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# 1.

## AMPLITUDE MODULATION AND DEMODULATION

Aim: To study the process of amplitude modulation and demodulation and to calculate the depth
of modulation.
Apparatus: 1. Hi-Q test equipment Pvt. Ltd
2. Oscilloscope 20MHz Dual channel
3. Patch Cords

Theory: Amplitude Modulation is defined as a process in which the amplitude of the carrier
wave c (t) is varied linearly with the instantaneous amplitude of the message signal m(t). The
standard form of amplitude modulated (AM) wave is defined by

s(t)=A
c
(1+K
a
m(t))cos (2f
c
t)

Under modulation:
In this case m
a
<1.Here the maximum amplitude of the baseband signal is less than the
maximum carrier amplitude A i.e. | x(t)|
max
< A.
The envelope does not reach the zero amplitude axis of the AM waveform and so the
baseband signal may be fully recovered from the envelope of AM wave.Modulating signal is
preserved in the envelope only if the percentage modulation is less than or equal to 100
percentage.

Perfect modulation:
In this case m
a
=1.Here the amplitude of the message signal is equal to the amplitude of
the carrier signal, i.e. |x(t)|
max
=A.

Over modulation:
In this case m
a
>1.Here the amplitude of the baseband signal exceeds the maximum
carrier amplitude, i.e. |x(t)|
max
>A.Here the percentage modulation is greater than 100,the
baseband signal is preserved in the envelope. The message signal recovered from the envelope
will be distorted. This distortion is called envelope distortion.

Circuit diagram:

Procedure:
Modulation:
1) Connect the circuit as shown in the diagram.
a) Output of modulating signal generator to modulating signal input TP2.
b) The frequency of the modulating signal is adjusted to 1 kHz and amplitude to 1V.
2) Switch ON the power supply.
3) Observe the amplitude modulated signal at TP3.
4) Try varying the amplitude of modulating signal by varying the amplitude pot and observe the
AM output for all types of modulation.
5) Remove the modulating signal input and observe the output at TP3 which is the carrier signal.
6) Switch OFF the power supply.

Demodulation:
1) Connect the circuit as shown in the diagram.
a) Output of modulating signal generator to modulating signal input TP2.
b) AM output at TP3 is connected to TP4(input of diode).
c) Diode output TP5 is connected to input of low pass filter TP6.
d) Output of low pass filter TP7 to input of amplifier TP8.
2) Observe the demodulated output at TP9 after switching ON the power supply.
3) Switch OFF the power supply.

Observations:

V
c
= V, f
m
= kHz , f
c
= kHz

S.No.

Amplitude of modulating
signal V
m
(volts)

V
max

(volts)

V
min
(volts)

% modulation = V
max
-V
min X
100

V
max
+V
min

% modulation = V
max
- V
min X
100
V
max
+V
min

Waveforms:

Modulating signal

Carrier signal

Types of modulated signals

Demodulated signal
Precautions:

1) The connections must be tight and accurate.
2) Make sure that there are no short circuits.
3) Check the circuit before switching ON the power supply.
4) Switch OFF the power supply before making or breaking connections.
5) Note down the readings without the parallax error.

Result:

Amplitude modulation and demodulation are performed and the outputs are verified by
varying the amplitude of the modulating signal and the depth of modulation is calculated.