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Topic: - Is the criticism Indian tribes merely gaud and albatross to countries economic
development justified?
Introduction to people of fourth orld-The Indian Tribes
• India! country ith "robdingnagian collection of different racial! ethnic! linguistic and
religious groups# $ith an agenda to safeguard! replenish and uplift immense diversity of its
entire nation it phrases! adopted and enacted %The &onstitution of India'# Securing to its all
citi(en)s justice! liberty! e*uality and fraternity via declaring herself as sovereign! secular!
socialist and democratic republic#
• Among its large population of different social group %Tribes' form a major portion that are
still in dar+ light of country)s fast groing economic development post ,- years of
 "rief Introduction to Tribes
• Tribe forms a major portion ith .#/0 of countries total population and sharing 120 of total
country)s land# They live in distinct climatic! hilly and forest land condition called as area of
isolation and people of fourth orld#
 3ain areas of concentration of Indian tribal
• The north eastern region 45E67:-Arunachal 8radesh! Assam! 3anipur! 3eghalaya! 3i(oram!
5agaland! Si++im and Tripura#
• The central tribal belt :- Andhra 8radesh! "ihar! &hhattisgarh! 9adar : 5agar ;aveli! 9aman
: 9iu! <ujarat! =har+hand! 3adhya 8radesh! 3aharashtra! >rissa! 6ajasthan! and $est
• >ther States and ?nion Territories: - Andaman : 5icobar Islands! ;imachal 8radesh!
=ammu : @ashmir! @arnata+a! @erala and Tamil 5adu#
 <aps beteen tribals and general population
• Inade*uate infrastructure and development facilities in tribal areas for education! roads!
healthcare! communication! drin+ing ater and sanitation#
 &haracteristic of Tribes
• Indigenous and their on distinctive culture#
• Importance to traditional values and social ethos#
• <eographically isolated and lo in socio-economic conditions#
 6eason behind Socio-economic bac+ardness
• 8ast and present colonialism#
• Their habitation in forests and hilly tracts resulting in the bypassing of general developmental
• 8overty! unemployment! displacement! indebtedness! lac+ of opportunities! accessibility#
• 5on homogeneous social-economic level among different tribal communities#
 Truc+load of <ovt# scheme for Tribal development
• <overnment of India has 5ational &ommission! 2th and ,th Schedule for the protection and
administrative dispensation of tribals in the &entral Indian States and 5orth-Eastern 6egion
States providing them ith special provisions for their elfare and development#
• The 8rovision of 8anchayats 4EAtension to the Scheduled Areas7 Act! 1BB, hich confers
special poers to <ramsabha in 2th Scheduled Areas#
• The 5ational Tribal 8olicy covering various issues li+e alienation of tribal land!
rehabilitation! displacement! tribal forest interface! resettlement etc#
• Tribal research institute providing planning inputs to state related to problem of tribes in
respective states#
• The Tribal Sub-8lan 4TS87 to raise economic and social status of tribals via integrated
development effort to develop their agriculture! animal husbandry! irrigation! forestry!
education! health and employment- 8olicy frameor+ and administrative implementation
 Albatross to countries economic development
• To manifest the need of economic development planning commission in India initiated big
development projects# 3ajority of them fall up in tribal areas and on the lands oned by
tribals# 5umber of projects often called as economic development projects are as follos:-
4i7 Irrigation and 8oer 8rojects
4ii7 Industries 8rojects
4iii7 3ining 8rojects
4iv7 Corest and $ildlife 8rojects
 These projects are ta+en up in areas rich in natural resources li+e ater! minerals and ores
and forests# These areas mostly inhibited by tribal people ho called them a hammy to their
 Dast tracts of minerals ealth in India lie in tribal areas and on the lands oned by tribals but
govt# complain that they rarely reap any benefit due to difficulties in ac*uiring land and
tribals) susceptible nature toards their land#
 6ecent eAample a project in a joint venture beteen Sterlite Industries! a unit of Dedanta! and
the >rissa 3ining &orp! a state government enterprise ant)s to begin mining in 5iyamgiri
;ill! >rissa to feed Eanjigarh Aluminium refinery located in mineral rich state of >rissa
hich has stop its operating due to a shortage of bauAite#
 5iyamgiri ;ill and its adjoining forest area! the house of the .!FFF-strong 9ongria @ondh
tribal group ho opposed this step to mine their land#
 <ovt# stand
• $ant to create jobs in an improvised region and bring tribal people into the economic
 8rivate &ompany stand
• 8romised to fund school! clinics and engage in income generation projects in the area#
 9ongria @ondh tribes stand
• 5iyamgiri ;ill a sacred mountain to them#
