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LA CRISIS DE ANSIEDAD, PANICO O ANGUSTIA (Y AGORAFOBIA)

Edvard Munch, "El Grito" (1893).


La Crisis de
Ansiedad, Pnico o
Angustia.
Adherida a los Principios del Cdigo HONcode
de Health On the Net Foundation
Esta pgina est dedicada a divulgar informacin acerca de las crisis de ansiedad (crisis y trastorno de angustia, ataque de
pnico) y agorafobia. Trabajando su autor en un Servicio Pblico de Salud, no tienen un objetivo comercial, no estn
patrocinadas por ninguna compaa, ni pretende dirigir potenciales pacientes a ningn tipo de consulta. Redactada con nimo
divulgativo, no recoge totalmente los conocimientos actuales en relacin con el tema. Busca el mayor eclecticismo terico, siendo
posible que no se haga justicia suficiente a un determinado modelo. Nunca podr sustituir a la evaluacin, consejo o tratamiento
individualizado por un especialista adecuado, recomendndose se sigan las eventuales indicaciones que dicho especialista pueda
sugerir en un momento determinado.
Indice de Contenidos
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LA CRISIS DE ANSIEDAD, PANICO O ANGUSTIA (Y AGORAFOBIA)
1. INTRODUCCION
2. DEFINICIONES
2.2.1 Ejemplo de Sntomas
2.2.2 Ejemplo de Pensamientos
2.7.1 Ejemplo de Fobias
3. FRECUENCIA DE APARICION 4. CAUSAS
5. RIESGOS ASOCIADOS 6. TRATAMIENTOS FARMACOLOGICOS
7. TRATAMIENTOS PSICOTERAPEUTICOS 8. ASOCIACIONES DE AUTOAYUDA
9. ESTRATEGIAS DE SUPERACION PERSONAL 10. RECURSOS EN INTERNET
11. (Agora Pblica) 12. AUTOEVALUACION DE CONOCIMIENTOS
13. CASOS


LIBRO DE VISITAS
Me gustara saber que ha pasado por aqu, pero sobre todo me interesa su opinin
(favorable o desfavorable) o posibles sugerencias.
Si considera que la pgina le ha interesado por algo, o que puede mejorarse de alguna
forma, por favor, no dude en dedicar un minuto a exponer su opinin. Estoy seguro de que
ser de mucha ayuda, inters y motivacin para su mantenimiento y mejora.
(Utilice el Libro de Visitas exclusivamente para dar su opinin en relacin con la pgina. Si quiere dejar cualquier otro tipo de mensaje
o notificacin dirigido a otras posibles personas interesadas o contactar con ellas, utilice el Agora Pblica, donde encontrar un Tabln
de Mensajes con este fin, as como una utilidad "Chat" para charlar en directo).

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LA CRISIS DE ANSIEDAD, PANICO O ANGUSTIA (Y AGORAFOBIA)
Firmar el "Libro de Visitas"
Ver el "Libro de Visitas"
Ver el "Libro de Visitas Antiguo" (Hasta
Nov. 2000)
Ver "otro Libro de Visitas" (Nov-Dic. 2000)
Ver "otro Libro de Visitas" (En-Feb. 2001)

Desafortunadamente me resulta imposible responder de forma individualizada a posibles
dudas o consultas particulares.
En caso de necesitar una aclaracin de alguno de los contenidos de la pgina, puede
dirigir su pregunta de forma concreta y puntual al Dr. Eizmendi, quien de forma totalmente
desinteresada y sin ningn compromiso por ambas partes, se ha ofrecido a intentar
responderle. Por favor, realice nicamente preguntas concretas y no espere un
seguimiento de su caso particular


Los contenidos principales de esta pgina (Cap. 1 a 9 y 12) han sido editados por SmithKline
Beecham, con la colaboracin de
Osasun Mentalaren Elkartea - Asociacin de Salud Mental
para su distribucin gratuita por Mdicos de Atencin Primaria y Psiquiatras entre
personas afectadas por el problema (La Crisis de Pnico y Trastorno de Angustia. Manual
para el paciente. Madrid, 1999).
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LA CRISIS DE ANSIEDAD, PANICO O ANGUSTIA (Y AGORAFOBIA)
Premio "Mejor pgina Top10" Categora de Especialidades y
Enfermedades. Nov. 1998
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LA CRISIS DE ANSIEDAD, PANICO O ANGUSTIA (Y AGORAFOBIA)
Tiene un mapa del mundo, donde cada vez que se ilumina un pas, hace referencia a una muerte por hambre.
Donaciones en alimentos.

