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ti nghin cu khoa hc cp hc sinh sinh vin Mc lc

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MC LC
MC LC ........................................................................................................................ i
DANH SCH HNH V ................................................................................................ iv
DANH MC BNG ....................................................................................................... v
THUT NG VIT TT .............................................................................................. vi
LI M U ................................................................................................................. 1
CHNG I: MNG CHNG PH NGANG HNG P2P.............................................. 2
1.1. Gii thiu mng ngang hng P2P .............................................................................. 2
1.1.1. Khi nim .............................................................................................................. 2
1.1.2. Phn loi mng ngang hng ................................................................................... 6
1.1.2.1. Mng chng ph khng c cu trc ..................................................................... 8
1.1.2.2. Mng ngang hng lai (Hybird) .......................................................................... 10
1.1.2.3. Mng chng ph c cu trc ............................................................................. 11
1.1.2.4. Chng ph phn cp v chng ph lin kt ....................................................... 12
1.1.2.5. Chng ph dch v ............................................................................................ 14
1.1.2.6. Mng chng ph ng ngha ............................................................................... 15
1.1.2.7. Chng ph cm bin ......................................................................................... 16
1.1.2.8. Chng ph cho mng MANET v Ad-hoc ........................................................ 16
1.2. Kt lun chng ..................................................................................................... 17
CHNG II: CC DCH V TRN MNG CHNG PH NGANG HNG P2P ..... 18
2.1. Chia s file .............................................................................................................. 18
2.2. P2P VoD ................................................................................................................. 20
2.3. P2P live TV ............................................................................................................ 21
2.4. P2P voice over IP.................................................................................................... 21
2.5. P2P gaming............................................................................................................. 22
2.6. Kt lun chng ..................................................................................................... 22
CHNG III: CC GII PHP TRUYN HNH QUA MNG NGANG HNG ...... 23
3.1. Xu hng xem video/TV hin i ........................................................................... 23
ti nghin cu khoa hc cp hc sinh sinh vin Mc lc
Trang ii
3.1.1. Internet TV .......................................................................................................... 23
3.1.2. IPTV .................................................................................................................. 24
3.1.3. P2P TV ................................................................................................................ 26
3.2. P2P network v cc dch v lung (streaming services) .......................................... 29
3.2.1. H thng P2P live streaming ................................................................................ 32
3.2.1.1. H thng P2P live streaming dng cy .............................................................. 32
3.2.1.2. H thng P2P live streaming dng mesh ........................................................... 35
3.2.2. H thng P2P VoD .............................................................................................. 36
3.2.2.1. H thng P2P VoD m-chuyn tip ................................................................. 36
3.2.2.2. H thng P2P VoD lu tr-chuyn tip ............................................................. 38
3.2.2.3. H thng P2P VoD lai-chuyn tip ................................................................... 39
3.3. Kt lun chng ..................................................................................................... 40
CHNG IV: TM HIU NG DNG P2PTV ........................................................... 41
4.1. Joost ....................................................................................................................... 41
4.2. PeerCast .................................................................................................................. 42
4.3. Freecast .................................................................................................................. 42
4.4. PPLive .................................................................................................................... 42
4.5. Sopcast ................................................................................................................... 42
4.6. PPMate ................................................................................................................... 42
4.7. Kt lun chng ..................................................................................................... 43
CHNG V: XY DNG MNG NGANG HNG V TH NGHIM DCH V
TRUYN HNH ............................................................................................................ 44
5.1. Xy dng mng ngang hng bng phn mm Sopcast ............................................. 44
5.1.1. ng k knh pht sng ....................................................................................... 44
5.1.2. Pht sng ............................................................................................................. 45
5.2. Th nghim dch v truyn hnh ............................................................................. 46
5.2.1. S dng Microsoft Expression Encoder 4 Sp2 ..................................................... 46
5.2.2. So snh Client-Server vi P2PTV ........................................................................ 47
5.2.2.1. Client-Server ..................................................................................................... 47
ti nghin cu khoa hc cp hc sinh sinh vin Mc lc
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5.2.2.2. P2PTV ............................................................................................................ 48
5.3. Kt lun chng ..................................................................................................... 49
KT LUN ................................................................................................................... 50
TI LIU THAM KHO ............................................................................................. 51

ti nghin cu khoa hc cp hc sinh sinh vin Danh sch hnh v
Trang iv
DANH SCH HNH V
Hnh 1.1: M hnh client-server ....................................................................................... 2
Hnh 1.2: M hnh mng ngang hng ............................................................................... 4
Hnh 1.3: Mng chng ph P2P ....................................................................................... 4
Hnh 1.4: Phn loi mng P2P ......................................................................................... 8
Hnh 1.5: M hnh mng ngang hng hybrid .................................................................. 10
Hnh 1.6: Mng chng ph phn cp ............................................................................. 13
Hnh 1.7: Mt mng chng ph lin kt ......................................................................... 14
Hnh 1.8: Phn loi mng chng ph dch v ................................................................. 15
Hnh 1.9: Mng chng ph ng ngha ............................................................................ 16
Hnh 3.1: Cu trc mng internet TV ............................................................................. 24
Hnh 3.2: Cu trc mng IPTV ...................................................................................... 25
Hnh 3.3: Cu trc mng P2PTV ................................................................................... 27
Hnh 3.4: Cu trc mng P2PTV ca ForceTech............................................................ 29
Hnh 3.5: Trao i cc block gia hai peer trong cc h thng P2P khc nhau ............... 32
Hnh 3.6: h thng P2P live streaming dng cy n ..................................................... 33
Hnh 3.7: H thng P2P live streaming dng a cy ....................................................... 35
Hnh 3.8: Chng b m gia peer cung cp v peer nhn trong h thng P2P VoD m-
chuyn tip .................................................................................................................... 37
Hnh 3.9: Cu trc chng ph trong h thng P2P VoD m-chuyn tip ...................... 38
Hnh 3.10: H thng P2P VoD lai-chuyn tip............................................................... 40
Hnh 4.1: Giao din ca Joost ........................................................................................ 41
Hnh 4.2: Giao din ca PPMate .................................................................................... 43
Hnh 5.2: Pht sng trn sopcast .................................................................................... 45
Hnh 5.3: Phn mm Microsoft Expression Encoder 4 Sp2 ............................................ 46
Hnh 5.4: Thit lp NAT cho modem ............................................................................. 47
Hnh 5.5: Kim tra a ch IP ......................................................................................... 47
Hnh 5.7: Cht lng hnh nh v thi gian ln sng khi dng sopcast (1 kt ni) ......... 49
ti nghin cu khoa hc cp hc sinh sinh vin Danh mc bng
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DANH MC BNG
Bng 1.1: Mt s mng chng ph khng c cu trc ...................................................... 9
Bng 1.2: Mt s mng chng ph c cu trc............................................................... 12
Bng 1.3: c im ca chng ph P2P i vi MANET .............................................. 17
ti nghin cu khoa hc cp hc sinh sinh vin Thut ng vit tt
Trang vi
THUT NG VIT TT

Vit tt Ting Anh Ting Vit
P2P Peer-to-Peer Mng ngang hng
VoIP Voice over Internet Protocol
Truyn ging ni trn giao thc
IP
IPTV Internet Protocol Television Truyn hnh giao thc Internet
VoD Video on Demand Video theo yu cu
IP Internet Protocol Giao thc mng Internet
DHT Distributed Hash Table Bng bm phn tn
P2PTV Peer-to-Peer Television
Truyn hnh qua mng ngang
hng
FTP File Transfer Protocol Giao thc truyn file
DNS Domain Name System H thng tn min
CDN Content Delivery Network Mng phn phi ni dung
UDP User Datagram Protocol Giao thc gi d liu ngi dng
TCP Transmission Control Protocol Giao thc iu khin truyn dn
ID Identifier S nhn dng
NAT Network Address Transverter B bin dch a ch mng
ti nghin cu khoa hc cp hc sinh sinh vin Li m u
Trang 1
LI M U
Trong s pht trin ca x hi, nhu cu gii tr ca con ngi i hi ngy cng cao
chnh v th m cc cng ngh truyn hnh phi ngy cng pht trin. Trong mt vi nm
tr li y c nhng thay i ln trong vic pht trin cc cng ngh truyn hnh nh
truyn hnh HD v phim 3D c pht trin mt cch rng ri. Nhng cng ngh
truyn hnh mi ra i th cng i hi cc cng ngh truyn dn cng cn phi ci thin.
T cng ngh truyn hnh tng t, chng ta i ln truyn hnh s dn p ng nhu
cu ca ngi xem. Nhu cu ca ngi xem ngy cng tng h i hi rt nhiu t truyn
nh l xem video theo yu cu, chia s cc video t lm ca mnh cho nhiu ngi khc
xem, hay l xem truyn hnh m khng mt tin m cht lng vn cao. Tt c nhng yu
cu ny u c trong P2PTV.
P2PTV l mt gii php truyn hnh qua mng ngang hng, ngi xem s chia s cc
video ca mnh ang xem cho nhiu ngi khc khi m s lng cng cao th cht lng
video s cng tt - y l mt u im rt ln ca gii php truyn hnh ny. Khi mt
chng trnh truyn hnh trc tip ln c c th gii mong i, lng ngi xem s rt
ng. Bi vy nu s dng m hnh client-server th s gy ra s qu ti v cht lng
video s rt xu nhng vi P2PTV th cht lng s rt tt.
Nghin cu khoa hc ny ca chng em thc hin nghin cu bn vn sau:
Chng 1: Nghin cu v mng chng ph ngang hng P2P.
Chng 2: Nghin cu dch v ca mng chng ph ngang hng.
Chng 3: Nghin cu cc gii php truyn hnh qua mng ngang hng.
Chng 4: Tm hiu ng dng P2PTV.
Chng 5: Xy dng mng ngang hng v th nghim dch v truyn hnh.
Mc d chng em n lc hon thnh nghin cu khoa hc ny nhng do cn
nhng hn ch v thi gian v hiu bit ca bn thn nn khng trnh khi nhng thiu
st. V vy, chng em mong nhn c s gp ca cc thy c v cc bn phc v
thm cho cng tc hc tp ca mnh trong tng lai.
Qua y chng em xin gi li cm n chn thnh n ThS. V Thy H, ngi
tn tnh hng dn chng em trong sut qu trnh thc hin nghin cu khoa hc ny.
ti nghin cu khoa hc cp hc sinh sinh vin Chng I
Trang 2
CHNG I: MNG CHNG PH NGANG HNG P2P
1.1. Gii thiu mng ngang hng P2P
1.1.1. Khi nim
Chng ta u bit hu nh mi dch v m Internet cung cp ngy nay u da trn
m hnh client/server. Theo m hnh ny th mt my khch (client) s kt ni vi mt
my ch (server) thng qua mt giao thc nht nh (WWW, FTP, Telnet, SMTP ...).
My khch gi yu cu ti my ch, my ch x l v tr kt qu li cho client. Cc
server thng c cu hnh mnh (tc x l nhanh, kch thc lu tr ln) hoc l cc
my chuyn dng. Da vo chc nng c th chia thnh cc loi server nh: file server
(phc v cc yu cu h thng tp tin trong mng), print server (phc v cc yu cu in
n trong mng), application server (cho php cc ng dng chy trn cc server v tr kt
qu cho client), mail server (cung cp cc dch v v gi nhn email), web server (cung
cp cc dch v v web), database server (cung cp cc dch v v lu tr, tm kim
thng tin), communication server (qun l cc kt ni t xa).

