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PROCEEDINGS

OF
THE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE
ON
ADVANCED EXPERIMENTAL MECHANICS
May 16-20 1988
TIANJIN CHINA
Organized by Tianjin University
Co-sponsored by
The Chinese Society of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, CEM
The Canadian Society for Mechanical Engineering, R&D EMG
The J a p an Society of Mechanical Engineers
Appllcatlon of Scattnrnd Llght Photonlasticlty to Fracturn Mnchanics
Ma Guang . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F- 1
Bnhavior of Cracks undnr Plann Mixnd Modns
J n an llOYi-:H . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F-G
Thn Charactnrlstlc Propnrtlns of thn Displacnmnnt Finld of Mixnd Modn
Crack
W n l Xi ao and LI nan LnP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F-12
CurvP Mnthod for Dntnrmlr1ing StrPss Intnnsity Factors from Isochromatic
Fri ngPs
Bai Bing-San, Tan Da-Zhou, Yu Blng-Yi and Ma Guang ....................... F-18
Effnct of thn LPnght of Simulatnd nandom Procnss on Fatigun Crack
Growth
H i roshl Itagaki, Tntsuo Ishi zuka and lluang Pniyan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . V-211
Expnrimnntal Considnrations for Mlxnd Modn in llotatlng Disks Havlng
Bt'anchnd Cracks
Tsutomu Ezumi , Wu Da Fang and Susumu Takahashi F-30
An Expnrimnntal Rnsnarch on Plastic Zonn at Crak-Tip
Yuan Long-wni , Xu Zhong-yong and Gao yun-xi n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F-36
Expnrimnntal Study on Strnss Distrlbution in CompositP Platn wlth
a 1-!oln
Wang-Dong Luo and Blng-Xian Yang ......................................... F-110
An Expnrimnntal Study of Lubricant Effnct In Strain Finlds on Damagnd
Stnnl Strand Subjnctnd to Tnnsiln Load
P. Cappa an d G. Ghisa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F-46
A Fracturn Mnchanics Study on thn Fatigun Crack Growth and Fatigun
Lifn of thn Spot \\lnldnd Jolnt K
Chunzhl Li, Masatoshi SI-IINOZAKI and HidnoKITAGAWA
Fracturn Monitoring by Impact Sound Analysis
1-!iroaki Ol-INO, Koji TSUCHIYA, Chunzhi Li
F-53
and H i dno KITAGAWA ........................................................ F--59
An Improvnd Holographic Mnthod for thn Dntnrmination of TnmpPraturn
Distributions and Thnrmal Strnssns
Hn Xi aoyuan and Xu Zhu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F-65
Invnstigation on Skin Frictlon Rnduction of Flat PJatn in Turbulnnt
Boundary Laynr
Knwnn Li an d O i xi ang LI an ...... _ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1'-71
Thn Mnchanical Propnrtlns of Cortical Bonn Anisotropy of Elastic
Modulus, Yinlding Strnss and Static Fracturn Procnss
N. INOUE, K. SAKAKIDA, F. YAMASHITA, T. 1-!IRAI,
T. KATAYAMA and M. NAKAfv1ICHI .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. . .. .. . .. . .. .. .. .. . .. .. . .. . F-77
Micro-Holo-Photonlastic Mnthod in Rnsnarching Fracturn Propnrtins
of Polycarbonatn
ShPn Lin, Wu Xiaopin and Lu Xici ......................................... F-83
A Nnw Mnthod of Dntnrmining thn Strnss Intnnsi ty Factor
Lu Xiao Yin and Sun Yan Jun
Nnw Mnthod to Mnasurn llnsidual Strnss Around Coldworknd Fastnnnr
Holns
F-89
H n Shi p i ng an d Wu Xl a opi ng . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F-95
An Opti ca l Survnyl ng to thn Propaga t i o n Vnl oci ty an d
Shapn of Crack
Xu Zhong-yong and Yuan Long-wnl .. .. .. .. .. .. . . .. .. .. .. . .. . .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. . F 101
VI
AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF LUBRICANT EFFECT IN STRAIN FIELDS
DN DAMAGED STEEL STRANO SUBJECTED TO TENSILE LDAD
P.Cappa, G. Ghisa
Dipartimento di Meccanica e Aeronautica
Via Eudossiana, 18 - 00184 ROMA CITALY>
ABSTRACT
Wire strains in a damaged seven wire strand subjected to
static and quasi-static axial load are experimentally examined.
