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Here in this present work a thermohydrodynamic simulation has been done on a three-dimensional journal bearing, that is, effect of temperature has been considered.

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TOOL

Presented By

Mukesh Kumar

ME 4th Semester

(Roll No.:5146409006)

Under Guidance of

Prof. Sanjeev Shrivastava

(Associate Professor)

Department of Mechanical Engineering

Shri Shankaracharya Group of Institutions

Faculty of Engineering and Technology

J unwani, Bhilai (C.G.)

Objective of this thesis:

In this project work of Cuppilard et al

[7]

has been reproduced

with a three-dimensional journal bearing model and using

ANSYS Fluent 12.0 as a CFD analysis tool. Cupillard et al

considered a two-dimensional model journal bearing and they

did not consider effect of temperature on the property of fluid

in the fluid film during simulation and thus the effects of

property changes were not carried forward in performance

parameters of dimpled journal bearing.

Here in this present work a thermohydrodynamic simulation

has been done on a three-dimensional journal bearing, that is,

effect of temperature has been considered.

To incorporate temperature effect in the simulation an User

Defined Function (UDF) has been written and hooked up with

the Fluent software.

Introduction:

Bearing and its types

Tribology is the word derived from Greek word Tribos, means

rubbing process. Tribology mainly deals with technique of

lubrication and mechanism of friction and wear. The loss of input

energy in any mechanism is mainly due to friction and lubrication

is the most efficient way to reduce friction. From this point of

view the subject tribology has immense importance. Through

research and development in the field of tribology if mechanical

systems can be run more with higher efficiency then in turn it will

save huge money and can contribute significantly in the progress

of the human society. For this reason the subject tribology has

been the subject of extensive research for many a decades.

In a mechanical system bearing has an important role to play. A

bearing is a system of machine elements whose function is to

support an applied load by reducing friction between the

relatively moving surfaces. The load may be radial or axial or

combination of these. Bearings are classified according to the

direction of applied load. If the bearing supports radial loads, it is

called radial or journal bearing. On other hand, a thrust bearing

supports a thrust or axial load. Some bearing can support both

radial as well as axial load and they are known as conical

bearings.

In the clearance space of a bearing a substance called lubricant is

introduced. Any substance which has some amount of viscosity is

known as lubricant. The most common lubricants are oils and

greases.

Contd.

There are mainly two common types of bearing are used in

practice. They are rolling element and fluid film bearings. If

two mating surfaces during operated conditions are

completely separated by fluid film, such a type of

lubrication is called fluid film lubrication. Fluid film

bearings are lubricated by hydrodynamic flow which is

generated by relative surface motion and/or external

pressurization. A fluid film bearing operating on the

principle of hydrodynamic lubrication is called self-acting

bearing, in which the load is supported due to wedging

effect of the fluid caused by the relative tangential motion

between two surfaces.

Contd.

Hydrodynamic journal bearings are considered to be a vital

component of all rotating machinery. It is used to support radial

loads under high speed operating conditions. J ournal bearing may

be divided into full journal bearing, where the contact angle of

the bushing with the journal is 360, and partial journal bearing,

in which the contact angle is either 180 or less. Full (360)

journal bearings are widely used bearing in industrial machinery.

These bearings are widely used bearings in industrial machinery.

These bearings can take up rotating load. The partial journal

bearings have limited applications and are used when the

direction of radial loads does not change. Figure below shows the

full and partial journal bearings.

Contd.

Fig1: Full J ournal Bearing.

Contd.

Fig2: Partial J ournal Bearing.

Contd.

Besic Laws of Tribology

J ournal bearing is a hydrodynamic load bearing. In the journal

bearing, the lubricant in between the journal and bearing rotates

with the journal and supports the load. Due to the physical

configuration of journal bearing a wedge shaped fluid film is

created as shown in the figure below-

Contd.

Fig3: Fluid film development in a journal bearing.

Now this wedge shaped fluid film obeys the laws of-

Conservation of mass flow

Conservation of momentum in X, Y and Z directions

Conservation of energy

Besides these the lubricants physical property obeys the equation

of states.

Now if the fluid obeys the Newtonian laws of viscosity then we

have to modify the above conservation laws as shown below.

Mass flow conservation

Rate of increase of mass in the fluid element = Net rate of

flow of mass into fluid element.

Contd.

Equ.- 1

Conservation of momentum

Rate of increase of momentum in the fluid particle in

any particular direction = Sum of forces on the fluid

particle in that direction.