Hnh 1.1: M hnh client-server
M hnh client/server c rt nhiu im u vit nh l: mi x l s nm trn server
do s trnh cho clients nhng tnh ton nng n hoc do tt c d liu u tp trung ti
mt v tr nn vic d dng trong qun l h thng cng nh vn bo mt . Tuy nhin,
khi m Internet pht trin vi tc chng mt nh ngy nay th m hnh client/server
tn ti mt nhc im quan trng. Khi s lng clients tng n mt mc no th
nhu cu v ti, bng thng tng ln v my ch khng c kh nng cung cp dch v cho
cc my khch thm vo. M hnh mng ngang hng (Peer to Peer hay P2P) c xem
nh mt gii php s khc phc nhc im ca m hnh mng client/server.
ti nghin cu khoa hc cp hc sinh sinh vin Chng I
Trang 3
Mng ngang hng thc ra khng phi l mt ci nim mi. Cc cng ty v cc trng
i hc s dng cu trc ny hn 30 nm qua cho n khi c bit vi tn l mng
ngang hng. Thc t, mng Internet c pht trin t cui nhng nm 1960 l h thng
mng ngang hng. Mng ARPANET gc kt ni ti i hc California, Los Angeles
UCLA, hc vin nghin cu Stanford, UC Santa Barbara v i hc Utah khng thuc
nh dng client/server m tng ng vi cc peer my tnh. Vo nm 1979, Usenet
c pht trin bi hai sinh vin i hc Duke v mt sinh vin n t i hc Bc
Carolina chao i thng tin da trn truyn thng Unix. Da trn giao thc Unix-to-
Unix-copy, hoc UUCP, mt my tnh Unix c th t ng quay s ti mt my tnh
khc, trao i file v ngt kt ni. Sinh vin ca hai trng i hc ny c th thng bo
tin tc trong mt topic chung, c tin nhn trong topic , v c th trao i tin nhn gia
hai trng. Trong mt vi nm Usetnet c m rng ra nhiu trng i hc khc
nhau v nhiu cng ty phn mm. Usenet pht trin t 2 site gc thnh hng trm nghn
site nhng vn gi nguyn m hnh c bn ca mng P2P. Usenet v c bn l tin thn
ca cc ng dng mng ngang hng ngy ny nh Gnutella m trong cc my tnh
copy d liu m khng cn n iu khin trung tm.
Mng P2P c pht trin trong sut nhng nm 1990 v c s dng cho cc
nhm, t chc, gia cc cng ty v trong gii hn trao i thng tin gia cc nh hp tc
nghin cu. Ch n khi Internet bng n vo gia nhng nm 1990, cng vi s ra i
ca cc dch v chia s file, m thanh, hnh nh trong thi gian gn y th mng ngang
hng mi c ch n nh l mt cng ngh quan trng ca Internet. Hin nay cc
ng dng P2P chim khong 50% (thm ch 75%) bng thng trn Internet.
Vy mng ngang hng l g?
Mng ngang hng l mng m trong cc my tnh chia s tp tin v truy cp ti
nguyn (my in, b nh lu tr, chu trnh x l) m khng cn n my ch hay phn
mm my ch. dng n gin nht, mng P2P c to ra bi hai my tnh c kt
ni vi nhau v chia s ti nguyn m khng phi thng qua mt my ch dnh ring.
Mt mng ngang hng ng ngha khng c khi nim my ch v my khch, tt c
cc my tham gia u bnh ng v c gi l peer, ng vai tr nh c my ch v
my khch i vi cc my khc trong mng.
ti nghin cu khoa hc cp hc sinh sinh vin Chng I
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Hnh 1.2: M hnh mng ngang hng
Ta cng nh ngha mng chng ph nh sau:
Mng chng ph l mng my tnh c xy dng trn nn ca mt mng khc. Cc
node trong mng chng ph c xem l ni vi nhau bng lin kt o (logical links),
mi lin kt o c th bao gm rt nhiu cc lin kt vt l ca mng nn.
Rt nhiu mng P2P c gi l mng chng ph bi v n c xy dng v hot
ng da trn nn ca Internet.

Hnh 1.3: Mng chng ph P2P
*c im ca hu ht cc h thng P2P l:
ti nghin cu khoa hc cp hc sinh sinh vin Chng I
Trang 5
+ Chia s ti nguyn (resource sharing): mi peer gp phn vo ti nguyn h thng
cho hot ng ca h thng P2P.
+ Networked: tt c cc node c lin kt vi cc node khc trong h thng P2P v
tp cc node l thnh vin ca mt th lin kt. Khi th khng c k ni, mng
chng ph c coi nh l b phn chia.
+ Phn quyn: trng thi ca h thng P2P c xc nh bi hot ng chung ca
cc peer, v khng c im iu khin tp trung. Tuy nhin mt vi h thng m bo an
ninh vn s dng mt login server trung tm.
+ Tnh i xng: cc node hot ng vi nguyn tc nh nhau trong h thng P2P.
Trong rt nhiu thit k, tnh cht ny c th thay i do tn ti cc peer hot ng c
bit nh l super peer hoc rely peer.
+ T tr: s tham gia ca cc peer trong h thng P2P c xc nh cc b, v
khng c phm vi qun tr ring l trong h thng.
+ Phm vi: Mt h thng P2P c th c ti hng triu node hot ng ng thi, iu
ny c ngha ti nguyn s dng ti mi peer tng theo kch c ca mng chng ph.
+ S n nh: h thng P2P c th c coi l n nh trong mt churn rate cho php.
iu ny cho php duy tr th kt ni v c kh nng xc nh tuyn trong mt gii
hn hop-count ph hp.
*u, nhc im:
Tnh cht phn tn ca mng ngang hng to nn u im ca mng ngang hng,
l:
+ Khng phi u t thm v phn cng v phn mm my ch.
+ D ci t, gi thnh r.
+ Khng cn ngi qun tr mng
+ Ngi s dng c th kim sot vic dng chung ti nguyn (my in, chu trnh x
l, lu tr), tn dng c ti nguyn ca tt c cc my tnh trong mng, c phn b
lu lng hp l trnh tc nghn.
+ Khng ph thuc vo cc my tnh khc trong hot ng ca mnh. Tnh cht phn
tn ca mng ng ng cng gip cho mng hot ng tt khi mt s my gp s c.
i vi cu trc tp trung, ch cn my ch gp s c th c h thng s ngng tr.
+ Tng cng kh nng cn bng ti trong mng. Trong m hnh mng ngang hng,
ch c yu cu truy vn c thc hin gia my tnh tham gia mng vi my ch, cn
ti nghin cu khoa hc cp hc sinh sinh vin Chng I
Trang 6
vn truyn file c thc hin gia hai my tnh tham gia mng vi nhau, iu ny
dn n vic phn b ti u trn h thng mng.
Bn cnh mng ngang hng c nhng nhc im l:
+ My trm phi gnh thm vic phc v chia s ti nguyn.
+ My trm khng c kh nng kim sot nhiu lin kt nh mt my ch
+ Thiu tnh tp trung, rt kh tm kim d liu
+ Khng c kh nng lu tr tp trung
+ Mi ngi s dng trn my trm phi c kh nng qun tr trn chnh h thng
ca mnh
+ Kh nng bo mt km, kh kim sot
+ Qun l thiu tp trung, cc mng ngang hng rt kh lm vic vi nhau.
1.1.2. Phn loi mng ngang hng
C nhiu xut c a ra phn loi mng ngang hng. V d nh c th
c phn loi theo mc ch s dng nh:
Chia s file (file sharing)
in thoi VoIP (telephony)
Lung a phng tin (audio, video)
Din n tho lun (discussion forums)
Hoc xut phn chia mng ngang hng theo th h mng. Th h mng u tin c
c im l vn da trn mt my ch tm kim trung tm v vy cn c gi l mng
ngang hng tp trung (v d nh: Napster, Audiogalaxy, WinMX). Mt dng khc na
ca th h mng th nht l mng ngang hng thun ty (v d nh: Gnutlla 4.0,
FreeNet). Trong mng ny khng cn my ch tm kim tp trung, n khc phc c
vn nt c chai trong m hnh tp trung. Tuy nhin vn tm kim trong mng ngang
hng thun ty li s dng c ch Flooding, yu cu tm kim c gi ti tt c cc
node mng hng xm, iu ny lm tng ng k lu lng trong mng. khc ph
nhc im ca mng ngang hng thun ty, mt m hnh mng ngang hng mi c
pht trin vi tn gi l mng ngang hng lai. y c coi nh l mng ngang hng th
h th 2 (v d: Gnutella 0.6, Juxtapose JXTA, Skype). Phn loi theo th h c mt
vi nhc im: n b qua mt s vn quan trng v khng gii thch c v cc th
h tip sau gn nh ang c cung cp. Hn na, c hai th h mng ny u ang c
ng thi s dng.
ti nghin cu khoa hc cp hc sinh sinh vin Chng I
Trang 7
kin khc cho rng chia mng ngang hng thnh mng chng ph c cu trc v
mng khng c cu trc. Mng chng ph khng c cu trc thng c ch hn bi
cch gi cc yu cu tm kim, phn b cc peer v s khc bit trong thng tin ng
truyn vi cc peer hng xm.
Mng chng ph c cu trc c phn bit da theo cc tnh cht nh:
+ S lng hop ti a cho yu cu tm kim (multi-hop, one-hop, s lng hop thay
i)
+ Thut ton nh tuyn (nh tuyn tin t, XOR, khong cch hnh hc, s khc
bit v khng gian a ch)
+ Dng chng ph
+ Vi kch c chng ph (v d: constant degree, logrithmic degree)
+ Dng tra cu (lp li hoc quy, song song hoc ni tip)
Da trn cc dng c cu trc v khng c cu trc, cn c cc dng khc, nh mng
chng ph phn cp (hierarchical overlays), mng chng ph lin kt (federated
overlays), mng chng ph trin khai cc dch v mng c gi l mng chng ph
dch v (service overlays), mng chng ph cho h thng cm bin c gi l mng
chng ph cm bin (sensor overlays), mng chng ph vi truy vn tuyn bi mi quan
h ng ngha (semantic ralationship) c gi l mng chng ph ng ngha (semantic
overlays) v mng chng ph cung cp h tr cho cc node di ng trong mng IP v
mng ad-hoc.
Hnh 1.4 th hin cy phn loi cc dng mng P2P chng ph. Cc phn loi chng
ph cho php di ng, chng ph dch v, chng ph ng ngha s c cp phn
cui ca mc ny.
ti nghin cu khoa hc cp hc sinh sinh vin Chng I
Trang 8

Hnh 1.4: Phn loi mng P2P
1.1.2.1. Mng chng ph khng c cu trc
Mng chng ph khng c cu trc l mt mng trong cc node ch lin kt vi
cc node ln cn khi gi bn tin vi cc node khc trong mng chng ph. Tc l lin kt
gia cc node mng c thit lp ngu nhin, khng theo quy lut no.
Nhng mng nh th ny d dng c xy dng v mt my mi khi mun tham gia
mng c th ly cc lin kt c sn ca mt my khc ang trong mng v sau dn
dn t bn thn n s thm vo cc lin kt mi ca ring mnh. Khi mt my mun tm
mt d liu trong mng ngang hng khng cu trc, yu cu tm kim s c truyn trn
c mng tm ra cng nhiu my chia s cng tt. K thut tm kim ch yu l s dng
flooding vi cc gii thut tm kim u tin theo chiu rng (breadth first), hoc u tin
theo chiu su (depth-first) cho n khi ni dung c tm thy. Cc k thut khc phc
tp hn gm bc nhy ngu nhin (random walk) v ch s routing (routing indices).
H thng ny th hin r nhc im: khng c g m bo tm kim s thnh cng.
i vi tm kim cc d liu ph bin c chia s trn nhiu my, t l thnh cng l
kh cao, nhng ngc li, nu d liu ch c chia s trn mt vi my th xc sut tm
ti nghin cu khoa hc cp hc sinh sinh vin Chng I
Trang 9
thy l kh nh. Tnh cht ny l hin nhin v trong mng ng ng khng cu trc,
khng c bt k mi tng quan no gia mt my v d liu n qun l trong mng, do
yu cu tm kim c chuyn mt cch ngu nhin n mt s my trong mng. S
lng my trong mng cng ln th kh nng tm thy thng tin cng nh.
M hnh Thit k c im
Hill climbing
backtracking
Freenet
nh tuyn s dng tm kim a phng, h tr v
cung cp an ninh, nc danh, kh nng t chi.
Fast freenet
L m rng ca Freenet, mi i tng lu tr ti
cc peer c tm tt li v chia s vi cc hng
xm.
Small world
Freenet
Mt dng ca Freenet c b sung thm cc link
m phng m hnh small world
Trn lt
(Flooding)
Gnutella
Cc supper peer s dng cc yu cu trn lt thay
cho m hnh thng xuyn.
FastTrack
Giao thc ring vi kin trc super peer s dng kt
ni thay i
Bc nhy
ngu nhin
(Random
walk)
Gia
S dng k thut nh p ng lin kt ng, iu
khin lung, ti to one-hop, v bc nhy ngu
nhin khng i xng ci thin hiu nng.
LMS
Cc vng mng thc hin tm kim cc i tng s
dng bng bm thng nht ca nhn dng i tng
nhn bit v tr i tng gn node
Hybrid Yappers
Kt hp cc node vo mt bng DHT nh, nh
tuyn gia cc DHT s dng cc lin kt khng cu
trc
nh tuyn
ng ngha
INGA
Mi peer c t chc da trn mi quan h ni
dung ng ngha, truy vn c gi theo cc topic
lin kt, tnh ton da theo hm ph hp ng ngha
Truy vn c
hng u tin
Tribler
Cc peer trao i danh sch u tin khai thc
mi quan h gia cc peer vi cc u tin tng
Truy vn
hng thch
hp
PROSA
T chc ti nguyn P2P bng cch hiu bit chung
v mi quan h ng ngha gia cc peer tng ng
qun l lin kt gia chng
Bng 1.1: Mt s mng chng ph khng c cu trc
ti nghin cu khoa hc cp hc sinh sinh vin Chng I
Trang 10
Mt nhc im khc ca h thng ny l do khng c nh hng, mt yu cu tm
kim thng c chuyn cho mt s lng ln my trong mng lm tiu tn mt lng
ln bng thng ca mng, dn n hiu qu tm kim chung ca mng thp. Nhc im
khc na l kh nng m rng mng thng b hn ch bi cc k thut trong vic xy
dng mng, chng hn nh: k thut Flooding dn ti vic tng lu lng mng khi m
rng mng. Cc h thng khng cu trc thng ph hp trong trng hp cc node ra
vo mng thng xuyn, ty .
1.1.2.2. Mng ngang hng lai (Hybird)
khc phc nhc im ca mng ngang hng thun ty, mt m hnh mang ngang
hng mi c pht trin vi tn gi l mng ngang hng lai. y c gi l mng
ngang hng th h 2.
Phn mm tiu biu cho mng ngang hng kiu ny l Gnutella 0.6 v JXTA
(Juxtapose). JXTA c bt u pht trin bi SUN t 2001 (y l giao thc P2P m
ngun m). JXTA c s dng cho PCs, mainframes, cell phones, PDAs giao tip
theo cch khng tp trung. Skype cng c xy dng da trn cu trc ny.