These tests are carried aut with electrical resistance strain
gages. The results of these investigations reveal relevant
differences in load sharing among the tests carried aut and
noticeable hysteresis effects.
l.INTRODUCTION
From the examination of papers [1-4] regarding simple and yet
representative theoretical models, the difficulty in studying
strands and wire-ropes behaviour emerges.
Moreover some articles have been published an experimental
study of wire strains an strands and wire-rcpes subjected te
tensile load. The main results obtained by loading statically
undamaged ropes are: an unequal lcad sharing between nominally
identica! wires [5-10J, and the importance of the twisting
constraints [11-12]. Insignificant differences in lcad sharing
between undamaged strands lubricated and unlubricated ones were
observed C12,13J. It was also studied [13-15] the behaviour cf
strands unlubricated before and after the severing of external
wire. Noticeable differences were noted between the strains
obtained by loading statically and quasi-statically. Finally,
the strains measured during the severing of one helical wire
C16,17J, while the strand is loaded with a c:onstant load,
shcwed a lower capacity te share the load than suggested in the
Italian regulations.
It is the purpose of this paper to examine the variations in
load sharing caused by a lubricant in a damaged strand loaded
both statically and quasi-statically.
2.EXPERIMENTAL ARRANGEMENT
A strand of seven-wire construction was examined. The sample
strand was cut from an unused piace, the wires were "bright".
The characteri sti es are shown i n T ab. 1.
One helical wire, wire #4, was severed near one of the end
grips without causing damage to the adjacent ones.
Six electrical resistance strain gages were mcunted cne an
each helical wire near the middle of the strand. The
precautions taken during the surface conditioning and
neutralizing lead to the presumption that the variations of the
local coefficient cf friction caused by the surface preparaticn
solvents were negligible.
The temperature of the laboratory was measured during the
f-46
tests and the values obtained were in the ranges of 22-26 C,
making it unnecessary to take into account the apparent strains
and the curvature effects C18-20J.
The load applied was measured by using a load cell placed in
series with the strand; the maximum value of the interval of
uncertainty was equal to 0.3 percent.
At the beginning of each series of tests, the resistance
between the gages and the ground was measured. The values
measured were always higher than 210
4
MQ and these values
highlighted the good performance of the adhesive.
Before beginning the tests, the strand was loaded and
unloaded about 100 times. This initial preparation was given
to the strand to obtain a more uniform behaviour of the wires.
The application of the strains in cyclic form also relieved the
residua! stresses in the adhesive C21J.
The strain measurements system utilized far the static
measurements was made by a manual measuring point selector and
a digitai strain meter. The strain measurement system far the
quasi-static tests was made by a signal conditioner and a
magnetic tape recorder.
3.EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE ANO RESULTS
It was chosen to study the strand behaviour by loading the
strand with a cycle equal to: 0-29.4-0 kN. The readings in the
static tests were taken at every load change equal to 4.9 kN,
and far each level of load after an interval of 20 minutes. The
tests were repeated 10 times.
The quasi-static tests were carried aut by loading the strand
with the same cycle chosen far the static tests. Ten
application of load were made; the time increment necessary to
reach the maximum value of the tensile load was always less
than 4 seconds. The signals were recorded during each run.
The results are reported as: mean standard deviation
lE 80). A static and a quasi-static analysis of the
unlubricated strand behaviour were carried aut at first. The
wires with greater values of SD were, in the static tests, the
interrupted wire, wire #4, 111 <ilnd the
adjacent wires, wire #3 and #5, 112 JJ.m/mS.SDS91 JJ.m/m and
14 JJ.m/mS.SDS88 JJ.m/m). The SD values were always less than
48 JJ.m/m in quasi-static tests. The more relevant dispersion
observed in static tests, as regards to the strains obtained
loading the strand quasi-statically, appeared to have been
caused by the variation of the local effects. In fact, in each
static test, because of the duration was equal te 4 hours, the
region of the interrupted wire that can slip may change, as
observed in a previous work C15J.
By comparing the strains obtained with the static tests with
those obtained with the quasi-static ones, it was confirmed
C15J the costancy of strains sum, in fact the greatest
was equal to 2 percent. It was also noticed a mor-e
uniform load sharing in quasi-static tests than in static ones.
