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Practicum 2 Review Guide

Mendelian Genetics
DNA - deoxyribonucleic acid, holds genetic information
gene - seuence of DNA that determines structure of a !rotein
hetero"ygous alleles - 2 different alleles for the same gene
homo"ygous alleles - the same alleles for the same gene
hetero"ygous dominant - having 2 different alleles for the same gene, dominant !henoty!e eg# Aa
homo"ygous recessive - having 2 of the same recessive allele for the same gene,recessive !henoty!e eg#
aa
homo"ygous dominant - having 2 of the same dominant allele for the same gene, dominant !henoty!e
eg# AA
codominance - both alleles are ex!ressed $hetero"ygous individual%, no mas&ing effect eg# blood ty!e
incom!lete dominance - !henoty!e is a blend $hetero"ygous individual% eg# red flower ' white flower (
!in& flower
random assortment -
!henoty!e - observable traits of an organism
genoty!e - genes)alleles of an individual
meiosis - division of cell to !roduce * daughter cells $gametes% with half the number of chromosomes of
the !arent cell, !roduces eggs)s!erm in organisms that re!roduce sexually
mitosis - division of cell to !roduce 2 daughter cells with same number of chromosomes as !arent cell,
daughter cells are genetically identical to !arents, !roduces body cells $somatic%
monohybrid cross ( hetero"ygous x hetero"ygous Aa x Aa
A a
A AA Aa
a Aa aa
dihybrid cross Aa+b x Aa+b
A+ Ab a+ ab
A+ AA+
+
AA+
b
Aa+
+
Aa+b
Ab AA+a AAbb Aa+b Aabb
a+ Aa++ Aa+b aa++ aa+b
ab Aa+b Aabb aa+b aabb
homo"ygous x homo"ygous AA x AA, aa x aa
AA x AA
A A
A A
A
AA
A A
A
AA
aa x aa
a a
a aa aa
a aa aa
homo"ygous x hetero"ygous AA x Aa, aa x Aa
AA x Aa
A A
A A
A
A
A
a Aa Aa
aa x Aa
A a
a Aa aa
a Aa aa
Determining !arental genoty!e !ractice, htt!,))biology#clc#uc#edu)courses)bio-./)gene!rob#htm
chi-suare analysis 0 1
2
value ( sum of
(observed valueexpected value)
2
/ expected value
degrees of freedom $df% ( n 0 -, where n is the number of classifications
use chi-suare table, use degrees of freedom and significance level to find critical value
if 1
2
value 2 critical value, the data agrees with what was ex!ected
if 1
2
value 3 critical value, something other than random chance is li&ely causing the data to deviate
from the ex!ected
+lood 4y!es
4y!e A has A antigen
4y!e + has + antigen
4y!e A+ has A and + antigen 0 universal acce!tor
4y!e 5 has no antigen 0 universal donor
Rh antigens 0 $A', +', A+', 5'% have Rh antigen, $A-, +-, A+-, 5-% do not have Rh antigen
Photosynthesis and Respiration
!hotosynthesis 0 light energy and carbon dioxide used to !roduce sugar $glucose%
res!iration 0 sugar $glucose% bro&en down to !roduce carbon dioxide, water, and A4P for energy
glucose, fructose, lactose, galactose, sucrose, honey, water tested for res!iration rate by yeast 0 glucose
was most efficient
glycolysis !roduces 2 !yruvate molecules from a single glucose molecule
A4P !roduction from - molecule of glucose, glycolysis - 2 A4P6 7rebs cycle 0 2 A4P6 849 0 :2 A4P
res!iration !roduces :; A4P total
!hotosynthesis euation, ; 95
2
' -2 <
2
. = 9
;
<
-2
5
;
$glucose% ' ; 5
2
' ;<
2
5
res!iration euation, 9
;
<
-2
5
;
$glucose% ' ; 5
2
= ; 95
2
' ; <
2
5
water is both consumed and !roduced during res!iration
95
2
$carbon dioxide% is by-!roduct of res!iration
oxygen is final electron acce!tor of 849
!lant !igments - carotene, xantho!hyll, chloro!hyll a, chloro!hyll b
!igments move u! chromatogra!hy stri! $from highest to lowest% carotenes, xantho!hyll, chloro!hyll a,
chloro!hyll b
solvent front 0 solvent moves u! the chromatogra!hy !a!er and carries the !igments with it
different !igments travel different distances on the !a!er
R
f
(
Meiosis and Mitosis
>tages of ?itosis
Pro!hase 0 chromatin condenses into chromosomes, nuclear envelo!e disa!!ears, mitiotic
s!indle begins to form
?eta!hase 0 s!indle aligns chromosomes on the meta!hase !late $axis near middle of cell%
Ana!hase 0 s!indle !ulls sister chromatids a!art toward o!!osite sides of the cell
4elo!hase 0 s!indle disa!!ears, nuclear envelo!e reforms around each grou! of chromosomes,
chromosomes decondense bac& to chromatin
Distance solvent
travelled
Distance
pigment
travelled
pigment
>tages of ?eiosis
Meiosis I 0 2 ha!loid cells are !roduced from a di!loid cell
Pro!hase @ 0 chromosomes condense, nuclear envelo!e disa!!ears, syna!sis of homologous
chromosomes into tetrads, crossing over
>yna!sis 0 2 homologous chromosomes !air u!
