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Republic of the Philippines

SUPREME COURT
Manila
EN BANC
G.R. No. L-!"# $une %& "'#(
)Ci*il Case No. +!",
-.CTOR BEN.N& ET AL.& plaintiffs-appellees&
*s.
MAR.ANO SE-ERO TUASON / 0E LA PA1& ET AL.& 2efen2ants. $. M. TUASON 3 CO.&
.NC.& 2efen2ant-appellant.
G.R. No. L-!"% $une %& "'#(
)Ci*il Case No. +!,
$UAN ALCANTARA& ET AL.& plaintiffs-appellees&
*s.
MAR.ANO SE-ERO TUASON / 0E LA PA1& ET AL.& 2efen2ants. $.M. TUASON 3 CO.&
.NC.& 2efen2ant-appellant.
G.R. No. L-!"' $une %& "'#(
)Ci*il Case No. +!+,
0.EGO P.L.& ET AL.& plaintiffs-appellees&
*s.
MAR.ANO SE-ERO TUASON / 0E LA PA1& ET AL.& 2efen2ants. $.M. TUASON 3 CO.&
.NC.& 2efen2ant-appellant.
$ose Pala4ca La5 Offices fo4 plaintiffs-appellees.
Manuel O. Chan 3 Ro2olfo M. Calua6 fo4 2efen2ant-appellant.

1AL0.-AR& $.7p
Appeal f4o8 the 2ecision& 2ate2 $anua4/ "%& "'!9& of the Cou4t of :i4st .nstance of Ri;al& the <on.
$u26e Eulo6io Mencias& p4esi2in6 in Ci*il Cases Nos. +!"& +!& an2 +!+. "
On Ma/ "'& "'99 th4ee sets of plaintiffs file2 th4ee sepa4ate co8plaints containin6 substantiall/
the sa8e alle6ations. That plaintiffs a4e o5ne4s of the pa4cels of lan2 set fo4th in thei4 co8plaint&
5hich pa4cels a4e situate2 alon6 Bonifacio st4eet& ba44io of San $ose& =ue;on Cit/& an2 that the/
ha*e been in actual& open& an2 continuous possession an2 en>o/8ent the4eof 5ithout 8olestation
f4o8 2efen2ants f4o8 ti8e i88e8o4ial to the p4esent? that on $ul/ %& "'"(& 2efen2ants obtaine2 a
ce4tificate of title )No. #+9, o*e4 a pa4cel of lan2& 5hich inclu2e2 the lan2s b/ plaintiffs& an2
5hich the/ an2 thei4 ancesto4s ha2 been en>o/in6 as o5ne4s 8o4e than +@ /ea4s befo4e the
issuance of sai2 title? $ose Alcanta4a clai8in6 t5o pa4cels& Elias Benin clai8in6 th4ee pa4cels& an2
Pascual Pili clai8in6 one pa4cel
.n Ci*il Case No. +!"& the plaintiffs alle6e2 that the/ 5e4e the o5ne4s an2 possesso4s of the th4ee
pa4cels of a64icultu4al lan2s& 2esc4ibe2 in pa4a64aph - of the co8plaint& locate2 in the ba44io of La
Lo8a )no5 ba44io of San $ose, in the 8unicipalit/ )no5 cit/, of Caloocan& p4o*ince of Ri;al&
ha*in6 an a664e6ate a4ea of app4oAi8atel/ #%&'% sBua4e 8ete4s? that the/ inhe4ite2 sai2 pa4cels
of lan2 f4o8 thei4 ancesto4 SiAto Benin& 5ho in tu4n inhe4ite2 the sa8e f4o8 his fathe4& Eu6enio
Benin? that the/ an2 thei4 p4e2ecesso4s in inte4est ha2 possesse2 these th4ee pa4cels of lan2 openl/&
a2*e4sel/& an2 peacefull/& culti*ate2 the sa8e an2 eAclusi*el/ en>o/e2 the f4uits ha4*este2
the4ef4o8? that Eu6enio Benin& plaintiffCs 64an2fathe4& ha2 sai2 pa4cels of lan2 su4*e/e2 on Ma4ch
( an2 !& "%'(& that 2u4in6 the ca2ast4al su4*e/ b/ the Bu4eau of Lan2s of the lan2s in Ba44io San
$ose in "'++ SiAto Benin an2 he4ein plaintiffs clai8 the o5ne4ship o*e4 sai2 pa4cels of lan2? that
the/ 2ecla4e2 sai2 lan2s fo4 taAation pu4poses in "'(@ un2e4 TaA 0ecla4ation No. ('? that afte4
the outb4eaD of the last Eo4l2 Ea4& o4 so8eti8e in "'( an2 subseBuentl/ the4eafte4& e*acuees
f4o8 Manila an2 othe4 places& afte4 ha*in6 secu4e2 the pe48ission of the plaintiffs& const4ucte2
thei4 houses the4eon an2 pai2 8onthl/ 4entals to plaintiffs.
.n Ci*il Case No. +! the plaintiffs alle6e2 that the/ 5e4e the o5ne4s an2 possesso4s of t5o
pa4cels of a64icultu4al lan2& 2esc4ibe2 in pa4a64aph - of the co8plaint& locate2 in the Ba44io of La
Lo8a )no5 Ba44io San $ose, in the 8unicipalit/ of Caloocan& p4o*ince of Ri;al& ha*in6 an
a664e6ate a4ea of app4oAi8atel/ "(%&""% sBua4e 8ete4s? that these pa4cels of lan2 5e4e inhe4ite2
b/ the8 f4o8 thei4 2ecease2 fathe4 Bonoso Alcanta4a& 5ho in tu4n inhe4ite2 the sa8e f4o8 his
fathe4& $uan Alcanta4a? that plaintiffs $uan Alcanta4a an2 $ose Alcanta4a 5e4e the chil24en of
Bonoso Alcanta4a? that these t5o b4othe4s inhe4ite2 the lan2 f4o8 thei4 fathe4& an2 the/ an2 thei4
p4e2ecesso4s in inte4est ha2 been in open& a2*e4se an2 continuous possession of the sa8e& plantin6
the4ein pala/ an2 othe4 a64icultu4al p4o2ucts an2 eAclusi*el/ en>o/in6 sai2 p4o2ucts? that on
Ma4ch %& "%'( plaintiffsC 64an2fathe4& $uan Alcanta4a& ha2 sai2 lan2s su4*e/e2? that 2u4in6 the
ca2ast4al su4*e/ b/ the Bu4eau of Lan2s of the lan2s in Ba44io San $ose in "'++ Bonoso Alcanta4a
an2 the plaintiffs file2 an2 4e6iste4e2 thei4 clai8s of o5ne4ship o*e4 sai2 lan2s? that plaintiffs ha2
sai2 lan2s 2ecla4e2 fo4 taAation pu4poses un2e4 TaA 0ecla4ation No. +'@& of =ue;on Cit/? that
afte4 the outb4eaD of the last Eo4l2 Ea4& o4 so8eti8e in "'( an2 subseBuentl/ the4eafte4&
e*acuees f4o8 Manila an2 othe4 places& afte4 ha*in6 secu4e2 pe48ission f4o8 plaintiffs& settle2
an2 const4ucte2 thei4 houses on sai2 lan2s an2 plaintiffs collecte2 8onthl/ 4entals f4o8 the8.
.n Ci*il Case No. +!+& plaintiffs alle6e2 that the/ a4e the o5ne4s an2 possesso4s of a pa4cel of
a64icultu4al lan2 locate2 in the Ba44io of La Lo8a )no5 San $ose,& 8unicipalit/ of Caloocan&
p4o*ince of Ri;al& ha*in6 an a4ea of app4oAi8atel/ !&(%" sBua4e 8ete4s? that this pa4cel of lan2
5as inhe4ite2 b/ plaintiffs f4o8 thei4 ancesto4 Can2i2o Pili 5ho in tu4n inhe4ite2 the sa8e f4o8
his pa4ents? that Can2i2o Pili an2 his p4e2ecesso4s in inte4est o5ne2& possesse2& occupie2 an2
culti*ate2 the sai2 pa4cel of lan2 f4o8 ti8e i88e8o4ial? that upon the 2eath of Can2i2o Pili his
chil24en Luisa Pili& Pascual Pili& 0ie6o Pili an2 Manuel Pili succee2e2 to the o5ne4ship an2
possession an2 culti*ation of sai2 lan2? that plaintiffs an2 thei4 p4e2ecesso4s in inte4est& as o5ne4s
an2 possesso4s of sai2 lan2& ha2 openl/& a2*e4sel/ an2 continuousl/ culti*ate2 the lan2& plantin6
the4eon pala/ an2 othe4 a64icultu4al p4o2ucts an2 en>o/in6 eAclusi*el/ the p4o2ucts ha4*este2
the4ef4o8? that 2u4in6 his lifeti8e& Can2i2o Pili o42e4e2 the su4*e/ of sai2 lan2 so8eti8e on
Ma4ch ""& "%'(& an2 5hen the ca2ast4al su4*e/ of sai2 lan2 5as con2ucte2 b/ the Bu4eau of
Lan2s in "'++ Can2i2o Pili an2 plaintiffs file2 an2 4e6iste4e2 thei4 clai8 of o5ne4ship o*e4 the
sai2 pa4cel of lan2? that plaintiffs ha2 the lan2 2ecla4e2 fo4 taAation pu4poses un2e4 TaA
0ecla4ation No. 9'#& =ue;on Cit/& Philippines? that afte4 the outb4eaD of the last Eo4l2 Ea4& o4
so8eti8e in "'( an2 subseBuentl/ the4eafte4& e*acuees f4o8 Manila an2 othe4 places& afte4
secu4in6 pe48ission f4o8 plaintiffs& settle2 an2 const4ucte2 thei4 houses in sai2 lan2 an2 plaintiffs
collecte2 8onthl/ 4entals f4o8 thei4 lessees o4 tenants.
The plaintiffs in these th4ee ci*il cases unifo48l/ alle6e2& in thei4 4especti*e co8plaint& that
so8eti8e in the /ea4 "'9" 5hile the/ 5e4e en>o/in6 the peaceful possession of thei4 lan2s& the
2efen2ants& pa4ticula4l/ the 2efen2ant $.M. Tuason an2 Co. .nc.& th4ou6h thei4 a6ents an2
4ep4esentati*es& 5ith the ai2 of a48e2 8en& b/ fo4ce an2 inti8i2ation& usin6 bull2o;e4s an2 othe4
2e8olishin6 eBuip8ent& ille6all/ ente4e2 an2 sta4te2 2efacin6& 2e8olishin6 an2 2est4o/in6 the
25ellin6s an2 const4uctions of plaintiffsC lessees& as 5ell as the i8p4o*e8ents consistin6 of 4ice
pa22ies )pilapiles,& ba8boos an2 f4uit t4ees& an2 pe48anent i8p4o*e8ents such as ol2 4oa2s& ol2
b4i26es an2 othe4 pe48anent lan28a4Ds 5ithin an2 outsi2e the lan2s in Buestion& 2is4e6a42in6 the
ob>ections of plaintiffs& an2 as a 4esult plaintiffs 5e4e 2ep4i*e2 of the 4entals 4ecei*e2 f4o8 thei4
lessees? that plaintiffs 8a2e inBui4ies 4e6a42in6 the p4obable clai8 of 2efen2ants& an2 in "'9+ the/
2isco*e4e2 fo4 the fi4st ti8e that thei4 lan2s& as 2esc4ibe2 in thei4 4especti*e co8plaint& ha2 eithe4
been f4au2ulentl/ o4 e44oneousl/ inclu2e2& b/ 2i4ect o4 const4ucti*e f4au2& in 5hat appea4s as
Pa4cel No. " )Dno5n as Santa Mesa Estate, in O4i6inal Ce4tificate of Title No. #+9 of the Lan2
Reco42s of the p4o*ince of Ri;al in the na8es of the o4i6inal applicants fo4 4e6ist4ation& no5
2efen2ants& Ma4iano Se*e4o Tuason / 2e la Pa;& Te4esa E4ibe4ta Tuason / 2e la Pa;& $uan $ose
Tuason / 2e la Pa;& 0e8et4io Asuncion Tuason / 2e la Pa;& an2 Au6usto <ube4to Tuason / 2e la
Pa;.
The plaintiffs in each of the th4ee co8plaints also alle6e2 that the 4e6iste4e2 o5ne4s 8entione2 in
O4i6inal Ce4tificate of Title No. #+9 ha2 applie2 fo4 the 4e6ist4ation of t5o pa4cels of lan2 )Dno5n
as the Santa Mesa Estate an2 the 0ili8an Estate,& locate2 in the 8unicipalities of Caloocan an2
San $uan 2el Monte& p4o*ince of Ri;al& of 5hich pa4cel No. " )Santa Mesa Estate, containe2 an
a4ea of %&#'%&!"# sBua4e 8ete4s? that the 4e6ist4ation p4ocee2in6s 5e4e 2ocDete2 as LRC No. #!%"
of the Cou4t of Lan2 Re6ist4ation? that the application fo4 4e6ist4ation in LRC No. #!%"&
containin6 the boun2a4ies& technical 2esc4iptions an2 a4eas of pa4cel No. " )Santa Mesa Estate,
an2 pa4cel No. )0ili8an Estate, 5as publishe2 in the Official Ga;ette? that befo4e the 2ecision
5as han2e2 2o5n in LRC No. #!%"& the a4ea& boun2a4ies an2 technical 2esc4iptions of pa4cel No.
" 5e4e alte4e2 an2 a8en2e2? that the a8en28ents an2 alte4ations& 5hich 5e4e 8a2e afte4 the
publication of the o4i6inal application& 5e4e ne*e4 publishe2? that on Ma4ch #& "'"( a 2ecision
5as 4en2e4e2 in LRC No. #!%" base2 on the a8en2e2 plan? that pu4suant to the 2ecision of Ma4ch
#& "'"( a 2ec4ee of 4e6ist4ation 5as issue2 on $ul/ !& "'"(& Dno5n as 0ec4ee No. "#(+"&
2ec4eein6 the 4e6ist4ation in the na8es of the applicants of the t5o pa4cels of lan2 )Santa Mesa
Estate an2 0ili8an Estate,? that the 2ecision 2ate2 Ma4ch #& "'"( in LRC No. #!%" is null an2
*oi2 because the Lan2 Re6ist4ation Cou4t ha2 no >u4is2iction to 4en2e4 the 2ecision fo4 lacD of
publication? that 0ec4ee No. "#(+" issue2 pu4suant to the 2ecision of Ma4ch #& "'"( in LRC No.
#!%" is liDe5ise null an2 *oi2 f4o8 the be6innin6& because it 5as issue2 pu4suant to a *oi2
2ecision an2 because the boun2a4ies& technical 2esc4iptions an2 a4eas appea4in6 in the 2ec4ee a4e
2iffe4ent an2 not i2entical 5ith the boun2a4ies& technical 2esc4iptions an2 a4eas in the application
fo4 4e6ist4ation as publishe2 in the Official Ga;ette? that the a4ea of pa4cel No. " as 8entione2 in
0ec4ee No. "#(+" is bi66e4 than the a4ea of pa4cel No. " appea4in6 in the application fo4
4e6ist4ation as publishe2 in the Official Ga;ette? that O4i6inal Ce4tificate of Title No. #+9&
4efe44in6 to pa4cel " )Santa Mesa Estate,& is also null an2 *oi2 f4o8 the be6innin6 because it 5as
issue2 pu4suant to a *oi2 2ec4ee of 4e6ist4ation? that the a4ea& boun2a4ies an2 technical 2esc4iption
of Pa4cel No. " appea4in6 in 0ec4ee of Re6ist4ation No. "#(+" an2 in the O4i6inal Ce4tificate of
Title No. #+9 a4e 2iffe4ent f4o8 the a4ea& boun2a4ies an2 technical 2esc4iption appea4in6 in the
application fo4 4e6ist4ation as publishe2 in the Official Ga;ette? that the plaintiffs ha2 not been
notifie2 of the p4ocee2in6s in LRC No. #!%" althou6h the applicants Dne5& o4 coul2 ha*e Dno5n&
b/ the eAe4cise of necessa4/ 2ili6ence& the na8es an2 a224esses of the plaintiffs an2 thei4
p4e2ecesso4s in inte4est 5ho 5e4e then& an2 up to the ti8e the co8plaints 5e4e file2& in possession
an2 5e4e culti*atin6 the lan2s 2esc4ibe2 in pa4a64aph - of thei4 4especti*e co8plaint? an2 that
2u4in6& befo4e& an2 e*en afte4 the issuance of O4i6inal Ce4tificate of Title No. #+9 the 2efen2ants
ha2 tacitl/ 4eco6ni;e2 the o5ne4ship of the plaintiffs o*e4 thei4 4especti*e lan2s because sai2
2efen2ants ha2 ne*e4 2istu4be2 the possession an2 culti*ation of the lan2s b/ the plaintiffs until
the /ea4 "'9"? an2 that all t4ansfe4 ce4tificates of title issue2 subseBuentl/& base2 on O4i6inal
Ce4tificate of Title No. #+9& a4e also null an2 *oi2.
The plaintiffs in each of the th4ee cases p4a/e2 the cou4t7 )", to 2ecla4e the8 o5ne4s an2 entitle2
to the possession of the pa4cel& o4 pa4cels& of lan2 2esc4ibe2 in thei4 4especti*e co8plaint& as the
case 8a/ be? ), to 4e*oDe the 2ecision of the Cou4t of Lan2 Re6ist4ation& 2ate2 Ma4ch #& "'"( in
LRC No. #!%"& an2 to 2ecla4e 0ec4ee No. "#(+"& 2ate2 $ul/ !& "'"( null an2 *oi2 f4o8 the
be6innin6 5ith 4espect to Pa4cel No. ")Santa Mesa Estate, in O4i6inal Ce4tificate of Title No. #+9
5hich inclu2e the lan2s of the plaintiffs? )+, to 2ecla4e O4i6inal Ce4tificate of Title No. #+9&
pa4ticula4l/ as it 4efe4s to Pa4cel No. " )Santa Mesa Estate, also null an2 *oi2? )(, to 2ecla4e null
an2 *oi2 all t4ansfe4 ce4tificates of titles issue2 b/ the Re6iste4 of 0ee2s of Ri;al an2 of =ue;on
Cit/ subseBuent to& an2 base2 on& O4i6inal Ce4tificate of Title No. #+9? )9, to o42e4 the 2efen2ants&
in the e*ent O4i6inal Ce4tificate of Title No. #+9 is 2ecla4e2 *ali2& to 4econ*e/ an2 t4ansfe4 title
o*e4 the lan2 2esc4ibe2 in thei4 4especti*e co8plaint in fa*o4 of the plaintiffs in each case& as the
case 8a/ be? )!, to o42e4 the 2efen2ants to pa/ the plaintiffs the 8a4Det *alue of the lan2s in
Buestion in case of 2efen2antsC inabilit/ to 4econ*e/ the sa8e? )#, to o42e4 the 2efen2ants to pa/
2a8a6es to the plaintiffs? )%, to issue a 54it of p4eli8ina4/ in>unction a6ainst the 2efen2ants& thei4
la5/e4s& thei4 a6ents an2 4ep4esentati*es f4o8 2istu4bin6 the o5ne4ship an2 possession of the
plaintiffs 2u4in6 the pen2enc/ of these cases.
The plaintiffs& in the th4ee cases& 5e4e allo5e2 b/ the t4ial cou4t to liti6ate as paupe4s.
Only defendant J.M. Tuason & Co., Inc. was actually served with summons. The other
defendants were ordered summoned by publication in accordance with Sections ! and " of
the #ules of Court. Only defendant J.M. Tuason & Co., Inc. appeared. The other defendants
were all declared in default.
On June $%, &'' defendant J.M. Tuason & Co., Inc. filed a motion to dismiss in each of the
three cases. This motion to dismiss was denied by the trial court on July $(, &''.
On July ), &'' the trial court issued an order *rantin* the writ of preliminary in+unction
prayed for by the plaintiffs in their complaints. The preliminary in+unction, however, was
lifted by order of the trial court on October %, &'', upon the postin* by defendant J.M.
Tuason & Co., Inc. of bonds in the total amount of ,-,(((.(( pursuant to the order of the
court of September $!, &''.
On .u*ust , &'' defendant J.M. Tuason & Co., Inc. filed in the three cases a motion for
reconsideration of the order of July $(, &'' denyin* the motion to dismiss. This motion for
reconsideration was denied by order of the court of September $!, &''.
On No*e8be4 '& "'99 2efen2ant $.M. Tuason 3 Co.& .nc. file2 an ans5e4 in each of the th4ee
cases. .n its ans5e4& this 2efen2ant& a8on6 othe4s& specificall/ 2enie2 plaintiffsC clai8 of
o5ne4ship of the lan2s in*ol*e2 in each case. The ans5e4 contains special an2 affi48ati*e
2efenses& to 5it7 )", that the plaintiffsC cause of action is ba44e2 b/ p4io4 >u268ent an2 4es >u2icata
in *ie5 of the >u268ent of the Cou4t of :i4st .nstance of Ri;al in its Ci*il Case No. =-"9! 5hich
5as subseBuentl/ ele*ate2 to the Sup4e8e Cou4t as G.R. No. L-(''%& in 5hich latte4 case the
Sup4e8e Cou4t affi48e2 in toto the o42e4 of the lo5e4 cou4t 2is8issin6 the case? ), that the
co8plaints faile2 to state facts sufficient to constitute a cause of action a6ainst the 2efen2ants? )+,
that the plaintiffsC action& assu8in6 that thei4 co8plaints state sufficient cause of action& ha2
p4esc4ibe2 eithe4 un2e4 Act No. ('! o4 un2e4 statutes 6o*e4nin6 p4esc4iption of action? )(, that
2efen2ant $.M. Tuason 3 Co.& .nc. is a bu/e4 in 6oo2 faith an2 fo4 *aluable consi2e4ation of the
pa4cels of lan2 in*ol*e2 in the th4ee cases? )9, that the 4e6ist4ation p4ocee2in6s ha2 in LRC No.
#!%" institute2 b/ the 2efen2antCs p4e2ecesso4s in inte4est 5as in acco42ance 5ith la5& an2 the
4eBui4e8ents fo4 a *ali2 4e6ist4ation of title 5e4e co8plie2 5ith. B/ 5a/ of counte4clai8 the
2efen2ant p4a/e2 that the plaintiffs be o42e4e2 to pa/ 2a8a6es as the4ein specifie2.
The plaintiffs& a8en2e2 thei4 co8plaints in the th4ee cases& b/ inclu2in6 a22itional pa4ties as
plaintiffs& an2 the a8en2e2 co8plaints 5e4e a28itte2 b/ the t4ial cou4t. The 2efen2ant& $.M.
Tuason 3 Co.& .nc.& file2 a 8anifestation that it 5as 4ep4o2ucin6 an2 4ealle6in6 its ans5e4s to the
o4i6inal co8plaints as its ans5e4s to the a8en2e2 co8plaints in *ie5 of the fact that the
a8en28ents to the co8plaints consist 8e4el/ in the inclusion of a22itional in2ispensable as 5ell
as necessa4/ pa4ties-plaintiffs. (
On June ", &!$& afte4 the plaintiffs ha2 p4esente2 thei4 e*i2ence& 2efen2ant $.M. Tuason 3 Co.&
.nc. p4esente2 a 8otion to 2is8iss the cases upon 64oun2s that )", the actions 5e4e ba44e2 b/ the
statute of li8itations? ), that the actions ba44e2 b/ a p4io4 >u268ent? an2 )+, that plaintiffs ha2 not
p4esente2 an/ e*i2ence to p4o*e thei4 clai8 of o5ne4ship. The 2efen2ant late4 file2 a 8otion to
5ith24a5 the thi42 64oun2 of its 8otion to 2is8iss. The plaintiffs file2 thei4 opposition to the
8otion to 2is8iss& as 5ell as to the 8otion of 2efen2ant to 5ith24a5 its thi42 64oun2 to 2is8iss.
The t4ial cou4t& in an o42e4 2ate2 0ece8be4 +& "'!& 64ante2 2efen2antCs 8otion to 5ith24a5 the
thi42 64oun2 of its 8otion to 2is8iss but 2enie2 the 8otion to 2is8iss. 9
Afte4 t4ial& on January ), &!'& the lo5e4 cou4t 4en2e4e2 a 2ecision fo4 the th4ee cases& the
2ispositi*e po4tion of 5hich 4ea2s as follo5s7
E<ERE:ORE& .N -.EE O: ALL T<E :OREGO.NG& >u268ent is he4eb/ rendered in favor of
the ,laintiffs and a*ainst the /efendants as follows0
A

