systems become more and more complex with the use of novel materials and
processes, modelling these new innovations become a challenge. With the advent of new
computational tools it would be possible to simulate complex failure mechanisms and
propagation of defects in fabric impact scenarios. The use of new materials and processes to
augment the performance of existing aramid fabrics is a field which will see a sustained focus
in the near future. The history of armor design amply demonstrates that it has always kept
pace with the progress in weapons design and the aim has always been to remain one step
ahead in both fields.[18]
It can be seen that 40 plies of Kevlar-49 are enough to stop both types of bullets, while 45
plies (M-16) and 48 plies (AK-47) of Kevlar-49 are required for this. On the right vertical
axis, N* p , the volume of penetrated plies (trauma) is pointed in the case when the bullet is
stopped by the target.[19]



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CHAPTER 3
RAW MATERIAL AND EQUIPMENTS
3.1 Raw material
The composite is prepared which having high impact strength; a sandwich composite is to be
prepared to prepare that composite we require three materials one is Kevlar, leather and one
adhesive material (araldite).
3.2 Kevlar

Kevlar is the registered trademark for a para-aramid synthetic fiber, related to
other aramids such as Nomex and Technora. Developed at DuPont in 1965,this high strength
material was first commercially used in the early 1970s as a replacement for steel in racing
tires. Typically it is spun into ropes or fabric sheets that can be used as such or as an
ingredient in composite material components.
Currently, Kevlar has many applications, ranging from bicycle tires and racing sails to body
armour because of its high tensile strength-to-weight ratio; by this measure it is 5 times
stronger than steel on an equal weight basis.
[2]
It is also used to make modern drumheads that
hold up withstanding high impact. When used as a woven material, it is suitable for mooring
lines and other underwater applications.
A similar fiber called Twaron with roughly the same chemical structure was developed
by Akzo in the 1970s; commercial production started in 1986, and Twaron is now
manufactured by Teijin.

3.1.1 Fabrication Process:
As explained earlier, Kevlar is a polymer. A polymer is comprised of monomers, or simply
individual molecules. The monomers are attached in a series of chains that creates the
polymer. A polymer is synthetic or man-made, which means it is prepared in a lab.
Kevlar is also a carbon-based aramid. The name aramid is an abbreviation
for aromatic polyamide.


Kevlar does not start out as a polymer. Like all other synthetic substances, it has to undergo a
fabrication process. A condensation reaction with a diamine, a terephthalic acid and sulphuric
Fig 3: Monomers of Kevlar
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acid create the substance that will become the final product. A diamine is any organic
compound containing two amino groups (NH2) while a terephthalic is a carboxylic acid that
consists of a benzene ring in its molecule.

Fig 4: Molecular structure of Kevlar
The substance that the condensation reaction has created is called the intermediate. In order
to make the Kevlar, it must be drawn. Drawing is essentially stretching the product at a set
temperature to strengthen the product. Once the intermediate has been drawn, poly-para-
phenylene terephthalamide is created, or simply, Kevlar 29. In order to become a stronger
product, Kevlar 29 must be hot-drawn at 400C. Hot drawing allows higher degrees of
strength and crystallinity and this creates Kevlar 49, the strongest type of Kevlar.

Fig 5: Fiber of Kevlar
Once the Kevlar has been drawn it must be spun to produce the filaments. In order to do so, it
is extruded though a spinneret. After this, it is washed and neutralized and then taken to be
dried. The final step of the manufacturing process is winding the Kevlar into spools. This
creates a more flexible approach for the buyers so that they can use the threads for their needs
instead of buying the Kevlar in sheets.
3.1.2 Properties:

Kevlar is such a successful material due to its tremendous tensile strength (the amount of
stretching it can withstand before breaking). The reason why it is so strong is mainly due to
the straight fibres that it possesses. In order to fully understand this concept, crystallinity
must be taken in to account.

Cristallinity is a property of polymers. When a polymer is not arranged in an orderly manner
it is called amorphous. Amorphous polymers are polymer chains that are tangled up and do
not follow a strict pattern. They give the polymer the ability to bend without breaking, an
important part in Kevlar. If a polymer is arranged in a neat, orderly manner the polymer is
considered crystalline. Crystallinity gives the polymer strength, but crystallinity tends to
make the polymer extremely brittle. For instance, Plexiglas is easily susceptible to shattering
due to its high crystallinity and weak amorphousness. Yet Lexan is much more shatter
resistant due to its lower crystallinity and higher amorphousness. By mixing the two
17


characteristics, sacrificing strength for flexibility or flexibility for strength, an ideal substance
can be created.
When scientists look for high tensile strength fibres, they search for a polymer with trans-
conformations and try to avoid ones with cis- conformations. Cis- conformations can be a
problem due to the fact that they have a tendency to cause unwanted bends in the polymer
chain. Bends are a problem due to the fact that they weaken the fibres and lower the strength
and crystallinity. Trans- conformations are wanted and useful thanks to the fact that they
create a fully stretched out and straight polymer chains. With many polymers, even the
slightest amount of energy can change the conformations. Kevlar is an exception. It tends to
keep its trans- conformations and rarely form cis- conformations. This is due to the shape of
the aromatic rings that Kevlar possesses. When Kevlar attempts to bend into the cis-
conformation, the hydrogens on the aromatic rings cannot be manipulated to fit in the gap,
they take up too much space. This is why Kevlar tends to remain in the trans- conformation.
The aromatic hydrogens have plenty of room and with this trans- conformation and the
molecule tend to stay in a nice and long fibre.
Another important characteristic about Kevlar is that it can make strong types of
intermolecular forces, hydrogen bonds. Hydrogen bonds are responsible for keeping multiple
fibre strands "glued together". The polar amide groups on adjacent chains bond together with
magnetic charges. The oxygen atom can be considered negative and the hydrogen atom
positive. The negative atom attracts the positive atom and a hydrogen bond is created.



Fig 6: Polymer structure of Kevlar
18




All these properties give Kevlar many advantages over other polymers. It has a tremendously
high tensile strength and is five times stronger than steel. Underwater, Kevlar is up to 20
times stronger than steel! Temperature-wise, Kevlar exceeds the performance of many other
materials. It can withstand temperatures up to 300C while retaining its strength properties.
Even at -196C Kevlar shows no signs of embrittlement or loss of strength. Almost all
solvents are ineffective at degrading Kevlar except the few powerful acids.
However, Kevlar is not indestructible. One of the factors that can impede and degrade its
performance is ultraviolet light. The degradation is small though, only the outside layer is
affected and not the inside one. Even the performance is not affected too much; the Kevlar
retains most of its strength and rigidity.
3.1.3 Properties and advantages
Very high tensile strength- tensile strength of about 3,620 MPa.
Low density- relative density of 1.44
Highly impact resistant
Resistant to wear and abrasion
Thermally stable: Kevlar maintains its strength and resilience down to cryogenic
temperatures (196 C); in fact, it is slightly stronger at low temperatures. At higher
temperatures the tensile strength is immediately reduced by about 1020%, and after
some hours the strength progressively reduces further. For example at 160 C (320
F) about 10% reduction in strength occurs after 500 hours. At 260 C (500 F) 50%
strength reduction occurs after 70 hours.
No affect of water or moisture - Kevlar remained "virtually unchanged" after
exposure to hot water for more than 200 days and its super-strong properties are
"virtually unaffected" by moisture.
Can sustain high temperatures- Kevlar does not melt. It decomposes at relatively high
temperatures of about 450
0
C.
Fig 7: Cis and Trans view of Kevlar molecule
19


No shrinkage- Kevlar does not shrink like other organic fibers when exposed to hot
air or hot water.