In fact, far a load applied equal to 29.4 kN, the maximum and
the rninimum value were 2294 JJ.rn/m lwire #4> and 2481 JJ.m/m lwire
#3), 1454 JJ.m/m (wi re #4) an d 3345 JJ.m/m <wi re #3) i n stati c
tests and in quasi-static ones respectively. This observation
F-47
-
indicates that in the quasi-static tests the contact loads
developed between the wires are greatar than those developed in
the static tests.
In arder to visualize the hysteresis of the strand loaded
both statically and quasi-statically, the differences between
the mean values relative to the increasing loads and those
obtained with the decreasing loads are shown, as a function of
the load applied, in Fig. 1. It was decicled to do not indicate
the results obtained in the range 0-4.9 kN because af the
differences of the strains relative to O kN, obtained
unloading, ware lower than the associateci interval of
uncertainty. From the examination of this figure a similar
behaviour with the simmetrie wires, with regards to the
interrupted wire, appears. It emerges also that the
interrupted wire shows the maximum strain difference values. A
negative hysteresis appears far the wires adjacent to wire #4.
Then the strand was lubricated and loaded both statically and
quasi-statically. From the strains measured with static tests
was confirmed that the wires with greater intervals of
uncertainty were wire #4 (12 wire #3
<15 and wire #5 (15 The
intervals of uncertainty were, in quasi-static tests, always
less than 49
Unsignificant differences were observed between the E sum
relative to the strand unlubricated and lubricated; in fact the
difference betwaen the maximum and the minimum value were equal
to 2.5 percent.
From the obtained values emerges that the ununiformity in
load sharing is significantly increased because of the
lubrication. The strains were, far a load applied equal to
29.4 kN, in the ranges of 721 and
794 respectively far static and quasi-static
test s.
In Fig. 2 the difference between the E relative to the
increasing loads and those relative to the decreasing loads are
reported as a funct.ion of the load applied. From the
examination of this figure it was confirmed that the simmetrie
wire, with regard to the interrupted cna, have a similar
behaviour. By comparing figure 1 and 2 it emerges the effect
of the lubricant.
4.CONCLUSIONS
As an outcome of this work it can be concluded that
noticeable differences in load sharing among the results
obtained loading a damage strand, unlubricated and lubricated,
both statically and quasi-statically were noticed. Moreover
remarkable strand hysteresis were observed.
REFERENCES
[1] Costello G.A., Phillips J.W. "Contact stn?s!;es in thin
twi sted rods", ASME JournCi\l of Appl i md M!!!C.:htl.\1'\:lt::ll\
1



629-630.
[2] Velinsky S.A. "Analysis of wire ropes with a comple}:
\
cross sections", Ph.D Thesis, University af Illinois at Urbana
Champaign, Department of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics,
1981, 87 pp.
[3J Costello G.A. "Stresses in multilayered cables", Journal
of Energy Resources Technology, September, Vol. 105, 1983, pp.
307-340.
[4J F'hillips J.W., Castello G.A. "Analysis of wire ropes
wi t h i nternal w i rerope c or es", ASME Journal of Appl i ed
Mechanics, Vol. 52, 1985, pp. 510--516.
C5J Rossetti U., Ochner M. "SL\1 problem.-a dell'analisi delle
sollecitazioni nelle funi metalliche'', Disegno di Macchine, No.
4, 1973, pp. 245-248.
[6J F'aolini G., Bazzaro E. "Studio sullo stato di cimento in
fili di funi soggette a trazione semplic1:", Elevatori, No. 3,
1974, pp. 59-62.
C7J F'aolini G., Bazzaro E. "EHpeimental research an the
stress state in the wires of a steel ropes under tensile
loads", Proceedings of OITAF, Wien, 1975.
C8J F'aolini G., Bazziaro E. "Consider.-azioni interpretati V!?
SL\ll'analisi sperimentale delle tensioni in Ltna fune
sollecitata a trazione", III Convegno AIAS, Bt:Jlogna, 1975, pp.
39/1-39/11.
[9] F'aolini G., Bazzaro E. "A study an the deviation in the
experimental results obtained from strain gauge tests carried
DL\t an steel wire ropes Lmder tensile loads", F'roceedings of
OITAF, Hlovec, 1978, pp. 155-166.