0ecla4in6 that the 2ecision& the 2ec4ee an2 the title issue2 in LRC No. #!%"& a4e null an2
*oi2& ab initio& an2 of no effect 5hatsoe*e4?
B

0ecla4in6 that O4i6inal Ce4tificate of Title No. #+9 foun2 on pa6e "+! -ol. A-# of the
Re6ist4ation BooD of Ri;al is null an2 *oi2 f4o8 the *e4/ be6innin6 )an2, of no effect 5hatsoe*e4?
C

0ecla4in6 that all T4ansfe4 Ce4tificates of Title e8anatin6 o4 alle6e2l/ 2e4i*e2 f4o8 O4i6inal
Ce4tificate of Title No. #+9 of the P4o*ince of Ri;al a4e liDe5ise null an2 *oi2?
0

0ecla4in6 that the plaintiff in Ci*il Cases Nos. +!"& +! an2 +!+ a4e the o5ne4s an2
entitle2 to the possession of the pa4cels of lan2 clai8e2 an2 2esc4ibe2 in pa4a64aph - of thei4
4especti*e co8plaints?
E

O42e4in6 the 2efen2ants an2 all pe4sons clai8in6 un2e4 the8 to *acate an2 4esto4e to the
plaintiffs the possesion of the pa4cels of lan2 2esc4ibe2 in pa4a64aph - of the co8plaint in Ci*il
Case No. +!" an2 in2icate2 as Pa4cel A& Pa4cel B an2 Pa4cel C& in SEO-(@"%# )EAh. FUUF an2
EAh. F--F,?
:

O42e4in6 the 2efen2ants an2 all pe4sons clai8in6 un2e4 the8 to *acate an2 4esto4e to the
plaintiffs the possession of the pa4cels of lan2 2esc4ibe2 in pa4a64aph - of the co8plaint in Ci*il
Case No. +!+ an2 in2icate2 as Pa4cel 0 an2 Pa4cel :& in SEO-(@"%# )EAh. FUUF an2 EAh.
C--F,?
G

O42e4in6 the 0efen2ants an2 all pe4sons clai8in6 un2e4 the8 to *acate an2 4esto4e to the
plaintiffs the possession of the pa4cels of lan2 2esc4ibe2 in pa4a64aph - of the co8plaint in Ci*il
Case No. +!+ an2 in2icate2 in Pa4cel E& in SEO-('""%# )EAh. FUU an2 EAh. F--F,?
<

O42e4in6 the 2efen2ants to pa/ plaintiffs in Ci*il Case No. +!" the su8 of P!@@.@@ a 8onth
as actual 2a8a6es fo4 uncollecte2 4entals f4o8 "'9" until such possession is 4esto4e2 to the8?
.

O42e4in6 the 2efen2ants to pa/ the plaintiffs in Ci*il Case No. +!+ the su8 of P!@@.@@ a
8onth& as actual 2a8a6es fo4 uncollecte2 4entals f4o8 "'9" until such possession is 4esto4e2 to
the8?.
$

O42e4in6 the 2efen2ants to pa/ the plaintiffs in Ci*il Case No. +!+ the su8 of P"9@.@@ a
8onth as actual 2a8a6es fo4 uncollecte2 4entals f4o8 "'9" until such possession is 4esto4e2 to
the8? .
G

O42e4in6 the 2efen2ants to pa/ the costs? .