Esta pgina forma parte del anillo contra el pnico y agorafobia: PAN-illo
[5 Sitios atrs | Anterior | Siguiente | 5 Sitios adelante | Sitio al azar | Listado de
Sitios ]
(PAN-illo est en desarrollo en la actualidad. Si desea que su pgina Web participe, pulse aqu)
pnico (y agorafobia) en espaol
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2001-2004 WebRing Inc. - Help - Browse WebRing
1997 - 2004 Dr. Oscar Martnez Azumendi. Permitida su reproduccin, siempre que esta no tenga fines econmicos y se cite su
procedencia. Cualquier comentario o sugerencia ser bien recibido, aunque teniendo la pgina un nimo meramente informativo no
podrn responderse consultas particulares.

visitas desde Octubre de 1997

Ultima actualizacin: Enero 2000



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Online Dictionary of Mental Health

[ SEARCH > A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z < SEARCH ]
The Online Dictionary of Mental Health is a global information resource and research tool covering all
of the disciplines contributing to our understanding of mental health . The Dictionary is an exercise in
democratic psychiatry in keeping with the traditions of the host site. Therefore there are no definitions
here; instead there are links to many sites offering different viewpoints on issues in mental health, which
are accessible using the A-Z links above. The Centre for Psychotherapeutic Studies does not vouch for
the accuracy of the contents of any of the sites to which links are provided, and inclusion of a site here
does not necessarily constitute an endorsement by the Centre. For a range of general and medical dictionaries, a thesaurus,
and many other internet links and search tools please try our library. Elsewhere on the site you will also find details of our
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The Centre for Psychotherapeutic Studies is a postgraduate research and clinical training institute within the Medical
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A - Online Dictionary of Mental Health
Top Ten Bestsellers (continuously updated): abuse, adhd, adoption, aging, aids, alcoholism,
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conversion disorders, counseling psychology, cults, death and dying, depression, dissociative
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grief, learning disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder, parenting, personality disorders,
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G Aarhus Psychology Department
G Abuse (Sexual, Physical, Emotional)
G Academic Psychology Departments in Britain and Ireland
G Academy of Counseling Psychology
"This site will attempt to inform you about our organization, provide helpful links to other
sites we think will be of interest and allow you to interact with the Board's leadership via e-
mail. You are encouraged to return here frequently to view announcements or news of our
profession. "
G Academy of Organizational and Occupational Psychiatry
G Addiction - Stanton Peele's Alternative Perspective
The Stanton Peele Addiction Web Site represents the extensive writings of Stanton Peele, a pioneering
and radical researcher and writer in the addictions. This site includes both popular and professional
articles, a question page, controversies in which Dr. Peele is very actively involved, chapters from both
Stanton's popular and academic books (like "Love and Addiction" and "The Meaning of Addiction"), and
accolades and "brickbats" from pro and con readers. The site is updated monthly.
G Classical Adlerian Psychology
"Classical Adlerian psychology is a values-based, fully-integrated, theory of personality,
model of psychopathology, philosophy of living, strategy for preventative education, and
technique of psychotherapy. Its mission is to encourage the development of
psychologically healthy and cooperative individuals, couples, and families, in order to
effectively pursue the ideals of social equality and democratic living . A vigorously
optimistic and inspiring approach to psychotherapy, it balances the equally important
needs for individual optimal development and social responsibility."
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A - Online Dictionary of Mental Health
G Adlerian Psychotherapy
G Administrators in Academic Psychiatry
G Adolescence
G Adoption
G Against Biologic Psychiatry
Online article.
G Aging
G AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome)
G Alabama Psychological Association
G Alaska Community Cache
The grad students at UAF in Community Psychology have initiated a new site called the Alaska community
Cache for sharing information concerning rural issues in prevention and research.
G Alcoholism
G The Alfred Adler Institute of New York
G Alfred Adler Institute
San Francisco: Excellent online resource.
G Alliance for the Mentally Ill
"We are family members of; or people with, neurobiological disorders ("NBD", formerly known as
'mental' illnesses) like schizophrenia, manic depression, major depression, obsessive compulsive
disorder , borderline personality disorder, etc. We get together to help each other. The criteria as to
whether or not something gets on this Web Site is how useful it is to individuals like us. To receive
updates, and support our efforts to improve care, please join our movement."
G Alzheimer's Disease
G American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
"These pages have been designed to keep you informed of current AACAP events, as well as
offer access to various AACAP literature."
G American Academy of Neurology
G American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law (AAPL)
G American Academy of Psychotherapists
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A - Online Dictionary of Mental Health
Aims of the Academy: To provide a meeting ground for trained and experienced practicing
psychotherapists of widely differing backgrounds and orientations. To facilitate cross discipline thinking,
planning and research in psychotherapy. To encourage and sponsor significant research into the
fundamental problems of psychotherapy, and particularly to aid cooperative research projects in the field.
