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GG-01 NORMASDE ENSAYO Y PROCEDIMIENTOSDE MECANICA DE SUELOS

GRUPO DE GEOTECNIA 1 / 6
FACULTAD DE MINAS

NORMAS DE ENSAYOS Y PROCEDIMIENTOS
DE MECANICA DE SUELOS

1- INTRODUCCIN
La actividad normal del laboratorio de Suelos y Pavimentos de la Facultad de Minas
comprende tanto los servicios docentes convencionales, como la investigacin y la prestacin
de servicios externos de extensin y consultora. Y si bien es cierto que la presentacin de
muchos ensayos en la prctica docente deben simplificarse por limitaciones de tiempo, el
estudiante debe estar familiarizado con las normas tcnicas que regulan los ensayos y
procedimientos de laboratorio que deben ser seguidas rigurosamente en la prctica
profesional. Por otra parte, los servicios externos del laboratorio y las actividades de
investigacin, incluidos los trabajos dirigidos de grado deben ceirse estrictamente a dichas
normas.

Algunas actividades en Colombia, particularmente las que tienen un alto volumen de
contratacin, cuentan con sus propias normas y especificaciones. Otras han adoptado normas
internacionales particularmente las de la ASTM. Pero lamentablemente en numerosos casos
los ensayos de campo y laboratorio no se ajustan a normas establecidas, y apenas si siguen
unos procedimientos transmitidos oralmente, que frecuentemente son ejecutados por
personas sin la debida preparacin acadmica, o se confunden los textos preparados como
material docente con el manual de laboratorio propiamente dicho.

El material de laboratorio cuya primera versin ofrecemos en este volumen, consiste
bsicamente en un conjunto de normas de ensayo y procedimientos de uso frecuente en los
laboratorios de geotecnia, adaptados de las normas ASTM, con adiciones y modificaciones
que pueden contribuir a hacer un mejor uso de ellas. Como manual de laboratorio su funcin
bsica es definir de manera sistemtica los procedimientos y mtodos de ensayo que deben
seguirse en los servicios externos y en las actividades de investigacin del Grupo de
Geotecnia. A continuacin enumeramos las normas ASTM ms utilizadas en los laboratorios
de geotecnia y que son frecuentemente citadas en este Manual.

2- NORMAS ASTM MS FRECUENTEMENTE UTILIZADAS EN LA
INGENIERA DE SUELOS
ASTM Standard D420-93: Guide for Investigating and Sampling Soil and
Rock.
ASTM Standard D421-85: Practice for Dry Preparation of Soil Samples for
Particle-Size Analysis of Soils.
ASTM Standard D422-63: Method for Particle-Size Analysis of Soils.
ASTM Standard D425-88: Test Method for Centrifuge Moisture Equivalent
of Soils.
ASTM Standard D427-93: Test Method for Shrinkage Factors of Soils.
ASTM Standard D653-90: Terminology Relating to Soil, Rock, and
Contained Fluids.