L

The 2efen2antsC counte4clai8 is he4eb/ 2ecla4e2 2is8isse2 fo4 lacD of 8e4it.F


A 8otion fo4 ne5 t4ial 5as file2 b/ 2efen2ant $.M. Tuason 3 Co.& .nc. on $anua4/ +@& "'!9.
<o5e*e4& befo4e the 8otion fo4 ne5 t4ial 5as 4esol*e2 b/ the cou4t& sai2 2efen2ant& on :eb4ua4/
""& "'!9& file2 a notice of appeal to this Cou4t an2 an appeal bon2& an2 on :eb4ua4/ "& "'!9 he
file2 the 4eco42 on appeal. The 4eco42 on appeal& afte4 it ha2 been co44ecte2 an2 a8en2e2& as
o42e4e2 an2Ho4 autho4i;e2 b/ the t4ial cou4t& 5as app4o*e2 on Septe8be4 '& "'!9. %
Appellant $.M. Tuason 3 Co. .nc.& in his appeal& contends that the trial court committed the
followin* errors0
.. The lo5e4 cou4t e44e2 in hol2in6 that the Lan2 Re6ist4ation Cou4t in GLRO No. #!%" lacDe2 o4
5as 5ithout >u4is2iction to issue 2ec4ee No. "#(+" fo4 the alle6e2 4eason that7
)", The a8en28ent to the o4i6inal plan 5as not publishe2?
), The 2esc4iption of Pa4cel " in the 2ec4ee is not i2entical 5ith the 2esc4iption of Pa4cel " as
applie2 fo4 an2 as publishe2 in the Official Ga;ette?
)+, Pa4cel " as 2ec4ee2 is bi66e4 in a4ea than Pa4cel " as applie2 fo4?
)(, A. Bonifacio Roa2 is the onl/ boun2a4/ on the Eest of Pa4cel ".
... The t4ial cou4t e44e2 in fin2in6 that the t4ansc4iption of the 2ec4ee No. "#(+" 5as not in
acco42ance 5ith the la5 an2 that& the4efo4e& sai2 OCT #+9 5as a co8plete nullit/ an2 the lan2
4e8ains un4e6iste4e2.
.... The t4ial cou4t e44e2 in taDin6 co6ni;ance of these cases 2espite its lacD of >u4is2iction to hea4
an2 2eci2e the sa8e.
.-. The t4ial cou4t e44e2 in not 2is8issin6 these cases on the 64oun2s of p4esc4iption an2 laches&
an2 in 2en/in6 the 8otions to 2is8iss file2 on sai2 64oun2s.
-. The t4ial cou4t e44e2 in not 2is8issin6 these cases on the 64oun2 of 4es >u2icata an2 in 2en/in6
the 8otion to 2is8iss file2 on sai2 64oun2.
-.. The t4ial cou4t e44e2 in 2ecla4in6 null an2 *oi2 all ce4tificates of title e8anatin6 f4o8 OCT
#+9.
-... The t4ial cou4t e44e2 in hol2in6 that $.M. Tuason 3 Co.& .nc. is not a pu4chase4 in 6oo2 faith
an2 fo4 *alue.
-.... The t4ial cou4t e44e2 in a5a42in6 o5ne4ship of the lan2s clai8e2 b/& an2 in a5a42in6
2a8a6es to& the appellees.
.I. The t4ial cou4t e44e2 in 2en/in6 an2 in 2is8issin6 appellantCs counte4clai8 an2 in sentencin6
appellant to pa/ the costs of these suits.
As state2 b/ the t4ial cou4t in its 2ecision& FThese cases in*ol*e the *ali2it/ of the 2ecision an2 the
2ec4ee issue2 in LRC No. #!%" 4esultin6 in the issuance of Title No. #+9& an2 the o5ne4ship an2
possession of se*e4al pa4cels of lan2& clai8e2 b/ the plaintiffs in thei4 4especti*e co8plaints....F
The lo5e4 cou4t& su88a4i;in6 its fin2in6s& a8on6 othe4s& conclu2e2 that7 12 the decision and the
decree in 3#C 4o. "!) are null and void ab initio, havin* been rendered without
+urisdiction5 1$2 Ori*inal Certificate of Title 4o. "%' issued pursuant to the decree in 3#C
4o. "!) is null and void, havin* been issued pursuant to a void de*ree5 1%2 Ori*inal
Certificate of Title 4o. "%' is null and void because the 4o. "-% in 3#C 4o. "!),
assumin* the de*ree to be valid, had not been inscribed in accordance with the provisions of
Section - of .ct -&!5 1-2 all Transfer Certificates of Title alle*edly emanatin* and derived
from the void Ori*inal Certificate of Title 4o. "%' are li6ewise null and void5 and 1'2 the
plaintiffs in these three civil are the owners and entitled to the possession of the parcels of
land described in their respective complaints.
The O4i6inal Ce4tificate of Title No. #+9 that ha2 been 2ecla4e2 null an2 *oi2 ab initio b/ the t4ial
cou4t co*e4s t5o bi6 pa4cels of lan2& 8entione2 in sai2 title as Pa4cel "& ha*in6 an a4ea of
%&##%&!((."@ sBua4e 8ete4s 8o4e o4 less& Dno5n as the Santa Mesa Estate? an2 Pa4cel & ha*in6 an
a4ea of "9&'!"&(! sBua4e 8ete4s 8o4e o4 less& Dno5n as the 0ili8an Estate. The th4ee pa4cels of
lan2 in*ol*e2 in Ci*il Case No. +!"& ha*in6 an a664e6ate a4ea of #%&%9+ sBua4e 8ete4s& 8o4e o4
less? the t5o pa4cels of lan2 in*ol*e2 in Ci*il Case No. +! ha*in6 an a664e6ate a4ea of
"9(&""'.# sBua4e 8ete4s& 8o4e o4 less? an2 the one pa4cel of lan2 in*ol*e2 in Ci*il Case No. +!+&
ha*in6 an a4ea of !&(%" sBua4e 8ete4s& 8o4e o4 less& a4e all inclu2e2 in the a4ea of Pa4cel ". The
trial court, in its decision, states that the identity of the parcels of land claimed by the
plaintiffs is not disputed and that both the plaintiffs and the defendant admit that the
parcels of land liti*ated are found within the boundaries of the present Sta. Mesa 7ei*hts
Subdivision 1,arcel 2 covered by Ori*inal Certificate of Title 4o. "%'. It is shown in the
survey plans, presented by both the plaintiffs and the defendant, that the si8 parcels of lands
involved in these three cases are located at the northwestern portion of ,arcel . )EAhs. UU&
--? an2 EAh. ',.
The 4eco42s sho5& an2 it is establishe2 b/ the e*i2ence& that so8eti8e in "'"" Ma4iano Se*e4o
Tuason / 2e la Pa;& Te4esa E4ibe4ta Tuason / 2e la Pa;& $uan $ose Tuason / 2e la Pa;& 0e8et4io
Asuncion Tuason / 2e la Pa;& an2 Au6usto <ube4to Tuason / 2e la Pa;& file2 5ith the Cou4t of
Lan2 Re6ist4ation an application fo4 the 4e6ist4ation of thei4 title o*e4 t5o pa4cels of lan2&
2esi6nate2 in the su4*e/ plans acco8pan/in6 the application as Pa4cel " 5ith an a4ea of %&#'%&!"#
sBua4e 8ete4s& an2 Pa4cel 5ith an a4ea of "!&9(&@+# sBua4e 8ete4s. The application 5as
2ocDete2 as LRC No. #!%". The4e 5as anothe4 application co*e4in6 th4ee othe4 pa4cels of lan2&
2ocDete2 as LRC No. #!%@. The application in LRC No. #!%" 5as set fo4 hea4in6 on No*e8be4
@& "'"" )EAh. I,. The application an2 the notice of hea4in6& containin6 the technical 2esc4iptions
of the t5o pa4cels of lan2 applie2 fo4& 5e4e publishe2 in the issue of the Official Ga;ette of
Octobe4 9& "'"" )EAh. JJ,. On No*e8be4 @& "'"" the Cou4t of Lan2 Re6ist4ation issue2 an
o42e4 of 6ene4al 2efault a6ainst the 5hole 5o4l2 eAcept the .nsula4 Go*e4n8ent& the 0i4ecto4 of
Lan2s an2 the 8unicipalities of Caloocan an2 San $uan 2el Monte )EAh. %,. On 0ece8be4 +&
"'"" the cou4t issue2 an o42e4 autho4i;in6 the a8en28ent of the plan in LRC No. #!%" )EAh. +,.
No*e8be4 ""& "'"+ the applicants an2 the Go*e4n8ent ente4e2 into an a64ee8ent 5he4eb/ the
Go*e4n8ent a64ee2 to 5ith24a5 its opposition to the application fo4 4e6ist4ation of title o*e4 the
po4tion Dno5n as <acien2a 0ili8an )Pa4cel , on con2ition that the 4oa2s eAistin6 on sai2 t4act of
lan2 be allo5e2 to 4e8ain& an2 it 5as fu4the4 a64ee2 Fthat the issuance& of the title to applicants
shall be 8a2e sub>ect to all the eAceptions establishe2 b/ Section +' of Act ('! as a8en2e2 b/
Section " of Act @""F )EAh. ",. On 0ece8be4 '& "'"+ the Cou4t of Lan2 Re6ist4ation 4en2e4e2
a 2ecision )EAh. (, in both LRC No. #!%@ an2 LRC No. #!%" 5hich& a8on6 othe4s& state2 that
2u4in6 the 4e6ist4ation p4ocee2in6s the plans acco8pan/in6 the t5o applications 5e4e a8en2e2 in
o42e4 to eAclu2e ce4tain a4eas that 5e4e the sub>ect of opposition& that the o42e4 of 6ene4al 2efault
5as confi48e2& that the Chief of the Su4*e/o4Cs 0i*ision of the Cou4t of Lan2 Re6ist4ation 5as
o42e4e2 to sub8it a 4epo4t as to 5hethe4 o4 not the ne5 )a8en2e2, plans ha2 inclu2e2 lan2s 5hich
5e4e not b/ the o4i6inal plans& an2 5hethe4 o4 not the ne5 plans ha2 eAclu2e2 the lan2s that ha2
al4ea2/ been co*e4e2 b/ the 2ec4ee in LRC No. +9!+. The 2ecision fu4the4 state2 that in the e*ent
that the ne5 plans 2i2 not inclu2e ne5 pa4cels of lan2 an2 that the lan2s that 5e4e the sub>ect of
the p4ocee2in6s in LRC No. +9!+ ha2 been eAclu2e2& an a22itional 2ecision 5oul2 be 8a2e
2ec4eein6 the a2>u2ication an2 4e6ist4ation of the lan2s that 5e4e the sub>ect of the 4e6ist4ation
p4ocee2in6s in fa*o4 of the applicants& as follo5s7 To Ma4iano Se*e4o Tuason / 2e la Pa;& t5o
siAths )H!, un2i*i2e2 po4tion to Te4esa E4ibe4ta Tuason / 2e la Pa;& one siAth )"H!, un2i*i2e2
po4tion? to $uan $ose Tuason / 2e la Pa;& one siAth )"H!, un2i*i2e2 po4tion? to 0e8et4io Asuncion
Tuason / 2e la Pa;& one siAth )"H!,un2i*i2e2 po4tion? an2 to Au6usto <ube4to Tuason / 2e la Pa;&
one siAth )"H!, un2i*i2e2 po4tion.
.n co8pliance 5ith the o42e4 containe2 in the 2ecision of 0ece8be4 '& "'"+& the Chief of the
Su4*e/ 0i*ision of the Cou4t of Lan2 Re6ist4ation& on $anua4/ (& "'"(& sub8itte2 a 4epo4t )EAh.
, to the cou4t 5hich& a8on6 othe4s& state2 that the ne5 plan of Pa4cel " in LRC No. #!%" 2i2 not
inclu2e an/ lan2 that ha2 not been p4e*iousl/ inclu2e2 in the o4i6inal plan.
On Ma4ch #& "'"( the Cou4t of Lan2 Re6ist4ation 4en2e4e2 a supple8ental 2ecision 2ecla4in6 that&
on the basis of the 2ecision of 0ece8be4 '& "'"+ an2 of the 4epo4t of the Su4*e/o4 of Cou4t of
Lan2 Re6ist4ation& the applicants Ma4iano Se*e4o Tuason / 2e la Pa; an2 othe4s 5e4e the o5ne4s
of the lan2 applie2 fo4& as 2esc4ibe2 in the a8en2e2 plan& in the p4opo4tion 8entione2 in the
2ecision& an2 o42e4in6 that the lan2 applie2 fo4 be 4e6iste4e2 in the na8es of the applicants an2
that a 2ec4ee of 4e6ist4ation be issue2 in acco42ance 5ith the 2ecision an2 the a8en2e2 plan. On
Ma4ch #& "'"( the Chief of the Su4*e/ 0i*ision a224esse2 a co88unication to the 4e6ist4ation
cou4t& in connection 5ith LRC No. #!%"& su66estin6 that the 2ecision of the cou4t of Ma4ch #&
"'"( be 8o2ifie2 such that the 2ec4ee of 4e6ist4ation be base2 upon the o4i6inal plan as publishe2
an2 not upon the a8en2e2 plan )EAh. 1-+,. The Cou4t of Lan2 Re6ist4ation 2i2 not follo5 the
4eco88en2ation of the Chief of the Su4*e/ 0i*ision. On $ul/ !& "'"( 0ec4ee of Re6ist4ation No.
"#(+" 5as issue2 b/ the Chief of the Gene4al Lan2 Re6ist4ation Office pu4suant to the 2ecision of
the Cou4t of Lan2 Re6ist4ation of Ma4ch #& "'"( in LRC No. #!%". The 2ec4ee contains the
technical 2esc4iption of the t5o pa4cels of lan2 in acco42ance 5ith the plan as a8en2e2. .t appea4s
in the 2ec4ee that Pa4cel " has an a4ea of %&#'%&!((."@ sBua4e 8ete4s& 8o4e o4 less& o4 an inc4ease
of #."@ sBua4e 8ete4s o*e4 the a4ea of %&#'%&!"# sBua4e 8ete4s that 5as state2 in the application
fo4 4e6ist4ation an2 in the notice of hea4in6 5hich 5e4e publishe2 in the Official Ga;ette of
Octobe4 9& "'""? an2 that Pa4cel has an a4ea of "9&'!"&(! sBua4e 8ete4s& 8o4e o4 less& o4 a
2ec4ease of '&#'" sBua4e 8ete4s f4o8 the a4ea of "!&9(&@+# sBua4e 8ete4s that 5as state2 in
the application an2 in the notice of hea4in6 that 5e4e publishe2 in the Official Ga;ette )EAhs. 9
an2 JJ,. All in all& the4e is a 2ec4ease of '&#!+.'@ sBua4e 8ete4s in the a664e6ate a4ea of the
t5o pa4cels of lan2 sou6ht to be 4e6iste4e2.
SubseBuentl/& on $ul/ %& "'"(& the Re6iste4 of 0ee2s of the p4o*ince of Ri;al issue2 O4i6inal
Ce4tificate of Title No. #+9 in the na8es of the applicants& Ma4iano Se*e4o Tuason / 2e la Pa;&
Te4esa E4ibe4ta Tuason / 2e la Pa;& $uan $ose Tuason / 2e la Pa;& 0e8et4io Asuncion Tuason / 2e
la Pa;& an2 Au6usto <ube4to Tuason / 2e la Pa; )EAh. +@,.
". Ee shall no5 2eal 5ith the fi4st e44o4 assi6ne2 b/ the appellant.
The 2ecision of the t4ial cou4t 2ecla4in6 null an2 *oi2 ab initio O4i6inal Ce4tificate of Title No.
#+9 5oul2 in*ali2ate the title o*e4 the enti4e a4ea inclu2e2 in Pa4cel "