To encourage high standards of training, experience, and ethical practice in psychotherapy, in order to
provide maximum service and protection for the public as well as maximum professional growth for the
practitioner.
G American Art Therapy Association
G American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry
G American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy
G American Association for the Advancement of Science
G American Association of Electrodiagnostic Medicine
G American Association of Pastoral Counselors
"The American Association of Pastoral Counselors (AAPC) represents and sets professional
standards for over 3,200 Pastoral Counselors and more than 100 pastoral counseling centers
in the United States. AAPC was founded in 1963 as an organization which certifies Pastoral
Counselors, accredits pastoral counseling centers, and approves training programs. It is non-sectarian and
respects the spiritual commitments and religious traditions of those who seek assistance without imposing
counselor beliefs onto the client."
G American Association of Psychiatric Technicians
G American Association of Psychotherapists
G American Association of Suicidology
G American Board of Examiners in Clinical Social Work
G American Board of Mental Health Diagnostics
G American Board of Professional Neuropsychology
G American Board of Professional Psychology
G American Counseling Association
"The American Counseling Association is an educational, scientific and professional
organization whose members are dedicated to the enhancement of human development
throughout the life span. Association members recognize diversity in our society and embrace
a cross-cultural approach in support of the worth, dignity, potential, and uniqueness of each
individual."
G American Dance Therapy Association
G American Journal of Psychiatry
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A - Online Dictionary of Mental Health
Tables of contents and abstracts only.
G American Journal of Psychotherapy
The pages include a table of contents and abstracts for the last 3 years as well as announcements for
conferences sponsored by the Journal.
G American Medical Association
"Visit AMA Health Insight, your link to health and medical resources; use AMA Physician Select to
locate a doctor by name, specialty and location from over 650,000 physicians licensed to practice in the
US. We are pleased to bring AMA Health Insight to the Web as a public service made possible by AMA
members -- physicians dedicated to the health of America."
Search the public areas of this web site
G The American Medical Specialty Organization, Inc.
Managed Care Forum web page.
G American Mental Health Alliance
A provider organization of over 2,000 practitioners.
G American Psychiatric Association
"The American Psychiatric Association is a national medical specialty society whose 39,500
physician members specialize in the diagnosis and treatment of mental and emotional
disorders and substance abuse. The APA's organizational objectives include the advancement
and improvement of care for persons with mental illnesses through nationwide public information,
education, and awareness programs and materials."
G American Psychiatric Association - Continuing Medical Education
The American Psychiatric Association has a symposium on New Clinical Approaches for Treating Anxiety and
Depression which can be found at the following url: http://www.psych.org. In another month, they will be adding a
symposium on Practical Clinical Strategies for Refractory Depression, Agitation, and Antidepressant Side Effects.
Silverhill Hospital in New Canaan, CT has a symposium on the Office Treatment of Anxieties, Mood Disorder and
Schizophrenia at the following url: http://www.silverhillhospital.com.
G American Psychiatric Nurses Association
G The American Psychiatric Press Inc.
Best selling books in psychiatry; DSM IV software on disk and CD ROM for Windows and Mac..
G The American Psychoanalyst
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A - Online Dictionary of Mental Health
The Newsletter of the American Psychoanalytic Association.
G American Psychoanalytic Association
"The American Psychoanalytic Association is a professional organization of psychoanalysts throughout
the United States. The Association is comprised of Affiliate Societies and Training Institutes in many
cities and has about 3,000 individual members. We are a Regional Association of the International
Psychoanalytical Association."
"The APsaA's Jourlit and Bookrev databases, originated by Drs. Stanley Goodman and Vann Spruiell,
together constitute a huge BIBLIOGRAPHY of psychoanalytic journal articles, books, and book reviews.
Including files supplied by others, the complete set of references consists almost 30,000 entries.There is
no consolidated index of this vast literature. Over the past 10 years we have found it useful to access the
literature by searching by computer within the bibliographic listings for key words in titles and author
names."
Enter a search word or words:
G American Psychological Association
"PsychNET is the Internet service of the American Psychological Association. We are
continuing to regularly add a great deal of material here for the public and members. Please
add us to your bookmarks and visit often."
G American Psychological Society
G Amnesia Research Laboratory
University of Illinois at Champaign-Urbana
G American Sleep Disorders Association
G The American Society of Clinical Hypnosis
G Selected Stories from the APA Monitor
Newspaper of the American Psychological Association - very good coverage of US Psychology.