For X-Direction

For Y-Direction

For Z-Direction

Contd.

Equ. (2)

Conservation of energy

Rate of increase of energy of a fluid particle = Net rate

of heat added to the fluid particle + Net rate of work

done on the fluid particle

If Newtons laws of viscosity are imposed on the momentum

conservation equations then following equations are generated

which are called Navier-Stokes equations:

Contd.

Contd.

and if we combine viscous equations with energy

conservation equation, we get

Where,

Formation of FEA model of the problem:

A journal bearing of following dimensions and fluid properties

has been considered for the study. The dimensions and properties

of lubricant used as per the work of Cupillard et al (Reference

[7]).

Length of the bearing (L) 133mm

Radius of Shaft (R

s

) 50mm

Radial Clearance (C) 0.145mm

Eccentricity ratio() 0.61

Angular Velocity () 48.1 Rad/sec

Lubricant density () 840 Kg/m

3

Viscosity of the lubricant () 0.0127 Pas

Contd.

According to the above topological data other derived data would be

like

I. Radius of Bearing (Rb) : (Rs +C) =50.145mm

II. Attitude angle () : 68.4. (as per reference [7])

III. Eccentricity (e) : ( C) =(0.61 0.145) =0.08845mm.

Now details for cavitation model are as follows as per reference [7].

Lubricant vapour saturation pressure 20 Kpa.

Ambient pressure 101.325 Kpa.

Density of lubricant vapour 1.2 kg/m

3

Viscosity of lubricant vapour 210

-5

Pas.

Assumed vapour bubble dia 110

-5

m

Schematic diagram a smooth journal bearing:

Contd.

To proceed in this analysis, first a 3-dimensional bearing has been

generated in GAMBIT 2.3.16. Figures below show the 3d-

geometry and meshed geometry in GAMBIT.

Contd.

Next the 3-D model of the journal bearing has been meshed

using QUAD element. Figure below shows the meshed view of

the journal bearing.

Contd.

After generating meshed volume in GAMBIT next following

boundary conditions have been fixed.

Contd.

SL

NO.

BOUNDARY NAME BOUNDARY TYPE

1 Middle cross-sectional plane SYMETRY

2 End plane of the bearing PRESSURE OUTLET

3 J ournal surface WALL

4 Bearing surface WALL

After assigning boundary name and types of the flow region the

file has been exported as .msh and then has been imported to the

Fluent software for CFD simulation.

In Fluent, data regarding chemical and physical properties of

lubricant oil and properties of lubricant vapor, which have been

mentioned before, have been fed into the software. Here,

following mathematical parameters have been set in the software.

Contd.

Pressure-

Velocity

Coupling

Discretization Methods

Pressure Density Momentum Vapor

SIMPLE PRESTO

Second

order

Second

Order

First order

After simulation pressure distribution on journal surface has been

found out as contour representation. Figure below depicts the

stress distribution starting from the mid plane that is plane of

symmetry of the bearing.

Contd.

Figure below expresses the pressure distribution starting from a

cross-sectional plane at a distance of 10% of total bearing length

from the plane of symmetry.

Contd.

The above pressure distribution on J ournal surface of a J ournal

Bearing has been generated without considering the effect of

temperature. The above result is very much in compliance with

the work of S Cupillard, S Glavatskih, and M J Cervantes

presented in reference [7]. But in their work Cupillard et. al.

simulated a journal bearing with 2-Dimensional flow region. So,

their work does not say about the pressure distribution along the

length of bearing. In this work simulation has been done in 3-

Dimensional flow region representing the actual lubricant flow of

inside the bearing. So, the work presented in this thesis depicts

more accurate pressure distribution in all 3-Dimensions.

In next chapter it will be shown that value of maximum pressure

in pressure distribution on journal surface becomes less if we

consider temperature effects.

Contd.

To include the effect of temperature on the properties of the

bearing oil in ANSYS a very beautiful mechanism is there in

ANSYS software. This mechanism is known as UDF method.

Full form of UDF is User Defined Function. By this method

one can append a governing function which would control the

variation of any property of the fluid with respect to pressure or

temperature or both. Here in this project following relation has

been used to control the viscosity as a function of temperature

and pressure. This equation has been adapted from the reference

[1].

The above equation has been appended to the ANSYS Fluent

software through a C-Program with a udf header file. The

program has been shown below.

Contd.