C10J Branca F. P., Cappa P., Molinari G.
sperimentale sulle deformazioni dei fili in
spiroidale semplice. Primi risultati", Elevatori,
1985, pp. 11-17.
"Indagine
L\11 trefol a
No. 5-6,
C11J Bazzaro E. "Influenza del vincolo torsionale sul
comportamento statico di una fune soggetta a trazione
semplice", Elevatori, No. 6, 1979, pp. 217-238.
C12J Utting W.S., Jones N. "Tensile testing of a wire rop!?S
strand", Journal of Strain Analysis, Vol. 20, 1985, pp.
151-164.
(13] Cappa P. "Analisi sperimentale delle deformazio.li in un
trefolo spiroidale semplice con L\11 filo periferico interrotto",
Elevatori, No. 5, 1986, pp. 11-17.
[14J Cappa F'. "Effetto della interruzione di un filo esterno
nella distribuzione delle deformazioni in trefoli spiroidali
semplici sottoposti ad uno sforzo di trazione assiale. Analisi
sperimentale", XIV Convegno AIAB, Catania, 1986, pp. 605-617.
C15J Cappa F'. "An e>:periment.-al analysis af the strain fields
an steel wi re ropes subj ected t a tensi l e l od s", SEM Spri ng
Conference an EHperimental Mechanics, Houstan, 1987, pp.
563-569.
[16J Molinari G. "Ricerca sperimentale sulla distribuzione
delle deformazioni nei fili di un trefolo spiroidale semplice
soggetto a trazione durante la rottura di uno di essi",
El ev.-atori, No. 6, 1980, pp. 179-188.
[17J Cappa F'. "An e>:perimental dynamic
strain fields an steel strands subjected to
be presented at the 43rd Annual Conference
of Americ<i\'m, Houston, October 17--21, 1988
analysis af the
tensi le load", ta
Instrument Society
C18J Hines F. "Effec:t af mounting sLwface curvature on the
temperature c:oefficient an bonded resistanc:e strain gages",
f-49
\
______________________ ............ .....
Baldwin-Lima-Hamilton Corpotaion Bulletin, November, 1960.
[ 19J Hines F. "Surface curvature effects on apparent str;;\i.n",
Proceedings Weat. Reg. Strain gage Comittee, November, 1960.
[20J Hoffman K. "How to avoid or minimize errors in strain
gauge measurements'', Hottinger Balwin Messetechnik.
[21J Stein P.K. "Adht?sivt?, how they determine and limi.t
strain gage performances'', Semicoductor and Conventional Strain
Gages, Academic Press, 1962.
TABL.E 1
Characteristics of the strand examined
Diameter of the e>:ternal wires 3.0
Diameter of the internal wire 3.2
Lays length 136.0
Breaking load 71.2
Length of the st.eel strand m: ami ned 1250
F'-50
m m
m m
m m
kN
m m
G'
-
Il
...:!:.
Ul
c
.....
IO
c...
.....
c.n
e
-
e
....:.
Ul
1100
600
400
200
o
-zoo
-400
-600
000
600
.s -4
IO
c...
.....
c.n
STRANO UNLUBRICATEO - STATIC TESTS
.. wlre 11
vlre 1
"' wlre IZ
wlre f5
a wlre 13
w!re 16
.8 I.U
STRANO UNLUBRICATEO - OUASI-STATIC TESTS
.... wlre Il wlre f4
wlre IZ o wlre f5
a wlre 13 wlre 16
Fig.1 - Oifference of the stroin& obtoined by londinR ond
unloading.
F'-51
E
-
E
...:::.
lfl
c:
"'
L
-'->
U)
lfl
c:
.....
ro
L
.....
U)
STRANO LUBRICATEO - STATIC TESTS
600
... wlre fl
wlrt f.C
~ wlre f2
" wlrt f!5
600 o wlre f3
wlre 16
400
200
o
-200
- ~ 0 0
-600
.9
Lo ad [kN)
.8 10
STRANO LUBRICATEO - QUASI-STATIC TESTS.
000,----------------------------------------,
.. wlre 11
.. wlre f2
600 o w1re f3
.400
200
o
wlre f ~
o wlre 15
wlre 16
Fig. 2 - Oi-fference of the strains obtained by loadinp, an d
unloading.
1"-52