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Topic Cell Theory

1. What is Cell Theory

Cells are the basic building blocks of all living things.
An average cell is between 0.01 and 0.1 millimetres across.
You need to use a microscope to see cells.
All cells come from pre-existing cells.
All organisms are composed of one or more cells (Schleiden+Schwann)
The cell is the basic unit of life in all living things (Schleiden+Schwann)
All cells are produced by the division of pre-existing cells (Virchow)

2. Contribution to the cell theory by Hooke, Janssen, Leeuwenhoek, Schleiden and
Schwann and Virchow

Scientist Contributions
Robert Hooke Discovered cells while looking at a thin slice of cork
Described cells as tiny boxes/ honeycomb
Thought cells only existed in plants and fungi
Hans and Janssen Produced first compound microscope by combining 2 convex lenses
within a tube
Leeuwenhoek Used handmade microscope to observe pond scum and discovered single
celled organisms (animalcules)
Observed blood cells from fish, birds, frogs, dogs, humans
Schleiden Concluded that all plant parts are made up of cells
Schwaan Stated that all animal tissues are made of cells
Virchow Concluded cells must arise from pre-existing cells (omnis cellula e cellula)

3. Label a microscope and describe the function of the various parts

Part Function
Iris lever Controls lighting
Arm Holds microscope/acts as handle when carrying
Stage Where you place the slide
Eyepiece When you look through, magnifies image x10
Coarse focus Moves body tube up/down for focusing
Fine focus Moves body tube up/ down for more detail
Base Supports and stabilises microscope
Light Provides the light required to view the image
Iris diaphragm Controls amount of light passing through object
Stage Platform where slide is positioned
Objective lens Used to see detail of the specimen. Can be low/ high power
Nose piece Can be rotated to choose different objective lens
4. Differences between a monocular and binocular light microscope
Monocular Microscope:
One eyepiece lens
Choice of 2 or 3 objective lenses of different magnification
Used for examining thin specimens on glass slides
Can be magnified up to 200-400 times their normal size
As light passes through, image is formed on the retina
Binocular microscope:
Two eyepiece lenses
Gives a more three-dimensional effect
Used to examine larger specimens
Less magnification
Light reflects off these specimens before it enters the lens system of the microscope

