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Funny or Interesting Anagrams:

Mother-in-law = Woman Hitler


John Mayer = Enjoy harm
president barack hussein obama: a maniac presides.
the banks rob u
William Shakespeare: I'll make a wise phrase
Jay Leno: Enjoy L.A.
Gene Simmons: Immense Song
Motley Crue: Me Cruel Toy
Bob Marley: Marble Boy
The Morse Code = Here Come Dots
Belgium = Big mule
The eyes = They see
Barbie doll = Liberal bod
George Bush = He bugs Gore
Waitress = A stew, Sir?
Guinness draught = naughtiness drug
Breasts = Bra sets
The Titanic disaster = Death, it starts in ice
Apple Products = Support Placed
Western Union = No Wire Unsent
Bruce Springsteen = Creep brings tunes
Tom Cruise = So I'm Cuter
vegetarian = ate in grave
graduation = out in a drag
Dick Cheney = Needy Chick
Debit card = Bad credit
A Decimal Point = I'm a Dot in Place
Jennifer Aniston = fine in torn jeans
Achievements = Nice, save them
Clothespins = So Let's Pinch
Christine = Nice Shirt
Spice Girls = Pig Slices
The Cincinnati Reds = Indecent Christian
Dormitory = Dirty Room
Confessional = On scale of sin
David Letterman = Nerd Amid Late TV
Princess Diana = end is a car spin
President W = Newest Drip
Statue of Liberty = Built to Stay Free
Laxative = exit lava
Evangelist = Evil's Agent
George W Bush = he grew bogus
Beavis and Butthead = Thus, be a bad deviant
Astronomer = moon starer
Apple, Inc = Epic Plan
San Francisco Giants- Fascinating, No scars
Pre Calculus = Call up curse
Stupid Girl = Drips Guilt
madonna louise ciccone = one cool dance musician
The United States of America = Attaineth its cause,
freedom
Desperation = A Rope Ends It
Dancing with the stars = Winners had tight acts
Sherlock Holmes = He'll mesh crooks
Frito Lay = Oily Fart
Baseball = Babes All
Conversation = Voices Rant On
Astronomer: Moon Starer
The Eyes: They See
Geologist = Go Get Oils
Christmas = Trims cash
Why do you care? = Hey you coward!
President Bush = Burnished Pest
Action man = cannot aim
The Simpson's = men's hot piss
Year two thousand = a year to shut down
Debit card = Bad Credit
shower time = where moist
Santa Monica = satanic moan
goodbye = Obey god
ipod lover = poor devil
Narcissism = Man's crisis
Actor Sylvester Stallone = Very cool talentless
star
Funeral = Real Fun
comfort is = microsoft
Hot water = Worth tea
Television programming = Permeating living
rooms
Margaret Thatcher = That great charmer
Darling I love you = Avoiding our yell
The Country Side = No City Dust Here
Flamethrower = oh, felt warmer
Clint Eastwood = Old West Action
Ronald Wilson Reagan = Insane Anglo Warlord
Saddam Hussain = Humans sad side
Sheryl crow = her slow cry
Howard Stern = Retard Shown
Ladybug = bald guy
Astronomers = No more stars
Snooze Alarms = Alas! No More Z's
A Gentleman = Elegant Man
I hate school = oh so ethical
No admittance = contaminated
Microwave = Warm Voice
Austin Powers = power us satin
T.S. Eliot = toilets
A telescope = To see place
Elvis = lives
Justin Timberlake = im a jerk but listen
Mel Gibson = Big Melons
The Apple Macintosh = Machines apt to help
Eleven plus two = Twelve plus one
Christmas = Trims cash
The Meaning of Life = The fine game of nil
Schoolmaster = The classroom
A shoplifter = has to pilfer
listen = silent
Chemistry = shit, me cry
Gene Simmons = Immense Song
A Domesticated Animal = Docile, as a Man
Tamed it
Garbage Man = Bag Manager