9rossing over - homologous chromosomes exchange genes
<omologous chromosomes 0 chromosomes of same length, centromere !osition, staining
!attern6 contain same genes at same !ositions but not necessarily the same form of each gene
?eta!hase @ 0 !aired homologous chromosomes $tetrads% moved by s!indle to meta!hase !late
Ana!hase @ 0 chromosomes se!arated and !ulled to o!!osite sides of cell
4elo!hase @ 0 nuclear envelo!e may reform around each grou! of chromosomes
9yto&inesis 0 cell divides cyto!lasm into 2 ha!loid daughter cells
Meiosis II 0 2 ha!loid cells are !roduced from each ha!loid cell from meiosis @ $* ha!loid cells
total%
Pro!hase @@ 0 s!indle forms, nuclear envelo!e disa!!ears
?eta!hase @@ 0 chromosomes line u! on meta!hase !late
Ana!hase @@ 0 chromatids $not sister chromatids% !ulled a!art to o!!osite sides of cell
4elo!hase @@ 0 nuclei reform at o!!osite sides of cell
9yto&inesis 0 cyto!lasm divides, * ha!loid cells !roduced
meta!hase !late - invisible axis through the middle of the cell on which chromosomes line u! during
meta!hase
ha!loid 0 -n, cell with - set of chromosomes
di!loid 0 2n, cell with 2 sets of chromosomes
gamete 0 sex cells $eggs)s!erm%
crossing over 0 during syna!sis, homologous chromosomes exchange genes
genetic recombination 0
chromatids 0 one of 2 identical co!ies of a DNA that ma&e u! a du!licated chromosome $mitosis%
gametogenesis 0 !roduction of gametes through meiosis
humans have *; chromosomes
cyto&inesis 0 division of cyto!lasm, occurs after telo!hase
meiosis @ - di!loid $2n% cell !roduces 2 ha!loid $-n% cells, daughter cells have half the number of
chromosomes that !arents have
meiosis @@ - ha!loid cell !roduces 2 ha!loid cells, same number of chromosomes as at the end of meiosis
@
?itosis ?eiosis
9ell divides once
2 daughter cells 0 body $somatic cells%
@dentical cells !roduced
Di!loid cell !roduces di!loid cells
9ell divides twice
* cells !roduced - gametes
9ells are not identical $due to genetic
recombination%
Di!loid cell !roduces ha!loid cells
Isolation of DNA from the Onion
?aterials, onions, homogeni"ing solution, ethanol
DNA 0 made of deoxyribose sugar, !hos!hate grou!, and nitrogenous base
nucleotide bases 0 A, 4, 9, G
!reci!itate 0 solid that forms after a reaction occurs in a solution
extraction 0 isolating a substance from a mixture
deoxyribose 0 sugar found in DNA
ribose 0 sugar found in RNA
homogeni"ing buffer ( Na9l $salt%, >D> $detergent%, 8D4A
homogeni"ing solution was used to lyse)brea& cell walls
8ui!ment 0 blender, Pasteur !i!et hoo&s, ra"or blades, ;.A9 water bath, ice bath, bea&er
nucleotide bases - adenine $A%, thymine $4%, cytosine $9%, guanine $G%, uracil $B%
A C 4, G C 9 in DNA
A = B, 4 = A, G C 9 in RNA
Dische di!henylamine used to test for DNA - turned blue if DNA was !resent
4he ethanol reacted with the DNA to !reci!itate it out of solution, but the RNA did not !reci!itate with
the DNA