G Animal Behaviour Society
G Anxiety Disorders Association of American
G Any Psych Book (Online Psychology Bookstore)
"Order virtually any book written for mental health and applied behavioral science professionals.
Reasonable prices, rapid shipping, personalized service - 50,000 book catalogue."
G Anti-Psychiatry
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G Anxiety
G The Arc Home Page
Leading advocacy group in the U.S. for people with mental retardation in their families.
G Archives of General Psychiatry
"Archives of General Psychiatry is the psychiatry journal most frequently cited in scientific
literature. Many of its peer-reviewed, original articles deal with the biological origin of
mental disorders and pharmaceutical therapy. Long-term, multicenter studies and an
emphasis on the diagnosis and treatment of illnesses encountered in the clinical setting are
Archives hallmarks. Features such as "Perspectives" help clinicians distill complex studies,
and "News and Views" present recent developments that may significantly impact
psychiatric practice."
G Art as a Healing Force
This site is about art and healing, it is different from art therapy, it is about the creative arts as healing is
themselves.
G Art Therapy in Canada
"Art Therapy In Canada website is Canada's first Art Therapy resource page on the Internet. Those
interested in Art Therapy will find Art Therapy workshops, conferences, and associations in Canada listed
along with journals, books, international Art Therapy links and much more! These pages are updated
weekly".
G Asian American Psychological Association
G Asperger's Syndrome
G Assertive Community Treatment/Case Management
This site describes the history, characteristics, program features and extended bibliography of Assertive
Community Treatment/Case Management systems around the world
G Asociacion de Psicoterapia Analytica Grupal
On Group Analytic Psychotherapy - Home page of the Asociacion de Psicoterapia Analytica Grupal -A.P.
A.G. Information, texts, announcements. In Spanish.
G Association for Advanced Training in the Behavioral Sciences
G The Association for Psychoanalytic Medicine
The APM is a member society of the Americal Psychoanalytic Association.
G Association for Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback
G Association for Comprehensive Neurology
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A - Online Dictionary of Mental Health
The Association for Comprehensive Neurology publishes a quarterly newsletter, Latitudes, dedicated to
exploring advanced and alternative approaches to attention disorders, hyperactivity, Tourette Syndrome,
autism, and learning disabilities.
G Association for Continuing Education in Psychology
G Association for Death Education and Counseling
G Association for Humanistic Psychology
G Association for Process Psychology
A new organization designed to bring together people and institutions who seek to integrate Alfred North Whitehead's
process thought with the field of psychology broadly construed.
G Association for Psychological Type
G Association for Pre- & Perinatal Psychology and Health
"You've found the path to the treasures of birth psychology. In these pages you'll be able to explore the many mental and
emotional dimensions of pregnancy and birth in everything from scholarly articles to personal stories and late-breaking
headlines."
G Association for the Scientific Study of Consciousness
G Association for the Study of Dreams
The Association for the Study of Dreams is a professional society devoted to the examination of
mentation during sleep.
G Association for Transpersonal Psychology
G Association of American Physicians and Surgeons
G Association of Black Psychologists
G Association of Managed Care Providers
G Association of Neuroscience Departments & Programs
G Association of Occupational Therapists in Mental Health
G Association of Psychology Postdoctoral and Internship Centers
G Association of State and Provincial Psychology Boards
G At Health
At Health provides behavioral health care information, resources, a directory of licensed mental health
professionals, and continuing education information.
G Attachment - InterPsych Forum ATTACH
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G Attachment Research Centre
Infant psychiatry.
G Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADD, ADHD)
G Australian Medical Association
G Australian Psychological Society
G Australian Transcultural Mental Health Network
The Australian Transcultural Mental Health Network seeks to improve the quality and accessibility of
mental health services available to Australia's immigrant communities through the establishment of a
national agenda in transcultural mental health research; professional and community education and
service development; the provision of a national information and clearinghouse service. Information
provided on research, professional development, community education and network members. State and
national policy documents in full text. Links to medicine, psychiatry, migration, refugees, cross-cultural
studies, ethnic health, and Australian institutions.
G Austrian Psychological Association
Der Berufsverband sterreichischer Psychologinnen und Psychologen wurde 1953 als
gesamtsterreichische Vereinigung mit Sitz in Wien gegrndet.Er vertritt die Belange des
Psychologenberufs und wahrt die Berufsinteressen seiner Mitglieder. Er informiert die
ffentlichkeit ber die Bedeutung der Psychologie sowie der Arbeit von Psychologinnen und
Psychologen fr die Gesellschaft und frdert die Umsetzung psychologischer Erfahrungen
und Erkenntnisse. Der BP vertritt derzeit etwa 1400 akademisch ausgebildete
Psychologinnen und Psychologen, die entweder freiberuflich oder in unterschiedlichsten
Institutionen und Organisationen ttig sind. Er unterhlt Kontakte zu allen Organisationen,
die fr Psychologen politisch und gesellschaftlich wichtig sind. Der BP ist Grndungsmitglied der
Europischen Fderation Psychologischer Berufsverbnde EFPPA.