Table 5: Properties of Kevlar








20


3.1.4 Applications of Kevlar
Kevlar is used in a number of applications, be it in industry, law enforcement or in general
consumer products. The products made with Kevlar are part of daily life.
Another use for this material is in the production of sporting goods. Some components of
Kevlar are used in an array of rackets, such as tennis, badminton and squash rackets. Canoes
and kayaks were also improved when Kevlar technology was applied there. They are now
more durable during impacts. Kevlar is also used in a variety of skis, snowboards,
skateboards, gloves, helmets and shoes.
3.1.5 Some other application
Cryogenics
Kevlar is often used in the field of Cryogenics for its low thermal conductivity and high
strength relative to other materials for suspension purposes. Most often used to suspend a
paramagnetic salt enclosure from a superconducting magnet mandrel in order to minimize
any heat leaks to the paramagnetic material. It is also used a thermal standoff or structural
support where low heat leaks are desired.
Armor
Kevlar is a well-known component of personal armor such as combat helmets, ballistic face
masks, and ballistic vests. The PASGT helmet and vest used by United States military forces
from the 1980s into 2005 both have Kevlar as a key component, as do their replacements.
Other military uses include bulletproof facemasks used by sentries and spall liners used to
protect the crews of armored fighting vehicles. Even Nimitz-class aircraft carriers include
Kevlar armor around vital spaces. Related civilian applications include Emergency Service's
protection gear if it involves high heat (e.g., tackling a fire), and Kevlar body armor such as
vests for police officers, security, and SWAT.
Personal protection
Kevlar is used to manufacture gloves, sleeves, jackets, chaps and other articles of
clothing designed to protect users from cuts, abrasions and heat. Kevlar based protective gear
is often considerably lighter and thinner than equivalent gear made of more traditional
materials.
21


Sports equipment
It is used as an inner lining for some bicycle tires to prevent punctures, and due to its
excellent heat resistance, is used for fire poi wicks. In table tennis, plies of Kevlar are added
to custom ply blades, or paddles, in order to increase bounce and reduce weight. It is used
for motorcycle safety clothing, especially in the areas featuring padding such as shoulders
and elbows. It was also used as speed control patches for certain Soap Shoes models.
Audio equipment
Kevlar has also been found to have useful acoustic properties for loudspeaker cones,
specifically for bass and midrange drive units.
]
Additionally, Kevlar has been used as a
strength member in fiber optic cables such as the ones used for audio data transmissions.
Strings
Kevlar can be used as an acoustic core on bows for string instruments. Kevlar's physical
properties provide strength, flexibility, and stability for the bow's user. To date, the only
manufacturer of this type of bow is Coda Bow.
Drumheads
Kevlar is sometimes used as a material on marching snare drums. It allows for an extremely
high amount of tension, resulting in a cleaner sound. There is usually a resin poured onto the
Kevlar to make the head airtight, and a nylon top layer to provide a flat striking surface.
Woodwind reeds
Kevlar is used in the woodwind reeds of Fibracell. The material of these reeds is a composite
of aerospace materials designed to duplicate the way nature constructs cane reed. Very stiff
but sound absorbing Kevlar fibers are suspended in a lightweight resin formulation.
Frying pans
Kevlar is sometimes used as a substitute for Teflon in some non-stick frying pans.
Rope, cable, sheath
The fiber is used in woven rope and in cable, where the fibers are kept parallel within
a polyethylene sleeve. The cables have been used in suspension bridges such as the bridge
at Aberfeldy in Scotland. They have also been used to stabilize cracking concrete cooling
towers by circumferential application followed by tensioning to close the cracks.
22


Electricity generation
Kevlar was used by scientists at Georgia Institute of Technology as a base textile for an
experiment in electricity-producing clothing..
Building construction
A retractable roof of over 60,000 square feet (5,575 square meters) of Kevlar was a key part
of the design of Montreal's Olympic stadium for the 1976 Summer Olympics. It was
spectacularly unsuccessful, as it was completed ten years late and replaced just ten years later
in May 1998 after a series of problems.
Brakes
The chopped fiber has been used as a replacement for asbestos in brake pads. Dust produced
from asbestos brakes is toxic, while aramids are a benign substitute.
Expansion joints and hoses
Kevlar can be found as a reinforcing layer in rubber bellows expansion joints and
rubber hoses, for use in high temperature applications, and for its high strength. It is also
found as a braid layer used on the outside of hose assemblies, to add protection against sharp
objects.
Particle physics experiment
A thin Kevlar window has been used by the NA48 experiment at CERN to separate a vacuum
vessel from a vessel at nearly atmospheric pressure, both 192 cm in diameter. The window
has provided vacuum tightness combined with reasonably small amount of material (only
0.3% to 0.4% of radiation length).
Smart phones
The Motorola Droid RAZR has a Kevlar back plate, chosen over other materials such as
carbon fiber due to its resilience and lack of interference with signal transmission.

3.1.6 Bulletproof Vests
One of the most popular applications for Kevlar is with bulletproof vests. Over the
years, bulletproof vests have saved countless lives of military personnel, other law
23


enforcement officers and civilians alike. To date it has saved more than 2,749 police officers.
Thanks to the invention of Kevlar, bulletproof vests will continue to do so for years to come.


Bulletproof vests are very simple. They consist of a carrier, plastic film and Kevlar. In
order to be successful at stopping projectiles, there must be layers of material. These layers
are made of Kevlar and plastic film. The plastic film surrounds the woven Kevlar to aid in the
energy transmission and absorption. The layers are then placed between the outer shells, also
called the carrier. The carrier is what you would see if you saw someone wearing the vest.
When a projectile makes contact with the vest, the kinetic energy is dispersed along
the woven Kevlar layers. The first layer softens the impact by using the woven pattern's
horizontal and vertical tethers. When the projectile hits a vertical tether, every horizontal
tether is pulled. This distributes some of the projectile's energy along its tightly woven tethers
before the layer breaks. The next layer then absorbs the energy and the process continues
until the kinetic energy is zero. Since most non-armour piercing bullets are lead and lead is a
soft metal, the bullets that come into contact with the vest deform further reducing the bullet's
energy. This is called "mushrooming".

3.3 LEATHER
Leather is an extraordinarily differently durable and very flexible material created by
the tanning of putrescible animal rawhide and skin, basically primarily cattle hide. Leather is
inherently flexible, extremely durable, does not tear easily, is lightweight and can resist being
punctured.
3.3.1 Types
In general, leather is sold in four forms:
Full-grain leather refers to hides that have not been sanded, buffed, or snuffed (as opposed to
top-grain or corrected leather) to remove imperfections (or natural marks) on the surface of
the hide. The grain remains allowing the fiber strength and durability. The grain also has
Fig 8: Kevlar application as bulletproof vests
24


breathability, resulting in less moisture from prolonged contact. Rather than wearing out, it
will develop a patina over time. High quality leather furniture and footwear are often made
from full-grain leather. Full-grain leathers are typically available in two finish
types: aniline and semi-aniline.
Top-grain(Most common type used in upper end leather products)leather is the second-
highest quality. It's had the "split" layer separated away, making it thinner and more pliable
than full-grain. Its surface has been sanded and a finish coat added to the surface which
results in a colder, plastic feel with less breathability, and will not develop a natural patina. It
is typically less expensive and has greater resistance to stains than full-grain leather, so long
as the finish remains unbroken.
Corrected-grain leather is any leather that has had an artificial grain applied to its surface.
The hides used to create corrected leather do not meet the standards for use in creating
vegetable-tanned or aniline leather. The imperfections are corrected or sanded off, and an
artificial grain impressed into the surface and dressed with stain or dyes. Most corrected-grain
leather is used to make pigmented leather as the solid pigment helps hide the corrections or
imperfections. Corrected grain leathers can mainly be bought as two finish types: semi-
aniline and pigmented.
Split leather is leather created from the fibrous part of the hide left once the top-grain of
the rawhide has been separated from the hide. During the splitting operation, the top grain
and drop split are separated. The drop split can be further split (thickness allowing) into a
middle split and a flesh split. In very thick hides, the middle split can be separated into
multiple layers until the thickness prevents further splitting. Split leather then has an artificial
layer applied to the surface of the split and is embossed with a leather grain (bycast leather).
Splits are also used to create suede.
3.3.2 Production processes
The leather manufacturing process is divided into three fundamental sub-
processes: preparatory stages, tanning, and crusting. All true leathers will undergo these
sub-processes. A further sub-process, surface coating can be added into the leather process
sequence, but not all leathers receive surface treatment. Since many types of leather exist, it is
difficult to create a list of operations that all leathers must undergo.
25