5hich a28itte2l/
inclu2es the siA pa4cels of lan2 clai8e2 b/ the plaintiffs-an2 also the title o*e4 the enti4e a4ea
inclu2e2 in Pa4cel
. Let it be note2 that Pa4cel " has an a4ea of %&#'%&!((."@ sBua4e 8ete4s& 8o4e o4 less& an2 Pa4cel
has an a4ea of "9&'!"&(! sBua4e 8ete4s& 8o4e o4 less? 5hile the siA pa4cels of lan2 clai8e2 b/
the plaintiffs ha*e an a664e6ate a4ea of onl/ ('9&(9+.# sBua4e 8ete4s& 8o4e o4 less. .n othe4 5o42s&
the a4ea of the siA pa4cels of lan2 clai8e2 b/ the plaintiffs is onl/ a little o*e4 t5o pe4 cent )K, of
the a664e6ate a4ea of Pa4cel " an2 Pa4cel . But the 2ecision of the t4ial cou4t nullifie2 O4i6inal
Ce4tificate of Title No. #%9& 5ithout an/ Bualification.
The t4ial cou4t hel2 that the Cou4t of Lan2 Re6ist4ation ha2 no >u4is2iction to 4en2e4 the 2ecision
in LRC No. #!%" because 2u4in6 the 4e6ist4ation p4ocee2in6s& afte4 the o4i6inal application an2
notice of hea4in6 ha2 been 2ul/ publishe2& the plan of Pa4cel " 5as a8en2e2 an2 no publication
4e6a42in6 the a8en2e2 plan 5as 8a2e. The t4ial cou4t pointe2 out that the a4ea an2 the 2esc4iption
of Pa4cel " in 0ec4ee of Re6ist4ation No. "#(+" a4e not i2entical 5ith the a4ea an2 2esc4iption of
Pa4cel " applie2 fo4 an2 publishe2 in the Official Ga;ette. The t4ial cou4t st4esse2 on the point that
publication is one of the essential bases of the +urisdiction of the court to hear and decide an
application for re*istration and to order the issuance of a decree of re*istration, as provided
in .ct -&! 13and #e*istration .ct2.
Ee belie*e that the lo5e4 cou4t e44e2 5hen it hel2 that the Lan2 Re6ist4ation Cou4t 5as 5ithout
>u4is2iction to 4en2e4 the 2ecision in LRC No. #!%". Un2e4 Section + of Act ('!& the 4e6ist4ation
cou4t 8a/ allo5& o4 o42e4& an a8en28ent of the application fo4 4e6ist4ation 5hen it appea4s to the
cou4t that the a8en28ent is necessa4/ an2 p4ope4. Un2e4 Section ( of the sa8e act the cou4t 8a/
at an/ ti8e o42e4 an application to be a8en2e2 b/ st4iDin6 out one o4 8o4e pa4cels o4 b/ se*e4ance
of the application. The a8en28ent 8a/ be 8a2e in the application o4 in the su4*e/ plan& o4 in
both& since the application an2 the su4*e/ plan 6o to6ethe4. .f the a8en28ent consists in the
inclusion in the application fo4 4e6ist4ation of an a4ea o4 pa4cel of lan2 not p4e*iousl/ inclu2e2 in
the o4i6inal application& as publishe2& a ne5 publication of the a8en2e2 application 8ust be 8a2e.
The pu4pose of the ne5 publication is to 6i*e notice to all pe4sons conce4ne2 4e6a42in6 the
a8en2e2 application. Eithout a ne5 publication the 4e6ist4ation cou4t can not acBui4e >u4is2iction
o*e4 the a4ea o4 pa4cel of lan2 that is a22e2 to the a4ea co*e4e2 b/ the o4i6inal application& an2 the
2ecision of the 4e6ist4ation cou4t 5oul2 be a nullit/ insofa4 as the 2ecision conce4ns the ne5l/
inclu2e2 lan2.
The 4eason is because 5ithout a ne5 publication& the la5 is inf4in6e2 5ith 4espect to the publicit/
that is 4eBui4e2 in 4e6ist4ation p4ocee2in6s& an2 thi42 pa4ties 5ho ha*e not ha2 the oppo4tunit/ to
p4esent thei4 clai8 8i6ht be p4e>u2ice2 in thei4 4i6hts because of failu4e of notice. But if the
a8en28ent consists in the eAclusion of a po4tion of the a4ea co*e4e2 b/ the o4i6inal application
an2 the o4i6inal plan as p4e*iousl/ publishe2& a ne5 publication is not necessa4/. .n the latte4
case& the >u4is2iction of the cou4t o*e4 the 4e8ainin6 a4ea is not affecte2 b/ the failu4e of a ne5
publication.
An2 so& in the supple8ental 2ecision of the Cou4t of Lan2 Re6ist4ation in LRC No. #!%"& 2ate2
Ma4ch #& "'"( )EAh. (-A,& the 4epo4t of the Chief of the Su4*e/ 0i*ision 5as taDen into
consi2e4ation an2 the cou4t o42e4e2 the 4e6ist4ation of the lan2s applie2 fo4 b/ the applicants as
2esc4ibe2 in the a8en2e2 plan )Fco8o esta 2esc4ito en el plano en8en2a2oF,. .t is thus sho5n that
the a8en2e2 plan in LRC No. #!%" 2i2 not co*e4 pa4cels& o4 a4eas& that 5e4e not p4e*iousl/
inclu2e2 in the o4i6inal plan 5hich acco8panie2 the application that ha2 been publishe2 in the
Official Ga;ette. The4e 5as& the4efo4e& no necessit/ fo4 a ne5 publication of the a8en2e2 plan in
o42e4 to *est the Cou4t of Lan2 Re6ist4ation 5ith >u4is2iction to hea4 an2 2eci2e the application fo4
4e6ist4ation in LRC No. #!%" an2 to o42e4 the issuance of 0ec4ee of Re6ist4ation No. "#(+" upon
5hich O4i6inal Ce4tificate of Title No. #+9 5as base2.
Ea/ bacD in "'++& this Cou4t ha2 occasion to 4ule on the *ali2it/ of the *e4/ sa8e O4i6inal
Ce4tificate of Title No. #+9 5hich the t4ial cou4t ha2 2ecla4e2 null an2 *oi2 in the th4ee cases no5
befo4e this Cou4t. .n the case of the BanD of the Philippine .slan2s *s. AcuLa )9' Phil. "%+, the
*ali2it/ of O4i6inal Ce4tificate of Title No. #+9 5as assaile2 b/ the appellants )Pascual AcuLa an2
othe4s, p4ecisel/ upon the 64oun2 that 2u4in6 the 4e6ist4ation p4ocee2in6s& 5hich b4ou6ht about
the issuance of O4i6inal Ce4tificate of Title No. #+9& the o4i6inal plan of the applicants 5as
o42e4e2 a8en2e2& an2 no ne5 publication 5as 8a2e of the a8en2e2 plan an2 so it 5as u46e2 that
the 4e6ist4ation cou4t 2i2 not ha*e >u4is2iction to o42e4 the issuance of the 2ec4ee of 4e6ist4ation in
fa*o4 of the applicants. The action in this case 5as institute2 b/ the BanD of the Philippine .slan2s
as 4ecei*e4 of the Tuason Entail fo4 the pu4pose& a8on6 othe4s& of 4eco*e4in6 f4o8 Pascual AcuLa
an2 othe4s ce4tain lan2s inclu2e2 in the Santa Mesa an2 0ili8an hacien2a locate2 in the ba44ios of
Ba6obanta/ an2 0ili8an& in the 8unicipalities of Caloocan an2 San $uan 2el Monte P4o*ince of
Ri;al. Upon hea4in6& the Cou4t of :i4st .nstance of Ri;al 2ecla4e2 that none of the 2efen2ants
o5ne2 an/ pa4t of the lan2 in cont4o*e4s/. On appeal& this Cou4t obse4*e2 that the cha4acte4 in
5hich the plaintiff sue2 5as not open to Buestion& an2 the 8ate4ial facts 5e4e as follo5s7 The hei4s
of the Tuason estate& 4efe44e2 to as the Tuason Entail& hel2 a To44ens title to a t4act of lan2 5ith an
a4ea of about "&!@@ hecta4es locate2 in the p4o*ince of Ri;al. This p4ope4t/ 5as then co*e4e2 b/
T4ansfe4 Ce4tificate of Title No. +#' issue2 in lieu of ol2e4 ce4tificates 2atin6 f4o8 $ul/ %& "'"(.
This T4ansfe4 Ce4tificate of Title No. +#' e8anate2 f4o8 O4 Ce4tificate of Title No. #+9. The
appellants p4ecisel/ sou6ht to nullif/ the title of the hei4s of the Tuason estate& 5hich e8anate2
f4o8 O4i6inal Ce4tificate of Title No. #+9& upon the 64oun2& as no5 u46e2 b/ the appellees in the
th4ee cases at ba4& that 2u4in6 the 4e6ist4ation p4ocee2in6s the o4i6inal plan of the lan2s Dno5n as
the Sta. Mesa an2 0ili8an 5as a8en2e2& an2 no publication 5as 8a2e of the a8en2e2 plan.
Re6a42in6 the Buestion of the non-publication of the a8en2e2 plan& this Cou4t sai27
A8on6 the a46u8ents 8a2e b/ the appellants of the Ba6obanta/ 64oup& it is alle6e2 that the
To44ens title 4elie2 b/ the plaintiff is *oi2& an2 in suppo4t of this contention it state2 that& 2u4in6
the cou4se of the 4e6ist4ation p4ocee2in6s& an o42e4 5as 8a2e b/ the cou4t fo4 the a8en28ent of
the applicants an2 that this o42e4 5as not follo5e2 b/ ne5 publication& 5he4efo4e& it is suppose2
the cou4t 5as 5ithout >u4is2iction to 2ec4ee the title to the applicants. .n this connection 4eliance is
place2 upon the 2oct4ine state2 in the Philippine Manufactu4in6 Co. *s. .8pe4ial )(' Phil. ",.
But the b4ief fo4 the appellants fails to call attention to the fact that the 4ule state2 in the case cite2
has 4efe4ence to an a8en28ent of the plan b/ 5hich a22itional lan2& 2iffe4ent f4o8 that inclu2e2
in the o4i6inal su4*e/ is inten2e2 to be b4ou6ht 5ithin the p4ocess of 4e6ist4ation. .n the case
befo4e us& the o42e4 4efe44e2 to 5as fo4 the eAclusion of ce4tain po4tions of the lan2 co*e4e2 b/ the
o4i6inal su4*e/& an2 the 2oct4ine of the case cite2 cannot appl/. Apa4t f4o8 this it 2oes not appea4
that the po4tion inten2e2 to be eAclu2e2 co8p4ehen2e2 an/ pa4t of the lan2 5hich ha2 been
usu4pe2.
Ehat 8atte4s is the 2oct4ine that 5as lai2 2o5n b/ this Cou4t in that case that is7 that 5hen the
o4i6inal su4*e/ plan is a8en2e2& afte4 the publication of the application in o42e4 to inclu2e lan2
not p4e*iousl/ inclu2e2 in the o4i6inal su4*e/& a ne5 publication of the a8en2e2 plan is necessa4/
in o42e4 to confe4 >u4is2iction upon the 4e6ist4ation cou4t to o42e4 the 4e6ist4ation of the lan2 that is
a22e2 to 5hat 5as inclu2e2 in the o4i6inal su4*e/ plan. The 4ulin6 of this Cou4t in the BanD of the
Philippine .slan2s case has a 2ecisi*e application in the th4ee cases no5 befo4e this Cou4t.
The t4ial cou4t lai2 st4ess on the point that publication of the a8en2e2 plan of Pa4cel " shoul2 ha*e
been 8a2e because it appea4s in the 0ec4ee of Re6ist4ation No. "#(+"& an2 as 4ep4o2uce2 in
O4i6inal Ce4tificate of Title No. #+9& that the a4ea of sai2 pa4cel is Fbi66e4F than the a4ea state2 in
the application as publishe2 in the Official Ga;ette? an2& also& that the boun2a4ies of Pa4cel "
state2 in the 2ec4ee a4e not i2entical 5ith the boun2a4ies state2 in the application as publishe2 in
the Official Ga;ette. Ee pai2 pa4ticula4 attention on this point of the lo5e4 cou4tCs 2ecision& an2
ou4 i8p4ession is that the t4ial cou4t ha2 eAploite2 ce4tain 8ino4 2isc4epancies bet5een the
2esc4iption of Pa4cel " in the 2ec4ee of 4e6ist4ation an2 its 2esc4iption in the o4i6inal application&
in o42e4 to bolste4 its 4ulin6 that Fto 4en2e4 a 2ecision on the a8en2e2 plan& boun2a4/ 2esc4iptions&
an2 a22itional lan2s co8p4ise2 5ithin Pa4cel " in 0ec4ee No. "#(+"& a 4epublication of such
a8en2e2 plan& boun2a4/ 2esc4iption& technical 2esc4iption an2 a22itional a4eas is necessa4/ to
confe4 >u4is2iction upon the Cou4t.F
the lan2 that 5as co*e4e2 b/ the o4i6inal su4*e/ plan& such that the publication of the a8en2e2
plan 5oul2 be necessa4/ in o42e4 that the 4e6ist4ation cou4t coul2 acBui4e >u4is2iction o*e4 that
a4ea.
The settle2 4ule& fu4the4& is that once the 4e6ist4ation cou4t ha2 acBui4e2 >u4is2iction o*e4 a ce4tain
pa4cel& o4 pa4cels& of lan2 in the 4e6ist4ation p4ocee2in6s in *i4tue of the publication of the
application& that >u4is2iction attaches to the lan2 o4 lan2s 8entione2 an2 2esc4ibe2 in the
application. .f it is late4 sho5n that the 2ec4ee of 4e6ist4ation ha2 inclu2e2 lan2 o4 lan2s not
inclu2e2 in the o4i6inal application as publishe2& then the 4e6ist4ation p4ocee2in6s an2 the 2ec4ee
of 4e6ist4ation 8ust be 2ecla4e2 null an2 *oi2 in so fa4

