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CHUYN THNG TIN V TUYN Nhm 25 - LP L10CQVT11-B

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GVHD: NGUYN VIT M

CC THUT NG VIT TT .......................................................................................................... 2
DANH MC HNH V, BNG BIU ............................................................................................... 3
BNG PHN CNG THC HIN TI ..................................................................................... 4
LI M U ..................................................................................................................................... 5
PHN NI DUNG .............................................................................................................................. 6
CHNG 1: TIN TRNH PHT TRIN CA CC H THNG THNG TIN DI NG T
1G LN 4G. ..................................................................................................................................... 6
1.1.Mng thng tin di ng 1G : .................................................................................................. 6
1.2.Mng thng tin di ng 2G: ................................................................................................... 7
1.3.Mng thng tin di ng 2,5 G ................................................................................................ 9
1.4.Mng thng tin di ng 3G : ................................................................................................ 10
1.5.Mng thng tin di ng th h 3.5G : .................................................................................. 12
1.6.Mng thng tin di ng 4G : ................................................................................................ 12
CHNG 2 : GII THIU V CNG NGH V MC TIU THIT K LTE ...................... 15
2.1. Gii thiu v cng ngh LTE: ............................................................................................ 15
2.2. Mc tiu thit k LTE : ....................................................................................................... 16
2.3. L trnh pht trin cng ngh LTE v cc cng ngh khc: ............................................... 18
2.3.1.WiMAX ........................................................................................................................ 18
2.3.2.So snh cng ngh k thut dng trong WiMAX v 3G LTE: ..................................... 20
2.3.3.Dch v, ng dng v tng lai khng xa cho cng ngh LTE: ................................... 22
CHNG 3 : KIN TRC GIAO THC CA 4G-LTE ............................................................ 25
3.1. PDCP: Packet Data Convergence Protocol - Giao thc hi t s liu gi......................... 27
3.2. RLC: radio link control - iu khin lin kt v tuyn ...................................................... 28
3.3. iu khin truy nhp mi trng MAC(Medium Access Control) .................................. 30
3.3.1 Cc knh logic v cc knh truyn ti ......................................................................... 30
3.3.2 Hoch nh ng ln. ................................................................................................. 32
3.3.3 Hoch nh ng xung.............................................................................................. 34
3.3.4 Hybrid ARQ ................................................................................................................. 37
3.4 PHY: physical layer - lp vt l ........................................................................................... 41
KT LUN ....................................................................................................................................... 45
TI LIU THAM KHO: ................................................................................................................ 45

CHUYN THNG TIN V TUYN Nhm 25 - LP L10CQVT11-B

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GVHD: NGUYN VIT M

CC THUT NG VIT TT

AMPS Advanced Mobile Phone Sytem H thng in thoi di ng tin
tin
BCCH Broadcast Control Channel Knh iu khin qung b
BCH Broadcast Channel Knh qung b
DCCH Dedicated Control Channel Knh iu khin dnh ring
DL-SCH Downlink Shared Channel Knh chia s ng xung
EDGE Enhanced Data Rates for GSM
Evolution
Tc s liu tng cng pht
trin GSM

GPRS General Packet Radio Service Dch v v tuyn gi chung
HSCSD High Speed Circuit Switched Data S liu chuyn mch knh tc
cao

HSDPA High Speed Downlink Package
Access
Truy nhp gi ng xung tc
cao
MAC Medium Access Control iu khin truy cp mi trng
MCCH Multicast Control Channel Knh iu khin multicast
MCH Multicast Channel Knh multicast
MIMO Multiple input Multiple Output a nhp a xut
MTCH Multicast Traffic Channel Knh lu lng multicast
PCCH Paging Control Channel Knh iu khin tm gi
PCH Paging channe Knh tm gi
PDCP Packet Data Convergence Protocol Giao thc hi t s liu gi
PDU Protocol Data Unit n v d liu giao thc
PHY Physical layer Lp vt l
DTCH Dedicated Traffic Channel Knh lu lng dnh ring
CHUYN THNG TIN V TUYN Nhm 25 - LP L10CQVT11-B

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GVHD: NGUYN VIT M

RLC Radio Link Control iu khin lin kt v tuyn
SDU Service Data Unit n v d liu dch v
TACS Total Access Communication
Sytem
H thng giao tip truy cp tng
hp
UL-SCH Uplink shared channel Knh chia s ng ln
DANH MC HNH V, BNG BIU

Hnh 1: L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng t 1G ln 4G 12
Hnh 2.1: Kin trc m hnh LTE theo TR 23.822 .15
Hnh 2.2: L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng t 1G ln 4G. 18
Hnh 2.3: L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng t 1G ln 4G. 19
Hnh 3.1 Kin trc giao thc LTE (ng xung) 25
Hnh 3.2: S m t cc thnh phn ca phn mm PDCP:..26
Hnh 3.3: Phn on v hp on RLC 27
Hnh 3.4:Th d v sp xp cc knh logic ln cc knh truyn ti .31
Hnh 3.5 : Vic la chn inh dng truyn dn trong ng xung (bn tri ) v
ng ln ( bn phi ).......32
Hnh 3.6 Giao thc hybrid-ARQ ng b v khng ng b...38
Hnh 3.7 : Nhiu tin trnh hybrid ARQ song song...38
Hnh 3.8 M hnh x l lp vt l n gin cho DL-SCH.41
Hnh 3.9 M hnh x l lp vt l n gin cho UL-SCH .. 42

Bng 2 : So snh cng ngh k thut dng trong WiMAX v 3G LTE19
Bng 3. Dch v v ng dng ca LTE .21

CHUYN THNG TIN V TUYN Nhm 25 - LP L10CQVT11-B

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GVHD: NGUYN VIT M




BNG PHN CNG THC HIN TI


STT

H V TN

LP

PHN THC HIN

GHI CH

1

M THO PHNG

L10CQVT11B
+ Chng 1
+ Chng 2
+ Hon thin slide.
NT
0947266518

2


PHM TH THUN

L10CQVT11B
+ M u chng 3 v
3.1 + 3.2
+ Hon thin bn text.

0944582179

3

TRN S KHON

L10CQVT11B
+ Chng 2 : 3.3 v
3.4
+ In n


0947266484

CHUYN THNG TIN V TUYN Nhm 25 - LP L10CQVT11-B

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GVHD: NGUYN VIT M







LI M U
Hin nay ngnh vin thng c nhng bc pht trin rt nhanh, hnh thnh
mi trng cnh tranh ln gia cc nh khai thc mng phc v nhu cu v thng tin
cho con ngi ngy cng i hi cao hn. Cht lng cc dch v ngy cng tr
thnh cha kha c th dn ti thnh cng. Song song vi xu th ny, nhu cu
ngy cng gia tng i vi cc dch v truyn thng mi, kh nng p ng vic
cung cp dch v hoc tng tnh cnh tranh.
ITU cng b chun IMT-2000 cho h thng 3G nm 1992, tuy nhin sau
4G mi l ch n ca truyn ti d liu khng dy.
LTE c xem nh ngi k tha xut sc ca th h cng ngh mng 3G
hin ti, da trn nn tng WCDMA, HSDPA, HSUPA, v HSPA. LTE cp nht
cng ngh UMTS ci thin mt cch ng k tc truyn d liu hai chiu.
Nhn thy cng ngh LTE l cng ngh mi trin vng nht cho vic tin ln
4G nn nhm chng em chn ti tm hiu v LTE : Kin trc giao thc ca 4G
LTE . Ni dung bo co gm c:
Chng 1: Tin trnh pht trin ca cc h thng thng tin di ng t 1G ln
4G.
CHUYN THNG TIN V TUYN Nhm 25 - LP L10CQVT11-B

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GVHD: NGUYN VIT M

Chng 2: Gii thiu v cng ngh v mc tiu thit k LTE.
Chng 3: Kin trc giao thc 4G-LTE
Chng em xin trn thnh cm n s hng dn tn tnh ca thy Nguyn Vit
m, khoa Vin thng 1, Hc vin Cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng!
Trong qu trnh lm ti do cn nhiu hn ch v kin thc nn nhm chng
em khng trnh khi nhng thiu st, mong thy c v cc bn gp ti nhm
chng em c tt hn.
Chng em xin trn thnh cm n!
H Ni, ngy 10/06/2012
Nhm sinh vin thc hin : ( Nhm 25)
PHN NI DUNG
CHNG 1: TIN TRNH PHT TRIN CA CC H
THNG THNG TIN DI NG T 1G LN 4G.
1.1.Mng thng tin di ng 1G :
L mng thng tin di ng khng dy c bn u tin trn th gii. N l h
thng giao tip thng tin qua kt ni tn hiu analog c gii thiu ln u tin vo
nhng nm u thp nin 80s.
N s dng cc ng-ten thu pht sng gn ngoi, kt ni theo tn hiu analog
ti cc trm thu pht sng v nhn tn hiu x l thoi thng qua cc module gn
trong my di ng. Chnh v th m cc th h my di ng u tin trn th gii c
kch thc kh to v cng knh do tch hp cng lc 2 module thu tn hin v pht
tn hiu.
Mc d l th h mng di ng u tin vi tn s ch t 150MHz nhng
mng 1G cng phn ra kh nhiu chun kt ni theo tng phn vng ring trn th
gii: NMT (Nordic Mobile Telephone) c s dng cc nc Bc u, Ty u v
Nga. Mt s cng ngh khc nh AMPS (Advanced Mobile Phone Sytem h thng
in thoi di ng tin tin) c s dng M v c; TACS (Total Access
CHUYN THNG TIN V TUYN Nhm 25 - LP L10CQVT11-B

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GVHD: NGUYN VIT M

Communication Sytem h thng giao tip truy cp tng hp) c s dng Anh,
C-45 Ty c, B o Nha v Nam Phi, Radiocom 2000 Php; v RTMI
Italia.
Nhng im yu ca th h 1G l dung lng thp, xc sut rt cuc gi cao,
kh nng chuyn cuc gi khng tin cy, cht lng m thanh km, khng c ch
bo mtdo vy h thng 1G khng th p ng c nhu cu s dng .