Hnh 1.5: M hnh mng ngang hng hybrid
Trong m hnh mng ngang hng lai tn ti mt trt t phn cp bng vic nh ngha
cc Super Peers. Cc SupperPeer to thnh mt mng khng cu trc, c s khc nhau
gia SupperPeers v ClientPeers trong mng, mi SupperPeer c nhiu kt ni n cc
ClientPeers. Mi SupperPeer cha mt danh sch cc file c cung cp bi cc
ti nghin cu khoa hc cp hc sinh sinh vin Chng I
Trang 11
ClientPeer v a ch IP ca chng v vy n c th tr li ngay lp tc cc yu cu truy
vn t cc ClientPeer gi ti.
u im ca mng hybrid l hn ch Flooding cc truy vn, lm gim lu lng
trong mng, nhng vn trnh c hin tng nt c chai (do c nhiu SuperPeers) v
khc phc c nhc im v s khc nhau v CPU power, bandwidth mng ngang
hng thun ty, cc SuperPeer s chu ti chnh, cc node khc chu ti nh.
1.1.2.3. Mng chng ph c cu trc
Mng chng ph c cu trc l mt mng chng ph trong cc node hp tc duy
tr thng tin nh tuyn tm ra tt c cc node trong mng chng ph. So snh vi
mng chng ph khng c cu trc, mng chng ph c cu trc c gii hn s lng
bn tin cn thit tm bt c i tng no trong mng chng ph. y l iu quan
trng khi tm kim cc i tng t ph bin hoc t xut hin.
iu quan trng i vi nhng h thng c cu trc l cung cp s lin kt (mapping)
gia ni dung (v d: ID ca file) v v tr node (v d: a ch node). Vic ny thng
da trn mt cu trc d liu bng bm phn tn DHT. Do , a s mng chng ph c
cu trc c h tr tnh nng bng DHT, nh tuyn da trn cc key. Mi peer c mt
DHT, c s dng cho thut ton chuyn tip. Bng nh tuyn ca cc peer c to
khi peer tham gia vo mng chng ph, nh s dng mt th tc khi to c bit. Cc
peer thng trao i thng tin trong bng nh tuyn nh l mt phn ca qu trnh duy
tr mng chng ph. Cc file trong mng c rng buc vi cc key v d c to ra
bng cch bm cc tn file v mi node trong h thng c trch nhim lu gi mt di
cc key no . C mt ton t c bn trong cc DHT ny l tm kim lookup (key), n
s tr li nhn dng (v d nh a ch IP) ca node lu gi i tng vi key . Ton t
ny cho php cc node a v ly cc file trn c s key ca chng.
Do khng gian a ch o v a ch cc peer thng c gn ngu nhin, cc peer
v cc hng xm trong mng chng ph c th xa nhau trong mng c s. iu ny lm
tng kh nng chu li ca mng chng ph, nhng li lm suy gim hiu nng. Do ,
chng ph nhn dng topo (topology-aware overlays) s dng cc gi tr ca peer trong
mng c s to cc peer hng xm trong mng chng ph.
Trong chng ph c cu trc, topo mng c kim sot cht ch, kh nng m rng
mng c nng cao r rt. Tuy nhin vic qun l cu trc topo mng gp kh khn c
bit trong trng hp t l join/leave ca cc node cao.
M hnh Thit k c im
nh tuyn
theo tin t
PRR Thut ton DOLR u tin, s dng nh tuyn da trn tin t
SPRR Thm c ch join/leave v duy tr vo PRR
ti nghin cu khoa hc cp hc sinh sinh vin Chng I
Trang 12
Tapestry Da trn PRR kt hp vi c ch duy tr v join/leave
Pastry nh tuyn theo tin t vi last hop s dng bng hng xm
Z-Ring Khng gian a ch phn cp vi s base ln gim tr
Logarithmic
degree
Chord
S dng mt khng gian ID vng trn predecessor-
successor kch thc N, yu cu n hng
Symphony
nh tuyn song hng kt hp vi long-link lm gim
s hop-count tm kim
Kademlia Hm khong cch XOR, yu cu song song
Fixed degree
CAN D-torus vi h ta cc
Koorde De Bruijn, da trn Chord
Cycloid Chu trnh kt ni lp phng, nh tuyn kiu tin t
O(1)-hop
Kelips Giao thc Epidemic multicast duy tr mng
EpiChord Tm kim song song lp li
OneHop
Cc peer c t chc thnh cc nhm v cc n v, yu
cu gi qua cc trng nhm v n v
D1HT
S dng thut ton duy tr hot ng EDRA khi cc s kin
join/leave c chuyn tip ti tt c cc peer trong thi gian loga
S lng hop
thay i
Accordion
Tm kim song song quy, kt hp vi c ch duy tr p
ng bng thng
Chameleon Dng lai ca EpiChord v D1HT
Tork Dng lai ca EpiChord v D1HT
Phn cp
Multiple
rings
Nhiu mng chng ph kt ni ti mt super-ring, v s dng
nh tuyn phn cp nh tuyn gia cc mng chng ph
Coral
Cc peer l thnh vin ca cc cluster lin tip, v tm kim
s dng bng DHT

Bng 1.2: Mt s mng chng ph c cu trc
1.1.2.4. Chng ph phn cp v chng ph lin kt
Chng ph phn cp l mt kin trc chng ph s dng nhiu mng chng ph sp
xp trong mt tp c lng vo nhau, v c ni lin vi nhau trong mt cy. Mi bn
tin gi ti mt peer trong mng chng ph khc c chuyn tip ti mng chng ph
cha chung gn nht trong phn cp. Khi phm v mng phn tn rng, cu trc phn cp
c th gim hiu nng tng th. Mng chng ph phn cp th hin t chc phn cp
trong nh a ch v nh tuyn. Cc min chng ph khc nhau trong phn cp c th
s dng cc giao thc nh tuyn khc nhau. Yu cu quan trng cho hiu qu hot ng
ti nghin cu khoa hc cp hc sinh sinh vin Chng I
Trang 13
ca mng chng ph phn cp gm c trnh hin tng nghn c chai v gi cn bng
cu trc phn cp.

Hnh 1.6: Mng chng ph phn cp
Mt mng chng ph lin kt l chng ph c to thnh t tp hp cc chng ph
c lp, bng cch chia thnh cc min qun tr ring r, trong mi min c th s
dng cc thut ton nh tuyn v c ch nh a ch khc nhau. Mi chng ph l mt
min t tr, v hot ng thng bo gia cc chng ph yu cu s sp xp ngang hng.
Mi min qun l nhn thc, phn quyn v cc nhim v qun l khc cho mng ca
mnh. Chng ph lin kt a ra mt c ch hot ng xp chng, c th a ra cc dch
v c bit ti ngi dng trong khi vn m bo phm v mng. Mt yu cu quan trng
cho mng lin kt l mi quan h tin cy gia mi min. Tng t nh mi quan h
ngang hng gia cc nh cung cp dch v Internet ng trc, cc l hng an ninh trong
mt mng c th lan ra cc mng chng ph khc nh cc peering points. Do an ninh
trong mt mng chng ph tr thnh mt vn nhy cm cho cc mng chng ph cn
li.
ti nghin cu khoa hc cp hc sinh sinh vin Chng I
Trang 14

Hnh 1.7: Mt mng chng ph lin kt
Hnh 1.7 l m hnh mt mng chng ph lin kt. Mi mng chng ph hot ng
c lp, v cc cp mng chng ph kt ni nh cc gateway peer. Gateway peer c th
tm ra cc gateway peer khc trong cc mng chng ph khc bng nhiu cch nh tm
kim trong lin mng hoc s dng DNS. Mt peer gi bn tin ti mng chng ph t xa
(remote overlay) u tin cn pht hin ra gateway peer v gi bn tin ti gateway peer
chuyn tip. H thng a ch nhiu lp c s dng phn bit i tng v cc
peer trong cc mng chng ph.
1.1.2.5. Chng ph dch v
Cng vi s pht trin mnh m ca Internet, cc dch v mng mi cng pht trin
theo. Tuy nhin li xut hin nhiu tr trong trin khai cc dch v mi hoc m rng cc
dch v ang tn ti nu nh c yu cu thay i cc giao thc lp mng, router hoc h
tng mng. V cn thit phi m bo s lin kt v trnh cc vn an ninh nhy cm,
nhanh chng trin khai cc dch v mng v trnh s thay i h tng mng, rt nhiu
dch v mng c trin khai nh l cc giao thc lp ng dng. V d nh
multicasting, VoIP v mng phn b ni dung CDN. Khi mng chng ph c s dng
c bn nh l cc dch v lp ng dng, chng c coi l cc mng chng ph dch v
service overlay.
Thm vo , hng dch v l mt mu mi cho kin trc ng dng web v h
thng phn tn. Mt thiu st ca ng dng P2P l mi mt ng dng li i hi thit
k chng ph ring bit. tng p dng hng dch v vo mng chng ph P2P cng
c xem xt nh l mt mng chng ph dch v. Theo , cc ng dng P2P c
modul ha nh cc dch v hot ng lp trn ca mng trng ph, mi giao din dch
v s dng mt m t dch v. Khi s lng ng dng P2P tng ln th cng lm tng kh
ti nghin cu khoa hc cp hc sinh sinh vin Chng I
Trang 15
nng ti s dng cng mt h tng mng P2P cho mt tp cc ng dng. Trn mt nn
tng P2P m c th trin khai rt nhiu cc ng dng mi ca mt bn th 3.