5. Rules for using a Microscope
Always carry a microscope with 2 hands- one hand holding the arm, the other
supporting the base
Place the microscope securely on the bench, away from direct sunlight
Look at the microscope side on to wind the body to its lowest point, then focus by
winding the body tube upwards. This will prevent the glass slide from breaking
Always begin with the lowest magnification, then work your way up
6. Field of View
When looking into a microscope, the field of view changes, depending on the magnification
youre using. As the magnification increases, the field of view decreases. This means that you
see less of the specimen you are viewing, but in for more detail. The higher the magnification
of the objective lens, the more detailed the image.
Benefits of Low Magnification:
A) You get to see a larger field of view.
B) It's the better way to see moving objects.
* How to work out the total magnification of a microscope: You multiply the magnification of
the eyepiece by the multiplication of the lens youre using. So for example, if the eyepiece is
10x and the lens is 40x, that will create a magnification of 400x.
7. Different cells
Organelle which carries out respiration in cells: The mitochondria
Organelle which carries out photosynthesis in cells: Chloroplast
Difference between plant and animal cell
1.Plant cells are larger than animal cells.
2.Plant cells have chloroplasts
3.Plant cells have a cell wall
4. Plant cells have a larger vacuole
5. Plant cells have plastids
8. Unicellular and Multi-cellular Organisms
A unicellular organism is made up of only one kind of cell capable of performing all the
required functions, whereas a multi-cellular organism is made up of many cells, like in our
case, there are about 100 trillion cells in our body
9. Osmosis and Diffusion
Diffusion is the movement of particles from an area of high concentration to an area of low
concentration without using energy
Osmosis is the movement of water molecules from an area of high concentration to low
10. Cells Tissues and Organs
Cells: The cell is the smallest unit of life. All living things are made of cells. One kind of cell
creates one kind of tissue.
Tissues: Tissues are large groups of cells all doing the same job.
Organs: Organs are groups of tissues that work together to do a job.
Organism: An individual life form
11. Why multi-cellular organisms require specialised organs and systems
All the life processes in a unicellular organism take place in that one cell. Multicellular
organisms need organ systems to carry out functions such as:
Communication between cells, eg the nervous system and circulatory system
Supplying the cells with nutrients, eg the digestive system
Controlling exchanges with the environment, eg the respiratory system and excretory system
12. Distinguish between the microbes
Bacteria: A simple, tiny cell that can have either a good or bad effect. It is made up of a cell
wall, cell membrane and cytoplasm. No nucleus. The three basic shapes are cocci (spherical),
bacillus (rod-shaped) and spirilla (spiral). Divide by fission.
Viruses: Much smaller than other microbes. Structure contains a protein coat surrounding a
chemical that contains the instructions of building a new virus.
Fungi: Moulds made up of thread like structures. They feed on dead and decaying
material, helping to return nutrients to the natural cycles of the environment.
Protists: Single-celled organisms that live in water and areas of high moisture. Make their own
food using energy in sunlight.
13. Difference between fungi and bacterial colonies on an agar plate
Fungal colonies are usually fuzzy-looking, irregular in outline, and grey or black. They can also
be quite large. Any colony over a half inch in diameter is most likely a fungus. Bacterial
colonies are typically small with clearly defined edges. They may be a variety of colors,
including white. They may appear smooth or rough but not fuzzy.
Bacterial colonies are generally roundish and small. They can grow to touch each other if the
specimen is left too long. They can be colourful, especially in differential media.
Mold is fuzzy and can overgrow the whole plate. It can be other colours too.

Define binary fission
Binary fission is the form of asexual reproduction and cell division used by all prokaryotic and
eukaryotic organisms.
It is the division of the cell into two parts and each have the potential to grow to the size of the
original cell.
Process which bacteria divides:

14. Reproduction of Viruses
Virus comes into contact with a host cell. It hijacks the cell, forcing it to become a virus factory.
When it is full of new viruses, it bursts open releasing the viruses. They then go on to infect
more cells. (Refer to image)
15. Labelled fungus

16. Beneficial effects of microbes
-Play an important role in food production
-Can be used to treat and prevent diseases
-The microbes that live on us protect us from harmful microbes
-Can produce important vitamins for our body
-Can purify water
-Can reduce atmosphere nitrogen

17. Harmful effects of microbes and how they can be minimised
-Microbes can harmfully affect the human body, areas in the home, clothing and food
-Lung infections and allergic reactions can develop if fungi grow in common areas
-Bacteria and fungi can create odours affecting clothing and footwear
-Common diseases created by microbes result in the most deaths worldwide
18. Role of micro-organisms in soil fertility
Organic matter together with microbes and nutrients can be applied from an external source.
In the latter case, the microbes metabolize the organic matter turning it into humus. This
process replenishes and maintains long term soil fertility by providing optimal conditions for
soil biological activity.
""As the microbes metabolize organic matter, they help maintain good soil structure by
developing compounds that cement small soil particles together into aggregates, allowing for
both increased drainage and moisture retention. Microbes also change the organic matter into
inorganic nutrients that can be used by growing plants. " "
19. Reproduction methods of Microbes:
Bacteria: Cell division and binary fission. Parent cell divides into 2 identical daughter cells.

Procedure to Making a Wet Mount
1. Place specimen on microscope slide.
2. Place three drops of liquid (e.g. iodine) on the specimen.
3. Place coverslip onto slide, on its side, beside the specimen
and liquid.
4. Cover the coverslip slowly to avoid air bubbles
5. Blot away excess liquid from beside the coverslip with
absorbent paper.