GG-01 NORMASDE ENSAYO Y PROCEDIMIENTOSDE MECANICA DE SUELOS
GRUPO DE GEOTECNIA 2 / 6
FACULTAD DE MINAS

ASTM Standard D698-91: Test Method for Laboratory Compaction Characteristics of Soil
Using Standard Effort (12400ft-lbf/ ft
3
(600KNm/ m
3
)).
ASTM Standard D854-92: Test Method for Specific Gravity of Soils.
ASTM Standard D1140-92: Test Method for Amount of Materials Soils Finer than the
No 200 (75- m) Sieve.
ASTM Standard D1194-72: Test Method for Bearing Capacity of Soil for Static Load on
Spread Footings.
ASTM Standard D1195-93: Test Method for Repetitive Static Plate Load Test of Soils and
Flexible Pavement Components, for Use in Evaluation and Design of Airport and Highway
Pavements.
ASTM Standard D1196-93: Test Method for Non repetitive Static Plate Load Tests of Soils
and Flexible Pavement Components, for Use in Evaluation and Design of Airport and
Highway Pavements.
ASTM Standard D1452-80: Practice for Soil Investigation and Sampling by Auger Borings.
ASTM Standard D1556-90: Test Method for Density and Unit Weight of Soil In Place by the
Sand-Cone Method.
ASTM Standard D1557-91: Test Method for Laboratory Compaction Characteristics of Soil
Using Modified Effort )) / 2700 ( / 56000 (
3 3
m kNm ft lbf ft .
ASTM Standard D1558-84: Test Method for Moisture Content Penetration Resistance
Relationships of Fine-Grained Soils.
ASTM Standard D 1586-84: Method for Penetration Test and Split-Barrel Sampling of Soils.
ASTM Standard D1587-83: Practice for Thin-Walled Tube Sampling of Soils.
ASTM Standard D1883-92: Test Method for CBR(California Bearing Ratio) of Laboratory
Compacted Soils.
ASTM Standard D2113-83: Practice for Diamond Core Drilling for Site Investigation.
ASTM Standard D2166-91: Test Method for Unconfined Compressive Strength of Cohesive
Soil.
ASTM Standard D2167-84: Test Method for Density and Unit Weight of Soil in Place by the
Rubber Balloon Method.
ASTM Standard D2168-90: Test Methods for Calibration of Laboratory Mechanical-Rammer
Soil Compactors.
ASTM Standard D2216-92: Test Method for Laboratory Determination of Water (Moisture)
Content of Soil and Rock.
ASTM Standard D2217-85: Practice for Wet Preparation of Soil Samples for Particle-Size
Analysis and Determination of Soil Constants.
ASTM Standard D2325-68: Test Method for Capillary-Moisture Relationships for Coarse -and
Medium- Textured Soils by Porous Plate Apparatus.
ASTM Standard D2434-68: Test Method for Permeability of Granular Soils (Constant Head).
ASTM Standard D2435-90: Test Method for One-Dimensional Consolidation Properties of
Soils.
ASTM Standard D2487-93: Test Method for Classification of Soils for Engineering Purposes.
ASTM Standard D2488-93: Practice for Description and Identification of Soils (Visual-
Manual Procedure).
ASTM Standard D2573-72: Test Method for Field Vane Shear Test in Cohesive Soil.
GG-01 NORMASDE ENSAYO Y PROCEDIMIENTOSDE MECANICA DE SUELOS
GRUPO DE GEOTECNIA 3 / 6
FACULTAD DE MINAS

ASTM Standard D2844-89: Test Method for Resistance R-Value and Expansion Pressure of
Compacted Soils.
ASTM Standard D2850-87: Test Method for Unconsolidated, Undrained Compressive
Strength of Cohesive Soils in Triaxial Compression.
ASTM Standard D2922-91: Test Methods for Density of Soil and Soil-Aggregate in Place by
Nuclear Methods (Shallow Depth).
ASTM Standard D2937-83: Test Method for Density of Soil In Place by the Drive-Cylinder
Method.
ASTM Standard D3017-88: Test Method for Water Content of Soil and Rock in Place by
Nuclear Methods (Shallow Depth).
ASTM Standard D3080-90: Method for Direct Shear Test of Soil Under Consolidated
Drained Conditions.
ASTM Standard D3152-72: Test Method for Capillary-Moisture Relationships for Fine-
Textured Soils by Pressure Membrane Apparatus.
ASTM Standard D3155-83: Test Method for Lime Content of Uncured Soil-Lime Mixtures.
ASTM Standard D3213-91: Practice for Handling, Storing, and Preparing Soft Undisturbed
Marine Soil.
ASTM Standard D3282-93: Practice for Classification of Soils and Soil-Aggregate Mixtures
for Highway Construction Purposes.
ASTM Standard D3385-88: Test Method for Infiltration Rate of Soils in Field Using Double-
Ring Infiltrometer.
ASTM Standard D3404-91: Guide to Measuring Metric Potential in the Vadose Zone Using
Tensiometers.
ASTM Standard D3441-86: Method for Deep, Quasi-Static, Cone and Friction-Cone
Penetration Tests of Soil.
ASTM Standard D3550-84: Practice for Ring-Lined Barrel Sampling of Soils.
ASTM Standard D3551-90: Method for Laboratory Preparation of Soil-Lime Mixtures Using
a Mechanical Mixer.
ASTM Standard D3668-78: Test Method for Bearing Ratio of Laboratory-Compacted Soil-
Lime Mixtures.
ASTM Standard D3689-90: Method for Testing Individual Piles Under Static Axial Tensile
Load.
ASTM Standard D3740-92: Practice for the Evaluation of Agencies Engaged in the Testing
and/ or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction.
ASTM Standard D3877-80: Test Methods for One-Dimensional Expansion, Shrinkage, and
Uplift Pressure of Soil-Lime Mixtures.
ASTM Standard D3966-90: Method of Testing Piles Under Lateral Loads.
ASTM Standard D3999-91: Test Method for the Determination of the Modulus and Damping
Properties of Soils Using the Cyclic Triaxial Apparatus.
ASTM Standard D4015-92: Test Methods for Modulus and Damping of Soils by the
Resonant-Column Method.
ASTM Standard D4016-93: Test Method for Viscosity of Chemical Grouts by the Brookfield
Viscometer (Laboratory Method).
ASTM Standard D4186-89: Test Method for One-Dimensional Consolidation Properties of
Soils Using Controlled-Strain Loading.
GG-01 NORMASDE ENSAYO Y PROCEDIMIENTOSDE MECANICA DE SUELOS
GRUPO DE GEOTECNIA 4 / 6
FACULTAD DE MINAS