G Autism



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Top Ten Bestsellers (continuously updated): abuse, adhd, adoption, aging, aids, alcoholism,
alternative medicine, anxiety disorders, autism, bipolar disorder, child development, child care,
conversion disorders, counseling psychology, cults, death and dying, depression, dissociative
disorders, domestic violence, dreams, eating disorders, forensic psychology, gay, lesbian & bisexual,
grief, learning disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder, parenting, personality disorders,
professional counseling and psychotherapy, psychiatry, psychopathy, PTSD, rape, schizophrenia,
sexual disorders, self-esteem, self-help, stress, suicide, violence.
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G Bay Area Therapists Directory
G Behavioural and Brain Sciences
An international, interdisciplinary journal of "open peer commentary," BBS publishes
important and controversial interdisciplinary "target articles" in psychology,
neuroscience, behavioral biology, cognitive science, artificial intelligence, linguistics
and philosophy. Articles are rigorously refereed and, if accepted, are circulated to a large
number of potential commentators around the world in the various specialties on which
the article impinges. Their 1000-word commentaries are then co-published with the
target article as well as the author's response to each. The commentaries consist of
analyses, elaborations, complementary and supplementary data and theory, criticisms
and cross-specialty syntheses.
G Behavioural Health Bulletin
"If we completely take the behavioral health professions apart (and that is what is happening) there will
be no trained and skilled professionals to ever help alleviate these problems. In the past we have not
applied the expert skills of these professionals in an intensive manner to help solve these terribly difficult
issues. And now we are being completely abandoned. Most authorities have cited that there will be about
25% of the psychologists in practice in the next year as there were last year."
G Behavioral HealthCare Meeting, Organization and Resource Index
Meetings, Organizations and Resources in Behavioral Healthcare Listed by Sponsor, Date or Location
(Compiled by Myron Pulier).
G Behavioral Neuroscience
Home page of the APA journal.
G Behavioral Statistics
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B - Online Dictionary of Mental Health
An introductory guide compiled by Douglas W. Matheson Ph.D
G Behaviorism: Skinner and Dennett
G Behavior Therapy
G Behavioral Therapy for Cancer Pain
G Behaviour OnLine
The Gathering Place for Mental Health and Applied Behavioral Science Professionals.
G Belgian Psychological Society
G Bereavement
G Biofeedback
G Bion, W. R.
G BioTech's Online Science Dictionary
This illustrated glossary, developed by our staff members, contains over 4400 terms associated with
biochemistry, biotechnology, botany, cellular biology, chemistry, ecology, genetics, medicine, pharmacology
and toxicology. We need more illustrations for our dictionary entries; if you hold the copyright for life science
images and would be willing to let us use some here, please let us know. Also, feel free to send us new word
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"nucleic" and "acid" in their titles (so you might want to run the words in a multiword term separately). If you're
uncertain of a spelling, run a word fragment (e.g., if you don't know if it's spelled "murine" or "murean," just
query with "mur.") Please also note that you should search for the singular version of a word instead of the
plural (i.e., look for "triglyceride" as opposed to "triglycerides").
G Bipolar Affective Disorder
G Bisexuality (LGB) Resources
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G Body Dysmorphic Disorder: Recognizing and Treating Imagined Ugliness
Online article.
G Bowman Gray School of Medicine
Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Medicine.
G Bridge to Wellness Partial Hospitalization Program
G British Psychological Society
G Buros Institute of Mental Measurements
Research center providing evaluations of mental assessments and assistance to users of published tests.
Site includes information on how to locate tests or reviews of tests, catalogs of the Institute's
publications, and links to Web sites with a focus on testing practices.
G Brain Injury Medication Update
Free electronic newsletter available by email monthly covers medication treatment of brain disorders and
medical literature summaries and citations.
G Brainwave Treatment Centers
The Brain Wave Treatment Centers, International, is an affiliation of Neurofeedback Health Care
Providers and Commercial Vendors. We are interested in providing you with information about this
newly developing and powerful Biofeedback Treatment Modality. Contributions to this educational end,
in the form of Web published articles, will be authored, submitted, and available at this Web site. Direct
contact with our Health Care Provider and Commercial Affiliates will be possible by E-mail or phone. If
you would like to employ EEG Biofeedback to enhance the quality of your life, you may contact one of
our affiliates directly. If you would like to comment to me directly, or become an Affiliate Provider send
mail to me Steven T. Padgitt, Ph.D.