Hnh 1.8: Phn loi mng chng ph dch v
1.1.2.6. Mng chng ph ng ngha
Mt mng chng ph ng ngha semantic overlay l mt mng chng ph trong
m hnh nh tuyn c t chc theo s lin kt ng ngha v mi quan h gia cc
thng tin c lu tr trong mng chng ph. Tng t nh semantic web (web c ng
ngha), ni dung c th c lu tr v truy nhp s dng m hnh ng ngha, kh thun
li cho ngi s dng.
Trong mng chng ph ng ngha, kt ni cc node chu nh hng ca ni dung.
Cc peer c ni dung tng t, c quan h ng ngha s c nhm li (clustered), v d
nh, cc peer c cha cc file Jazz s c kt ni vi cc peer cha ni dung tng
t. Khi mng ng ngha lm tng c hi tm kim nhanh chng cc file ph hp v
gim s tm kim cc node khng c ni dung ph hp.
V d nh trong hnh 1.9, cc peer t A-H c kt ni bi cc ng lin nt. Cc
peer c ni dung quan h ng ngha s c lin kt vi nhau, v d, cc peer A, B v C
u c cc bi ht rock, nn thit lp lin kt gia cc peer ny. Tng t, cc peer C,
E v F c cha cc bi nhc Rap, cho nn nhm chng li vi nhau.
ti nghin cu khoa hc cp hc sinh sinh vin Chng I
Trang 16


Hnh 1.9: Mng chng ph ng ngha
Cc mng thuc dng ny nh: EZSearch, pSearch, Google SON.
1.1.2.7. Chng ph cm bin
Mng chng ph cm bin l mt mng chng ph kt ni cc thnh phn ca c s
h tng cm bin. Mc ch ca chng ph cm bin l lm n i lp vt l rng buc vi
ng dng, lm lit kit d liu vi iu khin logic phn bit vi nh tuyn lp vt l.
Thm vo , trong mng li cm bin rng ln, c nhiu t bo vi lp nh tuyn vt
l v lin kt d liu khc nhau, mng chng ph cm bin c th thng nht v tch hp
vi cc mng chng th thng thng.
V d cho mng chng ph cm bin ny l PIAX (P2P Interactive Agent
eXtensions)
1.1.2.8. Chng ph cho mng MANET v Ad-hoc
Mt mng MANET l mt tp cc node di ng hot ng ng thi nh c router v
host trong mt mng ad-hoc khng dy. Cc node gi cc bn tin ti cc node khc m
khng s dng h tng mng. Do gii hn cng sut v dung lng, cc node MANET
gi bn tin broadcast trong mt khong gii hn. Topo MANET c th thay i nhanh
chng v khng th d on c. S tng t gia MANET v m hnh P2P ti c lp
ng dng v lp mng c ngha quan trng gip mng chng ph P2P lm vic hiu
ti nghin cu khoa hc cp hc sinh sinh vin Chng I
Trang 17
qu vi cc giao thc nh tuyn trong mng MANET . Bng 1.3 sau lit k mt s c
im ca mng chng ph P2P i vi MANET.
H thng
Thut ton nh
tuyn MANET
Chng ph
P2P
Tm kim
MHT GPSR None Key maps to nodes path
Ekta DSR Pastry D theo tin t
MPP Extended DSR Gnutella Flooding
XL-Gnutella OLSR Gnutella Flooding vi cc super peer
MADPastry AODV Pastry Da trn key vi cc nhm gii hn
FastTrack qua
AODV
Neutral, AODV,
SMB
Khng c
cu trc
Flooding
Ngun ng DSR Pastry Da trn key
ISPRP DSR Chord Da trn key
nh tuyn
ngun ng P2P
DSR Pastry DP2PSR
ORION
Neutral, AODV v
SMB
Khng c
cu trc
Flooding
Bng 1.3: c im ca chng ph P2P i vi MANET
1.2. Kt lun chng
Cng vi s pht trin nhanh chng ca mng Internet, mng ngang hng tuy l mt
trong cc nguyn nhn gy nghn mng Internet, cng ang c pht trin v s dng
trin khai cc dch v lung. Chng 1 trnh by khi qut v khi nim mng
ngang hng P2P. Bn cnh cn cp n vic phn loi mng ngang hng da trn
cu trc mng v da theo ng dng.
ti nghin cu khoa hc cp hc sinh sinh vin Chng II
Trang 18
CHNG II: CC DCH V TRN MNG CHNG PH
NGANG HNG P2P
2.1. Chia s file
y l mt ng dng kh ph bin gia cc ngi s dng v c s dng rng ri
trn mng internet, c bit l chia s cc file c kch thc ln nh cc phim c bn
quyn, cc abum ca nhc hoc cc phn mm. Bi vy, cc ng dng chia s file chim
mt lu lng ln trong mng internet. Hu ht trong cc ng dng chia s file ph bin
u tn ti nhiu ngun ti nguyn m v chng c th c bin i theo yu cu ca
chnh ngi s dng. S phong ph do c nhiu cc h thng chia s file khc nhau v
nhiu phn mm ng dng sn c cho php ngi s dng c th t quyt nh v la
chn mt nn mng c th. Thm vo , ngi s dng c th iu khin v thit lp
mt vi thng s ca ng dng thng qua giao din ngi s dng hoc mt thng s file
cu hnh. V d in hnh nh cc tham s : s cc kt ni download v upload ti a c
th chy song song vi nhau, kh nng upload chia s ln nht hoc s cng.
Cc c ch iu khin v qun l vic phn phi ni dung trong cc mng p2p c
th c phn bit theo 2 loi chnh :
Cc c ch iu khin truy nhp ngun ti nguyn, v d l cc thut ton trao i
cc file hoc cc phn ca n.
C ch trung gian ngun ti nguyn, chng l cc thut ton cho vic tm kim v
nh v ngun ti nguyn.
C mt vi hng tip cn tp trung vo cc c ch ngun ti nguyn trung gian, n
bao gm cc c ch pht hin ra ngun ti nguyn. Chng khc t khi nim tp trung
nh ch s cc serve hoc cc my quan st (trong eDonkey hoc Bittorent ) cho n cc
tip cn phn tn cao hn nh cc giao thc trn lt ( trong mng Gutella gc hoc cc
bng bm phn tn ).
Cc c ch iu khin truy nhp ngun ti nguyn xc nh s lin kt v phi hp
gia cc peer, phng php l cho php, u tin v lp lch cho vic truy nhp n
cc ngun ti nguyn c chia s. Trong trng hp ny th cc c ch to ra ng lc
cc peer tham gia trong mng v tch cc chia s ngun ti nguyn ca mnh. V d l
cc h thng im thng c s dng trong eDonkey hay cc chin lc tit-for-tat
trong BitTorent. Mt cch hiu qu trong vic hp tc chia s ni dung l vic
download ngun d liu t nhiu im thay v mt im ( iu c ngha rng peer yu
cu v thc hin download d liu (MSD: Multipe Source Download) mong mun t
nhiu peer cung cp thay v ch download t mt peer). Khc bit chnh gia lu tr v
ti nghin cu khoa hc cp hc sinh sinh vin Chng II
Trang 19
chia s l mt ngi s dng ca mt h thng lu tr file mun truy nhp vo file ca
chnh ngi trong khi th mc tiu ca mt ngi s dng chia s file l download
cc file mi t cc ngi s dng khc. Tuy nhin cc c ch c bn lin kt cc
ngun ti nguyn gia cc ngi s dng c 2 h thng l ging nhau.
Trong trng hp lu tr v chia s file, cc ng dng p2p thc hin cc c ch trung
gian ngun ti nguyn v iu khin truy nhp ngun ti nguyn. Trong mng p2p thun
ty th c 2 c ch ny c thc hin trong mt kiu phn tn hon ton , trong khi
th cc h thng p2p lai ghp s dng cc thc th trung tm th thp cc d liu trung
gian. Trong cc h thng p2p c th bc, cc thc th c bit nh cc super node thc
hin nhiu nhim v hn cc peer thng thng, n nm trong mng c cu trc thay v
trong cc mng li khng cu trc. iu ny c th xy ra trong cc qu trnh truy nhp
ngun ti nguyn (phn phi file ), cng nh trong trung gian ngun ti nguyn Tuy
nhin, cc mng che ph chia s file hiu qu hin nay th khi lng lu lng ch yu
c to ra bi s trao i ni dung d liu. in hnh l trong cc mng chia s file, cc
peer to thnh mt mng che ph kiu li do cc c ch MSD v cc c ch thc y
lin qua. Tuy nhin , cc thc th che ph tm kim hoc cc thc th trung tm thc hin
cung cp chc nng tm kim a ra ngun ca cc file t yu cu cc peer v
ngm nh giao din ca che ph trao i d liu.
c im lu lng ca cc ng dng chia s file khc nhau hu ht l nh nhau.
Lu lng bo hiu cng nh lu lng d liu c truyn ti thng qua TCP. Hu ht
cc ng dng u i hi bng thng v c gng tn dng ti a bng thng download v
upload ca ngi s dng. Tuy nhin, lu lng l khng c nh, iu c ngha rng
vic truyn d liu c th chp nhn c cc thng lng khc nhau. Cc ng dng chia
s file hin nay khng c giao din hoc v tr c th v chng thnh lp nhiu kt ni
song song ti cc ngun file sn c. Nhiu cc kt ni download v upload c thnh
lp ti cng mt thi im.
i vi ngi s dng cht lng c nh gi ch yu thng qua thng lng
trung bnh. Tuy nhin , ngi ang download cng ang tham gia vo trong mng ly
ngun ti nguyn ca ngi s dng khc do QoE cng b nh hng bi lng d
liu c upload hoc bng thng upload c cung cp. Trong trng hp bng thng
upload c s dng l ln th n s nh hng n cc ng dng ang s dng khc nh
truy nhp web,VoIP. Bi vy, QoE t c quan tm hn do ngi s dng c th i rt
lu cho vic download.