but onl/ in so fa4

as the lan2 not


inclu2e2 in the publication is conce4ne2. This is so& because the cou4t 2i2 not acBui4e >u4is2iction
o*e4 the lan2 not inclu2e2 in the publication-the publication bein6 the basis7 of the >u4is2iction of
the cou4t. But the p4ocee2in6s an2 the 2ec4ee of 4e6ist4ation& 4elatin6 to the lan2s that 5e4e
inclu2e2 in the publication& a4e *ali2. Thus& if it is sho5n that a ce4tificate of title ha2 been issue2
co*e4in6 lan2s 5he4e the 4e6ist4ation cou4t ha2 no >u4is2iction& the ce4tificate of title is null an2
*oi2 insofa4 as it conce4ns the lan2 o4 lan2s o*e4 5hich the 4e6ist4ation cou4t ha2 not acBui4e2
>u4is2iction. +
Ma4ch #& "'"( Fbe base2 upon the o4i6inal plans& as publishe2& an2 not upon the a8en2e2 plan.F
FA. Bonifacio 4oa2F an2 then 2ecla4e2 that the lan2s situate2 5est of the A. Bonifacio 4oa2 5e4e
ne*e4 the sub>ect of the 4e6ist4ation p4ocee2in6s in LRC No. #!%". The lo5e4 cou4t 2ecla4e2 the
lan2s 5est of A. Bonifacio 4oa2 as un4e6iste4e2 lan2s an2 a5a42e2 the o5ne4ship of those lan2s to
the plaintiffs in Ci*il Cases Nos. +!" an2 +!. 9 .n the p4e-t4ial o42e4 of the lo5e4 cou4t of
0ece8be4 "%& "'9#& it 5as state2 that the pa4cels of lan2 liti6ate2 in these a4e po4tions of the lan2s
co*e4e2 b/ OCT No. #+9. ! The lo5e4 cou4t itself& at the ea4lie4 pa4t of its 2ecision& state2 that
Fboth the plaintiffs an2 the 2efen2ants a28it that the pa4cels of lan2 liti6ate2 in Ci*il Cases Nos.
+!"& +! an2 +!+ a4e foun2 5ithin the boun2a4ies of the p4esent Santa Mesa <ei6hts
Sub2i*ision co*e4e2 b/ O4i6inal Ce4tificate of Title No. #+9F # The appellees in these t5o cases
ha2 ne*e4 asse4te2 that pa4t of the lan2s that the/ clai8 a4e outsi2e the boun2a4ies of Pa4cel "& no4
2i2 the/ asse4t that pa4t of the lan2s that the/ clai8 ha*e 4e8aine2 un4e6iste4e2 an2 not co*e4e2
b/ O4i6inal Ce4tificate of Title No. #+9. The lo5e4 cou4t ha2 8a2e a fin2in6 not onl/ cont4a4/ to
the e*i2ence of the appellees but e*en 8o4e than 5hat the appellees asDe2 5hen it sai2 in its
2ecision that the 5este4n boun2a4/ of Pa4cel " is onl/ the A. Bonifacio 4oa2 an2 that the lan2s
clai8e2 b/ the appellees 5est of this 4oa2 ha2 ne*e4 been 4e6iste4e2. This Cou4t ce4tainl/ can not
6i*e its app4o*al to the fin2in6s an2 4ulin6s of the lo5e4 cou4t that a4e patentl/ e44oneous.
The pe4tinent p4o*isions of Section (@ of Act ('! 4ea2s& as follo5s7
SEC. (@. E*e4/ 2ec4ee of 4e6ist4ation shall bea4 the 2a/ of the /ea4& hou4& an2 8inute of its ent4/&
an2 shall be si6ne2 b/ the cle4D. .t shall state 5hethe4 the o5ne4 is 8a44ie2 o4 un8a44ie2& an2 if
8a44ie2& the na8e of the husban2 o4 5ife. .f the o5ne4 is un2e4 2isabilit/& it shall state the natu4e
of the 2isabilit/& an2 if a 8ino4& shall state his a6e. .t shall contain a 2esc4iption of the lan2 as
finall/ 2ete48ine2 b/ the cou4t & . . The 2ec4ee shall be state2 in a con*enient fo48 fo4
t4ansc4iption upon the ce4tificates of title he4einafte4 8entione2.
Section ' of Act ('! p4o*i2es that as soon as the 2ec4ee of title has been 4e6iste4e2 in the office
of the 4e6iste4 of 2ee2s& as p4o*i2e2 in Section fo4t/-one& the p4ope4t/ inclu2e2 in sai2 2ec4ee shall
beco8e 4e6iste4e2 lan2 un2e4 the Act. Section ( of Act ('! p4o*i2es that the ce4tificate shall taDe
effect upon the 2ate of the t4ansc4iption of the 2ec4ee.
This Cou4t has hel2 that as 2efine2 in Section (" of Act ('!& the ce4tificate of title is the t4ansc4ipt
of the 2ec4ee of 4e6ist4ation 8a2e b/ the 4e6iste4 of 2ee2s in the 4e6ist4/.
The appellant p4esente2 as e*i2ence a photostat of O4i6inal Ce4tificate of Title No. #+9& as foun2
in the Re6ist4ation BooD in the office of the 4e6iste4 of 2ee2s of Ri;al )EAhibit 9@,. +@ Ee ha*e
eAa8ine2 this 2ocu8ent *e4/ ca4efull/& an2 Ee fin2 that it is a cop/ of the o4i6inal that satisfies
all the 4eBui4e8ents of a *ali2 To44ens title as p4o*i2e2 fo4 in Sections (@ an2 (" of Act ('!.
Ee& the4efo4e& hol2 that the fo48al 2efect in the t4ansc4iption of 0ec4ee of Re6ist4ation No. "#(+"
in the Re6ist4ation BooD 2i2 not 4en2e4 null an2 *oi2 O4i6inal Ce4tificate of Title No. #+9.
ConseBuentl/& Ee 2ecla4e that the t5o pa4cels of lan2 )Pa4cel " 5hich inclu2es the lan2s clai8e2
b/ the appellees& an2 Pa4cel , co*e4e2 b/ O4i6inal Ce4tificate of Title No. #+9 a4e p4ope4l/
4e6iste4e2 un2e4 the To44ens S/ste8 of 4e6ist4ation.
The 4eco42s sho5 that the hea4in6 on the application 5as 4e6ula4l/ hel2& an2 that the 4e6ist4ation
cou4t ha2 seen to it that no lan2 5hich 5as not inclu2e2 in the o4i6inal su4*e/ plan an2 not
co*e4e2 b/ the o4i6inal application 5as 8a2e the sub>ect of the 4e6ist4ation p4ocee2in6s. Ee ha*e
foun2 that the 2ec4ee of 4e6ist4ation 5as p4ope4l/ issue2 b/ the Lan2 Re6ist4ation Office pu4suant
to the 2ecision of the Lan2 Re6ist4ation Cou4t& an2 that sai2 2ec4ee of 4e6ist4ation 5as full/
t4ansc4ibe2 in the Re6ist4ation BooD in the office of the Re6iste4 of 0ee2s of the p4o*ince of Ri;al.
Ee ha*e foun2 also that the siA pa4cels of lan2 that a4e clai8e2 b/ the appellees. in the th4ee cases
no5 befo4e Us a4e all inclu2e2 in Pa4cel " that is co*e4e2 b/ O4i6inal Ce4tificate of Title No. #+9.
.n *ie5 of Ou4 fin2in6s an2 conclusion that O4i6inal Ce4tificate of Title No. #+9 5as issue2 in
acco42ance 5ith the p4o*isions of Act ('!& an2 that the siA pa4cels of lan2 that a4e clai8e2 b/ the
appellees in the p4esent cases a4e co*e4e2 b/ sai2 ce4tificate of title& 5hat is left fo4 this Cou4t to
2eci2e is whether or not the appellees still have any le*al ri*ht over the si8 parcels of land
that they claim.
Let it be note2 that& as 8aintaine2 b/ counsel fo4 the appellees& the action of the appellees is
p4incipall/ to 4eco*e4 the o5ne4ship an2 possession of the siA pa4cels of lan2 8entione2 an2
2esc4ibe2 in thei4 co8plaints.
.t is the settle2 4ule that a pa4t/ seeDin6 the 4econ*e/ance to hi8 of his lan2 that he clai8s ha2
been 54on6l/ 4e6iste4e2 in the na8e of anothe4 pe4son 8ust 4eco6ni;e the *ali2it/ of the
ce4tificate of title of the latte4. .t is also the 4ule that a 4econ*e/ance 8a/ onl/ taDe place if the
lan2 that is clai8e2 to be 54on6l/ 4e6iste4e2 is still 4e6iste4e2 in the na8e of the pe4son 5ho
p4ocu4e2 the 54on6ful 4e6ist4ation. No action fo4 4econ*e/ance can taDe place as a6ainst a thi42
pa4t/ 5ho ha2 acBui4e2 title o*e4 the 4e6iste4e2 p4ope4t/ in 6oo2 faith an2 fo4 *alue. An2 if no
4econ*e/ance can be 8a2e& the *alue of the p4ope4t/ 4e6iste4e2 8a/ be 2e8an2e2 onl/ f4o8 the
pe4son )o4 pe4sons, 5ho p4ocu4e2 the 54on6ful 4e6ist4ation in his na8e.
St4an6el/ enou6h& the lo5e4 cou4t& upon 2ecla4in6 O4i6inal Ce4tificate of Title No. #+9 null an2
*oi2& 2i2 not 8aDe an/ state8ent& o4 obse4*ation& 4e6a42in6 the status o4 situation of the 4e8ainin6
lan2s )Pa4cels " an2 , co*e4e2 b/ O4i6inal Ce4tificate of Title No. #+9 afte4 a2>u2icatin6 to the
appellees the siA pa4cels of lan2 clai8e2 b/ the8 in thei4 co8plaints.
.n the p4esent appeal counsel fo4 the appellees ha2 8aintaine2& an2 has en2ea*o4e2 to sho5& that
the lo5e4 cou4t 5as co44ect in annullin6 O4i6inal Ce4tificate of Title No. #+9 an2 in a2>u2icatin6
in fa*o4 of the appellees the o5ne4ship an2 possession of the siA pa4cels of lan2 clai8e2 b/ the8
in thei4 co8plaints.
But& as he4einbefo4e hel2 b/ Us& the lo5e4 cou4t e44e2 in 2ecla4in6 O4i6inal Ce4tificate of Title No.
#+9 *oi2 an2 of no effect. Ee ha*e hel2 that O4i6inal Ce4tificate of Title No. #+9 5as issue2 as a
4esult of the 4e6ist4ation p4ocee2in6s in LRC No& #!%" 5hich 5as 4e6ula4 an2 that sai2 ce4tificate
of title is *ali2 an2 effecti*e. The p4ocee2in6s in LRC #!%" bein6 in 4e8& the 2ec4ee of
4e6ist4ation issue2 pu4suant to the 2ecision 4en2e4e2 in sai2 4e6ist4ation case boun2 the lan2s
co*e4e2 b/ the 2ec4ee an2 Buiete2 title the4eto& an2 is conclusi*e upon an2 a6ainst all pe4sons&
inclu2in6 the 6o*e4n8ent an2 all the b4anches the4eof& 5hethe4 8entione2 b/ na8e in the
application& notice o4 citation& o4 inclu2e2 in the 6ene4al insc4iption FTo 5ho8 it 8a/ conce4nF&
an2 such 2ec4ee 5ill not be opene2 b/ 4eason of the absence& infanc/& o4 othe4 2isabilit/ of an/
pe4son affecte2 the4eb/& no4 b/ an/ p4ocee2in6s in an/ cou4t fo4 4e*e4sin6 >u268ent o4 2ec4ee.
Such 2ec4ee 8a/ onl/ be 4eopene2 if an/ pe4son 2ep4i*e2 of lan2 o4 of an/ estate o4 inte4est
the4ein b/ 2ec4ee of 4e6ist4ation obtaine2 b/ f4au2 5oul2 file in the co8petent cou4t of fi4st
instance a petition fo4 4e*ie5 5ithin one /ea4 afte4 ent4/ of the 2ec4ee& p4o*i2e2 no innocent
pu4chase4 fo4 *alue ha2 acBui4e2 an inte4est on the lan2& an2 upon the eApi4ation of sai2 pe4io2 of
one /ea4& the 2ec4ee& o4 the ce4tificate of title issue2 pu4suant to the 2ec4ee& is incont4o*e4tible
)See. +%& Act ('!,. .n the case no5 befo4e Us& the 0ec4ee of Re6ist4ation No. "#(+" in LRC #!%"
5as ente4e2 on $ul/ %& "'"(. .t is un2ispute2 that no pe4son ha2 file2 an/ petition fo4 4e*ie5 of the
2ec4ee of 4e6ist4ation in LRC #!%" 5ithin the pe4io2 of one /ea4 f4o8 $ul/ %& "'"(. That 2ec4ee of
4e6ist4ation& an2 O4i6inal Ce4tificate of Title No. #+9 issue2 pu4suant the4eto& the4efo4e& ha2 been
incont4o*e4tible since $ul/ '& "'"9.
Mo4eo*e4& innocent pu4chases fo4 *alue ha2 acBui4e2 inte4est in the lan2s co*e4e2 b/ O4i6inal
Ce4tificate of Title No. #+9. +#
The O4i6inal Ce4tificate of Title No. #+9 5as issue2 on $ul/ %& "'"( in the na8es of the o4i6inal
an applicants fo4 4e6ist4ation& na8el/& Ma4iano Tuason / 2e la Pa;& Te4esa E4ibe4ta Tuason / 2e la
Pa;& $uan $ose Tuason / 2e la Pa;& 0e8et4io Asuncion Tuason / 2e la Pa; an2 Au6usta <ube4to
Tuason / 2e la Pa;. <e4ein appellant $.M. Tuason 3 Co.& .nc. is not one of those 5ho 5e4e
4e6iste4e2 as the o4i6inal o5ne4s 8entione2 in O4i6inal Ce4tificate of Title No. #+9. Ehen the
o4i6inal co8plaints 5e4e file2 in these th4ee cases in the Cou4t of :i4st .nstance of Ri;al the
pa4ties na8e2 2efen2ants in each of the th4ee cases 5e4e Ma4iano Se*e4o Tuason / 2e la Pa;&
Te4esa E4ibe4ta Tuason / 2e la Pa;& $uan $ose Tuason / 2e la Pa;& 0e8et4io Asuncion Tuason / 2e
la Pa;& Au6usta <ube4to Tuason / 2e la Pa;& the hei4s of each one of these 2efen2ants )5ithout
na8in6 the8,& an2 $.M. Tuason 3 Co.& .nc. Of all the 2efen2ants na8e2 in the th4ee co8plaints
onl/ 2efen2ant $.M. Tuason 3 Co.& .nc. appea4e2 an2 file2 its ans5e4 to the co8plaints. All the
othe4 2efen2ants 2i2 not appea4& an2 so the/ 5e4e all 2ecla4e2 in 2efault. +% .t ha2 to happen that
5a/ because as of the ti8e 5hen the th4ee co8plaints 5e4e file2 on Ma/ "'& "'99 the o5ne4ship
of Pa4cel " that 5as o4i6inall/ co*e4e2 b/ O4i6inal Ce4tificate of Title No. #+9 ha2 al4ea2/ passe2
to 2efen2ant $.M. Tuason 3 Co.& .nc. .n fact this 2efen2ant ha2 cause2 Pa4cel " to be sub2i*i2e2
an2 ha2 sol2 the sub2i*ision lots.
The 4eco42s sho5 that Pa4cel " in O4i6inal Ce4tificate of Title No. #+9 5as pa4t of the p4ope4ties
of the Ma/o4as6o Tuason )Tuason Entail, 5hich beca8e in*ol*e2 in a liti6ation in the Cou4t of
:i4st .nstance of Manila. +' 0u4in6 the pen2enc/ of the case the p4ope4ties of the Ma/o4as6o
Tuason 5e4e a28iniste4e2 b/ the BanD of the Philippine .slan2s as the >u2icial 4ecei*e4. .n the
o42e4 of the Cou4t of :i4st .nstance of Manila& 2ate2 Ma/ 9& "'+%& in Ci*il Case No. (%@+& the
BanD of the Philippine .slan2s& as 4ecei*e4& 5as autho4i;e2& 2i4ecte2 an2 o42e4e2 to eAecute& upon
pa/8ent to it of the su8 of P#!+&'9.#9& a 2ee2 of t4ansfe4 an2 assi6n8ent in fa*o4 of the <ei4s of
0. Tuason& .nc. of the p4ope4t/ co*e4e2 b/ T4ansfe4 Ce4tificate of Title No. +"''#& 5hich 5as
o4i6inall/ Pa4cel " inclu2e2 in O4i6inal Ce4tificate of Title No. #+9 )EAh. "+-B,. On $une "+& "'+%
the 4ecei*e4 BanD of the Philippine .slan2s eAecute2 the 2ee2 of t4ansfe4 an2 assi6n8ent )EAh. "+-
A,. T4ansfe4 Ce4tificate of Title No. +(%9+ of the Re6iste4 of 0ee2s of Ri;al 5as fo4th5ith issue2
in the na8e of the <ei4s of 0. Tuason& .nc. )EAhs. "-b an2 +!,. The 2ee2 of t4ansfe4 an2
assi6n8ent 5as app4o*e2 b/ the cou4t in an o42e4 2ate2 $une "#& "'+%. This con*e/ance to the
<ei4s of 0. Tuason& .nc. tooD place at a ti8e 5hen the Sup4e8e Cou4t ha2 al4ea2/ 2eci2e2 the
case of BanD of the Philippine .slan2s *s. AcuLa )9' Phil. "%+, 5he4ein this Cou4t uphel2 the
*ali2it/ of O4i6inal Ce4tificate of Title No. #+9 an2 also the *ali2it/ of the t4ansfe4 ce4tificate of
title e8anatin6 the4ef4o8.
The ci4cu8stances atten2in6 the acBuisition b/ the <ei4s of 0. Tuason& .nc. of the lan2 co*e4e2 b/
T4ansfe4 Ce4tificate of Title No. +"''#

5hich 5as fo48e4l/ Pa4cel " co*e4e2 b/ O4i6inal


Ce4tificate of Title No. #+9

clea4l/ in2icate that sai2 co4po4ation acBui4e2 its title in a 4e6ula4


t4ansaction as pu4chase4 in 6oo2 faith an2 fo4 *alue. On $une "9& "'+% the <ei4s of 0. Tuason& .nc.
in tu4n sol2 the sa8e p4ope4t/ to $.M. Tuason 3 Co.& .nc.& an2 T4ansfe4 Ce4tificate of Title No.
+9@#+ 5as issue2 in the na8e of the latte4 )EAhs. "-c an2 +#,.
The lo5e4 cou4t 2ecla4e2 that he4ein appellant $.M. Tuason 3 Co.& .nc. 5as a pu4chase4 in ba2
faith. Ee 2o not fin2 an/ e*i2ence in the 4eco42 that 5oul2 sustain such a fin2in6 of the lo5e4
cou4t. One 4eason 6i*en b/ the lo5e4 cou4t in 2ecla4in6 appellant $.M. Tuason 3 Co.& .nc. a
pu4chase4 in ba2 faith is the fact that the inco4po4ato4s of the <ei4s of 0. Tuason& .nc. an2 the
inco4po4ato4s of $. M. Tuason 3 Co.& .nc. 5e4e p4acticall/ the sa8e pe4sons belon6in6 to the sa8e
Tuason fa8il/. Ee 2o not see an/thin6 54on6 if so8e inco4po4ato4s of the <ei4s of 0. Tuason .nc.
a4e also inco4po4ato4s of the $.M. Tuason 3 Co.& .nc. 0u4in6 these 2a/s 5hen businesses a4e
p4o8ote2& ope4ate2& an2 8ana6e2& th4ou6h co4po4ate entities& it is not su4p4isin6 to see t5o o4
8o4e co4po4ations o46ani;e2 b/ the sa8e pe4sons o4 64oup of pe4sons 5ith 2iffe4ent pu4poses& fo4
2iffe4ent lines of business an2 5ith 2istinct o4 sepa4ate assets an2 inte4ests. Besi2es& as has been
sho5n& the <ei4s of 0. Tuason& .nc. acBui4e2 the lan2 )Pa4cel " in O4i6inal Ce4tificate of Title No.
#+9, f4o8 the BanD of the Philippine .slan2s& the 4ecei*e4 of the p4ope4ties of the Ma/o4as6o
Tuason& in a sale that 5as autho4i;e2& an2 subseBuentl/ app4o*e2& b/ the cou4t. The <ei4s of 0.
Tuason& .nc. pai2 the su8 of P#!+&'9@.%@ fo4 the p4ope4t/. Ce4tainl/ if the <ei4s of 0. Tuason&
.nc. ha2 acBui4e2 the lan2 o4i6inall/ co*e4e2 b/ O4i6inal Ce4tificate of Title No. #+9 in a
t4ansaction that 5as autho4i;e2 b/ the cou4t& fo4 a *aluable consi2e4ation& the4eb/ acBui4in6 a 6oo2
title o*e4 the p4ope4t/ as a pu4chase4 in 6oo2 faith an2 fo4 *alue& the title that it t4ansfe44e2 to $. M.
Tuason 3 Co.& .nc. 5hen it sol2 sa8e p4ope4t/ to the latte4 5as also a 6oo2 title& an2 $.M. Tuason
3 Co.& .nc. 5as also a pu4chase4 in 6oo2 faith an2 fo4 *alue