The preparatory stages are when the hide/skin is prepared for tanning. Preparatory stages
slay include: preservation, soaking, liming, unhairing, fleshing, splitting,
relining, deleing, bating, degreasing, frizzing, bleaching, pickling, and depickling.
Tanning is the process which converts the protein of the raw hide or skin into a stable
material which will not putrefy and is suitable for a wide variety of end applications. The
principal difference between raw hides and tanned hides is that raw hides dry out to form a
hard inflexible material that when re-wetted (or wetted back) putrefy, while tanned material
dries out to a flexible form that does not become putrid when wetted back. Many different
tanning methods and materials can be used; the choice is ultimately dependent on the end
application of the leather. The most commonly used tanning material is chromium, which
leaves the leather, once tanned, a pale blue color (due to the chromium); this product is
commonly called "wet blue". The hides once they have finished pickling will typically be
between pH 2.8 and 3.2. At this point, the hides would be loaded in a drum and immersed in
a float containing the tanning liquor. The hides are allowed to soak (while the drum slowly
rotates about its axle) and the tanning liquor slowly penetrates through the full substance of
the hide. Regular checks will be made to see the penetration by cutting the cross-section of a
hide and observing the degree of penetration. Once an even degree of penetration exists, the
pH of the float is slowly raised in a process called basification. This basification process fixes
the tanning material to the leather and the more tanning material fixed, the higher the
hydrothermal stability and increased shrinkage temperature resistance of the leather. The pH
of the leather when chrome tanned would typically finish somewhere between 3.8 and 4.2.
Crusting is the process by which the hide/skin is thinned, retanned, and lubricated. Often a
coloring operation is included in the crusting subprocess. The chemicals added during
crusting must be fixed in place. The culmination of the crusting subprocess is the drying and
softening operations. Crusting may include the following operations: wetting back,
sammying, splitting, shaving, rechroming, neutralization, retanning, dyeing, fatliquoring,
filling, stuffing, stripping, whitening, fixating, setting, drying, conditioning, milling, staking,
and buffing.

3.3.3 Properties of Leather
High tensile strength
26


Resistance to tear
High resistance to flexing
High resistance to puncture
Good heat insulation
Resistance to fire
3.4 Cow Leather

Cow leather known for its strength and durability. It is the most abundantly available leather.
This aniline cow leather maintains its integrity and also takes the shape of the wearer. Also
known as aniline leather, this cow leather gives extra comfort with everyday use. Cow leather
is easy to care and is resistant to water and dirt.

3.4.1 Top Grain Cowhide
This is a layer, which is on the outside of the animal with hair growing out of it. It has
beautiful smooth surface with strength and flexibility. It is a premium product for
applications where durability and dexterity, both are essential.

3.4.2 Split Cowhide
This is a layer below the top grain. It can be used as suede as well as grain leather. The
finished product has a soft feel to it.

3.4.3 Characteristics of Cowhide Leather
It is strong and tough.
It is durable.
It is easy to maintain.
It is resistant to water and dirt.
It takes the shape of the wearer.
It is comfortable to wear.
3.4.4 Uses of Cowhide Leather

This Leather is commonly used as Shoe Upper leather. It is also used as garments,
ladies bags, upholstery, belts, etc.

3.5 Goat Leather

Goatskin leather is very soft and supple. Soft goat leather is comfortable as well as durable.
The soft goat leather contains a pleasing pebble grain which adds to its beauty. It colours
beautifully and is identified by a distinctive texture of ridges and furrows in the grain.
Usually there are two types of goatskin leather such as straight grained and crushed. Straight-
grained goatskin leather is produced by rolling a damp skin, so that all the grains run in the
same direction. Crushed goatskin leather is produced by flattening the ridges with ironing,
rolling or plating.


27


3.5.1 Characteristics of Goatskin Leather
It is soft and supple
It is lightweight and flexible
It is comfortable
It is durable
It is water-resistant

3.5.2 Uses of Goatskin Leather
Goatskin leather is widely used as a shoe upper leather and in providing other soft
goat products
Goatskin leather is also used for garments, gloves, wallets, brief case, bags, etc.

3.6 Buffalo Leather

Buffalo hide is strong and tough and has an interesting texture with a rubbery feel and pebbly
features to its leather. Buffalo leather is very thick and can be sliced into 2 to 3 layers before
tanning it into leather. The main characteristic of the hide is the originality in its grain.
Buffalo Leather is also known as nubuck buffalo leather and glazed buffalo leather is used as
shoe upper leather for high end products. It is widely used for Institutional Shoes such as for
Army, Police, Factory workers etc.

3.6.1 Characteristics of Buffalo Hide
It is strong and tough
It is thicker than cow leather
It looks attractive
It is soft and has pebbly features
It has rubbery feel

3.6.3 Uses of Buffalo Hide
Shoe uppers.
Institutional Shoes for Army, Police, Factory workers etc
Furniture
Belts
Wristwatch strap
Bookbinding and casing

3.7 Araldite
Araldite is a multipurpose, two components, room temperature curing, paste adhesive of high
strength and toughness. It is suitable for bonding a wide variety of metals, ceramics, glass,
rubber, rigid plastics and most other materials in common use. It is a versatile adhesive for
the craftsman as well as most industrial applications.




Fig 9: Goat leather
28



Fig 10: Araldite
3.7.1 Key properties

High shears and peel strength
Tough and resilient
Good resistance to dynamic loading
Bonds a wide variety of materials in common use
3.7.2 Product data

Table 6: Product details of araldite













A B Mixed
29


CHAPTER 4

MATERIALS AND METHODS

4.1 Method of Development

To develop sandwich composite there are lots of method in which one of them is wet lay-up
method which is most effective and cheap process to develop sandwich composite.

4.2 Wet Lay-up Method


This is one of the oldest but still one of the most commonly used methods to manufacture
sandwich components with composite faces. This method is very flexible yet labour-intensive
and thus best suited for short production series of especially large structures. The wet-layup
may perform either by hand lay-up or spray-up. The process uses a single-sided mould, male
or female, which is treated with the mould release agent. Normally, a neat resin layer, a gel
coat, is deposited directly onto the mould which is allowed to gel before the lamination starts.
The gel-coat resin usually is of high -quality and has good environmental resistance, thus
allowing the use of a lower-quality, cheaper resin within the actual laminate. The gel-coat
also produces, a smooth cosmetically appealing surface that hides the reinforcement
structure, which otherwise may be visible on the composite surface.

In case of vacuum assisted wet layup the core is placed on top of the laminated but not cross-
linked laminate whereupon the vacuum is applied and the laminate is cross-linked. the "top"
laminate is then laminated directly onto the core and vacuum preferentially drawn to improve
compaction. Alternatively the core and the top laminate may be applied concurrently before
applying vacuum. Rolling on top of the vacuum bags is common in order to work out voids
and remove excess resin.
The wet lay-up methods
Require small capital investments
Typically use resins that cross-link at room temperature with little or not applied
pressure and that are tolerant to variations in processing temperature
Use simple tooling due to modest cross-linking requirements
Are labour intensive
Are cost - effective for short production series and prototype production
Are suitable for any size structures, notably very large.
Bring on work health concerns due to the active chemistry of the resin.

Applications of wet lay-up methods include:
Motor and sailing yachts
Mine-sweepers and high-speed passenger ships
Refrigerated truck and railroad containers
Storage tanks
The main difference between hand laid-up and sprayed-up composites are due to the
differences in labour costs and mechanical properties. The lower labour cost of spray-up
implies that longer series are economically feasible and the inferior mechanical properties
30


achieved mean that commodity-type products are more common. Sprayed-up sandwich
components include small pleasure boats and storage containers and tanks.

4.2.1 Hand lay-up method
The hand (wet) lay-up is one of the oldest and most commonly used methods for manufacture
of composite parts. Hand lay-up composites are a case of continuous fibre reinforced
composites. Layers of unidirectional or woven composites are combined to result in a
material exhibiting desirable properties in one or more directions. Each layer is oriented to
achieve the maximum utilisation of its properties. Layers of different materials (different
fibres in different directions) can be combined to further enhance the overall performance of
the laminated composite material. Resins are impregnated by hand into fibres, which are in
the form of woven, knitted, stitched or bonded fabrics. This is usually accomplished by
rollers or brushes, with an increasing use of nip-roller type impregnators for forcing resin into
the fabrics by means of rotating rollers and a bath of resin. Laminates are left to cure under
standard atmospheric conditions. A typical hand lay-up method is shown in Fig.



Some of the advantages and disadvantages of hand lay-up of composite structures are as
follows:

4.2.2 Advantages
Design flexibility.
Large and complex items can be produced.
Tooling cost is low.
Design changes are easily effected.
Sandwich constructions are possible.
Semi-skilled workers are needed.
Higher fibre content and longer fibres than with spray lay-up.