ti nghin cu khoa hc cp hc sinh sinh vin Chng II
Trang 20
2.2. P2P VoD
Tri ngc vi cc ng dng chia s file,P2P VoD yu cu ngun ti nguyn trung
gian v cc c ch trao i ngun ti nguyn phc tp hn c th p ng c vi cc
yu cu v lu lng ln hn. Thng lng trung bnh trong mt h thng streaming
video phi cao hn tc video bnh thng c th cung cp mt QoE tt. T l mt
gi, ti yu cu cc gi v jitter ln trong mng c th dn n suy gim QoE nghim
trng.
Ti mi ngi s dng, mt b m jitter nh hoc b m chi li c s dng
gii quyt vn tr khc nhau gia cc gi v bo m rng lung video chy tt hn.
Thm vo khi mt ngi s dng quyt nh cc ni dung yu cu th mt b m lu
tr video ln ti cc peer c yu cu thu tt c ni dung video sn c trong mng.
Mc d serve farms thng c s dng h tr lu tr cc ni dung (v d :hin nay
joost video servers truyn mt lng ln d liu video n cc ngi s dng), cc h
thng my ch khng c kh nng m rng theo s lng cc ngi s dng yu cu v
lng ni dung lu tr. Do , b m lu tr video phi c ln va cung cp
mt h thng VoD tin cy.
Giao din che ph trao i d liu ca cc h thng VoD P2P c quyt nh bi
cc c ch download a ngun c p dng. Ging nh chia s file, cc peer trong cng
h thng s thc hin vic download cc phn ca ni dung video song song t nhiu
peer khc nhau v cc my ch cha ni dung video trong khi th ng thi n cng
thc hin vic upload cho cc ngi s dng khc ang yu cu. Kt qu l giao din
mng tri di t che ph li ti c cu trc, trn c s hnh cy. Tuy nhin ch c trn c
s cy th mi hu dng trong trng hp bng n lu lng khi c nhiu peer cng
mun mt ni dung trong 1 thi gian ngn ( trng hp ny xy ra khi c mt ni dung
video mi c a vo trong h thng ). c bit trong trng hp bng n, cc c
im m rng ca cc h thng P2P theo kiu li hoc cy c th c tn dng p
ng c vi cc yu cu v ngun ti nguyn tng ln nhiu.Thay v vic tp trung
download cc on d liu ca mt file th cc peer ring phi quan tm n dng kt
thc ca cc on d liu. Mt on d liu c nhn qu mun th s b loi b v c
hiu nh l mt gi, do th s lm gim ng k QoE. Tuy nhin cc on d liu n
mun c th c phn tn n cc ngi s dng khc.
Cc c im lu lng trong cc ng dng VoD trn nn P2P ch ra rng chng t
xm thc hn cc n dng chia s file. C th thy rng bng tn sn c trong c hng
ln v hng xung u khng c tn dng ti a. Ti mt peer, bng thng download
thng l mt hng s trong mt khong thi gian ln. Tuy nhin, cc nh ca bng
thng ngn thng l do bo hiu. Vi cc ni dung video c th th lu lng s b hn
ti nghin cu khoa hc cp hc sinh sinh vin Chng II
Trang 21
ch ( khc nhau cc quc gia c th ) in hnh th cc ni dung video c truyn qua
UDP trong khi th lu lng cc tn hiu di qua TCP.
Cng ging nh chia s file, vic nh v d liu c th c tn dng ci thin
vic download d liu video.Thm vo , cht lng QoS c cung cp rt hu ch
cho vic iu khin lng ln jiter v mt gi trn links. Tuy nhin, phi ch rng vi
cc ng dng VoD th tr khc nhau khng phi l ch yu nh gi QoE.
2.3. P2P live TV
Cc ng dng P2P live TV ang c so snh vi P2P VoD trong nhiu kha cnh
bao gm s ph bin hin nay v mong i trong tng lai gia cc ngi s dng,
lng lu lng trn mng internet, m ngun hin c, cng nh cc c im lu lng.
Tuy nhin cc h thng P2P live TV khc ng k vi P2P VoD trong cc yu cu ca
ng dng. Hn na ngoi cc yu cu v thng lng trung bnh ln hn tc video
bnh thng v tr jitter phi nh hn th cc h thng P2P live TV ch cho php mt
lng tr nht nh. Do cc h thng ny yu cu b lu tr thp mc thp v ch cc
ni dung video c tr chp nhn c th mi c lu tr trong h thng. Bi vy,
cc c ch iu khin truy nhp ngun ti nguyn v trung gian ti nguyn khc ng k
so vi cc h thng chia s file v P2P VoD. Cc c ch khc nhau c yu cu thc
hin QoE v QoS cao hn VoD.
Cc c im lu lng ca P2P live TV c so snhvi P2P VoD trong kha cnh
bng thng downlad v upload, cng nh s lng kt ni download v upload ti mt
peer. Do 1 peer s khng tn dng hon ton ton b bng thng download, nhng vn
yu cu sao cho hnh nh video chy tt. Tuy nhin ngc vi P2P VoD, lu lng c
th bng n khi c cc s kin ln nh Cp C1 chu u , hoc l cc chng trnh xem
nh lc 8, 9h ti ...
Cc yu cu nghim ngt v vic tr t u cui n u cui, jitter, t l mt gi v
thng lng ch ra tim nng ti u ha cho P2P live TV. Bn cnh vic tn dng giao
din mng trong cng mng ca mt nh cung cp chn peer gn t c tr
nh, QoS cng c tn dng hon thnh cc yu cu dch v.
2.4. P2P voice over IP
P2P Voip kh l c quan tm bi v tnh ph bin ca Skype. Cuc kt ni voice
thng c kt ni mt cch trc tip gia ngi gi v ngi b gi. Ch trong trng
hp ca NATs/Tng la hoc cc kt ni e2e ti th cc gi b tr i thng qua peer
th 3( trong trng hp c th Skype th y l mt super peer ). Vic chn la super
peer ny c thc hin nhng phi ch trng n v tr ca 2 ngi s dng u cui,
m chi ph ca cc ISP l nh nht v cht lng thoi tt trn ng lin kt e2e cho cc
ti nghin cu khoa hc cp hc sinh sinh vin Chng II
Trang 22
ngi s dng u cui. Tuy nhin kh nng ti u cho cc loi ng dng ny l nh hn
so vi cc dch v chia s file, VoD hoc live TV. Do cc yu cu QoS hn ch tr, jitter
v t l mt gi ca cc cuc voice nn QoS ang cung cp l hp l cho cc ngi s
dng u cui. Trong vic tm kim cc ngi s dng v cc super peer, cc c ch
trung gian ngun ti nguyn c thc hin vi cc bng bm phn tn (DHT).
Bng thng yu cu cho mt cuc gi VoIP cng thp hn khi so snh vi video-
streaming thi gian thc hoc khng thi gian thc. Lu lng bo hiu yu cu cho cc
peer l dao ng v ch cc super peer mi c thng lng cao hn mt cht. Phi ch
rng cc yu cu v c im lu lng s thay i vi voice hoc video conferencing.
2.5. P2P gaming
Vi P2P gaming, hin nay cha c thc hin trn mng internet. Tuy nhin n phi
c quan tm ti vi trong tng lai khng xa vic ph bin cc ng dng gameing P2P
c mong i l s pht trin v iu ny cn ph thuc vo s thnh cng ca cc phn
mm gaming c a ra.
c im lu lng v cc yu cu ca ng dng gaming ph thuc nhiu vo loi
gaming c h tr. V d nh : Trong mt tr chi bn sng ( khng phi trn nn P2P)
kiu nh Unreal Tournament c so snh vi thoi hi ngh P2P. Cc ngi chi phi
c xc nh v tr trong cng mt bn do vy thng tin phi c phn phi ti tt
c cc ngi chi trong bn . Vi loi game ny th cc yu cu v QoS v tr v jitter
l yu t ct yu nhng thng tin topo mng th c th khng c s dng. iu ny
khc vi game warcraft (cng khng trn nn P2P), y ngi chi ang hot ng
trong mt th gii ln nhng cc ngi chi ch c th nhn thy mt phn ca n. Do
hng tip cn trn c s P2P th cho php lu tr, tnh ton v cp nht cc phn trong
th gii trong backgroud, v n s c hin th ra khi ngi s dng vo phn ny ca
bn . Vi loi game ny th lu lng bng n theo s di chuyn o ca cc ngi chi
khc nhau. Ph thuc vo hon cnh thc t ca game, ng dng ny cng yu cu kht
khe v QoS khi cc ngi chi ang fighting, trong khi nhng lc cn li th jitter v
tr phi nm trong khong cho php.
2.6. Kt lun chng
Chng 2 cp v cc dch v trn mng ngang hng nh l chia s file,
P2PVoD, P2P live TV, P2P voice over IP, P2P gaming t cho chng ta thy c
nhng ng dng ca P2P c dng kh ph bin v rng ri trn mng internet.
ti nghin cu khoa hc cp hc sinh sinh vin Chng III
Trang 23
CHNG III: CC GII PHP TRUYN HNH QUA
MNG NGANG HNG
3.1. Xu hng xem video/TV hin i
Trong qu kh, TV ch c phn phi bi cc h thng cable, v tinh hoc trm mt
t . Nhng gi y vi vic ci thin tc internet, mi ngi dn tr nn bit nhiu
n internet v h mong mun nhiu hn v TV trong thi bui hin nay.
Mi ngi cn xem TV thng xuyn cng nh lt web nhng s dng cng mt
thit b nh TV, PC hoc cc thit b c tnh di ng ....
Ngi ta cn xem cc video theo yu cu.
Ngi ta cn xem mi th t cc sn phm my quay t tin ti nhng sn phm
chuyn nghip t tin.
Ngi ta cn ghi li nhng on video mnh thch m khng cn s dng cc thit
b lu tr.
Ngi ta cn chia s hoc cho php cc ngi khc xem cc video c lm nh
mnh t bt c ni no.
Cc cng ngh xem TV c quan tm:
Internet TV
IPTV
P2PTV
3.1.1. Internet TV
Loi TV internet ny ging nh ta s dng internet lt web.
Trong trng hp ny mi ngi c kt ni trc tip thng qua internet. Bt k
mt t chc d ln ,va hay l nh u c th to ra im qung b video ca chnh h
( ging nh server ) v nhng ngi c kt ni trc tip c th xem video c sn trong
serve c th . Loi ny c cu trc l:
ti nghin cu khoa hc cp hc sinh sinh vin Chng III
Trang 24

Hnh 3.1: Cu trc mng internet TV
Cc tr ngi ca TV internet l:
S gii hn v bng thng: Vn bng thng c quan tm u tin v cc
stream c s dng vi bng thng thp th s dn n cht lng km .
Cc cng ngh streaming: Treaming khng t c nhng tin b mi v mt
trong s chng th ang c bn quyn.
Mt nh cung cp internet TV khng iu khin vic phn phi do n s
khng m bo c cht lng dch v.
V vy, nh cung cp dch v khng c kh nng a ra mt s ng dng nng
cao nh cc dch v tng tc ....
Rt kh cung cp video on demand v cc dch v ghi nh (recording)
3.1.2. IPTV
IPTV s dng mt mng ring v c qun l tt hn vic s dng mng
internet ang tn ti. Video c truyn qua mt mng c quyn s hu.
Ch IP trong c ngha rng n s dng cc giao thc internet cho vic kt ni
tt c cc thit b.
N c cung cp bi cc nh cung cp vin thng ln.
Loi ny c cu trc:
ti nghin cu khoa hc cp hc sinh sinh vin Chng III
Trang 25


Hnh 3.2: Cu trc mng IPTV
N cung cp c live TV ln video on demand. N s dng a ch multicasting
cung cp ni dung live TV v a ch unicast cho video on demand.
Khi ngi s dng thc hin chuyn knh khi h ang xem live TV th b setup box
s thc hin chuyn t nhm multicast sang nhm multicast khc ph hp. Trong sut
qu trnh xem video on demand th ngi s dugnj c kt ni trc tip n server (s
dng a ch unicast).
Live TV ang s dng IGMP phin bn 2 cho cho vic kt ni ti mt lung
multicast (knh TV) v cho vic thay i knh t mt lung multicast ny sang mt
lung khc (knh ny sang knh khc). VoD th ang s dng RTSP 2. Ni dung video
c nn theo chun MPEG-2 hoc MPEG-4 v sau c chuyn i trong mt lung
MPEG. Phin bn gn y MPEG-4 H.246 ang dn dn thay th MPEG-2.
Nh cung cp dch v IPTV thc hin vic iu khin ti im t thit b ca khch
hng .Vic iu khin ny c th m bo cht lng dch v cng nh cho php nh
cung cp dch v c th a ra mt s ng dng nng cao nh cc dch v tng tc....
iu ny s lm cho cc nh cung cp d dng trong vic a ra cc dch v nh video
on demand, mng lu tr ....
Mt s tr ngi ca IPTV:
Gii hn v bng thng: Bng thng thp s dn n cht lng km.
IPTV nhy cm vi mt gi.
ti nghin cu khoa hc cp hc sinh sinh vin Chng III
Trang 26
Hnh nh c th b v vn do d liu lung khng tin cy.
Hn ch v mt chi ph thc hin . thc hin xy dng mt cu trc mng ring
cung cp dch v cht lng cao th s mt rt nhiu tin, ngun nhn lc v
tnh chuyn nghip.
3.1.3. P2P TV
Nh tn a ra, cng ngh ny s dng cng ngh ngang hn phn phi ni dung
TV.
Cng ngh P2P thng thng cho php cc ngi s dng kt ni trc tip ti mt
peer khc v chng c th chia s file nhc .... Cng ging nh vy th P2P TV cho php
cc ngi s dng xem video (nhng ci khng c lu tr trn server hin nay) m
xem t peer k cn gn n nht.
P2P cho php phn phi li cc lung d liu trn mt mng P2P.
Trong mng P2P th mi client (hoc server) c gi l mt node. y server thc
hin bt cc ngun ti nguyn video v phn phi ti cc node gn n nht. Node ny li
tip tc phn phi lun video ti cc node gn n nht na. V th m cc node trong
mng c th nhn c lung video.
Cng ngh P2PTV s dng mng internet hin ti thc hin kt ni.
Mi node, trong khi ang download th cng thc hin vic upload nn n ng gp
l tng bng thng sn c.
Mi node cng c th phn hi video ca n ti cho cc node khac cng xem. iu
ny lm cho cc ngi s dng hoc t chc nh cng c th cung cp dch v video ca
bn thn mnh.
Cht lng video ca cc knh ph thuc vo vic bao nhiu ngi ang xem, cht
lng video s tt hn nn c nhiu ngi s dng hn hay nhiu node tham gia.
Cng ging nh vy video download s nhanh hn nu nhiu ngi s dng hn.
iu ny s gii quyt c vn bng thng m internet TV gp phi v chi ph
ca n hiu qu hn IPTV.
Cc vn chnh khng thun li ca P2PTV:
Cht lng dch v: y ngi cung cp cng khng c quyn iu khin.
Khng c tin cy trn lung video.
Trn 40% mo u b m rng.
Khng iu khin. Ngi qung b thch hn nu c kh nng gii hn truy nhp
ti cc ni dung ca h trn c s cc vng v gii hn cc hot ng ca h nh
khi lng , thi gian xem , cc xu hng ....
ti nghin cu khoa hc cp hc sinh sinh vin Chng III
Trang 27
Cc vn v virus, worms, hacking ....