#include "udf.h"

DEFINE_PROPERTY(cell_viscosity,c,t)

{

real mu_lam;

real temp = C_T(c,t);

real pr = C_P(c,t);

mu_lam = 0.0127*exp(0.000000213345*(pr-101345))*exp(0.029*(temp-293));

return mu_lam;

}

Contd.

In above program we have used two terms and which are the

pressure and temperature coefficient of viscosity and value of these

quantities are 21.3345x10-8 m2/kg and 0.029/K.

After appending this program to Fluent and analyzing it we get the

following pressure distribution.

Contd.

Result and discussion:

From the above result it is clear that temperature created from the

frictional force increases decreases the viscosity of the lubricant

and lesser viscosity decreases the maximum pressure of the

lubricant inside the bearing. For this reason it is recommended

that when any analysis of journal bearing is done to measure its

performance always thermohydrodynamic analysis should be

used. Because considering the thermal effect on lubricant

property actual value of performance parameters can only be

obtained.

Now when the thermal analysis is done on the journal bearing

temperature distribution has been obtained along the journal

surface. Figure below represents the temperature variation of oil

along the journal surface.

Contd.

Conclusion and future scope:

The investigation carried out in this project leads to a very

important conclusion. Thermohydrodynamic analysis of bearing

gives the actual prediction of different performance parameters

correctly. So whatever modification done on a bearing and then

CFD simulation is done, it is mandatory to consider thermal

effects on the chemical properties of the lubricant in the flow

region.

This reassessment of Cupillard et al [7] work shows that whatever

result regarding the pressure distribution Cupillard et al got in

their work did not depict actual value because they considered the

isothermal case which is not practical. The actual pressure

distribution considering adiabatic case has been shown in this

work which is very near to the practical scenario.

References:

1) W. F. Hughes, F. Osterle, Temperature Effects in Journal Bearing Lubrication,

Tribology Transactions, 1: 1, 210 212, First published on: 01 J anuary 1958

(iFirst).

2) T. P. Indulekha, M. L. J oy, K. Prabhakaran Nair, Fluid flow and thermal analysis of

a circular journal bearing, Wairme- und Stoffubertragung 29(1994) 367-371.

3) S. A. Gandjalikhan Nassab, M S Moayeri, Three-dimensional

thermohydrodynamic analysis of axially grooved journal bearings, Proc Instn

Mech Engrs Vol 216 Part J : J Engineering Tribology, December 2001, Page: 35-47.

4) Prakash Chandra Mishra, Thermal Analysis of Elliptic Bore Journal Bearing,

Tribology Transactions, 50: 137-143, 2007.

5) Wei Wang, Kun Liu, Minghua J iao, Thermal and non Newtonian analysis on mixed

liquid- solid lubrication, Tribology International 40 (2007) 1067-1074.

6) K.P. Gertzos, P.G. Nikolakopoulos, C.A. Papadopoulos, CFD analysis of journal

bearing hydrodynamic lubrication by Bingham lubricant, Tribology International 41

(2008) 1190 1204.

7) S Cupillard, S Glavatskih, and M J Cervantes, Computational fluid dynamics

analysis of a journal bearing with surface texturing, Proc. IMechE, Part J : J .

Engineering Tribology, 222(J 2), 2008, page 97-107.

8) E. Feyzullahoglu, Isothermal Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication of Elliptic

Contacts, J ournal of the Balkan Tribological Association, Vol. 15, No 3, 438446

(2009).

9) Samuel Cupillard, Sergei Glavatskih, Michel J .Cervantes, 3D

thermohydrodynamic analysis of a textured slider, Tribology International 42

(2009) 14871495.

10) Ravindra R. Navthar et al., Stability Analysis of Hydrodynamic J ournal Bearing

using Stiffness Coefficients, International J ournal of Engineering Science and

Technology Vol.2 (2), 2010, page 87-93.

11) Majumder B. C. Introduction to Tribology of Bearings, A. H. Wheeler & Co

publication.

12) Verseteeng H. K. & Malalasekera W. An Introduction to Computational Fluid

Dynamics, Longman Scientific & Technical publication.

Contd.

7) Niyogi P., Chakrabarty S. K., Laha M. K. Introduction to Computational Fluid

Dynamics, Pearson Education publication.

8) Sheshu P. Textbook of Finite Element Analysis, Prentice Hall of India publication.

9) Cengel A. Yunus, Fluid Mechanics, McGraw-Hill publication.

10) Help documentation of GAMBIT 2.3.16 Software.

11) Help documentation of Fluent 6.3.26 Software.

12) Help documentation of Matlab 7.0 Software.

Contd.

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