1.2.Mng thng tin di ng 2G:
Nm 1982, hi ngh qun l bu in v vin thng Chu u (CEPT
European Conference of Postal and Telecommunications ad minstrations) thnh lp
1 nhm nghin cu, GSM Group Speciale Mobile, mc ch pht trin chun mi
v thng tin di ng Chu u. Nm 1987, 13 quc gia k vo bn ghi nh v ng
gii thiu mng GSM vo nm 1991.
Nm 1988, Tr s chun vin thng Chu u (ETSI European
Telecommunication Standards Institute ) c thnh lp, c trch nhim bin i
nhiu tin c k thut GSM thnh chun European.
Th h th hai 2G ca mng di ng chnh thc ra mt trn chun GSM ca
H Lan, do cng ty Radiolinja (Nay l mt b phn ca Elisa) trin khai vo nm
1991.
S pht trin k thut t FDMA -1G, 2G - l kt hp FDMA v TDMA.Tt
c cc chun ca th h ny u l chun k thut s v c nh hng thng
mi, bao gm: GSM, iDEN, D-AMPS, IS-95, PDC, CSD, PHS, GPRS, HSCSD,
WiDEN v CDMA2000 (1xRTT/IS-2000). Trong khong 60% s mng hin ti
l theo chun ca chu u.
Mng 2G chia lm 2 nhnh chnh: TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access-
a truy cp phn chia theo thi gian) v CDMA ( a truy cp phn chia theo tn s)
cng nhiu dng kt ni mng tu theo yu cu s dng t thit b cng nh h tng
tng phn vng quc gia:
CHUYN THNG TIN V TUYN Nhm 25 - LP L10CQVT11-B

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GVHD: NGUYN VIT M

GSM (TDMA-based), khi ngun p dng ti Phn Lan v sau tr
thnh chun ph bin trn ton 6 Chu lc. V hin nay vn ang c s dng bi
hn 80% nh cung cp mng di ng ton cu.
CDMA2000 tn s 450 MHZ cng l nn tng di ng tng t
GSM ni trn nhng n li da trn nn CDMA v hin cng ang c cung cp
bi 60 nh mng GSM trn ton th gii.
IS-95 hay cn gi l cdmaOne, (nn tng CDMA) c s dng rng
ri ti Hoa K v mt s nc Chu v chim gn 17% cc mng ton cu. Tuy
nhin, tnh n thi im ny th c khong 12 nh mng ang chuyn dch dn t
chun mng ny sang GSM (tng t nh HT Mobile ti Vit Nam va qua) ti:
Mexico, n , c v Hn Quc.
PDC (nn tng TDMA) ti Japan
iDEN (nn tng TDMA) s dng bi Nextel ti Hoa K v Telus
Mobility ti Canada.
IS-136 hay cn gi l D-AMPS, (nn tng TDMA) l chun kt ni
ph bin nht tnh n thi im ny v c cung cp hu ht ti cc nc trn th
gii cng nh Hoa K.
* Thun li v kh khn ca 2G :
cng ngh 2G tn hiu k thut s c s dng trao i gia in thoi
v cc thp pht sng, lm tng hiu qu trn 2 phng din chnh :

- Th nht, d liu s ca ging ni c th c nn v ghp knh hiu qu hn so
vi m ha Analog nh s dng nhiu hnh thc m ha, cho php nhiu cuc gi
cng c m ha trn mt di bng tn.

- Th hai, h thng k thut s c thit k gim bt nng lng sng radio pht t
in thoi. Nh vy, c th thit k in thoi 2G nh gn hn; ng thi gim chi
ph u t nhng thp pht sng.

- Hn na, mng 2G tr nn ph bin cng do cng ngh ny c th trin khai mt
CHUYN THNG TIN V TUYN Nhm 25 - LP L10CQVT11-B

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GVHD: NGUYN VIT M

s dch v d liu nh Email v SMS. ng thi, mc bo mt c nhn cng cao
hn so vi 1G.

Tuy nhin, h thng mng 2G cng c nhng nhc im, v d, nhng ni
dn c tha tht, sng k thut s yu c th khng ti c cc thp pht sng.Ti
nhng a im nh vy, cht lng truyn sng cng nh cht lng cuc gi s b
gim ng k.
1.3.Mng thng tin di ng 2,5 G
2,5G chnh l bc m gia 2G vi 3G trong cng ngh in thoi khng
dy. Khi nim 2,5G c dng miu t h thng di ng 2G c trang b h thng
chuyn mch gi, bn cnh h thng chuyn mch knh truyn thng.Trong khi cc
khi nim 2G v 3G c chnh thc nh ngha th khi nim 2,5G li khng c
nh vy. Khi nim ny ch dng cho mc ch tip th.


Trong :
HSCSD = High Speed Circuit Switched Data: s liu chuyn mch
knh tc cao
GPRS = General Packet Radio Service: dch v v tuyn gi chung:
H thng GPRS - bc u tin hng ti 3G. M rng kin trc mng
GSM. Truy cp tc cao v hiu qu ti nhng mng chuyn mch gi khc (tng
ti 115kbps)
EDGE = Enhanced Data Rates for GSM Evolution: tc s liu tng
cng pht trin GSM:
EDGE c th pht nhiu bit gp 3 ln GPRS trong mt chu k. y l l
do chnh cho tc bit EDGE cao hn. ITU nh ngha 384kbps l gii hn tc
d liu cho dch v thc hin chun IMT-2000 trong mi trng khng l
CHUYN THNG TIN V TUYN Nhm 25 - LP L10CQVT11-B

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GVHD: NGUYN VIT M

tng. 384kbps tng ng vi 48kbps trn mi khe thi gian, gi s mt u cui c
8 khe thi gian.

2,5G cung cp mt s li ch ca mng 3G (v d chuyn mch gi), v c th
dng c s h tng ang tn ti ca 2G trong cc mng GSM v CDMA. GPAS l
cng ngh c cc nh cung cp dch v vin thng GSM s dng. V giao thc,
nh EDGE cho GSM, v CDMA 2000 1x-RTT cho CDMA, c th t cht lng
nh cc dch v 3G (v dng tc truyn d liu 144Kb/s), nhng vn c xem
nh dch v 2,5G bi vn chm hn vi ln so vi dch v 3G tht s.

1.4.Mng thng tin di ng 3G :
L th h truyn thng di ng th ba, tin tin hn hn cc th h trc .
N cho php ngi dng di ng truyn c d liu thoi v d liu ngoi thoi ( ti
d liu, gi email, tin nhn nhanh, hnh nh, m thanh, video clips

Vi 3G, di ng c th truyn ti d liu trc tuyn, online, chat, xem tivi
theo knh ring...Trong s cc dch v ca 3G, in thoi video thng c miu t
nh l l c u. Gi tn s cho cng ngh 3G rt t ti nhiu nc, ni m cc
cuc bn u gi tn s mang li hng t Euro cho cc chnh ph. Bi v chi ph cho
bn quyn v cc tn s phi trang tri trong nhiu nm trc khi cc thu nhp t
mng 3G em li, nn mt khi lng vn u t khng l l cn thit xy dng
mng 3G. Nhiu nh cung cp dch v vin thng ri vo kh khn v ti chnh
v iu ny lm chm tr vic trin khai mng 3G ti nhiu nc ngoi tr Nht
Bn v Hn Quc, ni yu cu v bn quyn tn s c b qua do pht trin h
tng c s IT quc gia c t ln lm vn u tin nht. V cng chnh Nht
Bn l nc u tin a 3G vo khai thc thng mi mt cch rng ri, tin phong
bi nh mng NTT DoCoMo. Tnh n nm 2005, khong 40% cc thu bao ti
Nht Bn l thu bao 3G, v mng 2G ang dn dn i vo lng qun trong tim
thc cng ngh ti Nht Bn.
CHUYN THNG TIN V TUYN Nhm 25 - LP L10CQVT11-B

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GVHD: NGUYN VIT M

Cng ngh 3G cng c nhc n nh l mt chun IMT-2000 ca T chc
Vin thng Th gii (ITU). Ban u 3G c d kin l mt chun thng nht trn
th gii,nhng trn thc t th gii 3G b chia thnh 4 phn ring bit:

UMTS (W-CDMA)
UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunication System), da trn cng
ngh truy cp v tuyn W-CDMA, l gii php ni chung thch hp vi cc nh khai
thc dch v di ng (Mobile network operator) s dung GSM, tp trung ch yu
chu u v mt phn chu (trong c Vit Nam). UMTS c tiu chun ha
bi t chc 3GPP, cng l t chc chu trch nhim nh ngha chun cho GSM,
GPRS v EDGE.
FOMA, thc hin bi cng ty vin thng NTT DoCoMo Nht Bn
nm 2001, c coi nh l mt dch v thng mi 3G u tin. Tuy l da trn
cng ngh W-CDMA, nhng cng ngh ny vn khng tng thch vi UMTS (mc
d c cc bc tip hin thi thay i li tnh th ny).
CDMA 2000
L th h k tip ca cc chun 2G CDMA v IS-95. Cc xut ca
CDMA2000 c a ra bn tho v p dng bn ngoi khun kh GSM ti M,
Nht Bn v Hn Quc. CDMA2000 c qun l bi 3GPP2 mt t chc c lp
vi 3GPP. V c nhiu cng ngh truyn thng khc nhau c s dng trong
CDMA2000 bao gm 1xRTT, CDMA2000-1xEV-DO v 1xEV-DV.
CDMA 2000 cung cp tc d liu t 144 kbit/s ti trn 3 Mbit/s.
Chun ny c chp nhn bi ITU.
Ngi ta cho rng s ra i thnh cng nht ca mng CDMA-2000 l
ti KDDI ca Nhn Bn, di thng hiu AU vi hn 20 triu thu bao 3G. K t
nm 2003, KDDI nng cp t mng CDMA2000-1x ln mng CDMA2000-
1xEV-DO vi tc d liu ti 2.4 Mbit/s. Nm 2006, AU nng cp mng ln tc
3.6 Mbit/s. SK Telecom ca Hn Quc a ra dch v CDMA2000-1x u tin
nm 2000, v sau l mng 1xEV-DO vo thng 2 nm 2002.
CHUYN THNG TIN V TUYN Nhm 25 - LP L10CQVT11-B

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GVHD: NGUYN VIT M

TD-SCDMA :Chun c t c bit n hn l TD-SCDMA, c pht
trin ring ti Trung Quc bi cng ty Datang v Siemens.
Wideband CDMA:
H tr tc gia 384 kbit/s v 2 Mbit/s. Giao thc ny c dng trong mt
mng din rng WAN, tc ti a l 384 kbit/s. Khi n dng trong mt mng cc
b LAN, tc ti a ch l 1,8 Mbit/s. Chun ny cng c cng nhn bi ITU.