Hnh 3.3: Cu trc mng P2PTV
V d cu truc mng P2PTV ca ForceTech :
Node trung tm bao gm h thng qun l tch hp, server tng tc, server m, cc
h thng DRM, cc server phn b ni dung, server download. Chng thc hin lu tr
ni dung, m ha, ng gi DRM, phn phi v x l.
Cc node vng, bao gm cc khi lu tr, cc thit b chuyn mch mng v cc thit
b khc. Vai tr ca chng l nhn v gi ni dng t node trung tm ti ngi s dng.
Bng 3.1: So snh gia cc gii php truyn hnh:
Tham s Internet TV IPTV P2PTV
Cht lng dch v
(QoS)
Khng C Khng
Vn mo u d
liu
Va phi Thp Rt cao
Vn streaming Rt cao t hn Va phi
Vn bng thng Rt cao Thp Va phi
ti nghin cu khoa hc cp hc sinh sinh vin Chng III
Trang 28
An ton Khng C Khng
Chi ph khi u Va phi Rt cao Va phi
Chi ph ton phn Va phi Rt cao Va phi
iu khin Khng C Khng
kh nng Cc t chc va
phi
Cc t chc ln Cc t chc va phi
Ph hp vi Thng mi Thng mi Thng mi v c
nhn
N lc maketing Cao Cao Cao
Tnh thn thin ngi
s dng
D D Phc tp
Tnh hp php C th Khng th C th
Kh nng tng thch PC Pc, TV v cc
thit b di ng
PC
Cc dch v v cc
ng dng
TV v Browsing TV TV, chia s file
ti nghin cu khoa hc cp hc sinh sinh vin Chng III
Trang 29

Hnh 3.4: Cu trc mng P2PTV ca ForceTech
3.2. P2P network v cc dch v lung (streaming services)
Vi s pht trin ca cng ngh truy nhp Internet bng rng v k thut m ha,
dch v video streaming tr nn thng dng. V d nh dch v YouTube, mt dch v
chia s video theo yu cu ti ngi s dng, c ti 100 triu video clip c xem hng
ngy trn trang ch YouTube, cng thm 65.000 video mi c ti ln mi ngy. Trang
web c trung bnh 20 triu lt truy cp mi thng, theo nh Nielsen/NetRating, v
YouTube lm ch ti 64% th phn video online Anh. Lu lng video c mong i
s chim u th trn mng Internet trong tng lai gn.
Thng thng c nhiu phng php c th dc s dng phn b video
streaming ti ngi s dng. Chng ta c th xp cc phng php tuyn thng vo 2
dng: da trn unicast (thng tin c gi t mt im ny n mt im khc) v da
trn multicast (thng tin c gi t mt im ti mt tp cc im khc).
Trong phng php da trn unicast, mi mt phin unicast c thit lp cho mi
ngi dng. C 3 phng php unicast phn phi video streaming qua Internet: tp
trung, proxy v mng phn phi ni dung CDN (Content Delivery Network).
Trong phng php tp trung, mt server vi bng thng ln c s dng phn
b cc video streaming ti ngi dng. Phng php ny n gin trong trin khai v
qun l. Tuy nhin, phng php ny cng c nhng hn ch nht nh. u tin, s c
ti nghin cu khoa hc cp hc sinh sinh vin Chng III
Trang 30
nhng li nguy him xut hin trn server khi ng thi c nhiu ngi dng gi yu cu
ti server. Th hai l khng c kh nng m rng. Server phn b bng thng c nh
cho tng ngi s dng, do khi s lng ngi s dng tng ln mc no , server
s khng c kh nng cung cp. V d, nu nh mt video c m ha vi nh dng
MPEG-4 (tc gn 1,5 Mbps), streaming server kt ni Internet nh ng truyn T3
(tc gn 45 Mbps) th ch c th cung cp c cho 30 ngi s dng ng thi.
Trong phng php proxy, proxy server c t gn vi min client lu tr mt
phn nh ca mi video. Ngi s dng c th c nhn mt phn video t proxy
server gn h. Do , phng php ny lm gim gnh nng ca streaming server v ti
lu lng qua mng WAN (Wide Area Network). Tuy nhin, phng php ny yu cu
trin khai v qun l proxy ti rt nhiu a im do lm tng gi thnh.
Trong phng php CDN, video streaming c phn phi bi mt i tc th ba,
c gi l CDN. Cc mng phn b ni dung, nh Akamai, trin khai rt nhiu cc
server ti bin ca mng Internet. Ngi dng c th yu cu video t server thch hp
nht. CDN lm gim lu lng qua mng WAN v lm gim tr. Tuy nhin, gi ca
phng php CDN ny kh cao do gi thnh c tnh theo lu lng.
Phng php da trn multicast phc v nhiu ngi dng ng thi vi hiu qu
bng thng cao. Network-layer multicast dng router thit lp mt cy m ngi s dng
nh l cc l ca cy. Mc d s dng network layer multicast hiu qu, nhng phng
php ny khng c trin khai rng do cc l do sau. Network layer multicast yu cu
cc router qun l v duy tr trng thi ca cc nhm peer, iu ny lm tng phc
tp ti lp IP. Th hai, kh khn trong lp truyn ti iu khin lung v iu khin
tc nghn trong network layer multicast. Do network layer multicast khng phi l
gii php ph hp phn phi video streaming ti cc ngi dng.
Cng ngh Peer to peer (P2P) gn y tr thnh mt phng php ha hn xy
dng cc ng dng mng phn b v phm vi rng. P2P cho php ngi dng hot ng
c hai ch client v server. Trong mng P2P, mt peer khng ch c th download
d liu t cc peer khc ang lu tr d liu m cn c th upload cc d liu c yu
cu bi cc peer khc. Bng thng upload ca ngi dng cui c s dng hiu qu
chia s gnh nng bna thng vi server.
Cng ngh P2P c pht trin cung cp cc dch v video streaming. Mt vi
h thng P2P streaming c trin khai cung cp Video on Demand (VoD) hoc
cc dch v live video streaming trn Internet. Ngy 28/1/2006 c hn 200.000 ngi
dng cng lc xem trc tip L hi ma xun Trung Quc trn PPLive vi tc t 400-
800 kb/s. Bng thng yu cu t ti 100 Gb/s.
ti nghin cu khoa hc cp hc sinh sinh vin Chng III
Trang 31
H thng mng P2P c th c phn loi thnh h thng chia s file P2P v h
thng P2P streaming. Trong h thng chia s file P2P, ngi s dng phi download ton
b file trc khi c th s dng. Mt file c chia ra thnh nhiu phn (c gi l
chunk hoc block) v c lu tr ti cc peer. Mi ngi dng download cc block
c php t cc peer ny. Khng c rng buc v thi gian download cc block ca file.
Trong h thng P2P streaming, ngi dng c th bt video cng lc vi qu trnh
download. Gii hn thi gian l vn quyt nh i vi cc dch v streaming, khi m
cc gi n sau gii hn thi gian playback ca mnh s khng c gi tr s dng.
H thng P2P streaming c th phn loi thnh h thng P2P live streaming v P2P
VoD. Trong h thng P2P live streaming, video trc tip c phn b ti cc ngi
dng trong thi gian thc. Video c pht ng b ti mi ngi dng, tc l mi ngi
dng u xem ti cng mt v tr ca cng mt video. Mt v d in hnh cho h thng
P2P live streaming l P2P IPTV, c s dng qung b cc chng trnh TV ti
mi ngi dng tham gia. Trong h thng P2P VoD, ngi dng c th la chn bt k
video no h thch v xem bt c thi gian no, mi ngi dng c th xem bt c on
no ca video.
Mt file video c to nn t nhiu cc block. S trao i cc block trong cc h
thng mng P2P khc nhau c so snh trong hnh 3.5.
Trong h thng chia s file P2P, file khng th c s dng cho n khi tt c cc
block ca file c download xong, do cc peer nhn c th download bt c cc
block c php t cc peer cung cp c lu gi cc block, nh trong hnh 3.5 (a). Cc
block c download s c lu tr li trn a v s c s dng phc v cc peer
khc. Trong h thng P2P streaming, mi peer duy tr mt b m lu tr cc block
c download trc v sau v tr playback. Trong h thng P2P streaming, ngi dng
c th trao i cc block trong b m vi cc ngi dng khc, c th hin hnh 3.5
(b). S thay i nh ca thi gian playback l do s khc bit v tr phn b. Trong h
thng P2P VoD, mi ngi dng khc nhau c v tr playback khc nhau cho cng mt
video. Peer vi v tr playback sm hn c th chuyn cc block va c s dng vo
b m cho cc peer khc c v tr playback mun hn, nh hnh 3.5 (c).
ti nghin cu khoa hc cp hc sinh sinh vin Chng III
Trang 32

Hnh 3.5: Trao i cc block gia hai peer trong cc h thng P2P khc nhau
(a) H thng chia s file P2P (b) H thng P2P live streaming (c) H thng P2P VoD
3.2.1. H thng P2P live streaming
Da trn cu trc chng ph, h thng P2P live streaming c th a phn loi thnh
h thng P2P live streaming dng cy v dng mesh.
3.2.1.1. H thng P2P live streaming dng cy
Mc d network layer multicast hiu qu trong vic broadcast video ti tt c ngi
dng, nhng khng c chp nhn rng ri do cn cc router qun l cc nhm
multicast v phc tp trong iu khin truyn ti cho cc phin multicast. Do chc
nng multicast b loi khi lp mng v a ln lp ng dng. H thng P2P live
streaming dng cy c th c chia thnh cy n lp ng dng hoc a cy lp ng
dng.
ti nghin cu khoa hc cp hc sinh sinh vin Chng III
Trang 33
* H thng P2P live streaming cy n
Trong h thng P2P live streaming cy n, ngi dng tham gia vo phin live
video streaming c th to thnh cy ti lp ng dng. Gc ca cy l server, mi ngi
dng tham gia vo cy ti mc nht nh. Cc mc nhn video t cc peer cha mc cao
hn v chuyn tip cc video nhn c ti cc peer con mc thp hn. ESM (End
System Multicast) l mt v d in hnh cho h thng P2P live streaming dng cy n.
H thng P2P live streaming dng cy n vi 10 peer c th hin hnh 3.6.
mc 1, c 2 peer (peer 1 v peer 2) nhn video trc tip t server. Ti mc 2, c 4 peers
(peer 3-6) nhn video t peer cha mc 1 v chuyn tip cc video c nhn ti cc
peer con ti mc 3. Ti mc 3, c 4 peer (peer 7-10). Cc peer khng c bt c peer con
no c gi l cc node l. Trong hnh 3.6, cc node l bao gm c peer 4 v peer 7-10.
Cc node c t nht mt node con c gi l cc internal node.

Hnh 3.6: h thng P2P live streaming dng cy n
Trong xy dng cy lp ng dng cho live streaming, c hai iu cn xem xt l
su ca cy v s phn nhnh ca internal node. Trong cy n, cc peer nhn video
streams t cc peer cha ti mc cao hn. gim tr cho cc peer mc thp nht i
hi cy phi c su nh. Vi su nh, phn nhnh ca internal node tng ln. Hay
cch khc, internal node cn upload video stream cho nhiu peer con gim su ca
ti nghin cu khoa hc cp hc sinh sinh vin Chng III
Trang 34
cy. Tuy nhin, m rng ti a ca peer b rng buc bi bng thng upload ca mi
peer.
Cc peer c th tham gia hoc ri khi phin live streaming bt c lc no. Do
duy tr (maitainance) cy l mt vn quan trng. Vic xy dng v duy tr c th c
qun l bng cch tp trung hoc phn tn. Trong gii php tp trung, server trung tm
iu kin xy dng v khi phc cy. Khi c mt peer tham gia vo h thng, peer ny
cn phi lin lc vi server. Da trn cu trc hin ti v tnh nng ca peer va mi gia
nhp (v tr v kh nng truy nhp mng), server quyt nh v tr cho peer mi trong cy
v thng bo peer cha peer ny kt ni ti. Mt peer c th ri khi phin bt c thi
gian no. Sau khi peer ri khi, tt c cc peer con ca peer trong cy u b tch bit ra
khi server v khng th nhn video. Trong trng hp ny, peer b tch bit c th lin
lc vi server trung tm, c gn nh peer cha mi trong cy. Hn ch ca qun l
tp trung l hin tng nghn c chai v cc im li n ti server trung tm.
trnh iu ny, mt vi thut ton phn phi cho xy dng v duy tr cy c pht
trin. Trong ZIGZAG, mt peer tham gia khng cn phi hi nhiu hn O(logN) peer tn
ti (N l s peer), li c th c khi phc nhanh chng v phn vng vi mt s lng
kt ni c nh v khng nh hng ti server.
C hai hn ch chnh ca h thng P2P live streaming dng cy n. l khi mt
peer ri i gy ra s tch bit ca tt c cc peer con khi ngun video. Th hai, tt c
cc node l khng th phn b bng thng upload ca mnh, iu ny lm gim hiu nng
s dng bng thng peer. Gii php b li cc hn ch ny l h thng P2P
streaming a cy.
*H thng P2P live streaming dng a cy
tng cng phc hi ca cy v hiu nng bng thng ca peer, phng php
da trn a cy c a ra. Trong h thng P2P live streaming da trn a cy, video
c ma ha thnh nhiu sub-streams, v mi sub-stream ny c phn ti mi cy.
Cht lng mi peer thu c ph thuc vo s lng sub-stream m peer nhn c.
Gii php ny to ra hai u im. Th nht, nu nh c mt peer b li hoc ri i, tt c
cc peer con ca n b mt cc sub-stream c phn b t cc peer , nhng chng vn
c th nhn c cc sub-stream c phn b nh cc cy khc. Do , cc peer con c
th nhn c mt phn video trong trng hp mt sub-stream. Th hai, mi peer c vai
tr khc nhau trong mi cy, c th l internal node ca cy ny, nhng li cng c th l
node l ca cy khc. Khi mt peer l internal node ca mt cy, bng thng upload ca
n c th c dng upload sub-stream c phn b qua cy . t c hiu
nng s dng bng thng cao, peer vi bng thng upload ln c th cung cp sub-stream
trong nhiu cy.
ti nghin cu khoa hc cp hc sinh sinh vin Chng III
Trang 35
Hnh 3.7 th hin mt h thng P2P live streaming dng a cy vi 7 peers. Server
m ha video thnh 2 sub-streams v sau phn b chng ti cy 1 v cy 2. Mi sub-
stream c tc bit s/2, vi s l tc ngun. Peer 1, 2 v 3 l cc internal node trong
cy bn tri v l node l trong cy bn phi. Cc peer 5, 6 v 7 l cc internal trong cy
bn phi v l node l trong cy bn tri. Mi peer 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 v 7 upload sub-stream
c tc s/2 ti cc peer con. Peer 4 l node l trong c hai cy. Do khng ng gp
bng thng upload ti h thng. Nu c mt peer ri khi h thng, cc peer con vn c
th nhn c sub-stream t cy khc. V d, nu Peer 1 ri i, cy bn tri b mt kt ni
ti server. Tuy nhin cc peer con ca peer 1 (peer 2-7) c th nhn sub-stream c
phn phi bi cy bn phi. Cc peer c th xem video m khng b ngt trong trng
hp peer ri i.