Source: www.anagramsite.com


Source: http://www.fun-with-words.com/palin_explain.html
Palindromes
The word palindrome is derived from the Greek palndromos, meaning running back again (paln = AGAIN
+ drom, dramen = RUN). A palindrome is a word or phrase which reads the same in both directions. Some simple
examples are:
RACECAR DEED LEVEL PIP
ROTOR CIVIC POP MADAM
EYE NUN RADAR TOOT
Words like LIVE and STRAW (which read EVIL and WARTS backwards) are not themselves palindromes but the
"phrases" LIVE EVIL and STRAW WARTS are. Apalindrome is not necessarily a single word.
The longest single English word in common usage which is a palindrome isREDIVIDER, although the contrived
chemical term DETARTRATED is two letters longer. In Finnish there is a 25-letter palindromic
word: SOLUTOMAATTIMITTAAMOTULOSwhich means the result from a measurement laboratory for tomatoes,
although technically it is a compound of four words. There is also the equally longSAIPPUAKUPPINIPPUKAUPPIAS which
means soap cup trader.
When creating reversible sentences, it is usually accepted that punctuation and word spacings are ignored, and
so the famous MADAM, I'M ADAM is a valid palindrome.
Palindrome Varieties
There are two other types of palindrome, although neither is particularly common. The first is the word-unit
palindrome. As the name suggests, these are palindromes in which the words form the same sentence in either
direction, e.g. WOMEN UNDERSTAND MEN; FEW MEN UNDERSTAND WOMEN. Occasionally these are also traditional
palindromes, such as in I DID, DID I? but this only happens when each word is itself a traditional palindrome.
The other kind of palindrome is the mirrored palindrome. These are palindromes which are graphically reversible. Not
all letters in mirrored palindromes necessarily have symmetry about a vertical axis (A, H, I, M, O, T, U, V, W, X) since
some letters are (more or less) mirror images of others (e.g. L and J). Therefore a mirrored palindrome is not necessarily
also a traditional palindrome. Punctuation and spaces cannot be ignored when creating mirrored palindromes. When
reversed A TOYOTAbecomes ATOYOT A which, strictly speaking, is not the same. WOT TOW, although fairly
meaningless, is a valid mirrored palindrome. Of course, with this type of palindrome, it is important whether upper or
lower case letters are used: bid is a mirrored palindrome, but BID is not.






Source: http://www.affixes.org/typesofaffix.html
Affixes: the building blocks of English
TYPES OF AFFIX
A prefix is an element placed at the beginning of a word to adjust or qualify its meaning, for example de-, non-,
and re-.
A suffix is an element placed at the end of a word to form a derivative, such as -ation, -fy, -ing, frequently one
that converts the stem into another part of speech.
A combining form can be either a prefix or a suffix; the difference is that the combining form adds a layer of
extra meaning to the word. For example, bio- adds the idea of life or living things to words, as in biochemistry,
the study of the chemical processes which occur within living organisms; -cide adds the idea of killing or a killing
agent, as in pesticide. Compare these examples with a prefix such as ex- or a suffix such as -ic, neither of which
add meaning, but only modify an existing meaning.
Combining forms only appear as elements in a compound. If it can stand alone as a word it is not a combining
form. For example, carbo- only appears in compounds to indicate carbon, but there are many related words that
begin with carbon-; these are considered to be compound words and carbon- is not listed on this site as a
combining form. Having said that, in some cases a combining form has at some point in its life taken on the
status of a free-standing word (cyber- is an example), but if its primary function is as a combining form, it
appears in its place in the text.
To be a combining form an element must be found attached to stems that also have intrinsic meaning; this
excludes stems whose only compounds are grammatical variations, such
as intense (intensive, intensively, intensiveness).
An infix is placed within a word; these are rare in English, though cupful can be made plural as cupsful by
inserting the plural s as an infix; infixes sometimes occur in facetious creations like absobloodylutely (which
some grammarians would rather describe as tmesis). Infixes often appear as linking vowels between prefixes and
stems, for example the final letters of narco- and calci-. They are also found between a stem ending in a
consonant and a suffix beginning with one, as with-ferous, which frequently appears as -iferous, or -logy,
which is commonly seen as -ology. The only examples of such linking vowel infixes here are -i- and -o-.
No formal identification is made in the text of the class of affix to which entries belong. The position of the
hyphen is sufficient indication whether it is placed at the beginning, in the middle or at the end of a word: neo-, -
i-, -graphy.
Many prefixes that end in a vowel can lose that vowel when attached to a stem that begins in one, as for
example phlebo- loses its final letter in phlebitis. Such cases are marked by enclosing the final letter of the
headword in parentheses: phleb(o)-.
The term productive has a special sense throughout the site: it refers to an affix which is active in the language
and which is being used by writers today to create new words.