Fig 11: Wet Hand Lay-up Process
31


4.2.3 Disadvantages
Only one moulded surface is obtained.
Quality is related to the skill of the operator.
Low volume process.
Longer cure times required.
Resins need to be low in viscosity to be workable by hand. This generally compromises
their mechanical/thermal properties.
The waste factor can be high.
4.3 Specimen development
4.3.1Procurement of the materials
Kevlar
From
GSP SUPERB TECHNOLOGY
R-10 B, STREET No.11, Industrial Area
Anand parbat, New delhi-110005
Leather and binding solution
From
Zakir bhai leathers
Phool wali gali, mool gunj, kanpur
4.4 Specification of materials
4.4.1 Kevlar:
Grade: Kevlar 49; Thickness: 0.02mm
Chemical name: poly-para-phenylene terephthalamide
Colour: Golden;
Elastic modulus: 131 GPa;
Density: 1.44
Areal density: 0.2275 g/cm
2

Ultimate stress: 3620 Pa;
Passion ratio: 0.44;


Fig 12: Kevlar 49
32


4.4.2 Leathers:
Type (Grain) Goat (Top Grain ) Buffalo (Top Grain) Cow (Top Grain)
Elastic modulus
GPa
45 48 47
Tensile strength
Mpa
50 45 38
Poisson ratio 0.56 0.89 0.78
Density g/cm
3
6.78 7.89 7.85
Areal density g/cm
2
0.489 0.786 0.783
Thickness mm 1 1.02 1.03
Table 7: Leathers and its Properties

Fig 13: Goat leather (top and bottom view)

Fig 14: Buffalo leather (top and bottom view)

Fig 15: Cow leather (top view)

33


4.5 Equipment required:
Hammer
Measuring scale
Clamping plates (fig 18)
cutter
scissors
Pressing machine (fig19 )
Adhesive material (araldite)
Weighing Machine


Fig 17: Pressing machine




Fig 16: Clamping device
34


4.6 WORK PIECE FABRICATIONS
STEP 1. Using a cutter and a plier, prepare the individual component required for the
specimen .i.e. cut out leather(cow, goat, buffalo) and Kevlar according to the required
dimensions(120x120mm
2
) (fig 20).

Fig 18: Cut pieces of Kevlar and Leather.
STEP 2. After cleaning the bonding surfaces, apply the araldite to individual layers
of Kevlar and leather. Now wait for these layers to soak the adhesive araldite.
STEP 3. Now, place alternate layers each of Kevlar, and leather to form a composite
of these constituents.

Fig 19: Sandwiched layers of Kevlar and leather
STEP 4. After completing one specimen, put it under a clamp and apply pressure on
it with the help of pressing machine (fig 20) to provide better support between the
individual layers of the specimen otherwise it will bend.
STEP 5. Using a plier and a cutter, cut out, further, the pieces of Kevlar, and leather
to complete the alternate layering of the constituents to form more number of
specimen.
35



Fig 20: Different Specimens









Fig 21: Process of fabrication

Different composition of composite is prepared by using alternate layer sandwich method; In
this method we are using Kevlar and leather layer alternatively in different numbers.


Kevlar fiber
Leather
Sandwiching Clamping
force
Testing of w/p
Work piece
inspection
Araldite
36


4.7 Specimens specifications:
The entire specimens have same dimensions: Length 120 mm, Width 120 mm
Specimen 1:- 1 layers of Kevlar + 4 layer of Goat leather (fig 22)
Specimen 2:- 3 layers of Kevlar + 4 layers of Goat leather (fig 23)
Specimen 3:- 1 layers of Kevlar + 4 layers of Buffalo leather (fig 24)
Specimen 4:- 3 layers of Kevlar + 4 layers of Buffalo leather (fig 25)
Specimen 5:- 1 layers of Kevlar + 4 layers of Cow leather (fig 26)
Specimen 6:- 3 of Kevlar + 4 layers of Cow leather (fig 27)
Figures of specimen:

Fig 22 Specimen 1:- 1 layers of Kevlar + 4 layer of Goat leather

Fig 23 Specimen 2:- 3 layers of Kevlar + 4 layers of Goat leather

Fig 24 Specimen 3:- 1 layers of Kevlar + 4 layers of Buffalo leather
37



Fig 25 Specimen 4: 3 layers of Kevlar + 4 layers of Buffalo leather

Fig 26 Specimen 5: 1 layers of Kevlar + 4 layers of Cow leather


Fig 27 Specimen 5: 3 layers of Kevlar + 4 layers of Cow leather




38


CHAPTER 5
DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF IMPACT TETSING RIG
5.1 INTRODUCTION
There are lots of impact testing machines are available in market by which impact strength of
any metals can be easily determined such as; Izod Impact test , Charpy Impact test, Drop test
Ballistic impact test. Above three test provides better result in metals, last one can be used for
both composite and metals in ballistic impact testing we have to find out impact strength of
material by performing Low impact velocity test and High impact velocity test.

Ballistics testing is a form of high speed testing that is used to test the ultimate impact
strength of composites. High velocity testing is characterized by an impactor travelling in the
range of 150-800 m/s. For high velocity impact conditions, structural response is less
important than in a low velocity case, and the damage area is more localized; therefore the
geometrical considerations are less important. Ballistics testing consists of firing a high speed
projectile at an object and determining after the impact how localized the damage is. This is a
good method for testing impact resistance of composites, and has been used for testing
products such as composite armour.

5.2 Ballistic testing set-up

To perform ballistic impact testing there are lots of conventional methods are used in which a
projectile or impactor is projected at a velocity which directly strikes to target after travelling
through thickness of target when projectile comes out it have some reduction in velocity it
implies that lost in energy in form of decrease in velocity is stored in target which is
equivalent to the impact strength of target.
This type of impact testing is performed by following methods:

By use of conventional gun.
By use of air compressed gun.
By mechanical set-up.

In first method by direct use of gun which is used in war to perform high impact testing. Gun
is loaded with bullet is directly projected on target. After impact testing residual velocity is
calculated and kinetic energy corresponding to residual velocity is subtracted from initial
energy. Reduction in energy is considered as absorbed energy which is impact strength of
target material. Which is not convenient at college level and use of it is considered as illegal.
In second setup air is used which act as medium to provide energy to bullet or impactor that
impactor strikes to the target and remaining calculation is same as in previous setup. In this
set up projectile is moving with the help of air which provide force or impulse to projectile.
Firstly air is compressed in compressor that compressed air is blown into the piston cylinder
arrangement in which a spring is attached to it which is compressed up-to a level according to
the required velocity. After releasing spring a plunger attached to it strikes to the bullet or
impactor that impactor gets motion and started toward target. This set-up in convenient at
college level but it requires more time and more expensive.
39



Third set-up is more reliable and convenient at college level in which we can directly change
velocity as required with replacement of spring according to the calculated stiffness spring. In
it whole spring is designed according to designed spring design of gun case and barrel is
designed according to calculated diameter of spring with gap between inner diameter of case
due to which there is reduction in friction. It consist mainly three parts:

Design of spring.
Design of casing.
Design of striker.
Calculation of design of each part is given below:

5.2.1 Design of spring:

In design of spring we have to calculate spring constant of spring according to desired
velocity;
Assume we require velocity V to impact projectile on target, then according to conservation
of energy spring energy is transferred to impactor:


Where; K=stiffness of spring;
x= deflection (fixed 10~20cm);
m=mass of impactor (8~10 gm);
v=velocity of projectile;
Since velocity of projectile is fixed and deflection is also fixed; mass of projectile is also
considered according to standard. Spring material is also considered according to availability
in market.