Hnh 3.7: H thng P2P live streaming dng a cy
3.2.1.2. H thng P2P live streaming dng mesh
Trong h thng P2P live streaming dng n cy, mi peer nhn cc stream t mt
peer cha. Nu nh peer cha ri i, peer s khng c nhn g cho n khi c kt ni
ti peer cha mi. Trong h thng P2P live streaming a cy, peer nhn sub-stream t peer
cha tng ng trong cy. Nu peer cha ri khi cy, cht lng video nhn c ti peer
s b gim. Do , cc peer ng to nn thch thc trong duy tr cy v gi thnh trong
h thng P2P live streaming dng cy.
ti nghin cu khoa hc cp hc sinh sinh vin Chng III
Trang 36
trnh cc peer ng, nhiu h thng P2P streaming gn y s dng phng php
da trn mng li. Trong h thng ny, mi peer trao i d liu vi mt tp hng xm.
Nu nh mt hng xm ri i, peer vn c th download video t cc hng xm cn li.
trong khi , peer s add cc peer khc vo tp hng xm. Mi peer c th nhn d liu
t nhiu peer cung cp trong h thng streaming dng mesh, thay th cho mt peer cha
trong h thng dng n cy. Thch thc ln nht ca h thng P2P live streaming dng
mesh l thit lp hng xm v lp lch d liu.
3.2.2. H thng P2P VoD
Dch v Video on demand VoD cho php ngi dng xem ti bt c im no ca
video ti bt c thi gian no. So snh vi live streaming, VoD a ra tnh nng linh
ng v tin li i vi ngi dng v thc s thc hin mc ch xem bt c g bn
mun bt c khi no bn cn. VoD c xc nh nh l cha kha tng lai thu ht
khch hng ti dch v IPTV.
Khc vi cc h thng live streaming trong mi ngi dng xem cng ti mt v
tr ca video, dch v VoD cho php mi ngi dng xem ti bt c v tr no ca video
ti bt c thi gian no. VoD cung cp linh ng v tng tc ti ngi dng, do ngy
cng thu ht c s quan tm. Trong dch v VoD, mi ngi dng xem video ti thi
gian khc nhau, v ngi dng c th thay i v tr xem video bt c thi gian no. Do
khng c s ng b gia ngi dng, cu trc chng ph trong h thng P2P VoD khc
bit vi h thng P2P live streaming. Trong h thng P2P live streaming, mi peer c th
l mt peer cung cp (v d nh l peer cha trong h thng dng cy hoc l hng xm
trong h thng dng mesh) ca mt peer khc. Mt peer trong mt h thng P2P VoD
phi la chn peer cung cp t cc peer c ni dung c yu cu.
Ph thuc vo phng php chuyn tip d liu, h thng P2P VoD hin ti c th
phn chia thnh 3 dng: m-chuyn tip (buffer-forwarding) P2P VoD, lu gi-chuyn
tip (storage-forwarding) P2P VoD v lai-chuyn tip (hybrid-forwarding) P2P VoD.
Trong h thng m-chuyn tip, mi peer m cc ni dung va nhn c, v chuyn
tip chng ti cc peer con ca mnh. Trong h thng lu gi-chuyn tip, cc block
video c phn b nh b lu tr ca cc peer. Khi mt peer mun xem video, n cn
phi tm kim peer cung cp m hin ti ang lu tr ni dung, v sau gi yu cu
n. Trong h thng lai-chuyn tip, mt peer c th c nhiu peer cha thuc dng m-
chuyn tip v lu tr-chuyn tip v nhn d liu t c hai loi peer cha.
3.2.2.1. H thng P2P VoD m-chuyn tip
ti nghin cu khoa hc cp hc sinh sinh vin Chng III
Trang 37
Trong h thng P2P VoD m-chuyn tip, mi peer duy tr mt b m lu gi
cc ni dung video xung quanh v tr playback va nhn c. Ni dung c m c th
c s dng phc v cc peer khc c v tr ang xem gn .

Hnh 3.8: Chng b m gia peer cung cp v peer nhn trong h thng P2P VoD m-
chuyn tip
Hnh 3.8 th hin b m ti mt peer. Thi gian bt u ca b m ti peer k c
k hiu l
S
k
t , thi gian k thc ca b m c k hiu l
E
k
t , v thi gian playback c
k hiu l
P
k
t . Gi s rng l mt peer cung cp, gi cc gi c m ti peer nhn l
peer j, vi tr playback ban u
I
j
T , peer j yu cu packet vi thi gian ln hn (
P
j
t +
I
j
T ).
Do , ch c cc packet trong ca s trt truyn dn transmission sliding window tt
peer k mi c gi ti peer j. Do , l peer cung cp ca peer j, peer k cn c thi
gian playback ln hn peer j v c chng b m (buffer overlap) vi peer j.
Hnh 3.9 th hin cu trc chng ph trong h thng P2P VoD m-chuyn tip. Mi
peer xem video t v tr bt u v lu gi cc ni dung trong b m 10 pht. Hnh 3.9
(a) th hin cu trc chng ph da trn dng cy, mi peer ch kt ni ti mt peer cha.
hnh 3.9 (a), peer 1 ang pht th nht, v nhn video trc tip t server. Peer 2
v 3 ang pht th 4 v 7. C hai peer khm ph ra rng peer 1 c th lm peer cha, do
thit lp lin kt ti peer 1 nhn d liu. Tng t i vi peer 4 v 5. Khi peer 6
tham gia vo h thng pht th 40, n khng th tm c peer cung cp. Do peer 6
phi yu cu video trc tip t server. Nh hnh 3.9 (a), kin trc cy c hnh thnh
nu nh mi peer ch kt ni ti 1 peer cha. Nu nh mi peer kt ni vi nhiu peer cha,
chng ph dng mesh c hnh thnh.
ti nghin cu khoa hc cp hc sinh sinh vin Chng III
Trang 38

Hnh 3.9: Cu trc chng ph trong h thng P2P VoD m-chuyn tip
(a) Dng cy v (b) Dng mesh
Nh hnh 3.9 (b), mi peer c hai peer cha (tr peer 1 v peer 6 ch c 1 cha l
server). Tc lung cung cp ln nht trong kin trc ny c ci thin hn so vi cu
trc dng cy, do bng thng upload ca mi peer c s dng theo cch tt nht. Thm
vo , chng ph dng mesh c kh nng phc hi nhanh i vi cc peer ng do peer
c th nhn c ni dung t nhiu ngun.
3.2.2.2. H thng P2P VoD lu tr-chuyn tip
Trong h thng P2P VoD m-chuyn tip, mi peer nhn ni dung video t cc peer
cha ca mnh. Nu nh peer cha chuyn n mt v tr khc trong video th peer con cn
phi tm kim mt peer cha mi. Trong h thng P2P VoD lu tr-chuyn tip, video
ti nghin cu khoa hc cp hc sinh sinh vin Chng III
Trang 39
c chia ra thnh nhiu segment, v c phn phi gia cc peer. Mt peer s nhn ni
dung video t cc peer lu tr. Cc peer lu tr s khng thay i video segment lu tr
trong sut thi gian tn ti, do c hot ng ca peer ny s khng nh hng ti peer
con. VMesh l mt v d cho h thng P2P VoD lu tr-chuyn tip. Trong Vmesh, mt
peer lu tr ngu nhin mt hay nhiu video segment trong b nh ca mnh. Segment c
th c phc v cho cc peer khc nhau. Nu nh mt peer tham gia vo h thng, n
cn phi thc hin cc th tc sau:
1-Tm kim segement mun xem s dng bng bm DHT
2-Lin h danh sch peer tr li
3-Peer c lin lc, nu nh bng thng, tr thnh peer cha cung cp cc
segement c yu cu. Nhiu peer cha c th c s dng cho mc ch chu ng li.
4-Khi cc peer gn nh dng ht segement hin ti, n lin lc vi cc peer khc
ang lu tr cc segment tip theo.
5-Nu nh peer thc hin tm kim ngu nhin cho mt v tr khc gn vi v tr hin
ti, n c th n gin iu khin con tr forward/backward trong video mesh lin lc
vi cha mi. Nu nh v tr mi qu xa, n khi ng mt bng DHT khc tm kim
segment ch.
3.2.2.3. H thng P2P VoD lai-chuyn tip
Trong h thng P2P m-chuyn tip, cc peer phn phi li ni dung m ti cc
peer con, do gim gnh nng cho server. Tuy nhin, h thng ny km linh hot i
vi cc peer ng. Nu nh peer cha ca mt peer thc hin tm kim ngu nhin v
chuyn khi v tr hin ti, peer con ny cn tm kim peer cha mi. Trong h thng lu
tr-chuyn tip, peer lu tr khng thay i segment c lu tr. Tuy nhin, throughput
c th t c trong h thng thp do gii hn tng dung lng upload.
khc phc nhng nhc im ny, h thng P2P VoD lai-chuyn tip c
xut, n lm tng throughput bng cch kt hp c phng php m-chuyn tip v lu
tr-chuyn tip. Trong h thng lai-chuyn tip, cc peer xem cng video t mt mng
ph s dng phng php m-chuyn tip.
V d nh hnh 3.10, peer 1-6 thuc chng ph m-chuyn tip video-1, v peer 9-
13 v peer 1 thuc chng ph m-chuyn tip video-2. Server (peer 1) tham gia trong tt
c cc chng ph do n cha tt c ni dung ca video. Trong kin trc lai-chuyn
tip, mi peer chia s hoc yu cu mt hay nhiu segment ca video ti to trong b
lu tr. Cc segment c s dng phc v cc peer khc. Do , bng thng up load
ca cc idle peer c th c s dng do c th phn phi cc segment c lu tr ca
ti nghin cu khoa hc cp hc sinh sinh vin Chng III
Trang 40
mnh ti cc peer khc. Trong kin trc lai-chuyn tip, peer c th c c lin kt m-
chuyn tip v lu tr-chuyn tip. V d, peer 10 trong hnh chuyn tip cc ni dung ti
peer 11 v peer 12 trong chng ph video-2, trong khi n cng chuyn tip ni dung ti
peer 4 trong chng ph video-1. C hai loi lin kt c gng t bng thng upload gii
hn.

Hnh 3.10: H thng P2P VoD lai-chuyn tip
Bng cnh gn gn bng thng upload ln hn cho peer ang xem c u tin cao
hn (v d: chng trnh tr tin so vi chng trnh min ph) c th thc hin c s
khc bit dch v gia cc video. Hn na, kin trc lai-chuyn tip thit thc tm
kim ngu nhin bi v ni dung lu tr c gi n nh tr khi cc peer ra khi ng
dng P2P. V d, khi cc peer cha thuc m-chuyn tip (peer 2 v 3) ca peer 4 ng
thi chuyn sang v tr khc, peer 4 vn c c ni dung t peer cha thuc lu tr-
chuyn tip, iu ny lm duy tr playback lin tc.
3.3. Kt lun chng
Chng 3 cp n cc cng ngh truyn hnh hin ti v v cc gii php
thc hin P2PTV. Cc h thng P2P streaming c th phn chia thnh h thng P2P live
streaming v P2P VoD. Ty theo cch tip cn, h thng P2P live streaming c th c
chia thnh dng cy hoc dng li. i vi h thng P2P VoD, ty thuc theo cch
chuyn tip c th phn chia thnh: h thng m-chuyn tip, h thng lu tr-chuyn
tip v h thng lai-chuyn tip.
ti nghin cu khoa hc cp hc sinh sinh vin Chng IV
Trang 41
CHNG IV: TM HIU NG DNG P2PTV
4.1. Joost
S pht trin ca Joost TVcng thng tin bt u di tn m ca d n Venice vo
u nm 2006. Ch mt tun sau khi khi ng vo nm 2007 nhng ngi sng lp
cng b doanh thu 45 triu USD. i vi phin bn beta ca n, c pht hnh thng
3nm 2008, n ng k vi Paramount, Warner Bros, Viacom, Endemol v h thng
pht thanh truyn hnh Turner. Ngy nay, h thng cung cp hn 28.000 chng trnh
truyn hnh v 480 knh.