Source: http://academic.cuesta.edu/acasupp/as/309.HTM
Making Inferences and Drawing Conclusions
Read with purpose and meaning
Drawing conclusions refers to information that is implied or inferred. This means that the information is never clearly stated.
Writers often tell you more than they say directly. They give you hints or clues that help you "read between the lines." Using
these clues to give you a deeper understanding of your reading is called inferring. When you infer, you go beyond the surface
details to see other meanings that the details suggest or imply (not stated). When the meanings of words are not stated clearly in
the context of the text, they may be implied- that is, suggested or hinted at. When meanings are implied, you may infer them.
Inference is just a big word that means a conclusion or judgement. If you infer that something has happened, you do not see,
hear, feel, smell, or taste the actual event. But from what you know, it makes sense to think that it has happened. You make
inferences everyday. Most of the time you do so without thinking about it. Suppose you are sitting in your car stopped at a red
signal light. You hear screeching tires, then a loud crash and breaking glass. You see nothing, but you infer that there has been a
car accident. We all know the sounds of screeching tires and a crash. We know that these sounds almost always mean a car
accident. But there could be some other reason, and therefore another explanation, for the sounds. Perhaps it was not an
accident involving two moving vehicles. Maybe an angry driver rammed a parked car. Or maybe someone played the sound of a
car crash from a recording. Making inferences means choosing the most likely explanation from the facts at hand.
There are several ways to help you draw conclusions from what an author may be implying. The following are descriptions of the
various ways to aid you in reaching a conclusion.
General Sense
The meaning of a word may be implied by the general sense of its context, as the meaning of the wordincarcerated is implied in
the following sentence:
Murderers are usually incarcerated for longer periods of time than robbers.
You may infer the meaning of incarcerated by answering the question "What usually happens to those found guilty of murder or
robbery?" Use the text box below to write down what you have inferred as the meaning of the word incarcerated.

If you answered that they are locked up in jail, prison, or a penitentiary, you correctly inferred the meaning of incarcerated.
Examples
When the meaning of the word is not implied by the general sense of its context, it may be implied by examples. For instance,
Those who enjoy belonging to clubs, going to parties, and inviting friends often to their homes for dinner are gregarious.
You may infer the meaning of gregarious by answering the question "What word or words describe people who belong to clubs,
go to parties a lot, and often invite friends over to their homes for dinner?" Use the lines below to write down what you have
inferred as the meaning of the word gregarious.

If you wrote social or something like: "people who enjoy the company of others", you correctly inferred the meaning
of gregarious.

Antonyms and Contrasts
When the meaning of a word is not implied by the general sense of its context or by examples, it may be implied by an antonym
or by a contrasting thought in a context. Antonyms are words that have opposite meanings, such as happy and sad. For instance,
Ben is fearless, but his brother is timorous.
You may infer the meaning of timorous by answering the question "If Ben is fearless and Jim is very different from Ben with
regard to fear, then what word describes Jim?" Write your answer on the following line.

If you wrote a word such as timid, or afraid, or fearful, you inferred the meaning of timorous.

A contrast in the following sentence implies the meaning of credence:
Dad gave credence to my story, but Mom's reaction was one of total disbelief.
You may infer the meaning of credence by answering the question "If Mom's reaction was disbelief and Dad's reaction was very
different from Mom's, what was Dad's reaction?" Write your answer on the following lines.