Fig 28: details view of spring
We have considered stainless steel as material and 150mm deflection; now if we required
velocity 250 m/s with mass of 8.8 gm:
Hence;


K=24444.44 N/mm
After calculating spring constant now we have to proceed for cal calculation of spring:
Modulus of rigidity of spring Es= 80~90 GN/m
2
(stainless spring)
Working stress of stainless steel is 500 N/mm
2

Now load applied on it is follows following calculation:
Assume spring index(S) = 12
40


Stress factor (K) =



K=



K=1.2525

The static load applied can be obtained by use of following equation:
fs=K



From standard table relation between wire diameter and allowable shear stress as given below
we find appropriate diameter of wire:

Table 8: wire diameter and allowable stress in N/mm
2

According to average life we have considered wire diameter approx 2.00mm
Now proceed to for calculation on load and diameter and its validation:
Spring index(S) =


Hence; D=d*S;
D= 22mm;
500=


Where : D= mean diameter of spring (mm);
d= diameter of wire (mm);
P=static load (N);

Hence;
P=44.45 N
Now deflection produced by spring is as follows and with the help of given formula we can
easily calculate number of active coil;


As given above deflection of spring:
x=150mm


After calculation we will get number of active coil: 64:
Solid length of spring: (z+2)*d= (64+2)*2 = 206mm;
41


Free length of spring= solid length +deflection under load+ clash allowance
= 136+ 150+ 0.25*150
= 409mm
Pitch of coil can be obtained by relation:



p=4.98mm
Hence all required data for design of spring is calculated.

5.2.2 Design of casing:

Casing is designed in such a way that it will not in contact with spring and also provide
support to it and prevent it by buckling hence mean diameter of spring is main consideration
in designing of casing, it should be like that it will not provide any friction losses
Hence inner diameter of casing:
Di=mean diameter of spring +2*spring wire diameter + allowances (5~10mm)
Di= 22+2*2+ 6
Di=31mm
The material selected for casing is IS3074 alloy of steel and iron having properties according
to the requirement. Thickness of pipe or casing is calculated on applying stress in pipes
equations:
Circumferential stress:




Longitudinal stress:




Where: P= static pressure applied (N);
d=inner diameter of pipe (mm);
t=thickness of pipe(mm);
Having stress as follows:
Circumferential stress: 569N/mm
2

Longitudinal stress: 461 N/mm
2

Hence thickness of pipe is:
According to circumferential stress:





t=2.04mm
According to longitudinal stress:




t=2.45mm
Hence optimum thickness of pipe is: 2.45mm
42


Outer diameter of pipe is = 31 + 2*2.45=35.9mm
Length of casing is determined according to volume of spring:
Volume of spring= free length* area of spring
=L* D
2

=406* *28*28 mm
3

Volume of pipe= volume of spring+ allowances
Vp = inner area of pipe *length
Hence length of pipe=450mm;

5.2.3 Design of striker

Striker design data is taken from standard projectile which are used in gun or other papers to
perform impact test:

Striker 1:
First striker having following details
Material: stainless steel

Fig 29: striker design on CATIA



43


Striker 2:
Material: stainless steel

Fig 30: design of striker on CATIA


Fig 31: Striker with stainless steel
44


Striker 3:
Material: stainless steel

Fig 32: Striker on CATIA

Fig 33: striker of steel on CATIA



Fig 34: IMPACTOR OR PROJECTILE USED TO PERFORM TEST
45


5.2.4 DESIGN OF FRAME
Design of frame is prepared according to the prepared specimen. This is made of iron stripes
in which a finite space is given up-to which sample is tested and experimentation is done.
Frame is of dimension 130 x 130mm
2
and specimen is of dimension 120 x120mm
2
which is
covered by 10 mm of frame stripes.



5.3 Fabrication of set up
In whole main part of set-up is gun in which spring and plunger are attached on the tip of
plunger striker or impactor is bolted with the help of nut and bolt arrangement in which
plunger having internal thread of M6 and striker have outer thread of M6. According to the
requirement each projectile and impactor is attached and tested. Impcator strikes to the target
which is at a distance from gun and pierce it.
Details of each component are listed below along with their sketch diagram, arrangement and
materials are given below:





Fig 35: Frame to Clamp Work Piece
46


5.3.1 Spring:


Spring details along with all details are given
Spring 1 2 3
Material Spring steel Spring steel Spring steel
Wire diameter 2 mm 1.8mm 2.2mm
Mean diameter 24mm 23mm 20mm
Free length 409mm 430mm 440mm
Solid length 206mm 158mm 189mm
Spring constant 24444.45 N/m 14444 N/m 10000 N/m
Table 9: Details of spring used
These springs are inserted inside the casing and plunger is attached to it.

Fig 36: Designed spring
Fig 37: Design of complete spring set-up to perform impact
test
47



5.3.2 Casing:
Material: IS3074 (pipe)
Length of pipe: 450 mm
Inner diameter of pipe = 32mm
Thickness of pipe = 2.45mm
5.3.3 Striker:
Material: stainless steel
Coating: Nickel-chrome
Mass: 8~10 gm
Length: 40~50mm
5.3.4 Equipment required for fabrication:
Nut and bolt: - M10 (4)
Drill machine (Hand drill/ Motor drill)
Hammer
Plier
Wooden board
Iron frame
After fabrication whole set-up sketch is as follows:



Fig 38: Design of complete set-up to perform impact test
48



CHAPTER 6
MATLAB ANALYSIS
6.1 Introduction
We are using the popular computer package MATLAB as a matrix calculator for doing the
numerical calculations needed in mechanics of composite materials. In particular, the steps of
the mechanical calculations will be emphasized in this chapter. Instead step-by-step solutions
of composite material mechanics problems are examined in detail using MATLAB. All the
problems in this chapter assume linear elastic behaviour in structural mechanics. The
emphasis is not on mass computations or programming, but rather on learning the composite
material mechanics computations and understanding of the underlying concepts.
The basic aspects of the mechanics of fiber-reinforced composite materials are covered in this
chapter. This includes lamina analysis in the local and global coordinate systems, laminate
analysis, and energy absorption of a lamina due to impact.

6.2 MATLAB (Matrix laboratory)

MATLAB is laboratory of matrix in which all calculations are solved with the help of matrix
which is more convenient. MATLAB is package in which all calculation is followed by
accuracy and prediction of result easily with the help of both numerical data and graphical
representation with the help of MATLAB all data arranged in proper way for finite element.
6.3 Mathematical modelling
A mathematical model is presented to compute the total energy absorbed and its components
from the knowledge of the projectiles position in time. The model uses the basics of single
yarn impact and extends it to a fabric via simple assumptions.
Based on theory of single yarn impact an analytical model is proposed to approximate the
energy absorption of fabric, knowing the displacement- time record of projectile. This model
calculates the fabrics total absorbed energy in terms of strain and kinetic energy components
It is assumed that upon impact, longitudinal strain wave is generated in the strained yarns.
The propagation velocity of this wave, C, for weaves and yarn crossovers.
C=


Where E and are elastic modulus of the yarns and mass density respectively. The elastic
modulus is divided by a constant factor of 2,in order to account for reduction wave speed due
to account for reduction of wave speed due to the fabric yarn crossovers, and the crimp,
which exist in a fabric system.
The longitudinal wave is then followed by transverse wave, which causes the material to
move in direction perpendicular to the fabrics plane. The transverse displacement of the
material within this wave forms a pyramid (deformation pyramid or cone) with the material
49


within all the material move out-of-plane with the speed of the projectile. The propagation
velocity of the transverse wave in the Lagrangian co-ordinate system, , can be derived as

= 64+0.74 V
Where V is velocity of impactor; there is relation in longitudinal strain wave, transverse
strain wave and strain generated due to impact in fibers:
=


Simplification of the above relation results in laboratory co-ordinate

U=( )

The strain, s, is assumed to be constant along each yarn and is calculated using the yarn
length within the longitudinal wave fronts. This assumption implies that only the yarns,
which go through the deformation cone, are strained due to their transverse displacement
Thus, it can easily be concluded that the strain wave travels only in those individual yams
that go through the deformation cone in two directions.

The model predicts the absorbed energy and its components in time, for the duration before
the first reflected longitudinal strain wave returns to the impact point. Analysis is divided into
two phases; phase-I corresponding to the time when the longitudinal strain wave travels
outwards to the boundaries, and phase-II corresponding to the period when the wave has
reflected from the boundaries (either partially or fully) and is coming back to the impact
point. This analytical model is established for panels with two different boundary conditions,
fixed all-around, and free all-around. The approach is explained separately for each of these
two cases.

The panels discussed here are considered to be square targets with clamped edges, meaning
that all the degrees of freedom of the nodes on the boundary are restrained. Two time periods
are considered: phase-I starting from the impact time and ending just as the longitudinal
strain wave front reflects from the boundaries, and phase-II, which immediately follows
phase-I and ends when the reflected strain wave returns to the impact point. Formulation of
these two phases is presented below.