e*en if it appea4s that the


inco4po4ato4s of the t5o co4po4ations belon6 to the sa8e Tuason fa8il/. The 4eco42s of these
cases a4e be4eft of an/ e*i2ence 5hich 5oul2 in2icate that the sale of Pa4cel " in Buestion b/ the
<ei4s of 0. Tuason& .nc. to $. M. Tuason 3 Co.& .nc. 5as f4au2ulent.
Anothe4 4eason 6i*en b/ the lo5e4 cou4t in 2ecla4in6 appellant $.M. Tuason 3 Co.& .nc. a bu/e4 in
ba2 faith is that 5hen sai2 appellant bou6ht Pa4cel " o4i6inall/ co*e4e2 b/ O4i6inal Ce4tificate of
Title No. #+9 it 5as a5a4e of the fact that the appellees o4 thei4 p4e2ecesso4s in inte4est 5e4e in
possession of& an2 5e4e culti*atin6& the siA pa4cels of lan2 that the/ no5 clai8 in these cases. The
conclusion of the lo5e4 cou4t is too st4aine2. .t shoul2 be 4e8e8be4e2 that the 4e6iste4e2 p4ope4t/
bou6ht b/ $.M. Tuason 3 Co.& .nc. ha2 an a4ea of so8e %#' hecta4es. .t coul2 happen that ce4tain
4elati*es o4 ancesto4s of appellees ha2 been sBuattin6 on so8e po4tions of the lan2 an2 clai8e2
ce4tain a4eas as thei4 o5n& to the eAtent of ha*in6 the a4eas clai8e2 b/ the8 2ecla4e2 fo4 taAation
pu4poses in thei4 na8es. Thus the appellees p4esente2 in e*i2ence taA 2ecla4ations that appea4 to
ha*e taDen effect as of "'(". Ee ha*e note2& ho5e*e4& that at the bacD of those taA 2ecla4ations
a4e 54itten the 5o42s FThis pa4cel is a 2uplicate of the lan2 un2e4 TaA No. #!(-$. M. Tuason 3
Co.& .nc.F )EAhs. E-Alcanta4a& :-Alcanta4a& ::-"-Benin& GG-Benin& <<-Benin& BBB-Pili& an2
BBB-"-Pili,. (" These annotations si8pl/ 4e*eal that 5hen the p4e2ecesso4s of the appellees ha2
those taA 2ecla4ations 8a2e to co*e4 the lan2s that the/ clai8& those lan2s 5e4e al4ea2/ inclu2e2
in the taA 2ecla4ation of appellant $. M. Tuason 3 Co.& .nc. Appellant $. M. Tuason 3 Co.& .nc. ha2
been eAe4cisin6& an2 asse4tin6& its p4op4ieta4/ 4i6hts o*e4 the lan2s in Buestion afte4 it bou6ht the
sa8e f4o8 the <ei4s of 0. Tuason& .nc. This is bo4ne b/ the state8ent in the o42e4& 2ate2
Septe8be4 !& "'99& issue2 b/ $u26e $uan P. En4iBue; 5ho at the ti8e 5as p4esi2in6 the b4anch of
the Cou4t of :i4st .nstance of Ri;al 5he4e these th4ee 5e4e pen2in6& as follo5s7
Besi2es& the possession b/ the appellees& eithe4 b/ the8sel*es o4 th4ou6h thei4 p4e2ecesso4s in
inte4est& if the4e 5as such possession at all& 5oul2 be una*ailin6 a6ainst title hol2e4 of a To44ens
ce4tificate of title co*e4in6 the pa4cels Of lan2s no5 in Buestion. :4o8 $ul/ %& "'"( 5hen
Ce4tificate of Title No. #+9 5as issue2& no possession b/ an/ pe4son of an/ po4tion of the lan2s
co*e4e2 b/ sai2 o4i6inal ce4tificate of title& o4 co*e4e2 b/ a subseBuent t4ansfe4 ce4tificate of title
2e4i*e2 f4o8 sai2 o4i6inal ce4tificate of title& coul2 2efeat the title of the 4e6iste4e2 o5ne4 of the
lan2s co*e4e2 b/ the ce4tificate of title. .n this connection& let it be note2 that appellant $. M.
Tuason 3 Co.& .nc. beca8e the 4e6iste4e2 o5ne4 of Pa4cel "& 5hich 5as o4i6inall/ co*e4e2 b/
O4i6inal Ce4tificate of Title No. #+9& onl/ on $une "9& "'+%& o4 al8ost ( /ea4s afte4 O4i6inal
Ce4tificate of Title No. #+9 5as issue2.
.t can 5ell be sai2 that $. M. Tuason 3 Co.& .nc. ha2 4elie2 on the title of the <ei4s of 0. Tuason&
.nc. 5hen it bou6ht the lan2 co*e4e2 b/ T4ansfe4 Ce4tificate of Title No.+(%9+& an2 the <ei4s of 0.
Tuason& .nc. liDe5ise ha2 4elie2 on the title of the Ma/o4as6o Tuason )Ma4iano Se*e4o Tuason /
2e la Pa;& et al., 5hen it bou6ht the lan2 co*e4e2 b/ T4ansfe4 Ce4tificate of Title No. +"''# f4o8
the >u2icial 4ecei*e4& 2ul/ autho4i;e2 an2 app4o*e2 b/ the cou4t. Ee& the4efo4e& can not a64ee 5ith
the lo5e4 cou4t 5hen it 2ecla4e2 appellant $. M. Tuason 3 Co.& .nc. a pu4chase4 on ba2 faith.
The e*i2ence sho5s that appellant $. M. Tuason 3 Co.& .nc. ha2 con*e4te2 the lan2 o4i6inall/
co*e4e2 b/ O4i6inal Ce4tificate of Title No. #+9& inclu2in6 the siA pa4cels clai8e2 b/ appellees
into a sub2i*ision& an2 nu8e4ous pe4sons an2 entities ha2 pu4chase2 the sub2i*ision lots& an2 the
pu4chase4s in tu4n 5e4e issue2 t4ansfe4 ce4tificates of title co*e4in6 the lots that the/ bou6ht& base2
on the t4ansfe4 ce4tificate of title in the na8e of $. M Tuason 3 Co.& .nc. The bu/e4s of the lots
4elie2 upon the ce4tificate of title in the na8e of $. M. Tuason 3 Co.& .nc. an2 because the/ pai2
fo4 the lots the/ ce4tainl/ a4e pu4chase4s in 6oo2 faith an2 fo4 *alue. The pu4chase4s of these lots
ha*e built the4eon 4esi2ential houses& office buil2in6s& shops& hospital& e*en chu4ches. But the
lo5e4 cou4t& 2is4e6a42in6 these ci4cu8stances& 2ecla4e2 null an2 *oi2 all t4ansfe4 ce4tificates of
title that e8anate2& o4 that 5e4e 2e4i*e2& f4o8 O4i6inal Ce4tificate of Title No. #+9. This is a 64a*e
e44o4 co88itte2 b/ the lo5e4 cou4t. An2 the e44o4 is co8poun2e2 5hen the lo5e4 cou4t o42e4e2
appellant $. M. Tuason 3 Co.& .nc. an2 all those clai8in6 un2e4 sai2 appellant& to *acate an2
4esto4e to the appellees the possession of the pa4cels of lan2s that a4e clai8e2 b/ the8 in the
p4esent cases. The possesso4s of the lots co8p4ise2 5ithin the siA pa4cels of lan2 in Buestion& an2
5ho hol2 ce4tificates of title co*e4in6 the lots that the/ bou6ht& a4e not pa4ties in the p4esent cases&
an2 /et the 2ecision of the lo5e4 cou4t 5oul2 annul thei4 titles an2 co8pel the8 to 6i*e up the
possession of thei4 p4ope4ties. To 6i*e effect to the 2ecision of the lo5e4 cou4t is to 2ep4i*e
pe4sons of thei4 p4ope4t/ 5ithout 2ue p4ocess of la5. The 2ecision of the lo5e4 cou4t 5oul2 set at
nau6ht the settle2 2oct4ine that the hol2e4 of a ce4tificate of title 5ho acBui4e2 the p4ope4t/
co*e4e2 b/ the title in 6oo2 faith an2 fo4 *alue can 4est assu4e2 that his title is pe4fect an2
incont4o*e4tible.
.n *ie5 of the fo4e6oin6 2iscussions& it is ob*ious that the action of the appellees in the th4ee cases
no5 befo4e this Cou4t 8ust fail..
.t has been sho5n that appellant $. M. Tuason 3 Co.& .nc. ha2 acBui4e2 a *ali2 title o*e4 the lan2
5hich inclu2es the siA pa4cels that a4e clai8e2 b/ the appellees. The fact& that the p4e2ecesso4s in
inte4est of the appellees

o4 an/ pe4son& fo4 that 8atte4

ha2 not file2 a petition fo4 the 4e*ie5


of the 2ec4ee of 4e6ist4ation in LRC No. #!%" 5ithin a pe4io2 of one /ea4 f4o8 $ul/ %& "'"( 5hen
the 2ec4ee of 4e6ist4ation 5as issue2& is a ci4cu8stance that ha2 fo4e*e4 fo4eclose2 an/ p4ocee2in6
fo4 the 4e*ie5 of sai2 2ec4ee. As Ee ha*e a2*e4te2 to& that 2ec4ee of 4e6ist4ation ha2 beco8e
incont4o*e4tible. An action& si8ila4 to one b4ou6ht b/ the appellees in each of the p4esent cases&
5hich attacD collate4all/ the sai2 2ec4ee of 4e6ist4ation cannot be ente4taine2. Neithe4 8a/ the
action of the appellees fo4 4econ*e/ance of the lan2s in Buestion be ente4taine2 because such
action ha2 al4ea2/ p4esc4ibe2& ba44e2 b/ laches& consi2e4in6 that O4i6inal Ce4tificate of Title No.
#+9 ha2 been issue2 5a/ bacD in "'"( an2 the co8plaint in the p4esent cases 5e4e file2 onl/ on
Ma/ "'& "'99& o4 afte4 a lapse of so8e (" /ea4s. Mo4eo*e4& as of the ti8e 5hen these co8plaints
5e4e file2 the siA pa4cels of lan2 clai8e2 b/ the appellees a4e no lon6e4 co*e4e2 b/ the ce4tificate
of title in the na8es of the pe4sons 5ho p4ocu4e2 the o4i6inal 4e6ist4ation of those lan2s. The title
to Pa4cel "& 5hich inclu2es the siA pa4cels of lan2 clai8e2 b/ the appellees& ha2 passe2 to the
han2s pa4ties 5ho 5e4e innocent pu4chase fo4 *alue. This Pa4cel " 5hich 5as one of the t5o
pa4cels o4i6inall/ co*e4e2 b/ O4i6inal Ce4tificate of Title No. #+9& 5as subseBuentl/ co*e4e2 b/
T4ansfe4 Ce4tificate of Title No. +"''#. As has been sho5n& this Pa4cel " 5as pa4t of the p4ope4ties
of the Ma/o4as6o Tuason an2 it 5as con*e/e2 b/ o42e4 of the cou4t in Ci*il Case No. (%@+ of the
Cou4t of :i4st .nstance of Manila to the <ei4s of 0. Tuason& .nc.& an2 the latte4 in tu4n con*e/e2
the sa8e to $. M. Tuason 3 Co.& .nc. T4ansfe4 Ce4tificate of Title No. +(%9+ in the na8e of the
<ei4s of 0. Tuason& .nc. 5as cancelle2 an2 t4ansfe4 Ce4tificate of Title No. +9@#+ 5as issue2 in
the na8e of $. M. Tuason 3 Co.& .nc. .t has also been sho5n that $. M. Tuason 3 Co.& .nc. ha2
con*e4te2 Pa4cel " to a sub2i*ision. Nu8e4ous pe4sons an2 entities bou6ht those sub2i*ision lots&
an2 to those bu/e4s 5e4e issue2 t4ansfe4 ce4tificates of title co*e4in6 the lots that the/ acBui4e2. .t
is *e4/ clea4& the4efo4e& that an action fo4 4econ*e/ance cannot p4ospe4 a6ainst appellant $. M.
Tuason 3 Co.& 8uch less a6ainst the 4e6iste4e2 o5ne4s of the lots that fo48 pa4ts of the siA pa4cels
of lan2 that a4e clai8e2 b/ the appellees.
Neithe4 8a/ the appellees ha*e a cause of Action fo4 2a8a6es a6ainst appellant $. M. Tuason 3
Co.& .nc.& consi2e4in6 that sai2 appellant is not one of the o4i6inal 4e6iste4e2 o5ne4s that p4ocu4e2
the 4e6ist4ation of the lan2. The4e is no e*i2ence that $. M. Tuason 3 Co.& .nc. ha2 an/thin6 to 2o
5ith the 4e6ist4ation p4ocee2in6s 5hich b4ou6ht about the issuance of O4i6inal Ce4tificate of Title
No. #+9

e*en supposin6 that the 4e6ist4ation 5as p4ocu4e2 f4au2ulentl/.