1.5.Mng thng tin di ng th h 3.5G :
3,5G l nhng ng dng c nng cp da trn cng ngh hin c ca
3G. Cng ngh ca 3,5G chnh l HSDPA (High Speed Downlink Package Access).
y l gii php mang tnh t ph v mt cng ngh, c pht trin trn c s ca
h thng 3G W-CDMA.
HSDPA cho php download d liu v my in thoi c tc tng ng
tc ng truyn ADSL, vt qua nhng cn tr c hu v tc kt ni ca
mt in thoi thng thng.
HSDPA l mt bc tin nhm nng cao tc v kh nng ca mng di
ng t bo th h th 3 UMTS. HSDPA c thit k cho nhng ng dng dch v
d liu nh: dch v c bn (ti file, phn phi email), dch v tng tc (duyt web,
truy cp server, tm v phc hi c s d liu), v dch v Streaming
1.6.Mng thng tin di ng 4G :
Hay cn c th vit l 4-G, l cng ngh truyn thng khng dy th h th
t, cho php truyn ti d liu vi tc ti a trong iu kin l tng ln ti 1 -
1,5 Gbit/s. Cch y khng lu th mt nhm gm 26 cng ty trong c Vodafone
(Anh), Siemens (c), Alcatel (Php), NEC v DoCoMo (Nht Bn), k tha
thun cng nhau pht trin mt tiu ch cao cp cho TD, mt th h th 4 trong
kt ni di ng chnh l nn tng cho kt ni 4G sp ti y.
Cng ngh 4G c hiu l chun tng lai ca cc thit b khng dy. Cc
nghin cu u tin ca NTT DoCoMo cho bit, in thoi 4G c th nhn d liu
vi tc 100 Mbit/s khi di chuyn v ti 1 Gbit/s khi ng yn, cng nh cho php
CHUYN THNG TIN V TUYN Nhm 25 - LP L10CQVT11-B

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GVHD: NGUYN VIT M

ngi s dng c th ti v truyn ln cc hnh nh, video clips cht lng cao. Vi
cch nhn nhn ny, 4G s chnh l mng 3G LTE, UMB hay WiMAX 802.16m. :
cho php ngi dng truyn ti cc d liu HD, xem tivi tc cao, tri nghm web
tin tin hn cng nh mang li cho ngi dng nhiu tin li hn na t chnh
chic di ng ca mnh.

Hnh 1: L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng t 1G ln 4G.
LTE (Long Term Evolution - S tin ha trong tng lai xa) miu t cng
vic chun ha ca 3GPP xc nh phng php truy nhp v tuyn tc
cao mi cho cc h thng truyn thng di ng. LTE l bc tip theo dn
n h thng thng tin di ng 4G. Xy dng trn cc nn tng k thut ca
h cc h thng mng t bo 3GPP (bao gm GSM, GPRS v EDGE,
WCDMA v HSPA), LTE cung cp mt con ng tin ha n cc tc
cao hn v tr thp hn. Cng vi s hiu qu hn trong s dng ph tn
hu hn ca cc nh khai thc, LTE cho mt mi trng dch v di ng hp
dn v phong ph hn.
UMB (Ultra Mobile Broadband- Mng thng tin di ng siu bng rng), l
th h mng thng tin di ng tip ni ca CDMA2000 c pht trin bi
3GPP2 m ch lc l Qualcomm. UMB c snh ngang vi cng ngh LTE
ca 3GPP. UMB s dng OFDMA, MIMO, a truy cp phn chia theo khng
gian cng nh cc k thut angten hin i tng kh nng ca mng, tng
CHUYN THNG TIN V TUYN Nhm 25 - LP L10CQVT11-B

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GVHD: NGUYN VIT M

vng ph v tng cht lng dch v. UMB c th cho tc d liu ng
xung ti 280Mbit/giy v d liu ng ln ti 75Mbit/giy.
WiMAX 802.16m (hay cn gi l WiMAX II) c pht trin t chun IEEE
802.16e, l cng ngh duy nht trong cc cng ngh tin 4G c xy dng
hon ton da trn cng ngh a truy nhp phn chia theo tn s trc giao
OFDMA (k thut a truy cp vo knh truyn OFDM). Cng ngh WiMAX
II s h tr tc truyn d liu ln ti 100 Mb/s cho cc ng dng di ng
v c th ln ti 1Gb/s cho cc ngi dng tnh. Khong cch truyn ca
WiMAX II l khong 2 km mi trng thnh th v khong 10 km cho cc
khu vc nng thn.

CHUYN THNG TIN V TUYN Nhm 25 - LP L10CQVT11-B

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GVHD: NGUYN VIT M


CHNG 2 : GII THIU V CNG NGH
V MC TIU THIT K LTE
2.1. Gii thiu v cng ngh LTE:
LTE l th h th t, tng lai ca chun UMTS do 3GPP pht trin. UMTS
th h th ba da trn WCDMA c trin khai trn ton th gii. m bo
tnh cnh tranh cho h thng ny trong tng lai, thng 11/2004 3GPP bt u d
n nhm xc nh bc pht trin v lu di cho cng ngh di ng UMTS vi tn
gi Long Term Evolution (LTE). 3GPP t ra yu cu cao cho LTE, bao gm gim
chi ph cho mi bit thng tin, cung cp dch v tt hn, s dng linh hot cc bng
tn hin c v bng tn mi, n gin ha kin trc mng vi cc giao tip m v
gim ng k nng lng tiu th thit b u cui.
.
UTRAN
Internet
GERAN
Li SGSN
PCFR2
Cc
server
IP ty
chn
(IMS,
PSS,

Truy nhp IP ca WLAN 3GPP


Internet
PCFR2
E- RAN
MME
UPE
Neo
3GPP
Neo
SAE
IASA
HSS
S5a S5b
Li gi pht trin
Gi
Gb
Iu
S4
S3
S6
S1
S2
S2
S7
SGi
S7
Rx+
Rx+

Hnh 2.1: Kin trc m hnh LTE theo TR 23.822

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2.2. Mc tiu thit k LTE :
Tng tc truyn d liu : Trong iu kin l tng dung lng
truyn trn knh ng xung (downlink) c th t 100 Mbps v trn knh ng
ln (uplink) c th t 50 Mbps i vi bng thng 20MHz , khi lm vic cc gii
tn khc th dung lng truyn cng t l tng ng.
Ti xung gp 3 n 4 ln; Ti ln gp 2 n 3 ln.
di bng thng linh hot: c th hot ng vi cc bng 1.25MHz,
1.6 MHz, 2.5 MHz, 5 MHz, 10 MHz, 15 MHz, 20 Mhz c chiu ln v xung. H
tr c 2 trng hp di bng ln v bng xung bng nhau hoc khng.
Gim thi gian chuyn i trng thi trn mt phng iu khin :
+ Gim thi gian mt thit b u cui ( UE - User Equipment) chuyn t
trng thi ngh sang ni kt vi mng, v bt u truyn thng tin trn mt knh
truyn.Thi gian ny phi nh hn 100ms. V chnh thi gian chuyn i ny lm
cho ngi dng c th cm nhn c tr khi truy cp mt dich v trn internet
sau mt khong thi gian khng hot ng. LTE c th h tr t nht 200 thit b u
cui di ng trng thi ni kt khi hot ng di tn 5 MHz. Trong mi bng tn
rng hn 5 MHz, th t nht c 400 thit b u cui c h tr. S lng thit b
u cui trng thi ngh trong cell khng ni r l bao nhiu nhng c th l cao
hn mt cch ng k.
+ Gim tr mt phng ngi dng: Nhc im ca cc mng t ong (cell)
hin nay l tr truyn cao hn nhiu so vi cc mng ng dy c nh. iu
ny nh hng ln n cc ng dng nh thoi v chi game ,v cn thi gian
thc. Yu cu i vi LTE l tr trn giao tip v tuyn phi khong chng 5 ms
tr truyn t UE ny n UE kia tng ng vi tr cc mng ng
dy c nh.
S khng cn chuyn mch knh : Tt c s da trn IP. Mt trong
nhng tnh nng ng k nht ca LTE l s chuyn dch n mng li hon ton
da trn IP vi giao din m v kin trc n gin ha. Su xa hn, phn ln cng
vic chun ha ca 3GPP nhm n s chuyn i kin trc mng li ang tn ti
sang h thng ton IP. Trong 3GPP.Chng cho php cung cp cc dch v linh hot
hn v s lin hot ng n gin vi cc mng di ng phi 3GPP v cc mng c
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nh. EPC da trn cc giao thc TCP/IP ging nh phn ln cc mng s liu c
nh ngy nay- v vy cung cp cc dch v ging PC nh thoi, video, tin nhn v
cc dch v a phng tin. S chuyn dch ln kin trc ton gi cng cho php ci
thin s phi hp vi cc mng truyn thng khng dy v c nh khc.VoIP s
dng cho dch v thoi.
ph sng t 5-100km : Trong vng bn knh 5km LTE cung cp ti
u v lu lng ngi dng, hiu sut ph v di ng. Phm vi ln n 30km th
c mt s gim nh cho php v lu lng ngi dng cn hiu sut ph th li gim
mt cch ng k hn nhng vn c th chp nhn c, tuy nhin yu cu v di
ng vn c p ng. B gii hn trong cc cell c bn knh ln n 100km. Dung
lng th khong hn 200 ngi/cell (vi bng thng 5MHz)
Kin trc mng s n gin hn so vi mng 3G hin thi. Tuy nhin
mng LTE vn c th tch hp mt cch d dng vi mng 3G v 2G hin ti. iu
ny ht sc quan trng cho nh cung cp mng trin khai LTE v khng cn thay i
ton b c s h tng mng c.
OFDMA ,SC-FDMA v MIMO c s dng trong LTE thay v
CDMA nh trong 3G.
Gim chi ph : Yu cu t ra cho h thng LTE l gim thiu c chi
ph trong khi vn duy tr c hiu sut nhm p ng c cho tt c cc dch
v.Cc vn ng truyn,hot ng v bo dng cng lin quan n yu t chi
ph,chnh v vy khng ch giao tip m vic truyn ti n cc trm gc v h thng
qun l cng cn xc nh r, ngoi ra mt s vn cng c yu cu nh l
phc tp thp,cc thit b u cui tiu th t nng lng.
Cng tn ti vi cc chun v h thng trc: H thng LTE phi cng
tn ti v c th phi hp hot ng vi cc h thng 3GPP khc .Ngi s dng
LTE s c th thc hin cc cuc gi t thit b u cui ca mnh v thm ch khi
h khng nm trong vng ph sng ca LTE. Do , cho php chuyn giao cc dch
v xuyn sut, tri chy trong khu vc ph sng ca HSPA, WCDMA hay
GSM/GPRS/EDGE. Hn th na, LTE h tr khng ch chuyn giao trong h thng,
lin h thng m cn chuyn giao lin min gia min chuyn mch gi v min
chuyn mch knh.
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LTE c 3GPPS nghin cu v pht trin vi s hu thun ca cc i gia
trong lng vin thng th gii nh Alcatel-Lucent, Ericsson, Motorola, Nokia,
Nokia Siemens Networks, Huawei, LG Electronics, Samsung, NEC, Fujitsu

2.3. L trnh pht trin cng ngh LTE v cc cng ngh khc:
Hin nay, cng ngh truyn thng pht trin nh v bo to thnh nhng cuc
chin cnh tranh cc cng ngh. Trong ni tri l cuc cnh tranh gia cng ngh
LTE v cng ngh WiMax.