If you wrote that Dad believed the story, you correctly inferred the meaning of credence; it means "belief."
Be Careful of the Meaning You Infer!
When a sentence contains an unfamiliar word, it is sometimes possible to infer the general meaning of the sentence without
inferring the exact meaning of the unknown word. For instance,
When we invite the Paulsons for dinner, they never invite us to their home for a meal; however, when we have the Browns to
dinner, they always reciprocate.
In reading this sentence some students infer that the Browns are more desirable dinner guests than the Paulsons without
inferring the exact meaning of reciprocate. Other students conclude that the Browns differ from the Paulsons in that they do
something in return when they are invited for dinner; these students conclude correctly that reciprocate means "to do something
in return."
In drawing conclusions (making inferences), you are really getting at the ultimate meaning of things - what is important, why it is
important, how one event influences another, how one happening leads to another. Simply getting the facts in reading is not
enough - you must think about what those facts mean to you.









Source: http://www.virtualsalt.com/roots.htm
Word Roots and Prefixes
This list contains some of the common roots and prefixes that make up the building blocks of numerous English
words. Following the table of general roots and prefixes is a table of number prefixes.
How Words Work
Even though the English language has more that a million words in it, many of those words are made up of a
relatively small set of roots (or base words) and a prefix. Some words also have a suffix. For example, the root
word port means to carry or to bear. Attach the prefix ex, meaning out or out of, and you have the word export, to carry
out. Attach the prefix im, meaning in or into and you have import, to carry in. Attach the prefix trans, meaning across,
and you have transport, meaning to carry across. Now let's attach the suffix able, meaning able to be, and you
haveimportable, exportable, and transportable.
The very words prefix and suffix are good examples, too. Pre means before and fix means to fasten or attach, so quite
literally, a prefix is something attached to the beginning of something else.Suf is a variant of sub, below or under, so a
suffix is something fastened underneath something else (in this case, behind the root).
By learning the common roots and prefixes (and a few suffixes) you will be able to discern the meaning of many new
words almost immediately. (But do look them up for confirmation.) Take the word abject, for example. If you know
that ab means away or down and ject means to throw, you can easily figure out that abject doesn't mean something
happy. Rather abject's root meaning of thrown down is quite close to the dictionary defintion of cast down in
spirit or sunk into depression.
Now that you have learned that ject means to throw, think how many words you can define almost immediately: reject,
project, inject, subject, eject, and so on. Roots are a real key to understanding the meaning of new words you come
across in your reading.
Note that some modern words are formed by using abbreviated forms of other words. Thus, we see the use of the
letter i for Internet in iPhone, iPod, iPad, and iTunes, indicating that these items or services work with the Internet.
Similarly, the use of e for electronic appears in words such as elearning (and various forms: eLearning, E-Learning, and so
on), e-commerce, and e-business. The "e-terms" seem to have been coined before the "i-terms" became popular. And
note that most of the "i-terms" are trademarks, while the others are general descriptors: "I'm going to download some
iTunes from Apple's e-commerce site because I love e-music." At any rate, these abbreviated forms are not traditional
prefixes, but because they are indeed attached to the front of what amounts to root words, they could be considered
functional prefixes.





Source: http://www.yeeeeee.com/2008/11/07/the-12-longest-and-most-difficult-words-in-english/
The 12 Longest and Most Difficult Words in English
1. Honorificabilitudinitatibus
This word has 27 letters which appears in Loves Labours Lost, Act V, Scene I, which means invincible glorious or Honorableness.
It is the ablative plural of the Latin contrived honorificabilitudinitas, which is an extension of honorificabilis meaning
honorableness. This word was spoken by Costard in Shakespeares plays:
O, they have lived long on the alms-basket of words.
I marvel thy master hath not eaten thee for a word;
for thou art not so long by the head as
honorificabilitudinitatibus: thou art easier
swallowed than a flap-dragon.