.t 5ill be note2 that th4ee of the plaintiffs in Ci*il Case No. =-"9!& na8el/& $ose Alcanta4a& Elias
Benin& an2 Pascual Pili& a4e a8on6 the o4i6inal plaintiffs in the th4ee cases no5 befo4e this Cou4t?
Elias Benin& in Ci*il Case No. +!"? $ose Alcanta4a& in Ci*il Case No. +!? an2 Pascual Pili& in
Ci*il Case No. +!+. $ose Alcanta4a& Elias Benin an2 Pascual Pili& as plaintiffs in that Ci*il Case
No. =-"9! clai8e2 that the/ 5e4e the la5ful o5ne4s of siA )of the ten, pa4cels of lan2 2esc4ibe2 in
pa4a64aph of thei4 co8plaint

$ose Alcanta4a clai8in6 t5o pa4cels& Elias Benin clai8in6 th4ee


pa4cels& an2 Pascual Pili clai8in6 one pa4cel. Substantiall/& it is alle6e2 in the co8plaint (% that
each plaintiff& b/ hi8self an2 b/ his p4e2ecesso4s in inte4est& as la5ful o5ne4& ha2 been in the
actual& open an2 continuous possession of his o5n 4especti*e pa4cel& o4 pa4cels& of lan2 f4o8 ti8e
i88e8o4ial until $anua4/ "'9@ 5hen the 2efen2ants b/ fo4ce an2 b/ the use of a48e2 8en sta4te2
to con*e4t thei4 lan2s into a sub2i*ision? that on $ul/ %& "'"( the 2efen2ants ha2 obtaine2 O4i6inal
Ce4tificate of Title No. #+9 o*e4 a pa4cel of lan2 5hich inclu2e2 the lan2s possesse2 b/ the8
)plaintiffs, an2 5hich the/ an2 thei4 ancesto4s ha2 been en>o/in6 as o5ne4s& fo4 8o4e than thi4t/
/ea4s befo4e the issuance of the title? that the silence an2 inaction of the 2efen2ants since the 2ate
of thei4 o4i6inal ce4tificate of title sho5e2 that sai2 ce4tificate of title 2i2 not eAp4ess the status of
the thei4 clai8 to the sai2 pa4cels& that plaintiffs 5e4e not 6i*en fo48al notice b/ the 2efen2ants of
the 4e6ist4ation of the lan2s& such that 2efen2antsC ce4tificate of title No. #+9 5as not in acco42ance
5ith la5& an2 that 2efen2ants 2i2 not ha*e p4ope4 title fo4 4e6ist4ation to the pa4cels of lan2 o5ne2
b/ the plaintiffs& as 2esc4ibe2 in the co8plaint? an2 that because the ce4tificate of title issue2 b/
the 4e6iste4 of 2ee2s 5as still in the na8es of the 2efen2ants& successo4s in inte4est of the Tuasons
/ 2e la Pa;& an2 has not passe2 to innocent pa4ties fo4 *aluable consi2e4ation& the con*e/ance of
the sa8e to the plaintiffs 5as in o42e4. The plaintiffs p4a/e2 that the4ein 2efen2ants be o42e4e2 to
eAecute 2ee2s of con*e/ance of the pa4cels of lan2 2esc4ibe2 in thei4 co8plaint in fa*o4 of the
plaintiffs& that the 2efen2antsC ce4tificate of title be cancelle2 an2 the co44espon2in6 ce4tificate be
o42e4e2 issue2 in the na8es of the plaintiffs. Ee Buote f4o8 the 2ecision7
The cou4t sustaine2 this 8otion on the secon2 64oun2. SubseBuentl/& plaintiffs file2 an a8en2e2
co8plaint 5ith the sa8e substantial alle6ations& but 5ith ne5 ones& i.e.& that it 5as in $anua4/&
"'9@& that the/ lea4ne2 that thei4 lan2s 5e4e inclu2e2 in the 4e6ist4ation p4ocee2in6s 5hich
cul8inate2 in the issuance of 2efen2antsC title? that 2efen2ants ne*e4 clai8e2 o5ne4ship to the
lan2s& but 2i4ectl/ o4 in2i4ectl/ allo5e2 plaintiffs to continue eAe4cisin6 thei4 4i6hts of o5ne4ship
o*e4 the sa8e. This a8en2e2 co8plaint 5as 2enie2 a28ission& an2 the 8otion fo4 the
4econsi2e4ation of the o42e4 of 2is8iss 5as also 2enie2. <ence the appeal.
.n affi48in6 the o42e4 of the lo5e4 cou4t 2is8issin6 the co8plaint& this Cou4t hel27
Eithout consi2e4in6 5hethe4 the t4ial cou4tCs 4efusal to a28it the a8en2e2 co8plaint is e44oneous
o4 not 5e a4e const4aine2 to hol2 that the 2is8issal of the action& e*en 5ith the a8en2e2
co8plaint is a basis the4eof& is co44ect. :4o8 the alle6ations of both the o4i6inal an2 a8en2e2
co8plaints& it appea4s that the 2efen2ants a4e hol2e4s of a ce4tificate of title issue2 on $ul/ %& "'"(
as a conseBuence of 4e6ist4ation p4ocee2in6s. The4e is no alle6ation in both o4i6inal an2 a8en2e2
co8plaints that the plaintiffs 5e4e not notifie2& o4 5e4e not a5a4e& of the 4e6ist4ation p4ocee2in6s.
.t is p4esu8e2& the4efo4e& that as occupants p4ope4 notices the4eof 5e4e se4*e2 on the8 an2 that
the/ 5e4e a5a4e of sai2 p4ocee2in6s. .f this is so& then the plaintiffs& 5ho 5e4e& o4 5hose
p4e2ecesso4s in inte4est 5e4e& on the lan2 2u4in6 the 4e6ist4ation p4ocee2in6s& 5e4e boun2 b/ sai2
p4ocee2in6s. The latte4 a4e in 4e8 an2 bin2 the 5hole 5o4l2& 5hethe4 se4*e2 5ith notice
pe4sonall/ o4 not. )G4e/ Alba *s. 0e la C4u;& "# Phil.& (',. An2 the 2ec4ee of 4e6ist4ation& in
pu4suance of 5hich 2efen2antsC title 5as issue2& bin2s the lan2 an2 Buiets title the4eto& an2 is
conclusi*e a6ainst the plaintiffs. )Section +%& Lan2 Re6ist4ation Act,. The suppose2 4i6ht of
plaintiffs b/ 4eason of thei4 alle6e2 continue2 possession fo4 thi4t/ /ea4s 5as& the4efo4e& 2est4o/e2
full/ an2 co8pletel/ b/ the 4e6ist4ation p4ocee2in6s& an2 thei4 suppose2 i6no4ance of the inclusion
of the lan2s can not eAclu2e the8 f4o8 the effects of the 4e6ist4ation p4ocee2in6s& an2 the
suppose2 con2uct of 2efen2ants in allo5in6 plaintiffs to continue on the lan2 afte4 4e6ist4ation can
not se4*e as basis of an/ title o4 4i6ht the4eto& because acts of a possesso4/ cha4acte4 b/ tole4ance
of an o5ne4 2oes not constitute possession )A4ticle "'(& Spanish Ci*il Co2e,& an2 because no
title to 4e6iste4e2 lan2 in 2e4o6ation to that of the 4e6iste4e2 o5ne4 shall be acBui4e2 b/
p4esc4iption o4 a2*e4se possession )Section (!& Lan2 Re6ist4ation Act,.
Thus& in the Alcanta4a case& as in the BanD of the Philippine .slan2 *s. AcuLa case& sup4a& this
Cou4t uphel2 the *ali2it/ of the 4e6ist4ation p4ocee2in6s 5hich cul8inate2 in the issuance of
O4i6inal Ce4tificate of Title No. #+9. This Cou4t 2ecla4e2 that Fthe 2ec4ee of 4e6ist4ation& in
pu4suance of 5hich 2efen2antsC title 5as issue2& bin2s the lan2 an2 Buiets title the4eto an2 is
conclusi*e a6ainst the plaintiffs.F .n othe4 5o42s& in *i4tue of that 2ecision& the plaintiffs in Ci*il
Case No. =-"9!& a8on6 the8 $ose Alcanta4a& Elias Benin an2 Pascual Pili& an2 thei4 successo4s-
in-inte4est& coul2 no lon6e4 Buestion the *ali2it/ of O4i6inal Ce4tificate of Title No. #+9& no4 clai8
an/ 4i6ht of o5ne4ship o*e4 an/ po4tion of the lan2 that is co*e4e2 b/ sai2 ce4tificate of title.
0oes the >u268ent in the afo4e8entione2 Alcanta4a case ope4ate as a ba4 to the action of the
appellees in the th4ee cases at ba4M
.n o42e4 that the 4ule of 4es >u2icata 8a/ appl/& the follo5in6 4eBuisites 8ust be p4esent7 )a, the
fo48e4 >u268ent 8ust be final? )b, it 8ust ha*e been 4en2e4e2 b/ a cou4t ha*in6 >u4is2iction of the
sub>ect-8atte4 an2 of the pa4ties? )c, it 8ust be a >u268ent on the 8e4its? an2 )2, the4e 8ust be&
bet5een the fi4st an2 the secon2 actions& i2entit/ of pa4ties& of sub>ect-8atte4& an2 of cause of
action )San 0ie6o *s. Ca42ona& #@ Phil. %"-%+,.
Ee fin2 that the >u268ent in Ci*il Case No. =-"9! )G.R. No. L-(''%, is a final >u268ent on the
8e4its that 5as 4en2e4e2 b/ a cou4t ha*in6 >u4is2iction o*e4 the sub>ect 8atte4 an2 o*e4 the
pa4ties. The onl/ 4eBuisite fo4 4es >u2icata 5hich 5e ha*e to 2ete48ine is 5hethe4 bet5een Ci*il
Case =-"9! )G.R. No. (''%,& on the one han2& an2 Ci*il Cases Nos. %!"& +! an2 +!+ )G.R.
Nos. L-!"#& !"% an2 !"',& on the othe4& the4e is i2entit/ of pa4ties& of sub>ect 8atte4 an2 of
cause of action.
.n ou4 eAa8ination of the 4eco42s an2 the e*i2ence& Ee fin2 that the4e is i2entit/ of sub>ect 8atte4.
.n the lo5e4 cou4tCs p4et4ial o42e4 2ate2 0ece8be4 "%& "'9#& 5hich 5as base2 on the a64ee8ent of
the pa4ties& it is state2
That the pa4cels of lan2 in liti6ation in Case No. =-"9! a4e substantiall/ i2entical to the sa8e
pa4cels of lan2 liti6ate2 in the8 cases Nos. +!"& %! an2
+!+. 9"
Ee also fin2 that the4e is i2entit/ of cause of action. .t is appa4ent& upon 4ea2in6 the o4i6inal
co8plaint )EAhibit ", in Ci*il Case =-"9! an2 the 2ecision in the Alcanta4a case )G.R. No. L-
(''%,& that the cause of action in Ci*il Case =-"9! 5as base2 on the alle6e2 fact that the
2efen2ants ha2 2ispossesse2 an2 2ep4i*e2 the plaintiff the4ein of the pa4cels of lan2 2esc4ibe2 in
the co8plaint& 5hich 5e4e clai8e2 b/ the plaintiffs as thei4 o5n an2 of 5hich the/ ha2 been in
actual& open an2 continuous possession f4o8 ti8e i88e8o4ial& an2 that sai2 lan2s 5e4e 54on6l/
inclu2e2 in Ce4tificate of Title No. #+9 that 5as obtaine2 b/ the 2efen2ants. .n the th4ee cases at
ba4& plaintiffs )no5 appellees, also co8plain of ha*in6 been 2ispossesse2 an2 2ep4i*e2 b/ the
2efen2ants of the pa4cels of lan2 of 5hich the/ 5e4e absolute o5ne4s an2 possesso4s& b/
the8sel*es an2 th4ou6h thei4 p4e2ecesso4s in inte4est& since ti8e i88e8o4ial an2 that thei4 sai2
lan2s 54on6l/ inclu2e2 in Pa4cel " of O4i6inal Ce4tificate of Title No. #+9 that 5as obtaine2 b/
the 2efen2ants. .n Ci*il Case No. =-"9!& on the one han2& an2 in the th4ee cases no5 at ba4& on the
othe4& the plaintiffs the4ein seeD the nullification of O4i6inal Ce4tificate of Title No. #+9& an2 the
4econ*e/ance to the8 of the pa4cels of lan2 that the/ clai8 as thei4s. 9 .t appea4s clea4 to Us that
in Ci*il Case No. =-"9! an2 in the th4ee cases at ba4& the ob>ect o4 pu4pose of the plaintiffs is to
4eco*e4 the o5ne4ship an2 possession of the sa8e pa4cels of lan2.
As fa4 as the pa4ties a4e conce4ne2& Ee fin2 that the4e is no eAact i2entit/ of pa4ties bet5een Ci*il
Case No. =-"9!& on the one han2& an2 Ci*il Cases Nos. +!"& +! an2 +!+& on the othe4. .t
appea4s that of the plaintiffs in Ci*il Cases Nos. +!"& +! an2 +!+ onl/ Elias Benin& $ose
Alcanta4a an2 Pascual Pili 5e4e plaintiffs in Ci*il Case No. =-"9!. .n Ci*il Case No. =-"9!& the
2efen2ants 5e4e Ma4iano Tuason / 2e la Pa;& <ei4s of Ma4iano Tuason& $.M. Tuason 3 Co.& .nc.
an2 G4e6o4io A4aneta& .nc.& 5hile in Ci*il Cases Nos. +!"& +! an2 +!+ the 2efen2ants 5e4e
Ma4iano Se*e4o& Te4esa E4ibe4ta& $uan $ose& 0e8et4io Asuncion& Au6usta <ube4to& all su4na8e2
Tuason / 2e la Pa; )the pe4sons appea4in6 as 4e6iste4e2 o5ne4s in O4i6inal Ce4tificate of Title No.
#+9,& thei4 hei4s& an2 $.M. Tuason an2 Co.& .nc. Ee fin2 that the natu4al pe4sons su4na8e2 Tuason&
an2 the hei4s& 4efe4 to the pe4sons 5ho belon6 to the Tuason fa8il/ that secu4e2 the 4e6ist4ation of
Pa4cel " in O4i6inal Ce4tificate of Title No. #+9. The 2efen2ant G4e6o4io A4aneta .nc. in Ci*il
Case No. =-"9! is the a28inist4ato4 of the Tuason p4ope4ties. So& the pa4ties 2efen2ants in all
these cases a4e p4acticall/ the sa8e. Ee fin2& ho5e*e4& that in Ci*il Case No. =-"9! as 5ell as in
Ci*il Cases Nos. +!"& +! an2 +!+& it 5as the 2efen2ant $. M. Tuason 3 Co.& .nc. that actuall/
cont4o*e4te2 the clai8s of the plaintiffs.
Afte4 a ca4eful stu2/& Ee a4e of the consi2e4e2 *ie5 that the >u268ent in the Alcanta4a case is a
ba4 to the action of the plaintiffs 5ho a4e the hei4s of Elias Benin in Ci*il Case No. +!" )G.R.
No. !"#,& of plaintiff $ose Alcanta4a in Ci*il Case No. +! )G.R. No. !"%,& an2 of plaintiff
Pascual Pili in Ci*il Case No. +!+ )G. R. No. !"', un2e4 the 2oct4ine of 4es a2>u2icata. Ee a4e
liDe5ise of the consi2e4e2 *ie5 that the 2ecision in the Alcanta4a case 5oul2 se4*e to 4ule out the
action of the othe4 plaintiffs in Ci*il Cases Nos. +!"& +! an2 +!+ un2e4 the 2oct4ine of sta4e
2ecisis.
.n Ci*il Case No. +!" the o4i6inal plaintiffs 5e4e -icto4 Benin& Ma4ta Benin& an2 Elias Benin--
t5o b4othe4s an2 a siste4. .n the a8en2e2 co8plaint it 5as alle6e2 that these th4ee o4i6inal
plaintiffs ha2 anothe4 b4othe4& an2 anothe4 siste4& na8el/ Esteban Benin an2 :elipa Benin. But
because all the fi*e Benin b4othe4s an2 siste4s 2ie2& the/ 5e4e all substitute2 b/ thei4 hei4s& such
that as of the ti8e 5hen Ci*il Case No. +!" 5as 2eci2e2 the plaintiffs 5e4e7 )", the hei4s of
-icto4 Benin? ), the hei4s of Ma4ta Benin? )+, the hei4s of Elias Benin? )(, the hei4s of Esteban
Benin& an2 )9, the hei4s of :elipa Benin.
.n Ci*il Case No. +! the o4i6inal plaintiffs 5e4e $uan Alcanta4a an2 $ose Alcanta4a. $uan
Alcanta4a 2ie2& an2 he 5as substitute2 b/ his hei4s& such that as of the ti8e Ci*il Case No. +!
5as 2eci2e2 the plaintiffs 5e4e7 )", the hei4s of $uan Alcanta4a& an2 ), $ose A. Alcanta4a.
.n Ci*il Case No. +!+ the o4i6inal plaintiffs 5e4e Pascual Pili an2 Luisa Pili. .n the a8en2e2
co8plaint& it 5as alle6e2 that Luisa Pili an2 Pascual Pili ha2 t5o b4othe4s 5ho 5e4e al4ea2/ 2ea2&
na8el/& 0ie6o Pili an2 Manuel Pili& so the/ 5e4e substitute2 b/ thei4 hei4s. Luisa Pili 2ie2& an2
she 5as substitute2 b/ he4 hei4s& such that as of the ti8e Ci*il Case No. +!+ 5as 2eci2e2& the
plaintiffs 5e4e7 )", the hei4s of 0ie6o Pili? ), the hei4s of Manuel Pili? )+, the hei4s of Luisa Pili&
an2 )(, Pascual Pili.
.t 5oul2 thus appea4 that of the plaintiffs in Ci*il Case No. +!" Elias Benin is the onl/ one 5ho
5as a plaintiff in Ci*il Case No. =-"9!? of the plaintiffs in Ci*il Case No. +! $ose E. Alcanta4a&
5ho is still li*in6& is the onl/ one 5ho 5as a plaintiff in Ci*il Case No. =-"9!? of the plaintiffs in
Ci*il Case No. +!+ Pascual Pili& 5ho is still li*in6& is the onl/ one 5ho 5as a plaintiff in Ci*il
Case No. =-"9!.
.t bein6 Ou4 fin2in6 that the >u268ent in Ci*il Case No. =-"9! )G.R. No. L-(''%-the Alcanta4a
case, is a final >u268ent on the 8e4its that 5as 4en2e4e2 b/ a cou4t that ha2 >u4is2iction o*e4 the
sub>ect 8atte4 an2 o*e4 the pa4ties& an2 that the4e is i2entit/ of sub>ect 8atte4 an2 cause of action
bet5een Ci*il Case No. =-"9!& on the one han2& an2 Ci*il Cases Nos. +!"& +!& an2 +!+& on
the othe4? an2 it appea4in6 that Elias Benin is a pa4t/-plaintiff both in Ci*il Case =-"9! an2 Ci*il
Case No. +!"? that $ose Alcanta4a is a pa4t/-plaintiff in both Ci*il Case No. =-"9! an2 Ci*il
Case No. +!? that Pascual Pili is a pa4t/-plaintiff in both Ci*il Case No. =-"9! an2 Ci*il Case
No. +!+? an2 that the 2efen2ants in Ci*il Case No. =-"9! an2 in Ci*il Cases Nos. +!"& +!
an2 +!+ a4e p4acticall/ the sa8e pe4sons an2Ho4 entities& Ee hol2 that the 2oct4ine of ba4 b/ a
p4e*ious >u268ent o4 4es a2>u2icata sBua4el/ applies to Elias Benin& o4 to his hei4s an2 successo4s
in inte4est in Ci*il Case No. +!"? to $ose Alcanta4a an2 his hei4s o4 successo4s in inte4est in Ci*il
Case No. +!? an2 to Pascual Pili an2 his hei4s o4 successo4s in inte4est in Ci*il Case No. +!+.
9+
Ee no5 consi2e4 the case of the othe4 plaintiffs in Ci*il Cases Nos. +!"& +! an2 +!+.
.t 5ill be note2 that in Ci*il Case No. +!" the plaintiffs base thei4 clai8 of o5ne4ship of the th4ee
pa4cels of lan2 2esc4ibe2 in the co8plaint on thei4 bein6 hei4s o4 successo4s in inte4est of SiAto
Benin 5ho 2ie2 in "'+!. .n Ci*il Case No. +! the plaintiffs base thei4 clai8 of o5ne4ship o*e4
the t5o pa4cels of lan2 2esc4ibe2 in thei4 co8plaint on thei4 bein6 the hei4s an2 successo4s in
inte4est of Bonoso Alcanta4a 5ho 2ie2 in "'+(. .n Ci*il Case No. +!+ the plaintiffs base thei4
clai8 of o5ne4ship of the one pa4cel of lan2 2esc4ibe2 in thei4 co8plaint on thei4 bein6 the hei4s
an2 successo4s in inte4est of Can2i2o Pili 5ho 2ie2 in "'+".
An2 so& e*en if the4e a4e plaintiffs )no5 appellees, in these th4ee cases 5ho a4e not p4i*ies to
plaintiffs $ose Alcanta4a& Elias Benin& an2 Pascual Pili in Ci*il Case No. =-"9! )G.R. No. L-(''%