6.3.1 Phase-I

As mentioned above, phase-I starts from t = 0 to t = T
1
, where T
1
is the termination time for
phase-I and is calculated as follows:


Where L is the panel size. The total absorbed energy of the target is broken down into three
components, strain energy of the yarns, transverse kinetic energy of the cone, and in-plane
kinetic energy outside the cone.

50


6.3.2 Strain energy
Strain is determined using the deformed length of a yarn. Figure 42(b) shows the deformed
shape of a yarn going through the impact point (i.e. central yarn), for which, the deformed
length, l, is equal to:


Where d is the projectile displacement and b is the cone size in the global co-ordinate system,
calculated from the transverse wave velocity, U, as follow:


Considering the undeformed length of the yarn covered by the longitudinal strain wave, 2Ct,
the strain in the central yarn,
0
, can be calculated as follows:


In general, the same approach can be used to determine strain of yarn in the Y direction at a
distance X from the impact point



(

)
Finally, from the above equations, the strain energy of the system can be calculated as
follows:

strain


Where v is the volume of the yarn; Due to the existing symmetry in the fabric, the strain
energy is calculated for half-width of all the v-running yarns and then is multiplied by four to
get the total strain energy:

(t<T1)
Where h is the thickness of the fabric, and hence h/2is the yarn thickness
6.3.4 Transverse kinetic energy of the cone
Same as the single yarn impact, it is assumed that the material in the area covered by the
transverse strain wave moves transversely with the speed of the projectile. This creates a
transversely deformed pyramid or cone with the projectile being at its centre. In order to find
the total mass of the material in this region, areal density of the fabric before impact is used.
The areal density which is equal to the mass of the fabric per unit area is valid only for the
undeformed fabric. Thus, the transverse wave velocity in the Lagrangian system of co-
ordinates, U, is used to consider the area of the cone, and then calculate the mass of the
particles within the cone. The area within the transverse wave front, A
cone
, is then calculated
using the following equation:


Where b is the cone size and is determined by the following relation


51


Kinetic energy of the cone would then be equal to:


Substituting values of m and A;


Where
areal
is the areal density of the fabric, and V
proj
. is the projectile velocity.
6.3.5 In-plane kinetic energy outside the cone
Same as in the single yarn impact, it is assumed that part of the absorbed energy goes into the
in-plane motion of the material between the two strain waves (longitudinal and transverse
waves). The in-plane velocity of the masses, w, is a function of the strain in the yarns, which
changes with the distance from the impact point. The total energy is then derived by
integration of the yarns' kinetic energies over the entire area within the two waves. The in-
plane kinetic energy of a group of yarns for a width dx is equal to:


The total kinetic energy of the fabric would then be:

(t<= T
1
)
The total energy absorbed by the target in phase-I is calculated by summation of all energy
components:


6.3.6 Phase-II
Phase-II starts from T
1
, when the longitudinal strain wave first reaches the boundary to the
time T
II
, when the reflected wave returns to the impact point. Assuming the same velocity for
the out-going and returning longitudinal wave, it can be concluded that T
II
= 2T
I
. Upon
reflection of the wave, the state of strain and stress in the yarns change according to the
boundary conditions. From the fundamentals of wave reflection, it is known that the strain
wave reflects at a fixed boundary with the same sign, while on a free boundary, it returns
with the opposite sign. In other words, for a fixed boundary the reflected wave doubles the
existing strain, while the reflected wave at a free boundary cancels the existing strain on its
way back to the impact point. Similarly, the in-plane motion behind the longitudinal strain
wave is cancelled in reflection at a fixed boundary and is doubled at a free boundary by the
reflected strain wave. The analysis in phase-II is carried out in two steps. Figure 43 shows the
configuration of waves in early stages of reflection. The width of the reflected portion of the
wave, r, can be expressed by the following relation:


Initially the width of the reflected portion of the wave, r, is smaller than the cone size, b. Due
to higher speed of the longitudinal strain wave, this reflected width increases in size faster
than the cone size. There would be a transition time after which r becomes greater than b,
indicating that the outgoing wave has completely reflected from the boundaries and is
52


returning to the impact point (Figure 43). The energy calculation in phase-II is performed for
the duration before and after this transition time, T
r
, separately. The transition time is
determined as follows, knowing that at time T
tr
the width of the reflected wave equals the
cone size:

)
6.3.7 Strain energy
As the yarns in this area are completely under strain, total length of the yarn is used to
determine the strain:

)
After the transition time, the yarns are all swept by the longitudinal strain wave and the wave
front returns to the impact point. For this case, the strain is determined using the total length
of the yarns:

)
The strain energy is also calculated over the entire length of the yarns:

(T
tr
<t<T
II
)

6.3.8 Transverse kinetic energy of the cone
The kinetic energy of the particles in the cone moving out-of-plane with the projectile is
calculated in the same way as in phase-I. Any effect on the wave velocities resulting from the
interference of the returning longitudinal strain wave and transverse wave is neglected. The
formulation would be identical to what was obtained in phase-I, equation


6.3.9 In-plane kinetic energy outside the cone
As mentioned before, after the transition time, t>Ttr, the strain wave fully reflects from the
boundaries, and approaches the impact point. The kinetic energy is integrated over the area
between the two waves, only over the yarn lengths not yet covered by the returning strain
wave:


Similar to phase I energy absorbed



Hence the net velocity absorbed is sum of E
phaseI
and E
phaseII
total energy absorbed by single
layer is:
E
total
=E
phaseI
+E
phaseII

Remaining projectile energy is transferred is transferred to other layer;
53







Fig 40: Location of wave in quarter panel in Phase I

Fig 39: Waves and their propagation in the fabric after impact

54



Fig 41: (b) Waves in central Yarn (c) waves in yarn at distance x from the centre

Fig 42: configuration of Waves, phase II after the transition time



55


6.4 Flow chart:

























Input variables V,E
c1
,E
c2,

p
areal
,h,L,d,m,R,p
Start
Calculate phase I energy E
phaseI
Calculate Phase II energy
E
phaseII
Calculate projectile
energy E
proj
Total energy absorbed
E
total
=E
phaseI
+E
phase II
Calculate remaining
E
projnew
=E
proj
-E
total

Velocity corresponding to
remaining energy V
new
If v>0
i=i+1
Yes
No
Display i
Stop
56


6.5 Algorithm
Algorithm to calculate the energy stored in each layer and how many layers are required to
absorb whole amount of energy impacted by projectile is calculated is given:
Step 1: initialize input variables like V,E
c1
,E
c2,
p
areal
,h ,L ,d ,m ,R ,p;
Step 2: calculate longitudinal wave velocity;
Step 3: calculate transverse wave velocity;
Step 4: star with phase I: calculate time in which wave travels from impact point to edge of
target;
Step 5: calculate deformed length of fibre;
Step 6: calculate cone size;
Step 7: calculate maximum strain at centre;
Step 8: calculate strain developed at each point in fibres;
Step 9: calculate strain energy developed;
Step 10: calculate area of cone developed by projectile;
Step 11: calculate transverse Kinetic energy of cone;
Step 12: calculate in plane Kinetic energy outside the cone;
Step 13: sum all the energy calculated in phase I;
Step 14: Now start with Phase two calculations: calculate time to travel wave from edge to
point of impact;
Step 15: calculate width of reflected portion;
Step: 16: calculate transition time;
Step 17: calculate strain energy absorbed in returning of wave;
Step 18: calculate transverse kinetic energy of cone;
Step 19: calculate in plane Kinetic energy of cone;
Step 20: sum all energy in phase II;
Step 21: To find net energy absorbed by each layer sum energy of Phase I and Phase II;
Step 22: calculate remaining energy of projectile and corresponding velocity;
57


Step 23: calculate number of layer by running loop;
Step 24: display energy output;
Step 25: display number of layer;
Step 26: strain at each and every point of specimen;
Step 26: Check whether velocity V>0 then go to step 2 otherwise go to step 27;
Step 27: end;
Chapter 7 (Result and Conclusion Remains)