2. Antidisestablishmentarianism
This is the best known long word which has 28 letters. It means opposition to the withdrawal of state support or recognition from
an established church, esp. the Anglican Church in 19th-century England as explained in Dictionary.com. Specifically, it is the
political philosophy that is opposed to the separation of the church and state. This term originated in the context of the 19th century
Church of England, antidisestablishmentarians were opposed to proposals to remove its status as the state church of England. It has
been quoted once by the British Prime Minister, William Ewart Gladstone, 1809- 1898. This word can be broken down as follows:
~ism..The philosophy of
~arian.those people who belive in
~antiopposition to
~dis..the removal of
~establishment.The Church of England as the official state church
3. Floccinauccinihilipilification
This 30- letter-word is a non-scientific English word and it appears in the first edition of the OxfordEnglish Dictionary. It is longer
than antidisestablishmentarianism. The 1992 Guinness Book of World Records calls floccinaucinihilipilification the longest real word
in the Oxford English Dictionary, whereas it calls pneumonoultramicroscopicsilicovolcanoconiosis the longest made-up word in
the Oxford English Dictionary. It means act or habit to deny the value of some particular things but some dictionaries translate it
as the act of considering something to be worthless. It was formed by Estonian scholars, who searched for as many Latin words
meaning nothing or not very much as possible: flocci (means a little bit, but literally it means a bit of wool), nauci (means
very little), nihili (means nothing), pili (means very little); fused them together, and then added the suffix fication on the end,
to give the sense of an action.
This word has been used by Sir Walter Scott and Senators Robert Byrd and Daniel Patrick Moynihan. It was used by Senator Jesse
Helms in 1999 during the debate on the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty [Randolph V. Cinco]. It also appeared on March 14, 1996, in
Zippy, a comic strip distributed by King Features Syndicate:
Do you think I may be too quick to find fault with things and people, Zippy?
Yeh.
Th floccinaucinihilipilification process.
Th what?
Floccinaucinihilipilification!! It means the estimation of something as valueless!
Youve been randomly reading th dictionary, havent you?
Yes. That and my natural tendency toward antifloccinaucinihilipilification!!
Floccinaucinihilipilification was also used by Press Secretary Mike McCurry in his December 6, 1995, White House Press Briefing in
discussing Congressional Budget Office estimates and assumptions: But if youas a practical matter of estimating the economy,
the difference is not great. Theres a little bit of floccinaucinihilipilification going on here.
4. Supercalifragilisticexpialidocious
1949: Parker & Young (unpublished song-title): Supercalafajalistickespialadojus.
1951: Parker & Young (song-title): Supercalafajalistickespeealadojus; or, The super song.
1964: R. M. & R. B; Sherman (song-title): Supercalifragilisticexpialidocious!
1967: Decisions U.S. Courts involving Copyright 1965-66 488 The complaint alleges copyright infringement of plaintiffs song
`Supercalafajalistickespeealadojus by defendants song Supercalifragilisticexpialidocious. (All variants of this tongue twister will
hereinafter be referred to collectively as the word.)
Above citations show that this stunning word has been noted for its first four letters from 1949 to 1967.
This 34-letter word appears in the Oxford English Dictionary. It is a word specifically created for a song in the movie Mary Poppins
until its film version of the musical was popular enough that everyone got to know this word.

