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# Cutting Down The Time Spent On Subnetting Questions

## Figuring out the number networks increment by (Magic number).

Take 256 minus the subnet mask= magic number.
Example:
128.0.0.0 256 minus 128= 128
255.192.0.0 256 minus 192= 64
255.255.224.0 256 minus 224= 32
255.255.255.248 256 minus 248= 8

Figuring out which network a particular host belongs to.
Take
172.26.180.185
255.255.248.0 for example.

172.26 we don't worry about, and same with the .185

Take 256 minus the 248 mask = 8 (increments of 8 to be exact) Magic number!!!
Take 180 and divide by 8 = 22.5 All you care about is the whole number here.
drop the .5 and multiply 8 (increments) X 22 (your whole number) = 176
176 is your network number. 172.26.176.0.

Take
172.24.65.168
255.255.255.128 for example.

172.24.65 we dont worry about here

Take 256 minus the 128 mask=128 (increments of 128 to be exact) Magic number!!!
Take 168 and divide by 128=1.3125 all you care about is the whole number here.
Drop the .3125 and multiply 128 (increments) X 1 (your whole number) = 128
128 is your network number. 172.24.65.128

What if they give you a slash notation instead of the whole subnet mask.

Take
191.12.180.12 /28

To figure out the subnet mask we need to figure out what a /28 is

Take
/28 were borrowing 4 bits 1st bit borrowed= 128
X.X.X.11110000 2
nd
bit borrowed= 192
3
rd
bit borrowed= 224
th
bit borrowed= 240
5
th
bit borrowed= 248
6
th
bit borrowed= 252
7
th
bit borrowed= 254
8
th
bit borrowed= 255
So we know the IP address is 191.12.180.12
From here follow the above examples
Take 256 minus 240 mask= 16 (increments of 16 to be exact) Magic number!!!
Take 12 and divide by 16= .75 all you care about is the whole number here.
Drop the .75 and multiply 16 (increments) X 0 (your whole number) = 0
0 is your network number. 191.12.180.0.
Take
172.21.98.116 /23

To figure out the subnet mask we need to figure out what a /23 is

Take
/23 were borrowing 7 bits 1st bit borrowed= 128
X.X.11111110.0 2
nd
bit borrowed= 192
3
rd
bit borrowed= 224
4
th
bit borrowed= 240
5
th
bit borrowed= 248
6
th
bit borrowed= 252
th
bit borrowed= 254
8
th
bit borrowed= 255
So we know the ip address is 172.21.98.116
From here follow the above examples
172.21. we dont worry about, and the same with 116
Take 256 minus 254 mask= 2 (increments of 2 to be exact) Magic number!!!
Take 98 and divide by 2= 49 all you care about is the whole number here.
multiply 2 (increments) X 49 (your whole number) = 98
98 is your network number. 172.21.98.0.

Figuring out how many subnets and hosts per subnet can you get from a network.

Take
192.168.95.0/27 for example

We know a 192.X.X.X address is a class C address. Or in this case 24 bits. (classful).
Class A 0-126, or 8 bits example 124.X.X.X
Class B 128-191, or 16 bits example 128.X.X.X
Class C 192-223, or 24 bits example 192.X.X.X
To figure subnets
So take the slash notation were given of /27 minus it from the number of bits in our classful IP addresss 24=3
(remaining bits) this gives us 2^3=8 (Number of subnets).
To figure out hosts
So take the slash notation were given of /27 minus it from the number of bits in an Ipv4 address 32=5 (remaining bits)
This gives us 2^5=32 minus 2=30(number of usable hosts).
For the network 192.168.5.0 /27 you have 8 subnets, and 30 hosts

Take
128.23.14.0/28 for example

We know a 128.X.X.X address is a class B address. Or in this case 16 bits. (classful).
To figure subnets
So take the slash notation were given of /28 minus it from the number of bits in our classful IP addresss 16=12
(remaining bits) this gives us 2^12=4096 (Number of subnets).
To figure out hosts
So take the slash notation were given of /28 minus it from the number of bits in an Ipv4 address 32=4 (remaining bits)
This gives us 2^4=16 minus 2=14(number of usable hosts).
For the network 128.23.14.0 /28 you have 4096 subnets, and 14 hosts.

Dont let exponents fool you (2^x). Its not as hard as they seem.
Take
2^10 for example
You will always start with the number 2 double the number until you reach the second number
2 (1st time)
4 (2nd time)
8 (3rd time)
16 (4
th
time)
32 (5th time)
64 (6th time)
128 (7th time)
256 (8th time)
512 (9th time)
1024 (10th time)
So we took the number 2 and doubled it 10 times for the number 1024.

Take 2^6 for example
2 (1st time)
4 (2nd time)
8 (3rd time)
16 (4
th
time)
32 (5th time)
64 (6th time)
2^6=64
So we took the 2 and doubled 6 times for the number 64

The main key to subnetting is practice, practice, practice. A great web site to practice is
http://www.subnettingquestions.com.

If you have any questions in reguards to subnetting feel free to email me at
shayne.cda1@yahoo.com