References
1. Thomas, H.L., Ballistic resistant fabric. US patent 2003/0022583,2003
2. Phoenix, S.L., and Porwal P.K., 2003 A new membrane model for the ballistic
impact response and V50 performance of multi-ply fibrous system ,I nternational
journal of solids and Structures,40
3. Interceptor Body Armor , accessed 11/09/2007
4. Ballistic Impact Of Laminated composite panels H.L. Gowrel ,D.S.Cronin,
A.Plumtree Department Of Mechanical Engineering, university of
Waterloo;2007
5. Numerical simulation of high-speed penetration-perforation dynamics in layered
armor shields M. Ayzenberg-Stepanenkoa and G. Osharovichb aBen-Gurion
University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 84105, Israel bBar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan,
52900, Israel
6. Ballistic Impact Response of Kevlar 49 and Zylon Under Conditions
Representing Jet Engine Fan Containment J. Michael Pereira and Duane M.
Revilock NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio 2004
7. A Model for Ballistic Impact on Soft Armor. H. Billon Combatant Protection and
Nutrition Branch Aeronautical and Maritime Research Laboratory.(1998)
8. Experimental and Numerical Simulation of Energy Absorption on Composite
Kevlar29/Polyester Under High Velocity Impact A.A. Ramadhana, A.R. Abu
Talib, A. S. Mohd Rafie, R. Zahari Department of Aerospace Engineering, University
Putra Malaysia, Malaysia(2012)
9. Experimental investigation of bridging law for single stitch fibre using
Interlaminar tension test. K.T. Tan a, N. Watanabe a, Y. Iwahori b
10. Modeling the effects of yarn material properties and friction on the ballistic
impact of a plain-weave fabric.M.P. Rao a,1, Y. Duan a,2, M. Keefe b, B.M.
Powers c, T.A. Bogetti c
58


11. Modeling and validation of full fabric targets under ballistic impact Sidney
Chocron , Eleonora Figueroa, Nikki King, Trenton Kirchdoerfer
12. Low velocity impact of combination Kevlar/carbon fiber sandwich composites
Jeremy Gustin, Aaran Joneson, Mohammad Mahinfalah *, James Stone Department
of Mechanical Engineering and Applied Mechanics, North Dakota State University
Fargo, ND 58105, USA 24 August 2004
13. 60th Meeting of the Aeroballistic Range AssociationBaltimore, MD, United States
September 20, 2009 through September 25, 2009
14. High Velocity Impact Damage in Kevlar-29/Epoxy-AL2O3 A.A. Ramadhan1,a,
A.R. Abu Talib2, A.S. Mohd Rafie3, R. Zahari 4 1,2,3,4 Department of Aerospace
Engineering, University Putra Malaysia, Malaysia 2012
15. Effect of Boundary Conditions on the Ballistic Response of Textile Structures
Elvis Cepu, Ali Shahkarami, Reza Vaziri, and Anoush Poursartip Composites Group,
Departments of Metals & Materials Engineering and Civil Engineering, The
University of British Columbia, 309-6350 Stores Road, Vancouver, British Columbia,
V6T 1Z4, Canada
16. Impact Mechanics and High-Energy Absorbing Materials: Review Pizhong
Qiao,1 Mijia Yang,2 and Florin Bobaru 3 1 F.ASCE, Professor, Department of Civil
and Environmental Engineering and Wood Materials and Engineering Laboratory,
Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164-2910;2 Assistant Professor,
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering ,University of Texas at San
Antonio, San Antonio, TX 78249-0668; 3 Associate Professor, Department of
Engineering Mechanics ,University of NebraskaLincoln, Lincoln, NE 68588-0526
17. Deformation of Ballistic Protection Vest Panel B. Plihal*, J. Komenda, L. Jedlicka, S.
Beer and R. Vitek Department of Weapons and Ammunition, University of Defence,
Brno, Czech Republic 23 February 2012.

18. BALLISTIC PERFORMANCE OF ARAMID FABRICS: TESTING,
MODELING AND ENHANCEMENT TECHNIQUES A critical review paper
submitted for AAE590 class project.2009

19. Numerical simulation of high-speed penetration-perforation dynamics in layered
armor shields M. Ayzenberg-Stepanenkoa and G. Osharovichb aBen-Gurion
University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 84105, Israel bBar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan,
52900, Israel







59


Appendix A
Program on MATLAB to calculate number of layer required to absorb
given impact energy and energy stored by each layer:
clc
clear all
V = input('Input the velocity of projectile in m/s = ')
while V>0
Emod = input('Input the youngs modulus in GPa = ')
p = input('Input the density of composite layer in kg/m3 = ')
L = input('Input the length of panel/specimen in m = ');
d = input('Input the displacement of projectile in m = ');
R = input('Input the radius of projectile in m = ');
h = input('Input the thickness of target in m = ');
m = input('Input the mass of projectile in g = ');
pareal= input('Input areal density of composite layer in g/m2=');
% calculation of longitudinal strain wave Velocity
E=Emod*10000000;
C = sqrt(E/(2*p))
%calculation of Transverse strain wave Velocity
Ubar = 64+ 0.74*V
e = (Ubar^2)/(C^2 - Ubar^2)
U = C*(sqrt(e*(1+e))-e)
e = (U^2)/(C^2-U^2)
% Calculation for Phase 1
% Time calculation for traveling of wave from impact ponit 2 edge
T1 = L/(2*C)
t = 0:0.00001:T1;
b = U.*t
% calculation of deformed length of yarn
l1 = 2*(C*T1-b);
l2 = sqrt(1+(d*d./(b.*b)));
l=l1+2.*b.*l2
% Masimum strain at the centre of impact
emax = (l-2*C*T1)/(2*C*T1)
x1 = 0.01:0.004:L/2
Enu1 = (x1-b);
Enu2 = (sqrt(1+(d*d./(b.*b)))-1);
Enu = Enu1.*Enu2;
Eden = (C*T1);
epoint = Enu./Eden
ecomposite=epoint(13)
X=0.0:0.0001:L/2;
Y=X;
Z=0.0:0.00077:ecomposite;
waterfall(Z);
hidden off;
60


E1 = (C*T1.*x1);
E2 = E1-(x1.*x1)/2;
Estrain = E2*2*E*h
%transverse KE of the cone
bbar = Ubar.*t
Acone = bbar.*bbar
KEcone = 0.5*V^2*pareal.*Acone
%Inplane KE out side the cone
KEout1 = 2*pareal*C^2*(C.*t-bbar)*e^2;
KEout2 = (bbar.*bbar);
KEout3 = KEout2.*bbar;
KEout = KEout1.*KEout3
%total Energy in phase 1
Ephase1 = Estrain + KEcone + KEout
eproj= (m*V^2)/2000;
% Calculation for phase 2
T2 = 2*T1
t1= T1:0.00001:T2;
% width of the dflected portion r
r = C.*t1 - (L/2)
Ttransition = (b+0.5*L)/C
% deformed length in new direction
enew1 = 2*(x1-b);
enew2 = (sqrt(1+(d*d./(b.*b)))-1);
enew=enew1.*enew2;
Estrainnew1 = E*h*L*(enew.*enew);
Estrainnew = Estrainnew1.*b
% tranverse kinaetic energy of the cone
KEcone
% Inplane kinetic energyout side the cone
KEout1= L.*b+4*x1.*b-2*bbar.*b-2*r.*b;
KEoutnew = .05*pareal* C^2 * KEout1.*enew
% Total energy for phase2
Ephase2=Estrainnew+KEcone+KEoutnew
%total energy absorbed by layer
Ephase1
Ephase2
ETOTAL=.001*(Ephase1+Ephase2)
eproj
Eremain=eproj-ETOTAL
T=T1+T2;
tnet= 0:0.00003:T
Vnew=sqrt(2000*Eremain./m)
V=Vnew(13)
x=linspace(-6,6,120);
z=x;
[x,z]=meshgrid(x,z);
y=.03./(1+x.^2+z.^2);
waterfall(y);
61