5. Hepaticocholangiocholecystenterostomies
This 39-letter long is the longest word found in Goulds Medical Dictionary. It is a surgical terminology, which refers to surgical
creation of a connection between the gall bladder and a hepatic duct and between the intestine and the gall bladder.
6. Pneumonoultramicroscopicsilicovolcanoconiosis
This 45-letter long word is the longest word found in dictionaries. According to the eighth edition of Webster dictionary, it means,
pneumoconiosis disease caused by inhaling small particles of quartzite. This is the scientific name for a coal miners disease, which
is particularly caused by breathing in particles of siliceous volcanic dust. It is the lung disease that miners in Africa came down with
from getting silicon silvers in their lungs.
On Feb. 23, 1935, the New York Herald-Tribune reported on page 3:
Pneumonoultramicroscopicsilicovolcanokoniosis succeeded electrophotomicro-graphically as the longest word in the English
language recognized by the National Puzzlers League at the opening session of the organizations 103d semi-annual meeting held
yesterday at the Hotel New Yorker.
The puzzlers explained that the forty-five-letter word is the name of a special form of silicosis caused by ultra-microscopic particles
of siliceous volcanic dust.
7. Antipericatametaanaparcircumvolutiorectumgustpoops of the coprofied
This word has 50 letters. There is a display of one French writers ancient story in a library shelf, with this long English word as its
book title.
8. Osseocaynisanguineoviscericartilagininervomedullary
This word has 51 letters. It is a terminology related to an anatomy. It appeared in a novel called Headlong Hall written by an
English writer, 1785-1866.
9. Aequeosalinocalcalinoceraceoaluminosocupreovitriolic
Aequeo: equal (Latin, aequo)
Salino: containing salt (Latin, salinus)
Calcalino: calcium (Latin, calx)
Ceraceo: waxy (Latin, cera)
Aluminoso: alumina (Latin)
Cupreo: from copper
Vitriolic: resembling vitriol
This word is at 52 letters, describing the spa water at Bath, England. It was invented by the British Medical author, Dr. Edward
Strother, 1675-1737. This word is composed of the following elements:
9.Bababadalgharaghtakamminarronnkonnbronntonnerronntuonnthunntrovarr-hounawnskawntoohoohoordenenthurnuk
This word has 100 letters. It appeared in the book titled Finnegan wake written by Irish author, Andean James Joyce, 1882- 1942.
This word refers to the downfall of Adam and Eve.
10. Lopado temakho selakho galeo kranio-leipsano drim hypotrimmato silphio kar-abo melito katakekhy meno kikhl epikossy-pho
phatto perister alektryon opto keph-allio kigklopeleio lagio siraio bap-h tragano ptergne
This word has 182 letters and is derived from the Greek word, originating from the drama script of comedy titled ecclesiazusae
written by a Greek writer, Aristophanes, 448- 385. It refers to spicy foods that cooked from the remaining vegetables and beef. It is a
frictional dish mentioned in Aristophanes comedy Assemblywomen.
11. Methionylglutaminylarginyltyros-ylglutamylserylleucylphen-ylalanylalanylglutaminylleucyllysylgl-
utamylarginyllysylglutamylglycylalan-ylphenylalanylvalylprolyphenylalanY-lvalythreonylleucylglycylaspartylp-
rolylglycylisoleucylglutamylglutam-inylsErylleucyllysylisoleucylasp-artylthreonylleucylIsoleucylglutam-
ylalanylglycylalanylasparthlalanylleucy-lglutamylleucylglycylisoleucylprolylp-henylalanylseRylaspartylprolylleucylal-
anylaspartylglycylpRolylthreOnylisoleuc-ylglutaminylasPfraginylalanylthreonyll-eucylarfinylalanylphenylalanylalanylal-
anylglycylvalythreonylprolylalanylglut-aminylcysteinylphenylalanylglutamylm-ethionylleucylalanylleuOylisoleucylargi-
nylglutaminyllysyhistidylprolylthreonylis-oleucylprolylisoleucylglycylleucylmethion-yltyrosylalanylasparaginylleucylvalylphen-
ylalanylasparaginyllysyglycylisoleucylas-partylglutamylphenylalanylthrosylalanyl-glutaminylcsteinylglutamyllysylvalylgly-
cylvalylaspartylserylvalylleucylvalylalnyl-aspartylvalylprolylvalylglUtaminylglutam-ylserylalanylprolylphenylalanylarginylgl-
utaminylalanylalanylleucylarginylhistidylas-paraginyvalylalanylprolylisoleucylprolyliso-leucylphenylalanylisoleucylphenylalanylisol-
eucylcysteinylprolylprolylaspartylalanylasp-artylaspartylaspartylleucylleucylarginylgluta-minylisoleucylalanylseryltyrosylglycylarginy-
lglycyltyrosylthreonyltyrOsylleucylleucylsery-larginylalanylglycylvalylthreonylglycylalanyl-glutamYlasparainylarginylalanylalanylleucyl-
prolylleucylasparaginylhistidylleucylValylala-nyllysylleucyllysylglutamyltyrosylasparaginy-lalanylalanylprolylprolylleucylglutaminylglg-
ycylphenylalanylglycylisoleucylserylalanylp-rolylaspartylglutaminylvalyllysylalanylalany-lisoleucylaspartylalanylglycylalanylalanylgly-
cylalanylisoleucylserylglycylserylalanylisole-ucylvalyllysylisoIeucylisoleucylglutamylgluta-
minylHistidylasparaginyliSoleucylglutamylpro-lylglutamyllysylmethionylleucylalanylalanylle-
ucyllysylvalylphenylalanylcalylglutaminylproly-lmethionlysylalanylalanylthreonylarginylserine.
According to the Guinness Book of World Records, 18th edition, this 1,909-letter-long word is regarded as the worlds longest word