ASTM Standard D4218: Test Method for Liquid Limit, Plastic Limit, and Plasticity Index of
Soils
ASTM Standard D4219-93: Test Method for Unconfined Compressive Strength Index Test of
Chemical-Grouted Soils.
ASTM Standard D4220-89: Practices for Preserving and Transporting Soil Samples.
ASTM Standard D4221-90: Test Method for Dispersive Characteristics of Clay Soil by
Double Hydrometer.
ASTM Standard D4223-83: Practice for Preparation of Test Specimens of Asphalt Stabilizes
Soils.
ASTM Standard D4253-91: Test Methods for Maximum Index Density and Unit Weight of
Soils Using a Vibratory Table.
ASTM Standard D4254-91: Test Methods for Minimum Index Density and Unit Weight of
Soils and Calculation of Relative Density.
ASTM Standard D4318-93: Test Method for Liquid Limit, Plastic Limit, and Plasticity Index
of Soils.
ASTM Standard D4320-93: Method for Laboratory Preparation of Chemically Grouted Soils
Specimens for Obtaining Design Strength Parameters.
ASTM Standard D4373-84: Test Method for Calcium Carbonate Content of Soils.
ASTM Standard D4404-84: Test Method for Determination of Pore Volume and Pore
Volume Distribution of Soil and Rock by Mercury Intrusion Porosimetry.
ASTM Standard D4429-93: Test Method for Bearing Ratio of Soils in Place.
ASTM Standard D 4439-92: Terminology for Geosynthetics.
ASTM Standard D4452-85: Methods for X-Ray Radiography of Soil Samples.
ASTM Standard D4542-85: Test Method for Pore Water Extraction and Determination of the
Soluble Salt Content of Soils by Refractometer.
ASTM Standard D4546-90: Test Methods for One-Dimensional Swell or Settlement Potential
of Cohesive Soils.
ASTM Standard D4564-93: Test Method for Density of Soil in Place by the Sleeve Method.
ASTM Standard D4609-86: Guide for Screening Chemicals for Soil Stabilization .
ASTM Standard D4611-86: Test Method for Specific Heat of Rock and Soil.
ASTM Standard D4643-93: Test Method for Determination of Water (Moisture) Content of
Soil by the Microwave Oven Method.
ASTM Standard D4644-87: Test Method for Slake Durability of Shales and Similar Weak
Rocks.
ASTM Standard D4647-93: Test Method for Identification and Classification of Dispersive
Clay Soils by the Pinhole Test.
ASTM Standard D4648-87: Test Method for Miniature Vane Shear Test for Satured Fine
Grained Clayey Soil.
ASTM Standard D4700-91: Guide for Soil Sampling from the Vadose Zone.
ASTM Standard D4718-87: Practice for Correction of Unit Weight and Water Content for
Soils Containing Oversize Particles.
ASTM Standard D4719-87: Test Method for Pressurometer Testing in Soils.
ASTM Standard D4753-92: Specification for Evaluating, Selecting, and Specifying Balances
and Scales for Use in Soil and Rock Testing.
ASTM Standard D4767-88: Test Method for Consolidated-Undrained Triaxial Compression
Test on Cohesive Soils.
GG-01 NORMASDE ENSAYO Y PROCEDIMIENTOSDE MECANICA DE SUELOS
GRUPO DE GEOTECNIA 5 / 6
FACULTAD DE MINAS