• They rely for their crops and livelihood for nearly a decade
• 3ine ould destroy the forest and disrupt the rivers in the 5iyamgiri hills hich are central
to the livelihood and identity of .FFF strong tribes#
 6eal &onse*uences of these mining project)s
• EAtensive displacement of tribals! loss of livelihood and identity and turn them to destitute#
• $ith the hope to benefit economic groth it ould only tric+le don to the poor community#
• It merely disturbed the traditional resource-utili(ation pattern and eAisting mode of
production ith an advanced mode of production#
• 8rocess of ac*uiring land by govt# is an inevitable process leads to mass displacement of poor
• Eand 6ehabilitation : 6esettlement 8olicy of govt# ta+es years for resettling displaced tribals
lead to bul+ migration of these communities toards states for searching small- small jobs#
 <ovt# Cailure and tribal in
• >ur constitutional right of %6ight to liberty of orship'#
• $ide international support via survival international hich campaign for the right of tribes#
• International Eabour organi(ation 4IE>7 report on India)s indigenous population claims that
more than half of the countries mineral ealth is obtained by violating the rights of tribals#
 This international pressure and religious right helped 9ongria @ondh to save their land and
culture# "ut there are so many tribal masses ho are the culprits of economic development#
 >ne *uestion came to this is tribal in in this case is purely due to orship right or
international pressure or both! and if there might be absence of both 4orship right and
international pressure as in many of past cases7 tribes ould have lost#
 Economic "urden on <overnment
$ith the advent of ne technology in succession ith the standard of living it encumbrance the
government responsibility hich further leads to condone tribe)s subsistence and using its
eminent domain to fulfill its need# This put a se*uence of *uestions to all citi(ens of India for
hom constitution as phrased to uplift and secure them#
• Is country)s economic development is above 120 tribal citi(ens and can only be developed
by riding on their livelihood#
• Are e ignoring our brother and sisters right to enjoy countries independence and economic
development and condign censure for being a tribe?
 3easures that <ovt# must ta+e to ensure this ould not happen again
• <ovt# must stand for rather than provocative measure li+e eminent domain#
• ;elp them by creating infrastructure necessary for agriculture groth#
• @noledge them to participate in agriculture groth and thereby increasing country)s <98#
• &reating mar+et for tribes ho are engaged ith fishing! horticulture activities#
• 8olicy ma+ing is rather simpler tas+ than eAecution and implementationG govt# must ta+e
several measures to successfully implement her policies)#
 $hat if <ovt# continues to enact provocative measure li+e eminent domain?
• 9isplacement of tribals from their land leads to disturbance of their life! livelihood and
destruction of their social! cultural! religious and economic traditions#
• Darious international organi(ations ta+ing advantage their vulnerable nature might try to
seditious them! handling over illegal arms hich lead to formation of ne naAalism or
mujahidin groups# 8utting them bac+ in the bac+ardness of economic development#
 &onclusion
• In short post-independence period various measures govt# has initiated for their up-liftment
hich are very ell appreciated but some important factors are overloo+ed#
• It is no harm to accept that e are rong somehere in the line that is hy Supreme &ourt
and our acts are not accepted internationally# <ovt# should reconsider her act and not critici(e
tribals by ords li+e %gaud and albatross to countries economic development' and helps
nation to build spirit of togetherness#
• 6eferences:-
1. http:HH#telegraph#co#u+HnesHorldnesHasiaHindiaH1F/2IFFIHIndian-tribals-reject-
2. http:HH#telegraph#co#u+HnesHorldnesHasiaHindiaH1F/IJ2BIHTribal-peoples-victory-
3. http:HHtribesindia#comH
4. http:HH#dontoearth#org#inHcontentHhas-government-ea+ened-its-case-against-
5. http:HH#cseindia#orgH
6. http:HH#survivalinternational#orgHnesH22J,
-# <eography of India K 3ajid ;usain! &hapter 1I &ulture Setting
.# &reation of essay title- Ta+en help from ?8S& &S /F1/ Essay 8aper
9. http:HHtribal#nic#inH&ontentHIntroductionScheduledTribes#aspA
1F# Cactors Influencing Socio-Economic Status of the 8rimitive Tribal <roups 48T<s7 and
8lain Tribes in Andhra 8radesh 4A Eogistic 6egression Analysis7 by 3# Sundara 6ao and
/"# Ea+shmana 6ao!Andhra ?niversity! Disa+hapatnam! A#8#! India! 9r# "#6 Ambed+ar
?niversity! Etcherla! A#8#! India#
11# 9evelopment! 9isplacement and 6ehabilitation of Tribal 8eople: A &ase Study of >rissa
by Sujit @umar 3ishra! 9epartment of Economics! School of Social Science! ?niversity
of ;yderabad 2FF FJ,! Andhra 8radesh! India#
5ame : - Tarun @umar Sharma