in the English language. This word has also included in the American Chemical Societys Chemical Abstracts. It is the longest real
word of a Tryptophan Synthetase (its scientific name is Methionylglutaminyserine) A protein, an enzyme that has 267 amino acids
which describes a protein in the amino acid of a strand of DNA. The shortened version of this protein is known as titin, or sometimes
conectin, which is involved in striated muscle formation. Its empirical formula is C132983H211861N36149O40883S693.
12. Hippopotomonstrosequippeddaliophobia
This English word has 36 letters. It is somewhat ironic that the word for fear of long words as it should be has a length of 6.2 cm.
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Source: https://www.teachervision.com/teaching-methods/new-teacher/48445.html
Levels of Questions in Bloom's Taxonomy
The goal of classroom questioning is not to determine whether students have learned something (as would be the case
in tests, quizzes, and exams), but rather to guide students to help them learn necessary information and material.
Questions should be used to teach students rather than to just test students!
Teachers frequently spend a great deal of classroom time testing students through questions. In fact, observations of
teachers at all levels of education reveal that most spend more than 90 percent of their instructional time testing
students (through questioning). And most of the questions teachers ask are typically factual questions that rely on short-
term memory.
Jabberwocky
Taxonomy is an orderly classification of items according to a systematic relationship (low to high, small to big, simple to
complex).
Although questions are widely used and serve many functions, teachers tend to overuse factual questions such as What
is the capital of California? Not surprising, many teachers ask upward of 400 questions each and every school day. And
approximately 80 percent of all the questions teachers ask tend to be factual, literal, or knowledge-based questions. The
result is a classroom in which there is little creative thinking taking place.
It's been my experience that one all-important factor is key in the successful classroom:students tend to read and think
based on the kinds of questions they anticipate receiving from the teacher. If students are constantly bombarded with
questions that require only low levels of intellectual involvement (or no involvement whatsoever), they will tend to think
accordingly. Conversely, students who are given questions based on higher levels of thinking will tend to think more
creatively and divergently.
Many years ago, an educator named Benjamin Bloom developed a classification system we now refer to as Bloom's
Taxonomy to assist teachers in recognizing their various levels of question-asking (among other things). The system
contains six levels, which are arranged in hierarchical form, moving from the lowest level of cognition (thinking) to the
highest level of cognition (or from the least complex to the most complex):
Fire Alarm
Observations of both elementary and secondary classrooms has shown that teachers significantly overuse knowledge
questions. In fact, during the course of an average day, many teachers will ask upward of 300 or more knowledge-based
questions.
Knowledge
Comprehension
Application
Analysis
Synthesis
Evaluation
Knowledge
This is the lowest level of questions and requires students to recall information. Knowledge questions usually require
students to identify information in basically the same form it was presented. Some examples of knowledge questions
include
What is the biggest city in Japan?
Who wrote War and Peace?
How many ounces in a pound?
Words often used in knowledge questions include know, who, define, what, name, where, list, and when.
Expert Opinion
Never end a presentation by asking, Are there any questions? This is the surest way to turn off students. Instead, say
something like, Take five minutes and write down two questions you have about the lesson. Share those questions and
discuss possible answers with a partner.
Comprehension
Simply stated, comprehension is the way in which ideas are organized into categories. Comprehension questions are
those that ask students to take several bits of information and put them into a single category or grouping. These
questions go beyond simple recall and require students to combine data together. Some examples of comprehension
questions include
How would you illustrate the water cycle?
What is the main idea of this story?
If I put these three blocks together, what shape do they form?
Words often used in comprehension questions include describe, use your own words, outline,explain, discuss,
and compare.
Jabberwocky
In analysis, you move from the whole to the parts. In synthesis, you move from the parts to the whole.
Application
At this level, teachers ask students to take information they already know and apply it to a new situation. In other
words, they must use their knowledge to determine a correct response. Some examples of application questions include