ASTM Standard D4829-88: Test Method for Expansion Index of Soils.
ASTM Standard D4914-89: Test Methods for Density of Soil and Rock in Place by the Sand
Replacement Method in a Test Pit.
ASTM Standard D4943-89: Test Method for Shrinkage Factor of Soils by the Wax Method.
ASTM Standard D4944-89: Test Method for Field Determination of Water (Moisture)
Content of Soil by the Calcium Carbide Gas Pressure Tester Method.
ASTM Standard D4959-89: Test Method for Determination of Water (Moisture) Content of
Soil by Direct Heating Method.
ASTM Standard D4972-89: Test Method for pH of Soils.
ASTM Standard D5030-89: Test Method for Density of Soil and Rock in Place by the Water
Replacement Method in a Test Pit.
ASTM Standard D5080-93: Test Method for Rapid Determination of Percent Compaction.
ASTM Standard D5084-90: Test Method for Measurement of Hydraulic Conductivity of
Saturated Porous Materials Using a Flexible Wall Permeameter.
ASTM Standard D5093-90: Test Method for Field Measurement of Infiltration Rate Using a
Double-Ring Infiltrometer with a Sealed-Inner Ring.
ASTM Standard D 5102-90: Methods for Unconfined Compressive Strength of Compacted
Soil-Lime Mixtures.
ASTM Standard D5126-90: Guide for Comparison Of Field Methods for Determining
Hydraulic Conductivity in the Vadose Zone.
ASTM Standard D5195-91: Test Method for Density of Soil and Rock In-Place at Depths
Below the Surface by Nuclear Methods.
ASTM Standard D5202-91: Test Method for Determining Triaxial Compression in Creep
Strength of Chemical Grouted Soils.
ASTM Standard D5220-92: Test Method for Water Content of Soil and Rock In-Place by the
Neutron Depth Probe Method.
ASTM Standard D5239-92: Practice for Characterizing Fly Ash for Use in Soil Stabilization.
ASTM Standard D5255-92: Practice for Certification of Personal Engaged in the Testing of
Soil and Rock.
ASTM Standard D5298-92: Test Method for Measurement of Soil Potential (Suction) Using
Filter Paper.
ASTM Standard D5311-92: Test Method for Load Controlled Cyclic Triaxial Strength of Soil.
ASTM Standard D5333-92: Test Method for Measurement of Collapse Potential of Soils.
ASTM Standard D5334-92: Test Method for Determination of Thermal Conductivity of Soil
and Soft Rock by Thermal Needle Probe Procedure.
ASTM Standard E11-87: Specification for Wire-Cloth Sieves for Testing Purposes.
ASTM Standard E100-93: Specification for ASTM Hydrometers.

El manual, tal como est concebido, puede ser utilizado con provecho como material
docente en los cursos de Mecnica de Suelos o de Introduccin a la Geotecnia, en los que se
incluyan prcticas de laboratorio. Adems de las normas de ensayos y procedimientos, hemos
incluido un primer capitulo que presenta un conjunto de criterios generales que deben tenerse
en cuenta en la ejecucin de ellos y que con frecuencia son ignorados. En el segundo capitulo
hemos incluido las normas que describen los requisitos que deben cumplir las empresas y
personas dedicadas profesionalmente a prestar servicios de ensayos e inspeccin de
materiales geotcnicos.
GG-01 NORMASDE ENSAYO Y PROCEDIMIENTOSDE MECANICA DE SUELOS
GRUPO DE GEOTECNIA 6 / 6
FACULTAD DE MINAS

La terminologa propia de la Mecnica de Suelos y de los ensayos correspondientes, ha sido
compilada en otro texto Geotecnia, Diccionario Bsico cuya primera edicin fue publicada
por Hombre Nuevo Editores (Fabin Hoyos P, 2001).

Este manual se ofrece como un tomo convencional, pero puede ser solicitado igualmente en
un legajador, o como texto digital en disco de 3 , o en disco compacto a:
Grupo de Geotecnia
Facultad de Minas
Medelln
Telfono 4255188 - 4255188
Fax 2341002 - 2340710
Email: dea@poseidon.unalmed.edu.co
3 - REFERENCIAS
AASHTO, ASTM, 1994, Book of Standards. V 4.08 y 4.09, Philadelphia.
Hoyos Patio, F, 2001, Geotecnia. Diccionario Bsico, Hombre Nuevo Editores, Medelln ,
2001, pp.1
Instituto Nacional de Vas, 1998, Normas de ensayo de materiales para carretera, tomo I
Suelos, INVIAS, Bogot.