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COMUNICACINLIBRE:

ECONOMADECARRERA:ELCOMPONENTE
OLVIDADO
VctorValldecabresTorres
UniversidadCatlicadeValencia
Vicvato@mail.ucv.es

INTRODUCCIN
Laeconomadecarreraesunodeloscomponentesqueinfluyenenelrendimientoaerbico
junto al VO
2max
, cintica del VO
2
y el % VO
2max
. En este trabajo analizamos cuales son los
diferentesfactoresqueafectanalaeconomadecarreraycomopodemosmejorarla.
MATERIALYMTODOS
La revisin bibliogrfica sobre la economa de carrera que hemos realizado se ha llevado a
cabo mediante una bsqueda bibliogrfica en las bases de datos EBSCO y PUBMED de
artculoscientficosrelacionadosconeltemadelarevisin,laeconomadecarrera.
RESULTADOS
Jones (1998 y 2006), Joyner & Coyle (2007) analizan el rendimiento en deportistas de lite
mundialyafirmanqueelfactormsimportanteenestosniveleseslaeconomadecarrera.
Tambin muestran en deportistas de lite mundial como con el paso de los aos los
diferentes componentes del rendimiento aerbico siguen constantes mientras que el


componentequesiguemejorandoeslaeconoma,conelmismoesfuerzolosdeportistasson
capacesdeconseguirunavelocidadmsaltayconseguiruntiempolmitemayor.

Grafico1:TomadodeJones(2006).Enestagraficapodemosapreciarcomoconelpasode
losaoslavelocidadenlaquelamaratonianaconsiguellegaralVO
2max
aumenta,porloque
hahabidounamejorasustancialdelaeconomadecarrera.

Entrestodosestosaspectosqueinfluyenenlaeconomadecarrerapodemosdestacarque:
a) La economa de carrera es el factor limitante entres los deportistas de lite
mundial de deportes de resistencia de larga y media distancia (Bragada et al.
2010; Faria E.W et al., 2005; Fletcher et al., 2009; Foster y Lucia, 2007; Jones,
1998y2006;ySaundersetal.,2004).
b) Los corredores africanos del este se caracterizan por tener una masa y altura
menor al resto de corredores (Konh et al., 2007; Kong P. W. y de Heer H., 2008;
Marianoetal.,2004;yWestonetal.,1999),ascomotenerunaconcentracinde
enzimas oxidativas mayor (Saltin et al., 1995 y Weston et al., 1999a) y haber


adquirido unas adaptaciones que les permiten soportar mejor el calor en
ambientescalurosos(Marianoetal.,2004).
c) A nivel biomecnico son ms econmicos los corredores que son capaces de
mantener su biomecnica de carrera en estados de fatiga (Gazeau et al., 1997 y
WillsonJ.D.yKernozekT.W.,1999).
d) Medianteelentrenamientodelafuerzamximayexplosivapodemosmejorarla
econmica de carrera sin incidir sobre el VO
2max
, mejorando como aspectos
destacables el stiffness muscular, la efectividad del CEAM y la disminucin del
tiempodegeneracindefuerzaenelimpulsoenlazancada(Bonaccietal.,2009;
FosterC.yLuciaA.,2007yTurnerA.Metal.,2003).
e) Hay estudios que afirman que mediante el IHT o el HLTL podemos mejorar la
economadecarrera(BrugniauxJ.V.etal.,2006;ClarkS.A.etal.,2003;Katayama
etal.,2003;NeyaM.etal.,2007;SaundersP. U.etal., 2004b;SaundersP. U.et
al.,2009;SchmittL.etal.,2006;WehrlinJ.P.yMartiB.,2006;yWehrlinJ.P.et
al.,2006)
f) Es posible que mediante el entrenamiento en ambientes calurosos el organismo
adquiera adaptaciones que nos permitan una mejor termorregulacin de la
temperatura corporal y la consiguiente mejora en el rendimiento en estos
ambientes(Marianoetal.,2004).
g) El entrenamiento de la musculatura del CORE con un alto volumen de
entrenamientoproduceunamejoradelrendimientoaerbicosinincidirsobreel
VO
2max
(SatoK.yMokhaM.,2009).


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