How would you use your knowledge of latitude and longitude to locate Greenland?
What happens when you multiply each of these numbers by nine?
If you had eight inches of water in your basement and a hose, how would you use the hose to get the water
out?
Words often used in application questions include apply, manipulate, put to
use, employ, dramatize, demonstrate, interpret, andchoose.
Analysis
An analysis question is one that asks a student to break down something into its component parts. To analyze requires
students to identify reasons, causes, or motives and reach conclusions or generalizations. Some examples of analysis
questions include
What are some of the factors that cause rust?
Why did the United States go to war with England?
Why do we call all these animals mammals?
Words often used in analysis questions include analyze, why, take apart, diagram, draw conclusions,simplify, distinguish,
and survey.
Synthesis
Synthesis questions challenge students to engage in creative and original thinking. These questions invite students to
produce original ideas and solve problems. There's always a variety of potential responses to synthesis questions. Some
examples of synthesis questions include
How would you assemble these items to create a windmill?
How would your life be different if you could breathe under water?
Construct a tower one foot tall using only four blocks.
Put these words together to form a complete sentence.
Words often used in synthesis questions include compose, construct, design, revise, create, formulate,produce, and plan.
Evaluation
Evaluation requires an individual to make a judgment about something. We are asked to judge the value of an idea, a
candidate, a work of art, or a solution to a problem. When students are engaged in decision-making and problem-
solving, they should be thinking at this level. Evaluation questions do not have single right answers. Some examples of
evaluation questions include
What do you think about your work so far?
What story did you like the best?
Do you think that the pioneers did the right thing?
Why do you think Benjamin Franklin is so famous?
Words often used in evaluation questions include judge, rate, assess, evaluate, What is the best , value,criticize,
and compare.
It's Elementary
Many teachers think primary-level students (kindergartenthrough grade 2) cannot handle higher-level thinking
questions (application, analysis, synthesis, evaluation). Nothing could be further from the truth! Challenging all students
through higher-order questioning is one of the best ways to stimulate learning and enhance brain development
regardless of age.
What does all this mean? Several things, actually! It means you can ask your students several different kinds of
questions. If you only focus on one type of question, your students might not be exposed to higher levels of thinking
necessary to a complete understanding of a topic. If, for example, you only ask students knowledge-based questions,
then your students might think that learning (a specific topic) is nothing more than the ability to memorize a select
number of facts.
You can use this taxonomy to help craft a wide range of questionsfrom low-level thinking questions to high-level thinking questions. If variety is
the spice of life, you should sprinkle a variety of question types throughout every lesson, regardless of the topic or the grade level you teach.
Bloom's Taxonomy is not grade-specific. That is, it does not begin at the lower grades (kindergarten, first, second) with knowledge and
comprehension questions and move upward to the higher grades (tenth, eleventh, twelfth) with synthesis and evaluation questions. The six levels
of questions are appropriate for all grade levels.
Perhaps most important, students tend to read and think based on the types of questions they anticipate receiving from the teacher. In other
words, students will tend to approach any subject as a knowledge-based subject if they are presented with an overabundance of knowledge-level
questions throughout a lesson. On the other hand, students will tend to approach a topic at higher levels of thinking if they are presented with an
abundance of questions at higher levels of thinking.