Hnh 2.2 : L trnh pht trin LTE v cc cng ngh khc
2.3.1.WiMAX
WiMAX l tn thng dng thng dng ch cng ngh truy nhp khng dy
bng rng s dng giao din ca chun IEEE 802.16. Gn y WiMAX c
ITU-R chnh thc cng nhn l mt chun 3G trong h IMT-2000. iu ny c
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ngha rt ln i vi tng lai ca WiMAX v n s thc y s trin khai rng khp
ca WiMAX, c bit trn bng tn 2.5-2.69GHz, cung cp dch v Internet bng
rng, bao hm c VoIP v nhiu dch v thng qua kt ni Internet.
Trong h IEEE 802.16 ni bt nht l chun 802.16e-2005 vi kh nng p ng
c cc ng dng c nh cng nh cc dch v di ng, nn cn c gi l WiMAX
di ng. Chun ny v ang c th nghim nhiu nc. Hin ti, WiMAX di
ng "Wave 2" dng 2 ng-ten pht v 2 ng-ten thu cho tc ti a tm
75Mbps. Bn cnh , nhm lm vic IEEE 802.16 ang pht trin phin bn
802.16j trong nghin cu trin khai cc trm relay (tip sc) bn cnh cc trm
pht sng BS s dng knh truyn mt cch hiu qu, tng tc truyn dn v
m rng vng ph sng.
Nhm IEEE 802.16 cng ang nghin cu phin bn 802.16m vi mc ch y
tc d liu ca WiMAX ln hn na trong khi vn tng thch vi WiMAX c
nh v di ng v ang c trin khai. Phin bn ny theo d kin s c
hon thin vo cui nm 2009, nh l mt bc tin vt tri hn LTE. Phin
bn 802.16m s vn da trn k thut ng-ten MIMO trn nn cng ngh a truy
nhp OFDMA vi s lng ngten pht v thu nhiu hn WiMAX di ng Wave
2 . 802.16m trang b 4 ng-ten pht v 4 ng-ten thu s c th y tc truyn ln
ln hn 350Mbps. Theo d kin, WiMAX Release 2 vi s hon thin ca 802.16m
s hon thnh vo cui nm 2009 v c th bt u trin khai dch v t 2010 (xem
hnh 3).

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Hnh 2.3 : S pht trin ca cng ngh WiMax
Ni ti WiMax , ngi ta c th ngh ti rt nhiu gii php thay th m
cng ngh ny c th mang li. chnh l kh nng thay th ng xDSL gip tip
cn nhanh hn cc i tng ngi dng bng rng m khng cn phi u t ln.
c bit WiMAX rt hu ch cung cp dch v bng thng rng nhng vng xa
xi m gii php ADSL hoc cp quang l rt tn km. Bn cnh cc dch v c
nh, WiMAX cn cung ng cc dch v di ng ging nh nhng dch v ca mng
3G : thoi VoIP, internet di ng, TV di ng.
2.3.2.So snh cng ngh k thut dng trong WiMAX v 3G LTE:


Tnh nng
3GPP LTE RAN1 802.16e / Mobile
WiMax R1
802.16e/ Mobile
WiMax R2
Ghp knh TDD, FDD TDD TDD, FDD
Bng tn d kin 700MHz 2,6 GHz 2,3GHz; 2,5GHz;
3,3- 3,8GHz
2,3GHz; 2,5GHz;
3,3- 3,8GHz
Tc ti a
( Download/
Upload)
300Mbps /
100Mbps
70Mbps / 70Mbps 300Mbps/100Mbps
Di ng 350km/h 120km/h 350km/h
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Phm vi ph sng 5/30/100km 1/5/30km 1/5/30km
S ngi dng
VoIP ng thi
80 50 100
Thi im hon
tt chun
Cui nm 2008, u
nm 2009
2005 2009

Bng 2 : So snh cng ngh k thut dng trong WiMAX v 3G LTE
Hin ti WiMAX di ng Rel 1 (802.16e) c sc cnh tranh v mt
cng ngh so vi LTE. Tuy nhin, nu nhn k trn bng so snh th ta thy cng
ngh LTE vn vt hn 802.16e v c tnh nng di ng v tc truyn d liu.
Song, i vi nhng nh pht trin WiMAX th h khng chp nhn so snh LTE
vi 802.16e m phi l 802.16m (ct th 3 trn bng 1). Nhn vo y ta thy
WiMAX di ng Rel 2 ha hn nhng tnh nng vt tri so vi LTE.
Ngy nay tt c u ng vi nhau rng t c tc d liu cao ch
c th nh vo cng ngh ngten MIMO v k thut a truy cp OFDMA. LTE ra
i mun hn WiMAX v n cng khng th no khng dng MIMO v OFDMA.
Do vy, nu xt trnh bnh din k thut truyn thng khng dy (wireless
communication) th LTE khng c bt c mt k ngh c bn no vt tri so vi
WiMAX di ng. Nu nhn li bng so snh trn s thy im khc nhau ni bt l
LTE s dng k thut a truy nhp SC-FDMA cho ng ln thay v OFDMA nh
trong WiMAX. Song, theo nhiu chuyn gia th s khc bit ny li l mt im yu
ca LTE. Thc t SC-FDMA cho php ci tin PAR (Peak-to-Average power Ratio)
tm 2 dB my pht. Tuy nhin n li gy mt tm 2-3 dB v hiu sut
(performance) truyn thng trn knh truyn nhiu phading u my thu. Nhiu
nghin cu gn y cho thy SC-FDMA thc t cho mt hiu sut trn knh ln thp
hn so vi OFDMA.
Nhn chung v mt k thut, hai cng ngh WiMAX v LTE dng nh
ngang ti ngang sc vi nhau. Song, cng ngh mnh nht, vt tri nht i khi
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khng phi l cng ngh ginh chin thng m mt cng ngh thnh cng l mt
cng ngh ph hp nht, ha hp nht. Li th dnh cho LTE khi LTE c cc nh
khai thc GSM ( GSM Asociation ) chp nhn l cng ngh bng rng di ng tng
lai ca h di ng hin ang thng tr th trng di ng ton cu vi khong 2,5 t
thu bao ( theo Informa Telecoms & Media ) v trong 3 nm tip theo c th chim
th phn ti 89% ( theo Gartner) nhng con s trong m i vi WiMax.Hn
na, LTE cho php tn dng h tng GSM c sn ( tuy vn u t thm thit b )
trong khi WiMax phi xy dng t u .
Nhn thy li th ca LTE, nhiu nh khai thc mng cn nhc li vic
trin khai WiMax v chuyn sang LTE, ng k trong s c 2 tn tui ln nht ti
M l AT&T v Verizon Wireless. Theo mt kho st do RCR Wireless News v
Yankee Group thc hin gn y, c n 56% nh khai thc di ng chn LTE, ch
c 30% i theo 802.16e. Kho st cho thy cc nh khai thc di ng Bc M v
Ty Auu nghing v LTE, trong khi cc nc mi pht trin ( c bit khu vc
chu Thi Bnh Dng ) th ng h WiMax.
Trong cuc ua 4G, WiMax v LTE hin l hai cng ngh sng gi nht.Liu
hai cng ngh ny c th cng tn ti c lp hay s st nhp thnh mt chun
chung? Hiu nng ca WiMax v LTE tng ng nhau, do vy vic quyt nh
hin nay ph thuc vo yu t sn sng v kh nng thm nhp th trng.

2.3.3.Dch v, ng dng v tng lai khng xa cho cng ngh LTE:
Cc dch v LTE :
Tc truyn ng xung (v ng ln) rt cao vi s linh hot hn, hiu qu s
dng ph tn v gim tr gi, LTE ha hn tng cng vic phn phi cc dch v
bng rng di ng v thm tnh nng cho cc dch v gi tr gia tng mi ang tn
ti.

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Ch mc dch
v
Mi trng hin ti Mi trng LTE
Thoi Audio thi gian thc VoIP, hi tho video
cht lng cao
Nhn tin P2P SMS, MMS, email vi quyn
u tin thp
Tin nhn hnh nh, IM,
email di ng, tin nhn
video
Trnh duyt Truy nhp n cc thng tin
dch v trc tuyn cho nhng
ngi s dng no chi tr gi
mng chun. Hin ti gii hn
vic duyt WAP trn cc
mng GPRS v 3G.
Duyt web siu nhanh,
ti ni dung ln cc
trang mng x hi.
Thng tin tr trc Ni dung cho ngi s dng
no tr trn cc mng chun.
Phn ln l thng tin da trn
vn bn
Bo in t, lung audio
cht lng cao.
C nhn ha Phn ln l nhc chung m thc (bn ghi gc
ca cc ngh s), cc
trang web di ng c
nhn ha
Tr chi in t Tr chi in t trc tuyn v
c th ti v.
Tri nghim tr chi
in t nh nhau c
mng di ng v c
nh.
TV/Video theo yu
cu
Ni dung video c th ti v
v theo lung.
Cc dch v truyn hnh
qung b, truyn hnh
theo yu cu thc, lung
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video cht lng cao.
m nhc Dch v radio tng t v ti
v ton b bi.
Lu tr v ti xung m
nhc cht lng cao.
Tin nhn ni dung
v phng tin

Nhn tin peer to peer nh
s dng ni dung bn th ba
cng nh l tng tc vi
phng tin khc.
Phn b trn phm vi
rng cc on video,
dch v karaoke, qung
co di ng da trn
video.
M-thng mi t cc giao dch (bao gm c
nh bc) v phng tin chi
tr trn mng di ng
in thoi di ng nh
l thit b chi tr, vi chi
tit v s chi tr c ti
trn cc mng tc cao
cho php hon thin
cc giao dch tc cao.
Mng s liu di
ng
Truy nhp cc mng Internet
ni b v c s d liu cng
nh l s dng cc ng dng
nh CRM.
Truyn tp P2P, cc ng
dng kinh doanh, chia s
ng dng, truyn thng
M2M, mng Internet ni
b/mng ni b m rng
di ng
Bng 3. Dch v v ng dng ca LTE