G British Association for Counselling
G British Confederation of Psychotherpists
A new site for the BCP.
G British Journal of Psychotherapy
G British Medical Journal Online
G British Universities
List of all British universities, departments, personnel and their postal and email addresses.
G BUBL Psychiatry page
G BUBL Psychology page
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B - Online Dictionary of Mental Health
G BhuddaZine
Buddhist magazine. Features articles on the relations between psychotherapy and meditation, the role of
women within Buddhism, evaluations of homosexuality from a Buddhist perspective, excerpts from
Buddhist devotional and instructional works, and presentations of Buddhist art.
G Building a Therapeutic Partnership Between Doctor and Patient
Online article.
G Bulletin of the Psychoanalytic Research Society
G Business Development
We are a marketing and business development company geared to provide services to therapists and
other healing professionals. A link to your site could be useful to your visitors that are looking for help in
promoting their business.



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G California Psychological Association
G California Coalition for Ethical Mental Health Care
A grassroots organization established in February 1994, to preserve the quality, integrity and
confidentiality of mental health care through public and professional education, and through
legal and legislative action. Members are professionals from each of the mental health
disciplines in California, clients or patients, and consumer advocates.
G Calvary Temple Support Groups
"Living in a nation where all of this, and even more, is going on in either our life, our family, or our
community, makes us a candidate for a support group. Even if you don't need it now, it's nice to know
where you can turn if you do in the future. If anyone reaches out their hand for help, they deserve to have
someone reach back. We want to be that hand."
G The Canadian Guidance and Counselling Association
"The Canadian Guidance and Counselling Association, in order to provide the most timely information
and services possible to counsellors, established a presence on the World Wide Web in the summer of
1996. CGCA's home page is designed to facilitate communication among Canadian counsellors and to
provide networking opportunities on the Internet."
G Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science
G Canadian Journal of Psychoanalysis
Articles from the journal in French and English.
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G Canadian Medical Association
G Canadian Mental Health Association
G Canadian Psychiatric Association
The Home Page of the CPA provides services both for members and the general public in
French and English.
G Canadian Psychoanalytic Society
G Canadian Psychological Association
G Canadian Society for Brain, Behaviour and Cognitive Science
G Canadian Women's Health Network
Canadian network of women's health sites. Includes Network, a bimonthly, bilingual newsletter on
women's health issues and women and the Canadian health care system.
G Cape Cod Institute
The Cape Cod Institute is a summer-long series of courses on topics of current interest to mental health
professionals and applied behavioral scientists, now in its sixteenth season.
G Careerlinc
'A Web Site for CEOs who Hate to Surf.' The Board Level Career Resource Center offers ongoing, ever-
changing access through the World-Wide Web to "Top Web Sites for CEOs Who Hate to Surf." This
column is written by nontechnical executives. Dr. Laurence J. Stybel says, "that there are three types of
reactions to the World Wide Web: love to surf, never surf, and hate to surf. We are providing a senior
management web site review service with an attitude.'" The Center has a talent bank of senior executives
available to serve on external Boards and an electronic gateway to key web sites dealing with corporate
governance. Readers can download issues of "Your Career," a column on career management for senior
executives and business owners.
G Cassel Hospital Newsletter
The program combines a therapeutic community with individual psychoanalysis.
G Cecil G. Sheps Center for Health Services Research
University of North Carolina - Cecil G. Sheps Center for Health Services
Research - Mental Health Services Research - Joseph P. Morrissey Ph.D. -
Program Director.
G The Center for Counter-Conditioning Therapy
The Center for Counter-Conditioning Therapy teaches emotional self-management skills to mental health
patients. The methodology employedis C-CTherapy, a non-cognitive psychotherapy.
G Centre for Evidence-Based Mental Health
http://www.human-nature.com/odmh/c.html (2 of 11)04/03/2005 12:02:01
C - Online Dictionary of Mental Health
Contact - who and where we are
Members - a list of the centre's members
What is EBM? - some interpretations and articles
Toolkit - useful resources for evidence-based practice
Links - to evidence-based mental health on the web
Journal - Evidence-Based Mental Health
Workshops - forthcoming workshops and conferences
Guidelines - Royal College of Psychiatrists guidelines in full-text
Glossary - interpretations of EBM terminology

G Center for Mental Health Policy and Services Research
University of Pennsylvania Medical Center.
G Center for Evolutionary Psychology
Official home page of the Center for Evolutionary Psychology at UCSB.
Information is currently available on the topics below.
H A brochure of the Center for Evolutionary Psychology
H A primer that summarizes the principles of evolutionary psychology.