hidden off;
%calculation of energy absorbed by leather
parealL=input('Input areal density of composite layer in g/m2=');
Eleather = input('Input the youngs modulus in GPa = ')
pL = input('Input the density of composite layer in kg/m3 = ')
% calculation of longitudinal strain wave Velocity IN LLEATHER
EL=Eleather*10000000;
CL = sqrt(EL/(2*pL))
%calculation of Transverse strain wave Velocity LEATHER
UbarL = 64+ 0.74*V
eL = (UbarL^2)/(CL^2 - UbarL^2)
UL = CL*(sqrt(eL*(1+eL))-eL)
eL = (UL^2)/(CL^2-UL^2)
% Calculation for Phase 1
% Time calculation for traveling of wave from impact ponit 2 edge LEATHER
T1L = L/(2*CL)
tL = 0:0.00001:T1L
bL = UL.*tL
% calculation of deformed length of yarn IN LEATHER
l1L = 2*(CL*T1L-bL);
l2L = sqrt(1+(d*d./(bL.*bL)));
lL=l1L+2.*bL.*l2L
% Masimum strain at the centre of impact IN LEATHER
emaxL = (lL-2*CL*T1L)/(2*CL*T1L)
x1L = 0.01:0.005:L/2
Enu1L = (x1L-bL);
Enu2L = (sqrt(1+(d*d./(bL.*bL)))-1);
EnuL = Enu1L.*Enu2L;
EdenL = (CL*T1L);
epointL = EnuL./EdenL
E1L = (CL*T1L.*x1L);
E2L = E1L-(x1L.*x1L)/2;
EstrainL = E2L*2*EL*h
%transverse KE of the cone OF LEATHER
bbarL = UbarL.*tL
AconeL = bbarL.*bbarL
KEconeL = 0.5*V^2*parealL.*AconeL
%Inplane KE out side the cone
KEout1L = 2*parealL*CL^2*(CL.*tL-bbarL)*eL^2;
KEout2L = (bbarL.*bbarL);
KEout3L = KEout2L.*bbarL;
KEoutL = KEout1L.*KEout3L
%total Energy in phase 1 IN LEATHER
Ephase1L = EstrainL + KEconeL + KEoutL
eprojL= (m*V^2)/2000;
% Calculation for phase 2
T2L = 2*T1L
t1L= T1L:0.00001:T2L;
% width of the dflected portion r
62


rL = CL.*t1L - (L/2)
TtransitionL = (bL+0.5*L)/C
% deformed length in new direction
enew1L = 2*(x1L-bL);
enew2L = (sqrt(1+(d*d./(bL.*bL)))-1);
enewL=enew1L.*enew2L;
Estrainnew1L = EL*h*L*(enewL.*enewL);
EstrainnewL = Estrainnew1L.*bL
% tranverse kinaetic energy of the cone
KEconeL
% Inplane kinetic energyout side the cone
KEout1L= L.*bL+4*x1L.*bL-2*bbarL.*bL-2*rL.*bL;
KEoutnewL = .05*parealL* C^2 * KEout1L.*enewL
% Total energy for phase2
Ephase2L=EstrainnewL+KEconeL+KEoutnewL
%total energy absorbed by layer
Ephase1L
Ephase2L
ETOTALL=.01*(Ephase1L+Ephase2L)
eprojL
EremainL=eprojL-ETOTALL
TL=T1L+T2L;
tnetL= 0:0.000036:T
VnewL=sqrt(2000*EremainL./m);
V=VnewL(11)
EPROJNEW=(m*V^2/2000)
i=i+1;
end
i










63


Appendix B
Program on CVAVR for velocity measurement to work as Velocity sensor
#include <mega16.h>

#include <delay.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>


// Alphanumeric LCD Module functions
#asm
.equ __lcd_port=0x18 ;PORTB
#endasm
#include <lcd.h>

#define ADC_VREF_TYPE 0x60

// Read the 8 most significant bits
// of the AD conversion result
unsigned char read_adc(unsigned char adc_input)
{
ADMUX=adc_input | (ADC_VREF_TYPE & 0xff);
// Delay needed for the stabilization of the ADC input voltage
delay_us(10);
// Start the AD conversion
ADCSRA|=0x40;
// Wait for the AD conversion to complete
while ((ADCSRA & 0x10)==0);
ADCSRA|=0x10;
return ADCH;
}

int x,y,z;
char a[20],b[20],c[20];


void main(void)
{


// Input/Output Ports initialization
// Port A initialization
// Func7=In Func6=In Func5=In Func4=In Func3=In Func2=In Func1=In Func0=In
// State7=T State6=T State5=T State4=T State3=T State2=T State1=T State0=T
PORTA=0x00;
DDRA=0x00;

64


// Port B initialization
// Func7=Out Func6=Out Func5=Out Func4=Out Func3=Out Func2=Out Func1=Out
Func0=Out
// State7=0 State6=0 State5=0 State4=0 State3=0 State2=0 State1=0 State0=0
PORTB=0x00;
DDRB=0xFF;

// Port C initialization
// Func7=Out Func6=Out Func5=Out Func4=Out Func3=Out Func2=Out Func1=Out
Func0=Out
// State7=0 State6=0 State5=0 State4=0 State3=0 State2=0 State1=0 State0=0
PORTC=0x00;
DDRC=0xFF;

// Port D initialization
// Func7=In Func6=In Func5=In Func4=In Func3=In Func2=In Func1=In Func0=In
// State7=T State6=T State5=T State4=T State3=T State2=T State1=T State0=T
PORTD=0x00;
DDRD=0x00;

// Timer/Counter 0 initialization
// Clock source: System Clock
// Clock value: Timer 0 Stopped
// Mode: Normal top=FFh
// OC0 output: Disconnected
TCCR0=0x00;
TCNT0=0x00;
OCR0=0x00;

// Timer/Counter 1 initialization
// Clock source: System Clock
// Clock value: Timer1 Stopped
// Mode: Normal top=FFFFh
// OC1A output: Discon.
// OC1B output: Discon.
// Noise Canceler: Off
// Input Capture on Falling Edge
// Timer1 Overflow Interrupt: Off
// Input Capture Interrupt: Off
// Compare A Match Interrupt: Off
// Compare B Match Interrupt: Off
TCCR1A=0x00;
TCCR1B=0x00;
TCNT1H=0x00;
TCNT1L=0x00;
ICR1H=0x00;
ICR1L=0x00;
OCR1AH=0x00;
OCR1AL=0x00;
65


OCR1BH=0x00;
OCR1BL=0x00;

// Timer/Counter 2 initialization
// Clock source: System Clock
// Clock value: Timer2 Stopped
// Mode: Normal top=FFh
// OC2 output: Disconnected
ASSR=0x00;
TCCR2=0x00;
TCNT2=0x00;
OCR2=0x00;

// External Interrupt(s) initialization
// INT0: Off
// INT1: Off
// INT2: Off
MCUCR=0x00;
MCUCSR=0x00;

// Timer(s)/Counter(s) Interrupt(s) initialization
TIMSK=0x00;

// Analog Comparator initialization
// Analog Comparator: Off
// Analog Comparator Input Capture by Timer/Counter 1: Off
ACSR=0x80;
SFIOR=0x00;

// ADC initialization
// ADC Clock frequency: 125.000 kHz
// ADC Voltage Reference: AVCC pin
// ADC Auto Trigger Source: Free Running
// Only the 8 most significant bits of
// the AD conversion result are used
ADMUX=ADC_VREF_TYPE & 0xff;
ADCSRA=0xA7;
SFIOR&=0x1F;

// LCD module initialization
lcd_init(16);
lcd_clear();
lcd_gotoxy(2,0);
lcd_putsf("FINAL YEAR");
lcd_gotoxy(3,1);
lcd_putsf("PROJECT");
delay_ms(2000);
lcd_clear();
lcd_gotoxy(1,0);
66


lcd_putsf("ATM SECURITY");
lcd_gotoxy(2,1);
lcd_putsf("ENHANCEMENT");
delay_ms(2000);
lcd_clear();
lcd_gotoxy(1,0);
lcd_putsf("READING SENSOR");
lcd_gotoxy(4,1);
lcd_putsf("VALUES");
delay_ms(2000);
lcd_clear();


while (1)
{ lcd_gotoxy(1,0);
lcd_putsf("SENSOR VALUES:");

x=read_adc(0);
itoa(x,a);
lcd_gotoxy(0,1);
lcd_puts("X=");
lcd_gotoxy(2,1);
lcd_puts(a);

y=read_adc(1);
itoa(y,b);
lcd_gotoxy(6,1);
lcd_puts("Y=");
lcd_gotoxy(8,1);
lcd_puts(b);

z=read_adc(2);
itoa(z,c);
lcd_gotoxy(12,1);
lcd_puts("Z=");
lcd_gotoxy(14,1);
lcd_puts(c);
if(x>80)
PORTC=0b00000001;
else
PORTC=0b01000010;

delay_ms(500);

lcd_clear();


};
}
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