Vo ngy 19/12/2007, hng Nokia Siemens Networks cng b th nghim
thnh cng cng ngh LTE vi tc ln n 173 Mb/s trong mi trng th vi
nhiu thu bao cng lc. Trn bng tn 2,6 GHz vi 20MHz bng thng, tc ny
vt xa tc yu cu l 100 Mbps.
Gim c k thut ca hng, ng Stephan Scholz pht biu: Khi th gii tin
gn n con s 5 t thu bao vo nm 2015, theo tin on ca chng ti, cc nh
cung cp dch v di ng s phi s dng tt c cc bng tn vi mt cu trc mng
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n gin nht v hiu qu chi ph cao nht phc v lu lng lin lc cao hn
100 ln. Cuc th nghim thc t ny l mt chng minh ban u quan trng cho
khi nim v LTE.
Cuc gi thoi u tin gia 2 in thoi LTE c trnh din vo Hi ngh
Th gii di ng (Mobile World Congress) c t chc vo thng 2/2008 ti
Barcelona, Ty Ban Nha.
Vo thng 3 va qua, mng NTT DoCoMo th nghim LTE t n tc
250Mbps.Ti cc trin lm vin thng quc t gn y, cc nh sn xut Huawei,
Motorola, Ericsson cng biu din LTE vi cc ng dng nh xem tivi cht
lng cao HDTV, chi game online Cc cuc th nghim v trnh din ny chng
t kh nng thng mi ha LTE n rt gn.




CHNG 3 : KIN TRC GIAO THC CA 4G-LTE
Tng quan v kin trc giao thc LTE cho ng xung c minh ha trong
hnh 3.1. Kin trc giao thc LTE lin quan n ng ln tng t vi kin trc
ng xung ,v cng c mt s s khc bit v s la chn nh dng truyn ti
(transport format selection) v truyn dn a anten (multi-antenna transmission).
D liu c truyn trn ng xung di dng cc gi IP trn mt trong
nhng ti tin SAE (SAE bearers). Trc khi truyn i qua giao din v tuyn, nhng
gi IP n (incoming IP packets) s i qua nhiu phn t.

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Hnh 3.1 Kin trc giao thc LTE (ng xung)
Giao thc hi t s liu gi (Packet Data Convergence Protocol-
PDCP): thc hin vic nn tiu IP (IP header) lm gim s lng bit cn thit
cho vic truyn dn thng qua giao din v tuyn. C ch nn tiu da trn
ROHC, mt thut ton nn tiu tiu chun c s dng trong WCDMA cng
nh l trong cc tiu chun thng tin di ng khc. PDCP cng m nhim vic m
ha v bo v tnh ton vn ca d liu c truyn i. Ti pha thu, giao thc
PDCP s thc hin cng vic gii nn v gii m thng tin. Ch c mt phn t
PDCP trn mt ti tin v tuyn c cu hnh cho mt thit b u cui di ng.
iu khin lin kt v tuyn (Radio Link Control - RLC): m nhim
vic phn on / ghp ni, iu khin vic truyn li v phn pht ln cc lp cao
hn theo th t. Khng ging nh WCDMA, giao thc RLC c nh v trong
eNodeB v. ch c mt loi node n trong kin trc mng truy nhp v tuyn LTE
(LTE radio access network architecture).RLC cung cp cc dch v cho PDCP di
dng cc ti tin v tuyn.Ch c mt phn t RLC trn mt ti tin v tuyn c cu
hnh cho mt thit b u cui di ng.
iu khin truy cp mi trng (Medium Access Control - MAC):
iu khin vic truyn li hybrid-ARQ v hoch nh ng ln, ng xung.
Chc nng hoch nh c nh v trong eNodeB, v n ch c mt phn t MAC
cho mt t bo, cho c ng ln v ng xung.Phn giao thc hybrid ARQ c
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mt trong c u cui pht v thu ca giao thc MAC. Khi MAC cung cp cc dch
v cho RLC di dng cc knh logic.
Lp vt l (Physical layer PHY): iu khin vic m ha / gii
m,iu ch / gii iu ch, nh x a anten (multi antenna mapping), v cc chc
nng lp vt l. tiu biu khc. Lp vt l cung cp dch v cho lp MAC di dng
cc knh chuyn ti (transport channels).Nhng phn sau s cung cp nhng m t
chi tit hn v cc giao thc RLC v MAC ca LTE cng nh l tng quan v lp
vt l khi c nhn t lp MAC.

3.1. PDCP: Packet Data Convergence Protocol - Giao thc hi t s liu gi
Hnh 3.2: S m t cc thnh phn ca phn mm PDCP:


Giao thc hi t s liu gi (Packet Data Convergence Protocol-PDCP):
thc hin vic nn tiu IP (IP header) lm gim s lng bit cn thit cho vic
truyn dn thng qua giao din v tuyn.
C ch nn tiu da trn ROHC, mt thut ton nn tiu tiu chun
c s dng trong WCDMA cng nh l trong cc tiu chun thng tin di ng
khc.
PDCP cng m nhim vic m ha v bo v tnh ton vn ca d liu c
truyn i. Ti pha thu, giao thc PDCP s thc hin cng vic gii nn v gii m
thng tin. Ch c mt phn t PDCP trn mt ti tin v tuyn c cu hnh cho mt
thit b u cui di ng.
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3.2. RLC: radio link control - iu khin lin kt v tuyn
RLC LTE m nhim vic phn on (nn tiu ) cc gi IP t PDCP thnh
nhng n v nh hn. RLC LTE iu khin vic truyn li cc PDUs b nhn
nhm, cng nh l xa b nhng PDUs b nhn i (duplicate removal) v ghp ni
cc PDUs nhn c. Cui cng, RLC s m bo vic phn pht theo trnh t cc RLC
SDUs ln cc lp bn trn.
C ch truyn li RLC c trch nhim cung cp d liu phn pht khng b li
cho cc lp cao hn. Mt giao thc truyn li hot ng gia cc phn t RLC ti u
thu v u pht, bng vic gim st cc s th t i n (incoming sequence numbers),
RLC thu c th pht hin ra nhng PDUs b thiu. Cc bo co trng thi s c phn
hi tr v RLC pht, yu cu truyn li cc PDUs b thiu. Khi phn hi mt trng thi
bo co c cu hnh, mt bo co c trng ch cha thng tin v PDUs v c
truyn i. Da trn bo co trng thi thu c, phn t RLC ti u pht c th a
ra nhng hnh ng thch hp v truyn li nhng PDUs b thiu nu c yu cu.
Khi RLC c cu hnh yu cu truyn li cc PDUs b thiu, n ang hot
ng trong ch bo nhn (Acknowledged Mode - AM). Thng thng AM c
s dng cho cc dch v da trn TCP nh khi truyn tp tin m yu t phn pht d
liu khng b li c t ln hng u.




Hnh 3.3: Phn on v hp on RLC

RLC cng c th c cu hnh theo ch khng bo nhn (Unacknowledged
Mode - UM) v ch trong sut (Transparent Mode - TM). Trong ch UM, RLC
s cung cp vic phn pht ng th t ln cc lp cao hn, nhng s khng truyn
li cc PDUs b thiu. Thng thng UM c s dng cho nhng dch v nh
VoIP khi m vic phn pht khng li khng quan trng bng thi gian phn pht
ngn. TM, mc d c h tr, nhng ch s dng cho nhng mc ch ring bit nh
truy cp ngu nhin.
RLC c kh nng kim sot li truyn dn do nhiu, s bin i knh truyn
khng th d on (unpredictable channel variations), nhng trong hu ht trng
hp nhng li ny c kim sot bi giao thc hybrid-ARQ da trn MAC. Vic s
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dng c ch truyn li trong RLC c th v vy m tr nn khng cn thit. Tuy
nhin, khng phi trng hp no cng vy v vic s dng c hai c ch truyn li
da trn MAC v RLC trn thc t cng c mt tch cc khi m c s khc nhau trong
vic truyn tn hiu phn hi.
RLC cung cp kh nng kim sot li v kim sot nng lng chc nng ti lp
lin kt gia cc trm di ng MS v b iu khin trm gc BSC trong cc mng
WCDMA. Ty thuc vo mng cu hnh, s tr gia MS v BSC thng thay i t 30-
100ms.
Khi RLC hot ng trong ch Tha nhn (RLC-AM), RLC nhn gi bo co
tnh trng pht RLC kim sot lung d liu. Cc bo co ny cha s th t ca cc
gi tin nhn c v mt tch (ACKs v NACKs).
Cc bit thm d kin nm trong tiu RLC-AM. Cc my pht c th thit lp
cc cuc thm d nh k khi n truyn ti PDU mi nht trong b m truyn ti, hoc
khi b m thi gian cuc thm d ht hn v mt bo co trng thi khng nhn c.
Khi mt bo co trng thi c gi bi ngi nhn , bo co tip theo khng
nn c gi trc t nht mt RTT (Round Trip Time-thi gian tr vng). iu ny l
do mi bo co tnh trng c cha NACKs tng ng vi tt c cc gi tin b thiu,
truyn li gi mo c th c kch hot nu c thi giani cho php cho truyn li.
RLC s dng mt c ch trng thi cm iu chnh vic truyn ti cc bo co tnh
trng, b m thi gian trng thi cm c thit lp mt gi tr di hn RTT trung bnh.
iu ny cho php cc RLC thc hin truyn li trc khi mt NACK mi c to ra.
Phng php ny c hai nhc im ln. Mt l vic tr hon thng bo NACK
cho cc gi d liu b mt c xc nh sau khi bo co trng thi cui cng c gi,
lm tng thi gian phc hi li. Phi mt mt thi gian nht nh gia cc pht hin ca
mt gi d liu b mt v truyn NACK tng ng, thi gian ch i ny hon ton d
tha v s c thm vo thi gian phc hi li. Nhc im th hai l vic tr hon
thng bo v cc gi tin nhn c (ACK) c th lm ngng vic truyn PDU mi.
Trong n lc gii quyt cc vn lin quan n c ch bo co tnh trng
RLC, Qualcom trnh ngh tiu chun ha 3GPP RAN WG2. V c bn, cc
tng chnh l tch ACK v NACK, khi nhn thng bo mt PDU mt tch, mt tin
nhn NACK c gi cho pha pht cha ch s th t c th ca PDU ny. Lm nh
vy, thi gian phc hi li c gim xung.
RLC cng chu trch nhim vic phn on v ghp ni. Da trn quyt nh
ca scheduler (scheduler decision), mt lng d liu no c la chn truyn
i t b m RLC SDU v cc SDUs s c phn on/ghp ni to thnh
RLC PDU. i vi LTE, kch thc RLC PDU thay i mt cch ng (varies
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dynamically),
Khi tc d liu cao, kch thc PDU ln dn n phn mo u nh hn tng
ng, khi tc d liu thp, i hi kch thc PDU nh nu khng th ti trng s tr
nn qu ln. V vy, khi tc d liu nm trong khong t mt vi kbit/s ti trn mt
trm Mbit/s, kch thc PDU ng (dynamic PDU sizes) s c iu chnh bi LTE.