H Places to study Evolutionary Psychology
H Jane Lancaster's list of places to study Human Evolutionary Ecology.
H A reading list compiled by center members.
H Future home of commentaries on papers by Steven J. Gould.
H Link to the NEW Evolution, Behavior and Social Science Colloquium series.
H Link to information on U.C.S.B
Other Links of possible interest
H The official HBES home page has found a home at this site.
H Darwin's Cafe, an informal discussion board for topics related to evolution and human behavior is now Open,
thanks to the efforts of Michael Mills.
H An electronic journal has been established that may be of interest to members of the society.
H Another electronic journal, called connexions may be of interest.
H Evolution and Human Behavior, the official journal of HBES.
H A link to a thorough page of relevant links maintained at the HBES home page.
H A link to The Filmarchive of Human Ethology in Andechs.
G CentraLink
US Managed Health Care.
G Center for Psychiatric Rehabilitation
G Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
http://www.human-nature.com/odmh/c.html (3 of 11)04/03/2005 12:02:01
C - Online Dictionary of Mental Health
Disease prevention agency of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
Site includes news sources--events listings, press releases, and announcements;
information on various diseases, injuries and disabilities, health risks, health concerns
of special populations, and prevention guidelines; travelers' health advisories;
information about publications and products; national health data and statistics;
mailing lists; the Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report; a listing of training and
employment opportunities; research funding programs; and a search facility.
G Centre for Psychotherapeutic Studies - Sheffield University
"The Centre for Psychotherapeutic Studies of the University of Sheffield is the largest and most multi-
disciplinary institution of its kind. Bringing together clinical work and applied approaches with scholarly
and empirical research, it is probably unique in providing in a single setting such a wide variety of
approaches and disciplines concerned with the understanding and alleviation of mental distress."
G Center for School Mental Health Assistance
The US National training and technical assistance for the promotion of mental health services in schools.
This web site includes bibliographies on a variety of issues affecting children's mental health together
with mail-based forum for professionals, parents, and students; and links to children's mental health
organizations.
G Centre for the Study and Care of Personality Disorders and Addiciton
G Centre for the Study of Psychotherapy - Kent University
"Now in its tenth year and unique among psychotherapy training organisations the Centre for the Study
of Psychotherapy is able to offer a wide range of study and training courses which seek to integrate
academic and clinical knowledge. Through the programmes offered by the Centre it is possible to
complete a full training in psychoanalytic psychotherapy and gain the Degree of Master or Doctor of
Clinical Science. Alternatively, the students can undertake a range of academic courses which can
ultimately lead to the degree of PhD in Psychotherapy Studies. All courses can be taken as part or full
time."
G Centre for Research in Psychotherapy (Italy)
"The Center for Research in Psychotherapy (CRP), is a non-profit scientific association founded in 1985,
which offers a forum for researchers in the field of psychotherapy and akin disciplines, and to other
professionals as well of various orientations on health and behavioural sciences. Its aim is to foster a
dialogue on the scientific foundations of psychotherapic methods. Among its members there are
psychiatrists, clinical psychologists, researchers and therapists."
G Cheiron: The International Society for the History of Behavioral and Social Sciences
"Cheiron, named after the wise centaur of Greek myth, was formed in 1968 to
promote international cooperation and multidisciplinary studies in the history of
the social and behavioral sciences. Cheiron welcomes members for whom
history is a side-interest, as well as scholars with a primary commitment to
historical study."
"The Society pursues its goals through a biannual Newsletter and, especially, its
annual Meetings. Meetings are held in June of each year, and typically include
the presentation of papers, symposia, posters, and works-in-progress. Most
important of all is the ample opportunity provided for friendly interaction with
scholars from different disciplines."
http://www.human-nature.com/odmh/c.html (4 of 11)04/03/2005 12:02:01
C - Online Dictionary of Mental Health
G Chicago Association for Psychoanalytic Psychology
G CHID Online: The Combined Health Information Database
Database of bibliographic records of publications available from the (U.S.) National Institutes of Health,
the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the Public Health Service, and the Department of Health
and Human Services. Although abstracts of publications are available online, full-text versions must
generally be ordered from one of the agencies.
G Childhood Disorders
G China Psychological Database
This database contains articles of psychological and psychiatric studies relating to Chinese individuals,
from the book (Ho, Spinks & Yeung, 1989) Chinese Patterns of Behaviour: A sourcebook of
psychological and psychiatric studies.
What would you like to search for?
(example of a Boolean search: 'good;bad' will find all lines containing both 'good' AND 'bad')
Case insensitive Allow partial match to a word
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G CIRIP Home Page
Centre International de Recherche Interdisciplinaire en Psychiatrie, CIRIP is an International Center for
Psychiatric and Interdisciplinary Research, A Center Without Walls.