Hnh 4.1: Giao din ca Joost
Joost l mt dch v Video theo yu cu VoD da trn cng ngh P2P TV. Joost c
pht hnh theo giy php m ngun m khng-copyleft v khuyn khch cc nh pht
trin bn th ba to ra cc cng c cho nn tng 2.0. Phin bn hin ti ca phn mm
l da trn XULRunner v qun l ti s dng audio ZAP Media Kit. Joost s dng
CorePlayer nhng bi CoreCodecs Inc h tr codec video H.264. i vi video
streaming, giao thc truyn ti UDP c s dng trong khi giao thc TCP c s dng
qun l P2P.
ti nghin cu khoa hc cp hc sinh sinh vin Chng IV
Trang 42
4.2. PeerCast
PeerCast l mt ng dng radio v live TV mang ngun m, n s dng cu trc
mng hnh cy. N c vit trong C++ v c dng ng dng trong Windows,
Linux v Mac OS X. Tnh ph bin ca n b gii hn v ch yu tp trung vo cc ni
dung radio m cc ngi s dng to ra. Trong mt chng mc no ngi s dng
u cui th n d dng trong vic la chn knh nhng cc ty chn cu hnh th phc
tp. Chng ta c th kim tra mt cch thnh cng cc lung video v radio.
4.3. Freecast
Freecast l mt khch hng streaming P2P trn c s java ngun m, n h tr live
TV v radio. N s dng giao din mng hnh cy v c mt giao din ngi s dng cc
k n gin. N c thit k m c th chy vi mt c click n gin. Chng ta c
th thnh cng streaming radio vi khch hng ny.
4.4. PPLive
PPLive l mt ng dng P2P TV c quyn, thng mi, n s dng mng mesh nh
mt giao din che ph. N phn phi ch yu l cc ni dung Trung quc nhng n c
s dng rng ri. N c nhiu tin b hn cc ng dng video khc. Cc nh gi ch ra
rng n s dng lung ln l 200kbps, 500kbps cho lung xung v khong 5000 a ch
IP c tip xc trong vng 30 pht hot ng.
4.5. Sopcast
Sopcast l mt ng dng c quyn, n c s dng s h tr t my ch multicast.
N h tr live TV. S pht trin VoD ang mt giai on sm. Sopcast gii hn cc kt
ni l 30 trong khi Joost ngi ta o c ln ti ti 500 kt ni c thc hin.
4.6. PPMate
Phin bn u tin ca PPmate c pht hnh nm 2006.
Cung cp cc knh truyn hnh ch yu l chu , nhng cng c cc chng trnh
th thao quc t, m nhc v cc knh video c th c theo di thng qua Windows
Media Player. ng dng bao gm mt chc nng ghi m cho vic ghi m thi gian thc
v my nghe nhc VoD.
ti nghin cu khoa hc cp hc sinh sinh vin Chng IV
Trang 43

Hnh 4.2: Giao din ca PPMate
PPMate l mt phn mm h tr qung co, h tr P2Pstreaming v VoD.
4.7. Kt lun chng
Chng 4 cp v nhng ng dng ca P2PTV ang c s dng rng ri trn
th gii nh Joost, PeerCast, Freecast, PPLive, Sopcast, PPMate y l nhng phn
mm hu dng, cung cp cho nhng ngi s dng nhng cng c ti u, nhng knh
truyn hnh hon ho cng cc dch v trn internet.
ti nghin cu khoa hc cp hc sinh sinh vin Chng V
Trang 44
CHNG V: XY DNG MNG NGANG HNG V
TH NGHIM DCH V TRUYN HNH
5.1. Xy dng mng ngang hng bng phn mm Sopcast
SopCast l mt ng dng P2PTV gip ta xem TV, movie, th thao trc tip, ca nhc,
knh chn lc. V c bn, phn mm c cc knh TV khp th gii, n nhanh chng tr
ln ph bin cho cc trn bng . Cc knh khoa hc cuc sng bao gm ca nhc, phim,
tin tc v thi trang
s dng sopcast xy dng mng ngang hng v th nghim dch v truyn hnh
chng ta phi thc hin cc bc nh sau:
5.1.1. ng k knh pht sng
Trc tin bn vo sopcast.com ng k mt ti khon.
Tip theo cc bn c ti khon, th ng nhp li vo trang sopcast.com c
th ng k mt knh cho ring mnh.
Khi bn ng k knh pht cho ring mnh vi cc thng s cn thit (bt buc cc
c du *) th trang ch s t ng cp pht cho bn mt ID channel tc l knh m bn s
pht.

Hnh 5.1: ng k thnh cng knh pht


ti nghin cu khoa hc cp hc sinh sinh vin Chng V
Trang 45
5.1.2. Pht sng
Sau khi hon tt ng k knh pht bn vo sopcast chn phn myserver pht.
Bn cn in ng ID v tn knh, trong phn account pht cc bn nh account ng
k ti trang ch sopcast to knh pht . Ta phi add s port thch hp.
Source pht th c 3 cch:
Stream l pht trc tip nhng g ang din ra trn mn hnh.
Directory l pht cc file t 1 folder.
File l pht 1 file no .
Loop l lp li cc file pht

Hnh 5.2: Pht sng trn sopcast

ti nghin cu khoa hc cp hc sinh sinh vin Chng V
Trang 46
5.2. Th nghim dch v truyn hnh
5.2.1. S dng Microsoft Expression Encoder 4 Sp2

Hnh 5.3: Phn mm Microsoft Expression Encoder 4 Sp2
Microsoft Expression Encoder 4 cung cp y cng c cn thit cho vic bin tp
v xut bn video da trn nn cng ngh Silverlight ca Microsoft vi 3 chc nng
chnh l Transcoding Project (bin tp v chuyn i chun nn video), Silverlight
Project (to trnh pht video da trn cng ngh Silverlight), Live Broadcasting Project
(xut bn video).
mi ngi c th truy cp xem trc tip ni dung video, ta ch vic thit lp knh
pht video cho ring mnh bng cng c Live Broadcasting Project.
Sau khi chn cng c Live Broadcasting Project, ta vo menu File > Add Live Source
to mt knh pht video mi. Tng t, ta vo menu File > Add File Source, duyt
n file video cn pht (c th a nhiu video vo knh pht) v nhn Open.
ti nghin cu khoa hc cp hc sinh sinh vin Chng V
Trang 47
Mun video no ln sng, ta ch vic nhn nt Cue tng ng vi video ti mc File
Source.
Tip n, ta m th Output nm bn phi giao din chnh, nh du trc ty chn
Streaming > Broadcast, thit lp cng kt ni ti mc Port, s kt ni n knh pht video
ti a ti mc Max Connections. Xong, nhn nt Test xem th.
Ta c th thay i cc knh mt cch lin tc bng cch thay i nt Cue tng ng
vi knh mun pht.
5.2.2. So snh Client-Server vi P2PTV
so snh Client-Server vi P2PTV ta dng Microsoft Expression Encoder 4 Sp2
to knh ri pht xem dch v no c cht lng cng nh thi gian tt hn.
5.2.2.1. Client-Server
pht knh theo dng Client-Server ta phi thit lp NAT cho modem.

Hnh 5.4: Thit lp NAT cho modem
Sau kim tra a ch IP ang s dng:

Hnh 5.5: Kim tra a ch IP

ti nghin cu khoa hc cp hc sinh sinh vin Chng V
Trang 48
Sau khi chn c knh pht trn Microsoft Expression Encoder 4 Sp2, ta tin
hnh kim tra dng Client-Server thng qua Windows Media Player.
Lu : do tc ng truyn v ch thc hin kim tra mt kt ni nn cht lng
hnh nh cng nh thi gian ln sng ch mang tnh tng trng.

Hnh 5.6: Cht lng hnh nh v thi gian ln sng khi dng Client-Server (1 kt ni)
5.2.2.2. P2PTV
Sau khi chn c knh pht trn Microsoft Expression Encoder 4 Sp2, ta tin
hnh kim tra P2PTV thng qua Sopcast.
Lu : do tc ng truyn v ch thc hin kim tra mt kt ni nn cht lng
hnh nh cng nh thi gian ln sng ch mang tnh tng trng.
ti nghin cu khoa hc cp hc sinh sinh vin Chng V
Trang 49

Hnh 5.7: Cht lng hnh nh v thi gian ln sng khi dng sopcast (1 kt ni)
5.3. Kt lun chng
Chng 5 th nghim dch v truyn hnh bng c Client-Server v mng ngang
hng. Do vic thc hin th nghim ch c mt kt ni nn cht lng hnh nh cng nh
thi gian ln sng ch mang tnh cht tham kho. Vi Client-Server khi cng nhiu kt
ni n th nhu cu v ti, bng thng tng ln v my ch khng c kh nng cung cp
dch v. Cn P2PTV th hon ton ngc li, cng nhiu kt ni th cht lng hnh nh
cng nh thi gian ln sng cng tt. Qua y ta thy c ch li to ln m mng ngang
hng em li trn internet.
ti nghin cu khoa hc cp hc sinh sinh vin Kt lun
Trang 50
KT LUN
Hin nay vi vic Internet ngy cng pht trin mnh th hu nh mi ngi s dng
u mun tn dng ti a ng truyn ca mnh v s dng cc loi dch v thng qua
mng internet vi my tnh ca mnh. H khng ch s dng n thun cc ng dng nh
c bo, gi mail, xem TV trc tuyn vi cht lng thp ... m h cn c cc nhu cu
cao hn nh chia s cc file c dung lng ln, xem TV cht lng cao nhng khng
phi tng chi ph s dng. gii quyt c nhng yu cu th mng P2P ra i
vi nhng u im m h thng mng client/server trc y khng c c. ng dng
P2PTV l mt trong cc ng dng ang c quan tm nhiu hin nay.
Trong nghin cu ny tp trung nghin cu cc vn nh sau:
Khi qut v khi nim mng ngang hng P2P. Bn cnh cn cp n vic
phn loi mng ngang hng da trn cu trc mng v da theo ng dng.
Nghin cu dch v ca mng chng ph ngang hng. Cc dch v trn mng
ngang hng nh l chia s file, P2PVoD, P2P live TV, P2P voice over IP, P2P
gaming t cho chng ta thy c nhng ng dng ca P2P c dng kh
ph bin v rng ri trn mng internet.
Nghin cu cc cng ngh truyn hnh hin ti v v cc gii php thc hin
P2PTV. Cc h thng P2P streaming c th phn chia thnh h thng P2P live
streaming v P2P VoD.
Tm hiu nhng ng dng ca P2PTV ang c s dng rng ri trn th gii
nh Joost, PeerCast, Freecast, PPLive, Sopcast, PPMate.
Th nghim dch v truyn hnh bng c Client-Server v mng ngang hng.
Do thi gian nghin cu c hn nn bi nghin cu khoa hc khng th trnh khi
nhng thiu st, v vy chng em rt mong nhn c cc kin ng gp t thy gio,
c gio v cc bn.
Mt ln na chng em xin chn thnh cm n c gio ThS. V Thy H cng cc
thy c gio v cc bn gip chng em trong sut qu trnh thc hin nghin cu
ny.

Xin chn thnh cm n!
ti nghin cu khoa hc cp hc sinh sinh vin Ti liu tham kho
Trang 51
TI LIU THAM KHO

[1]. Alexandro Sentinelli, Gustavo Marfia, Mario Gerla, and Leonard Kleinrock,
University of California Los Angeles PEER-TO-PEER MULTIMEDIA
STREAMING
[2]. Yue Lu1, Fernando Kuipers1, Milena Janic2, and Piet Van Mieghem E2E
Blocking Probability of IPTV and P2PTV
[3]. Force Innovation Technology Ltd ForceTech P2P IPTV Solution
www.sopcast.com
www.microsoft.com