3.3. iu khin truy nhp mi trng MAC(Medium Access Control)



-Lp iu khin truy nhp mi trng MAC c nhim v:
+ X l ghp knh logic.
+Cc pht li HARQ .
+Lp biu ng ln v ng xung.
3.3.1 Cc knh logic v cc knh truyn ti
a)Knh logic
MAC cung cp dch v cho RLC trong dng cc knh logic.Knh logic c
nh ngha bi kiu thng tin n mang;c nhim v truyn dn thng tin iu
khin v cu hnh cn thit vn hnh h thng LTE.
Cc knh logic ca LTE bao gm:
Knh iu khin qung b (Broadcast Control Channel - BCCH): c s
dng cho vic truyn dn thng tin iu khin h thng t mng ti tt c cc thit b
u cui di ng trong mt t bo. Trc khi truy nhp vo h thng, mt thit b
u cui di ng cn phi c nhng thng tin c truyn trn knh BCCH tm
ra cch thc h thng c cu hnh, v d nh bng thng ca h thng.
Knh iu khin tm gi (Paging Control Channel PCCH): c s dng
cho vic tm gi ca cc thit b u cui di ng m mng khng bit c v tr
ca n v mc t bo (cell level) v v vy tin nhn tm gi cn c truyn trong
nhiu t bo.
Knh iu khin dnh ring (Dedicated Control Channel DCCH): c
dng cho vic truyn dn thng tin iu khin ti hoc t thit b u cui di ng.
Knh ny c s dng cho vic cu hnh ring l tng thit b u cui di ng v
d nh nhng tin nhn chuyn giao khc nhau.
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Knh iu khin multicast (Multicast Control Channel - MCCH): c dng
cho vic truyn dn thng tin iu khin c yu cu cho vic tip nhn ca
MTCH.
Knh lu lng dnh ring (Dedicated Traffic Channel - DTCH): c dng
cho vic truyn d liu ngi dng n hoc t mt thit b u cui di ng. y l
1 loi knh logic c dng truyn d liu ngi dng ng ln v ng
xung phi-MBMS (non-MBMS).
Knh lu lng multicast (Multicast Traffic Channel MTCH): c dng
cho truyn dn ng xung nhng dch v MBMS.
b)Tp cc knh truyn ti c nh ngha trong LTE bao gm:
Knh qung b (BCH:Broadcast Channel) c mt nh dng truyn ti c
nh, c cung cp bi cc c tnh k thut. N c dng cho vic truyn dn
nhng thng tin trn knh logic BCCH.
Knh tm gi(PCH Paging channe): c dng cho vic paging thng tin trn
knh logic PCCH. Knh PCH h tr vic thu nhn khng lin tc (discontinous
reception DRX) nhm cho php thit b u cui di ng tit kim nng lng pin
bng cch ng (sleeping) v ch thc (wake up) khi nhn PCH ti nhng thi im
xc nh trc. C ch paging c m t c phn chi tit hn trong chng 5.
Knh chia s ng xung Downlink Shared Channel (DL-SCH): l knh
truyn ti c dng cho truyn dn d liu ng xung trong LTE. N h tr
nhng c tnh ca LTE nh c ch thch ng tc ng (dynamic rate adaption)
v hoch nh ph thuc knh truyn (channel-dependent scheduling) trong min
thi gian v tn s, hybrid ARQ, v ghp knh khng gian (spatial multiplexing). N
cng h tr DRX nhm lm gim nng lng tiu th thit b u cui di ng
trong khi vn cung cp tri nghim lun m (always-on experience), tng t nh
c ch CPC trong HSPA. DL-SCH TTI l 1 ms.
Knh multicast Multicast Channel (MCH): c dng h tr MBMS v
c c trng bi nh dng truyn ti bn tnh v hoch nh bn tnh (semi-static
transport format and semi-static scheduling). Trong trng hp truyn dn nhiu t
bo (multi-cell transmission) s dng MBSFN, cu hnh nh dng truyn ti v
hoch nh c iu phi gia nhng t bo lin quan trong truyn dn MBSFN.
Knh chia s ng ln Uplink shared channel (UL-SCH): l ng ln
tng ng vi DL-SCH.

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Hnh 3.4:Th d v sp xp cc knh logic ln cc knh truyn ti
3.3.2 Hoch nh ng ln.
Chc nng c bn ca scheduler ng ln th tng t vi ng xung, c th
l vic quyt nh ng (dynamically determine) cho mi khong thi gian 1 ms,
lc nhng thit b u cui di ng truyn d liu trn knh UL-SCH ca
n thuc ti nguyn ng ln (uplink resources). Hoch nh ng ln cng
c dng cho HSPA, nhng v c s khc nhau gia nhng s a truy nhp
c s dng (the different multiple-access schemes), cho nn v kha cnh ny
th HSPA v LTE c mt vi s khc bit ng k.


Hnh 3.5 : Vic la chn inh dng truyn dn trong ng xung (bn tri ) v
ng ln ( bn phi )

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Trong HSPA, ti nguyn chia s ng ln chnh l giao thoa cho php ti
trm gc. Scheduler ng ln HSPA ch thit lp mt gii hn pha trn cho s
lng giao thoa ng ln m thit b u cui di ng c php to ra. Da trn
s gii hn ny, thit b u cui di ng s t ng la chn mt nh dng
truyn dn thch hp. Chin thut ny r rng to ra s nhy cm cho ng ln
khng trc giao m trong trng hp ny l HSPA. Mt thit b u cui di ng
khng s dng tt c ti nguyn m n c cp s truyn ti mc nng lng
thp hn, bng cch y c th lm gim c nhiu ni t bo (intra-cell
interference). Do , ti nguyn chia s khng c s dng bi mt thit b u
cui di ng c th c khai thc bi mt thit b u cui di ng khc thng
qua vic ghp knh theo thng k (statistical multiplexing). V c ch la chn
nh dng truyn ti c kt hp trong thit b u cui di ng i vi ng
ln HSPA, cho nn cn phi c bo hiu ngoi bng khai bo cho eNodeB bit
v s la chn c to ra.

i vi LTE, ng ln th trc giao v ti nguyn chia s c iu
khin bi scheduler eNodeB l nhng n v ti nguyn thi gian tn s. Mt ti
nguyn c ch nh m khng c s dng trit bi mt thit b u cui
di ng no th phn ti nguyn cn li cng khng th cung cp cho mt thit
b u cui di ng khc s dng. V th, do ng ln trc giao, m li gim
i ng k trong vic cho thit b u cui di ng la chn nh dng truyn
ti khi c so snh vi HSPA. Cho nn, ngoi vic cp pht ti nguyn thi gian-
tn s cho thit b u cui di ng, scheduler eNodeB cn chu trch nhim vic
iu khin nh dng truyn dn (kch thc ti trng, s iu ch) m thit b
u cui di ng s s dng. Khi scheduler bit c nh dng truyn ti m thit
b u cui di ng s dng lc n pht i th khng cn phi bo hiu ngoi bng
t thit b u cui di ng ti eNodeB. Li nhun c c t phi cnh vng ph
sng (coverage perspective) khi tnh n chi ph trn mi bit pht i ca thng tin
iu khin ngoi bng c th cao hn ng k so vi chi ph truyn d liu khi tn
hiu iu khin cn c thu vi mt tin cy cao hn.
Mc d s tht l scheduler eNodeB s quyt nh nh dng truyn
ti cho u cui di ng, nhng c mt iu quan trng cn lu l quyt nh
hoch nh ng ln c a ra cho mi u cui di ng ch khng phi cho
mi ti tin v tuyn (radio bearer). Nh vy, mc d scheduler eNodeB iu
khin ti trng ca mt u cui di ng c hoch nh, th u cui vn
chu trch nhim la chn t nhng ti tin v tuyn no m d liu c mang
theo. Cho nn, u cui di ng s t ng iu khin vic ghp knh logic
(logical-channel multiplexing). iu ny c minh ha trong phn bn phi ca
hnh 3.4, ni m scheduler eNodeB iu khin nh dng truyn ti cn u cui
di ng iu khin vic ghp knh logic. so snh, trong tnh hung ng
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xung tng ng, khi m eNodeB iu khin c nh dng truyn dn v ghp
knh logic, c miu t bn tri hnh v.


Ghp knh ti tin v tuyn (radio-bearer) trong u cui di ng
c thc hin theo nhng quy tc, thng qua cc thng s m c th c cu
hnh bi bo hiu RRC t eNodeB. Mi ti tin v tuyn c ch nh s u
tin v tc bit u tin (prioritized bit rate). Sau u cui di ng s
thc hin ghp knh sng mang v tuyn, nh vy cc sng mang v tuyn
c x l theo th t u tin ty tc bit u tin ca chng. Nhng ti
nguyn cn li, nu c, sau khi hon thnh tc bit u tin s c a n
nhng sng mang v tuyn theo th t u tin.


tr gip cho scheduler ng ln trong mi quyt nh ca n, u
cui di ng c th pht i thng tin hoch nh (scheduling information) ti
eNode bng cch s dng mt tin nhn MAC. R rng, thng tin ny ch c th
c truyn i nu u cui di ng va c cp mt chn nhn hoch nh hp
l (a valid scheduling grant). i vi nhng trng hp khc, mt ch th khi m
u cui di ng cn ti nguyn ng ln s c cung cp nh mt phn ca
kin trc bo hiu iu khin ng ln L1/L2 (the uplink L1/L2 control-signaling
structure),


Hoch nh ph thuc knh truyn thng c s dng cho ng
xung. Trn l thuyt, k thut ny cng c th c s dng cho ng ln. Tuy
nhin, vic nh gi cht lng knh truyn ng ln th khng n gin nh
trng hp i vi ng xung. Tnh trng knh truyn ng xung c th
c o lng bi tt c u cui di ng trong t bo ch n gin bng vic theo
di tn hiu tham kho c truyn bi eNodeB v tt c cc u cui di ng c
th chia s cng tn hiu tham kho cho mc ch nh gi cht lng knh truyn.
Tuy nhin vic nh gi cht lng knh truyn ng ln li yu cu mt tn hiu
tham kho thm d (a sounding reference signal) c truyn i t mi u cui
di ng cho nhng eNodeB no mun nh gi cht lng knh truyn. Mt tn
hiu tham kho thm d nh vy c h tr bi LTE s c m t thm trong
chng 4, nhng iu ny li i km vi vn tng chi ph. V vy, nhng
phng php c cung cp cho phn tn ng ln s tr nn quan trng nh l
mt phn b sung hoc thay th cho k thut hoch nh ph thuc knh truyn
ng ln.