the Alcanta4a case, an2 5e4e not pa4ties in that case& still the 4ulin6 of this Cou4t in that fo48e4
case& to the effect that the4ein plaintiffs o4 thei4 p4e2ecesso4s in inte4est 5e4e boun2 b/ the
p4ocee2in6s in the 4e6ist4ation cou4t 5hich cul8inate2 in the issuance of O4i6inal Ce4tificate of
Title No. #+9& hol2s an2 applies to those plaintiffs in these th4ee cases& because the clai8 of
o5ne4ship of these plaintiffs is base2 on the sa8e p4e2ecesso4s in inte4est of plaintiffs $ose
Alcanta4a& Elias Benin an2 Pascual Pili in sai2 Ci*il Case No. =-"9!. 9( .t 8a/ 5ell be sai2 that
the inte4ests of the appellees in G.R. No. L-!"# )Ci*il Case No. +!", 5ho clai8 4i6hts as hei4s
o4 successo4s in inte4est of SiAto Benin 5e4e 4ep4esente2 b/ Elias Benin in Ci*il Case No. =-"9!
)G.R. No. L-(''%,? the appellees in G.R. No. !"% )Ci*il Case No. +!, 5ho clai8 4i6hts as
hei4s o4 successo4s in inte4est of Bonoso Alcanta4a 5e4e 4ep4esente2 b/ $ose Alcanta4a in Ci*il
Case No. =-"9! )G.R. No. L-(''%,? the appellees in G.R. No. !"' )Ci*il Case No. +!+, 5ho
clai8 4i6hts as hei4s o4 successo4s in inte4est of Can2i2o Pili 5e4e 4ep4esente2 b/ Pascual Pili in
Ci*il Case No. =-"9! )G.R. No. L-(''%,.
This Cou4t affi48e2 the o42e4 of the lo5e4 cou4t 2is8issin6 the co8plaint of Albina Santia6o an2
he4 co-plaintiffs. 9% Re6a42in6 the contention of Albina Santia6o an2 he4 co-plaintiffs that the
>u268ent in the p4e*ious case )Ci*il Case No. =-#& affi48e2 in G.R. No. L-9@#', 5oul2 not
ope4ate as 4es >u2icata a6ainst the8 because the/ 5e4e not pa4ties in that suit& an2 that the/ 2i2 not
2e4i*e thei4 title f4o8 the 2efen2ants in the p4e*ious suit& this Cou4t hel27
Ee a64ee 5ith appellants that the 2ecision in the p4ece2in6 suit to Buiet title& p4osecute2 b/ the
appellee Tuason 3 Co. a6ainst othe4 hei4s of Jnocencio Santia6o )'' Phil.& !"9? 9@ Off. Ga;. ""&
9##,& can not constitute 4es >u2icata a6ainst these appellants 5ho 5e4e not pa4ties to that suit an2
2o not 2e4i*e thei4 title f4o8 the 2efen2ants in the p4e*ious liti6ation )Rule +'& sec. (( )b,. The4e
is autho4it/ fo4 the p4oposition that a >u268ent 8a/ be 8a2e bin2in6 in a subseBuent liti6ation
upon one 5ho& althou6h not a fo48al pa4t/ to a p4e*ious suit& has actuall/ con2ucte2 o4 cont4olle2
the action o4 2efense the4ein )!9 ALR ""+(,& o4 5ho 5as a2eBuatel/ 4ep4esente2 in such p4e*ious
liti6ation? but no clea4 p4oof of the eAistence of such eAceptional ci4cu8stance is befo4e us in the
p4esent case. On the othe4 han2& the 4ule is that co-o5ne4s a4e not p4i*ies inte4 se in 4elation to the
p4ope4t/ o5ne2 in co88on.
AAA AAA AAA
But 64antin6 that the plaintiffs-appellants he4ein a4e not p4i*ies of the 2efen2ants Santia6o in the
fo48e4 liti6ation o*e4 this sa8e p4ope4t/ )S.C.G.R. No.
L-9@#',& still the p4onounce8ent of this Cou4t& 8a2e in the fo48e4 case& to the effect that the
Spanish 2ocu8ent )AnneA A, issue2 in fa*o4 of Jnocencio Santia6o )ancesto4 of appellants
he4ein, 5as neithe4 a titulo 2e info48acion poseso4ia no4 a title b/ co8posicion con el esta2o& an2&
the4efo4e& *este2 no o5ne4ship o*e4 the lan2 the4ein 2esc4ibe2 in fa*o4 of Jnocencio Santia6o&
hol2s an2 applies to he4ein appellants& since the Bualit/ o4 the le6al effect of the 2ocu8ent 2oes
not 2epen2 upon the pe4son 5ho in*oDe it.
.f the late Jnocencio Santia6o 2i2 not beco8e the o5ne4 of the 2ispute2 p4ope4t/ b/ *i4tue of the
2ocu8ent AnneA A& then appellants he4ein& as hei4s of Jnocencio ha*e not acBui4e2 such
o5ne4ship eithe4. .t follo5s that the fi4st an2 secon2 causes of action of thei4 co8plaint& p4e2icate2
as the/ a4e on the assu8ption that such o5ne4ship an2 its conseBuential 4i6hts 4esulte2 f4o8
AnneA A& 8ust necessa4il/ fail. Not bein6 o5ne4s& the/ can co8plain of no in*asion of 2o8inical
4i6hts.
.t 5ill thus be note2 that in the afo4e8entione2 2ecision in the Santia6o case& e*en if Albina
Santia6o an2 he4 co-plaintiffs 5e4e not consi2e4e2 p4i*ies to the 2efen2ants in Ci*il Case No. =-
#& an2 e*en if the/ 5e4e not pa4ties in that p4e*ious case& this Cou4t ne*e4theless applie2 to the8
the >u268ent )G. R. No. L-9@#', in that p4e*ious case 5he4e it 5as p4onounce2 that the
2ocu8ent& AnneA A of the co8plaint of Albina Santia6o& et al.& 5as neithe4 a titulo 2e info48acion
poseso4ia no4 a title b/ co8posision con el esta2o& an2 it 2i2 not establish the 4i6ht of o5ne4ship
of thei4 p4e2ecesso4 in inte4est& .nocencio Santia6o& Albina Santia6o an2 he4 co-plaintiffs ha2
base2 thei4 clai8 of o5ne4ship on that 2ocu8ent )AnneA A,. 9' This Cou4t hel2 in that p4e*ious
case that the 2ocu8ent 5as una*ailin6 a6ainst T4ansfe4 Ce4tificate of Title No. ""' of $. M.
Tuason 3 Co.& .nc. an2 a6ainst O4i6inal Ce4tificate of Title No. #+9.
An2 so& follo5in6 the lo6ic of this Cou4t in its 2ecision in the Santia6o case& in the th4ee cases at
ba4 Ee hol2 that e*en if the plaintiffs in Ci*il Case No. +!"& eAcept the hei4s of Elias Benin& a4e
not p4i*ies to Elias Benin an2 5e4e not pa4ties in Ci*il Case No. =-"9!? e*en if the plaintiffs in
Ci*il Case No. +!& eAcept $ose Alcanta4a& a4e not p4i*ies to $ose Alcanta4a an2 5e4e not pa4ties
in Ci*il Case No. =-"9!? an2 e*en if the plaintiffs in Ci*il Case No. +!+& eAcept Pascual Pili& a4e
not p4i*ies to Pascual Pili an2 5e4e not pa4ties in Ci*il Case No. ="9!& still the p4onounce8ent of
this Cou4t in the >u268ent in that p4e*ious case )G.R. No. L-(''%,& to the effect that the plaintiffs
in that case an2 thei4 p4e2ecesso4s in inte4est 5e4e boun2 b/ the 4e6ist4ation p4ocee2in6s 5hich
cul8inate2 in the issuance of O4i6inal Ce4tificate of Title No. #+9& hol2s an2 applies to all the
plaintiffs )no5 appellees, in these th4ee cases. .n that >u268ent this Cou4t 4ule2 out& o4 2i2 not
sustain& the 4i6hts clai8e2 b/ the p4e2ecesso4s in inte4est of he4ein appellees o*e4 the lan2 co*e4e2
b/ O4i6inal Ce4tificate of Title No. #+9. These appellees& the4efo4e& ha*e not succee2e2 to an/
4i6ht that can 2e44o6ate the *ali2it/ an2 conclusi*eness of O4i6inal Ce4tificate of Title No. #+9&
an2 of the ce4tificates of title that a4e 2e4i*e2 f4o8 sai2 o4i6inal ce4tificate of title.
Co8in6 bacD to the Santia6o case& as 4e6a42s the contention of Albina Santia6o an2 he4 co-
plaintiffs that the 4e6ist4ation p4ocee2in6s 5hich 4esulte2 in the issuance of O4i6inal Ce4tificate of
Title No. #+9 5e4e i44e6ula4 an2 f4au2ulent& this Cou4t hel27
)T,he 8e4e fact that appellants he4ein 5e4e not pe4sonall/ notifie2 of the 4e6ist4ation p4ocee2in6s
that 4esulte2 in a 2ec4ee of 4e6ist4ation of title in fa*o4 of the Tuasons in "'"( 2oes not constitute
in itself a case of f4au2 that 5oul2 in*ali2ate the 2ec4ee. .n *ie5 of the fin2in6s& an2 the 4ulin6s&
that Ee ha*e he4einbefo4e 8a2e& it follo5s that& as conten2e2 b/ the appellant& the lo5e4 cou4t
also e44e2 5hen it 2ecla4e2 the appellees the o5ne4s of the lan2s clai8e2 b/ the8 an2 in a5a42in6
2a8a6es to the8& in these th4ee cases.
Ee consi2e4 it unnecessa4/ to 4ule on the counte4clai8 of appellant $.M. Tuason 3 Co.& .nc.& fo4
2a8a6es an2 atto4ne/s fees a6ainst the appellees !& consi2e4in6& as the 4eco42s sho5& that the
appellees a4e pe4sons 5ho a4e not in a position to pa/ 2a8a6es in an/ fo48. Ee belie*e that the
appellees ha2 file2 thei4 co8plaints in the honest& but 8istaDen& belief that the/ ha*e a 6oo2 cause
of action a6ainst the appellant co4po4ation an2 not because the/ 8eant to e8ba44ass o4 hu8iliate
the pe4sons 5ho a4e i2entifie2 o4 connecte2 5ith the appellant.
E<ERE:ORE& the >oint 2ecision of the Cou4t of :i4st .nstance of Ri;al )=ue;on Cit/ B4anch, in
Ci*il Ca6es Nos. +!"& +! an2 +!+& appeale2 f4o8& is 4e*e4se2 an2 set asi2e. The bon2 file2 b/
appellant in the th4ee cases in the cou4t belo5 fo4 the liftin6 of the 54it of p4eli8ina4/ in>unction is
o42e4e2 cancelle2. No p4onounce8ent as to costs.
The4efo4e& that the 2ecision of this cou4t& 5hich affi48e2 the o42e4 of the Cou4t of :i4st .nstance of
Ri;al 2is8issin6 the co8plaint of $ose Alcanta4a& Elias Benin an2 Pascual Pili shoul2 appl/ not
onl/ a6ainst the hei4s& of Elias Benin& a6ainst $ose Alcanta4a& an2 a6ainst Pascual Pili as plaintiffs
in Ci*il cases Nos. +!"& +! an2 +!+& 4especti*el/& but also a6ainst all othe4 plaintiffs in those
cases. Ee fin2 that the plaintiffs 2o not clai8 a 4i6ht 5hich is 2iffe4ent f4o8 that clai8e2 b/ Elias
Benin.