3.3.3 Hoch nh ng xung.
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Mt trong nhng nguyn l c bn ca truy nhp v tuyn LTE l vic
truyn dn chia s knh truyn trn DL-SCH v UL-SCH, ngha l ti nguyn thi
gian v tn s c chia s ng gia nhng ngi dng trong c ng ln v
ng xung. Scheduler l mt phn ca lp MAC v n iu khin vic phn b
ti nguyn ng ln v ng xung. Hoch nh ng ln v ng xung


c tch ri trong LTE v nhng quyt nh phn b ng ln, ng xung c
th c a ra c lp ln nhau (trong nhng gii hn c thit lp bi s phn
chia UL/DL i vi hot ng TDD). Hoch nh ng ln s c bn n
trong mc 3.3.2, trong khi phn cn li ca mc ny s tp trung vo hoch nh
ng xung.


Nguyn tc c bn cho scheduler ng xung l quyt nh ng
(dynamically determine), trong mi khong thi gian 1 ms, nhng thit b u cui
no c php thu truyn dn DL-SCH v trn nhng ti nguyn g. Nhiu thit b
u cui c th c hoch nh song song, trong mi trng hp ch c 1 DL-
SCH trn mi thit b u cui c hoch nh, v n s c nh x ng
(dynamically mapped) ti mt tp hp ti nguyn tn s duy nht. n v thi
gian-tn s c bn trong scheduler cn c gi l khi ti nguyn (resource
block). Cc khi ti nguyn c m t chi tit hn trong chng 4 cng vi vic
nh x d liu ti ti nguyn vt l, nhng v nguyn tc c bn th mt khi ti
nguyn l 1 n v rng 180 kHz trong min tn s. Trong mi khong thi gian
hoch nh 1ms, scheduler s phn b cc khi ti nguyn cho mt thit b u
cui tip nhn vic truyn dn DL-SCH, mt s phn b c s dng bi tin
trnh lp vt l s c m t trong phn sau. Scheduler cng m trch vic la
chn kch thc khi truyn ti (transport-block). Nh l mt h qu ca vic
scheduler iu khin tc d liu, m s phn on RLC v ghp knh MAC
cng s b nh hng bi quyt nh phn b (scheduling decision). u ra t
scheduler ng xung c th c nhn thy trong hnh 3.1.


Mc d chin lc hoch nh (scheduling strategy) l mt c trng b
sung v khng c ch nh bi 3GPP, mc tiu chung ca hu ht nhng
scheduler l li dng s thay i knh truyn gia nhng thit b u cui di ng
v u tin hoch nh truyn dn cho thit b u cui di ng trn nhng ti
nguyn c iu kin knh truyn thun li. V mt ny, hot ng ca scheduler
LTE v c bn th tng t vi scheduler ng xung trong HSDPA. Tuy nhin,
v s dng s truyn dn ng xung OFDM, LTE c th khai thc s bin
i knh truyn trong c min thi gian v tn s, trong khi HSDPA ch c th
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khai thc s bin i trong min thi gian. iu ny c cp n trong
chng 2 v c minh ha qua hnh 2.1. i vi nhng bng thng ln hn c
h tr bi LTE, khi m lng fading la chn tn s (frequency-selective fading)
s thng xuyn xy ra, kh nng khai thc s bin i knh ca min tn s ca
scheduler s tr nn cng quan trng khi so vi vic ch khai thc s bin i trn
min thi gian. c bit ti nhng tc thp, khi m s bin i trong min thi
gian l tng i chm so vi yu cu v tr c t ra bi nhiu dch v, lc
ny kh nng khai thc c s bin i min tn s s tr nn c li.


Thng tin v trng thi knh truyn ng xung, cn thit cho vic
hoch nh ph thuc knh truyn, c phn hi t thit b u cui di ng ti
eNodeB thng qua nhng bo co cht lng knh truyn (channel-quality
reports). Bo co cht lng knh truyn, cn c bit nh B ch th cht lng
knh truyn (Channel-Quality Indicator), bao gm nhng thng tin khng ch v
cht lng knh truyn hin thi trong min tn s, m cn nhng thng tin cn
thit cho vic a ra nhng quyt nh x l anten thch hp trong trng hp
phn knh khng gian. C s cho nhng bo co CQI l vic o lng nhng tn
hiu tham chiu ng xung (the downlink reference signals). Tuy nhin, nhng
ngun ph v hin trng knh truyn, v d nh s trao i knh truyn trong hot
ng TDD, cng c khai thc bng cch ci t mt scheduler ring bit nh
mt s b sung cho nhng bo co CQI.


Ngoi cht lng knh truyn, mt scheduler hiu nng cao cng phi cn
nhc n tnh trng b m (buffer status) v mc u tin trong quyt nh
phn b (decision scheduling). C nhng khc nhau v loi dch v cng nh l
loi thu bao (subscription type) c th gy nh hng n u tin khi hoch
nh. V d, mt ngi dng voice-over-IP vi mt ng k thu bao t tin phi
lun c duy tr cht lng dch v cho d ti trng h thng ang mc cao,
trong khi mt ngi dng ng k thu bao chi ph thp (a low-cost subscription)
ang ti v mt file c th phi c tha mn vi nhng ti nguyn m khng
c yu cu h tr cho nhng ngi dng khc.


S iu phi nhiu, s thc hin vic iu khin nhiu lin t bo trn c
s chm (slow basis) c cp n trong chng 2, cng l mt phn ca
scheduler. Khi chin lc hoch nh khng c y nhim bi nhng c tnh k
thut, s iu phi nhiu (nu c s dng) l c th ca nh khai thc v c
th nm trong phm vi t nhng trin khai ti s dng bc cao n gin (simple
higher-order reuse deployments) ti nhng s tin tin hn.

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3.3.4 Hybrid ARQ

Hybird ARQ vi kt hp mm trong LTE p ng mt mc ch tng t
vi c ch hybird-ARQ trong HSPA l cung cp sc chu ng chng li
cc li truyn dn. N cng l mt cng c nng cao nng sut. Khi m nhng
c ch truyn li hybird-ARQ l nhanh, nhiu dch v cho php mt hoc nhiu s
truyn li, bng cch thit lp mt c ch iu khin tc n (vng lp kn) (an
implicit (closed loop) rate-control mechanism). Tng t vi phng php trong
HSPA, giao thc hybrid-ARQ l mt phn ca lp MAC, trong khi hot ng kt
hp mm c iu khin bi lp vt l.

R rng, hybrid ARQ khng c p dng cho tt c cc dng lu lng.
V d, truyn dn broadcast, khi m nhng thng tin ging nhau c dnh cho
nhiu ngi dng, thng thng khng ph thuc vo hybrid ARQ. V vy, hybrid
ARQ ch c h tr cho DL-SCH v UL-SCH.


Giao thc hybrid ARQ trong LTE ging vi giao thc tng ng c s
dng cho HSPA, l vic s dng nhiu tin trnh stop-and-wait song song.
Trong lc tip nhn nhng khi truyn ti, u thu s tm cch gii m khi truyn
ti v khai bo cho u pht v kt qu ca hot ng gii m thng qua mt bit
n ACK/NAK ch th vic gii m c thnh cng hay khng hoc truyn li
khi truyn ti nu c yu cu. Nhng chi tit khc v truyn dn ACK/NAK
trong ng xung v ng ln s c tm thy trong chng 4. ti thiu
ha chi ph, mt bit n ACK/NAK c s dng. R rng, u thu phi bit bit
ACK/NAK thu c c lin kt vi tin trnh hybid-ARQ no. Hn na, iu
ny c gii quyt bng cch s dng cng mt phng php nh trong HSPA
khi thi im ca ACK/NAK c s dng kt hp ACK/NAK vi mt tin
trnh hybrid-ARQ no . iu ny c minh ha trong hnh 3.6. Ch rng, i
vi trng hp hot ng TDD, mi quan h v thi gian gia vic tip nhn d
liu trong mt tin trnh hybrid-ARQ no v vic truyn dn ACK/NAK th
khng b nh hng bi s phn b ng ln/ng xung.


Tng t vi HSPA, mt giao thc khng ng b l c s cho hot ng
hybrid-ARQ ng xung. V vy, s truyn li ng xung c th xy ra ti
mi thi im sau khi vic truyn dn c khi to v mt con s tin trnh
hybrid-ARQ tng minh (an explicit hybrid-ARQ process number) c s dng
ch th tin trnh no ang c nh a ch (addressed). S truyn li ng
ln, mt khc, li da trn mt giao thc ng b v s truyn li xy ra ti mt
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thi gian xc nh trc sau khi khi to qu trnh truyn dn v s tin trnh
(process number) c th nhn c hon ton. Hai trng hp c minh ha
trong hnh 3.5. Trong giao thc hybrid-ARQ khng ng b, s truyn li trn l
thuyt c hoch nh tng t vi vic khi to qu trnh truyn dn. Mt khc
trong giao thc ng b, thi im truyn li c c nh mt ln khi khi u
qu trnh truyn dn c hoch nh, phi c tnh n cho hot ng hoch
nh. Tuy nhin, ch rng scheduler s phn bit t phn t hybrid-ARQ trong
eNodeB u cui di ng no s thc hin truyn li hay khng.









Hnh 3.6 Giao thc hybrid-ARQ ng b v khng ng b.



Hnh 3.7 Nhiu tin trnh hybrid-ARQ song song.

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Vic s dng nhiu tin trnh hybird-ARQ song song, c minh ha
trong hnh 3.6, cho mi ngi dng c th dn n s khng lin tc v d liu
c phn phi t c ch hybrid-ARQ. V d, khi truyn ti th 5 trong hnh
c gii m thnh cng trc khi truyn ti th 3, khi m vic truyn li c
yu cu. V vy, i hi phi c mt vi dng c ch sp xp li (some form of
reordering mechanism). Sau khi gii m thnh cng, khi truyn ti c phn
knh thnh cc knh logic thch hp v thc hin vic sp xp li trn mi knh
logic bng cch s dng cc s th t (sequence numbers). Ngc li, HSPA dng
mt con s th t MAC ring bit cho vic sp xp li. Nguyn nhn ca vic ny
l do s ph tr cho WCDMA v nhng l do v vn tng thch ngc, kin
trc RLC hoc MAC vn c gi nguyn khi gii thiu HSPA. Mt khc, i vi
LTE, cc lp giao thc c thit k ng thi, dn n c t gii hn hn trong
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thit k. Tuy nhin, nguyn l ng sau s sp xp li th tng t i vi cc h
thng, ch c s th t c s dng l khc nhau.


C ch hybrid-ARQ s sa nhng li truyn dn do nhiu hoc do nhng bin
i knh truyn khng d on c (noise or unpredictable channel
variations). Nh c tho lun trn, RLC cng c kh nng yu cu truyn li,
m khi mi nghe ln u th c v l khng cn thit. Tuy nhin, mc d s truyn
li RLC him khi cn thit khi m c ch hybrid-ARQ da trn MAC c kh nng
sa hu ht cc li truyn dn, nhng hybrid-ARQ i khi c th tht bi trong vic
phn phi cc khi d liu m khng b li ti RLC, gy ra mt khong trng (gap)
trong th t ca cc khi d liu khng li (error-free data blocks) c phn phi
ti RLC. iu ny thng xy ra do tn hiu phn hi b sai, v d, mt NAK c th
hin sai thnh mt ACK bi u pht, l nguyn nhn ca vic mt mt d liu. Xc
sut xy ra iu ny c th trong khong 1%, mt xc sut li rt cao i vi nhng
dch v da trn TCP yu cu vic phn phi cc gi TCP gn nh l khng c
li. Mt cch c th hn, ngha l i vi nhng tc d liu c duy tr trn 100
Mbit/s th xc sut mt gi d liu chp nhn c phi thp hn 10
-5
. V c bn,
TCP xem tt c cc li v gi d liu l do s tt nghn. Cc li v gi d liu v vy
s kch hot c ch trnh tc nghn, vi mt s tng ln tng ng v tc d liu,
v duy tr cht lng tt ti nhng tc d liu cao, RLC-AM s p ng mt mc
tiu quan trng cho vic m bo phn phi d liu khng b li ti TCP.


V vy, t nhng tho lun trn, l do c hai c ch truyn li nh trn
c th c hiu r trong phn tn hiu phn hi. Tuy c ch hybrid-ARQ thc hin
vic truyn li rt nhanh, n cng cn thit phi gi mt bit bo co tnh trng
ACK/NAK ti u pht cng nhanh cng tt mt ln cho mi chu k TTI. Mc d
trn l thuyt c th t c mt xc sut li thp theo mong mun v phn hi
ACK/NAK, nhng nhng xc sut li rt thp li i km vi chi ph tng i cao
v mt cng sut truyn dn ACK/NAK. Vic gi chi ph ny mt cch hp l thng
thng dn n mt t l li phn hi (a feedback error rate) trong khong 1% v
nh vy s quyt nh n t l li d hybrid-ARQ (the hybrid-ARQ residual error
rate). Tuy nhng bo co trng thi RLC c pht i t thng xuyn ng k so vi
ACK/NAK hybrid-ARQ, nhng chi ph ca vic t c tin cy 10
-5
hoc thp
l kh nh. V vy, vic phi hp hybrid ARQ vi RLC mang li mt s kt hp tt
gia thi gian kh hi (roundtrip time) nh v chi ph phn hi va phi khi m hai
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thnh phn ny b sung cho nhau.

V RLC v hybrid ARQ c nh v trong cng mt node, cho nn kh nng
tng tc gia chng tr nn cht ch hn. V d, nu c ch hybrid-ARQ pht hin
c mt li khng th phc hi, vic truyn mt bo co trng thi RLC c th ngay
lp tc c kch hot thay v phi i pht i mt bo co trng thi theo nh k.
iu ny s khin cho RLC truyn li cc PDUs b mt nhanh hn. Cho nn, trong
mt mc no , vic kt hp hybrid ARQ v RLC c th xem nh l mt c ch
truyn li vi hai c ch phn hi trng thi.


Trn l thuyt, c cng mt s tranh lun c to ra i vi trng hp
tng ng trong HSPA. Tuy nhin, vic RLC v hybrid ARQ c nh v ti
nhng node khc nhau trong HSPA nhn chung s lm cho s tng tc gia chng
tr nn khng cht ch.

3.4 PHY: physical layer - lp vt l


Chc nng ca lp vt l l chu trch nhim cho vic m ha, x l hybrid-ARQ
lp vt l (physical-layer hybrid-ARQ processing), iu ch, x l a anten (multi-
antenna processing), v nh x tn hiu ti nhng ti nguyn thi gian-tn s vt l
thch hp. Mt ci nhn n gin v vic x l DL-SCH c a ra trong hnh
3.7.Cc khi lp vt l c iu khin ng (dynamically controlled) bi lp MAC
c th hin bng mu xm, cn nhng khi vt l c cu hnh bn tnh c th
hin bng mu trng.




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Hnh 3.8 M hnh x l lp vt l n gin cho DL-SCH
Khi mt u cui di ng c hoch nh trong mt chu k TTI trn knh DL-
SCH, lp vt l s nhn mt khi truyn ti (hai khi truyn ti trong trng hp
ghp knh khng gian) mang d liu truyn i. Vi mi khi truyn ti, mt
CRC s c nh km v mi khi truyn ti c nh km CRC nh vy c m
ha ring bit vi nhau. Tc m ha knh, bao gm tc ph hp cn thit,
hon ton c quyt nh bi kch thc khi truyn ti, s iu ch (the
modulation scheme), v lng ti nguyn c cp pht cho vic truyn dn. Tt c
nhng i lng ny c la chn bi scheduler ng xung. Phin bn d tha
(redundancy version) c dng c iu khin bi giao thc hybrid- ARQ v n
s tc ng n qu trnh x l thch ng tc (the rate matching processing)
to ra tp hp cc bit c m ha chnh xc. Cui cng, trong trng hp ghp
knh khng gian, vic nh x anten cng c iu khin bi scheduler ng
xung.


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Hnh 3.9 M hnh x l lp vt l n gin cho UL-SCH
u cui di ng c hoch nh thu tn hiu c pht i v thc hin tin
trnh lp vt l ngc li. Lp vt l ti u cui di ng cng thng bo cho giao thc
hybrid-ARQ bit vic truyn dn c c gii m thnh cng hay khng. Thng tin
ny c s dng bi mt phn ca chc nng MAC hybrid-ARQ trong u cui di
ng quyt nh c yu cu truyn li hay khng.


Vic x l lp vt l i vi knh UL-SCH gn ging vi vic x l DL-SCH. Tuy
nhin, ch rng scheduler MAC trong eNodeB chu trch nhim la chn nh
dng truyn ti cho u cui di ng v ti nguyn c s dng cho truyn dn
ng ln nh c miu t trong mc 3.2.3. Vic x l lp vt l UL-SCH c th
hin di dng n gin qua hnh 3.8.


Cc knh truyn ti ng xung cn li cng da trn cng mt quy trnh x l
lp vt l chung nh DL-SCH, mc d c mt s gii hn trong tp hp nhng tnh
nng c s dng. i vi vic qung b thng tin h thng trn knh BCH, mt u
cui di ng phi c kh nng thu c knh thng tin ny nh l mt trong nhng
bc u tin trc khi truy cp vo h thng. Do , nh dng truyn ti phi
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c u tin gi ti cc thit b u cui, v s khng c mt s iu khin ng t
ng (dynamic control) no ti cc tham s truyn dn t lp MAC trong trng hp
ny.
i vi truyn dn cc thng ip nhn gi (paging messages) trn knh PCH, s
thch ng ng ca cc tham s truyn dn c th c s dng trong mt vi phm
vi. Ni chung, vic x l trong trng hp ny th tng t vi vic x l DL-SCH
thng thng. MAC c th iu khin vic iu ch, lng ti nguyn, v nh x
anten. Tuy nhin, trong trng hp ng ln cha c thit lp khi mt u cui
di ng c tm gi, th hybrid ARQ khng th c s dng v lc ny u cui di
ng khng th pht i mt thng bo ACK/NAK.


Knh MCH c dng cho truyn dn MBMS, in hnh l nhng hot ng mng
n tn s bng vic truyn t nhiu t bo trn cng ti nguyn vi nh dng ging
nhau ti cng 1 thi im. V vy, vic hoch nh truyn dn MCH phi c iu
phi gia nhng t bo lin quan v c ch la chn t ng tham s truyn dn bi
MAC l khng th thc hin c.














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KT LUN

Cng ngh LTE v ang c tip tc nghin cu v trin khai trn ton th
gii vi kh nng truyn d liu tc cao, kin trc mng n gin, s dng bng tn
hiu qu v hon ton tng thch vi cc h thng trc (GSM & WCDMA ) v da
trn mt mng ton IP. LTE c th tr thnh h thng thng tin di ng ton cu trong
tng lai.
LTE pht trin sau so vi WiMax, nhng vi cc c tnh tuyt vi m n mang
li, hin nay c rt nhiu cc nh mng ln trn th gii la chn trin khai. Ti
Vit Nam, cc nh mng cng tin hnh th nghim cng ngh LTE v t nhng kt
qu kh quan.
V vy vic tm hiu v nm bt cng ngh LTE l vic lm ht sc cn thit trong
ngnh vin thng hin nay.

TI LIU THAM KHO:

o Gio trnh Thng tin di ng tc gi Nguyn Phm Anh Dng
o Bi ging truyn dn v tuyn s - tc gi Nguyn Vit m
o Bi ging Tin trnh pht trin h thng thng tin di ng t 1G ln 4G tc gi
Nguyn Phm Anh Dng
o Cc trang web :
http://www.tapchibcvt.gov.vn/News/PrintView.aspx?ID=22272
http://www.vienthongdanang.com.vn/dichvu.php?id_dichvu=120&iddv=26
http://www.thongtincongnghe.com/article/2745
o Cng 1 s ngun ti liu cc n , chuyn vin thng trn internet khc.