G Classifieds
Practice opportunities, residency, fellowships and products.
G Classics in the History of Psychology
It is my pleasure to announce the opening of a new web site that I think may be of interest to you:
Classics in the History of Psychology. This site currently contains the complete texts of 19 works of
major historical importance, as well as seven introductions to, and commentaries on, those documents.
The number texts will expand contunuously as more of them are scanned and edited by me and my
group. I have copied the current index to the bottom of this message for your perusal.
G Client-Centred Therapy
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G The Clifford Beers Foundation
G Clinical Prevention
G Clinical Psychologists - InterPsych Forum
G Clinical Psychology Review
G Clinical Psychology Resources
University of Bonn (in English) - This page contains WWW resources for Clinical and
Abnormal Psychology, Behavioral Medicine and Mental Health. We are happy to get further
proposals for additional links.
G Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice
Home page of the OUP Journal.
G Cinical Psychophysiology and Biofeedback - InterPsych Forum PSYPHY
G Clinical Resources
Via Russ Dewey's Psych Web including Therapy & Counseling Resources
G Cognitive and Behavioral Practice
G Cognitive Neuroscience Encounters Psychotherapy
Online article.
G Cognitive & Psychological Sciences on the Internet
Stanford University - This is an index to Internet resources relevant to research in cognitive science and
psychology.
G Cognitive Behaviour Therapy
G The Cognitive Therapy Center of Brooklyn
Brooklyn's leading provider of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT) -- today's treatment of choice for
most emotional and behavioral problems. Includes a national listing of other CBT providers.
G CogPrints Electronic Archive.
The Archive covers all the Cognitive Sciences: Psychology, Neuroscience, Biology, Computer Science, Linguistics and
Philosophy
CogPrints is completely free for everyone, both authors and readers, thanks to a subsidy from the Electronic Libraries
Programme of the Joint Information Systems of the United Kingdom and the collaboration of the NSF-supported Physics
Eprint Archive at Los Alamos.
CogPrints has just been opened for public automatic archiving. This means authors can now deposit their own papers
http://www.human-nature.com/odmh/c.html (6 of 11)04/03/2005 12:02:01
C - Online Dictionary of Mental Health
automatically. The first wave of papers had been invited and hand-archived by CogPrints in order to set a model of the
form and content of CogPrints. To see the current holdings: http://cogprints.soton.ac.uk/. To archive your own papers
automatically: http://cogprints.soton.ac.uk/author.html.
All authors are encouraged to archive their papers on their home servers as well.
G Columbia University's Department of Psychiatry
"This page provides access to information about the Department of Psychiatry of the
College of Physicians and Surgeons, located on the Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center
Campus of Columbia University in New York City. New York State Psychiatric Institute
(the pictures show the partially constructed new building) is the headquarters of the
Department, and is the locus of most of its training and research functions. Presbyterian
Hospital is the locus of most clinical services in the Department."
G Columbia University Center for Psychoanalytic Training and Research
Homepage of the Columbia Institute -- a training institute of the American Psychoanalytic Association.
G Communication Disorders
Information about "communication disorders, communicative disorders, speech science, speech therapy,
speech pathology, audiology, hearing impairments" intended for "professionals and students in the fields
of speech-language pathology, audiology, speech science, persons with communication disabilities or
differences and their support persons"
G Community Psychiatry
G Community Psychology Network
The site is a guide dedicated to the field of community psychology, prevention, intervention, and action research.
It is meant to be a resource for professionals, students, researchers and others interested in this fascinating
specialization within psychology. The site contains information on professional organizations, job
announcements, a reading list, an online bookstore, social policy information, graduate schools in clinical
community and community psychology, plus a host of other great resources.
G Community Therapy
Archive and Study Centre devoted to therapeutic community/milieu therapy/planned environment
therapy.
G The Company Therapist
The Company Therapist is a fictional look at a psychiatrist's practice seeing patients primarily drawn
from a large computer company in San Francisco. Updated daily, the stories of the patients are told
through session transcripts, doodles, letters, anonymous faxes, personnel records and other material, all
of which is well organized and easily accessible through hypertext. Readers are invited to become
authors and create their own patients and write their sessions.
G Complementary Medicine
Aesclepian Chronicles - Journal of the Synergistic Health Centre, North Carolina.
http://www.human-nature.com/odmh/c.html (7 of 11)04/03/2005 12:02:01
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G Complex Partial Seizures Present Diagnostic Challenge
Online article.
G Comprehensive Textbook of Psychiatry
G Computerized Psychotherapy
G Computers in Mental Health
Home Page of the Computers in Psychiatry group of the Royal College of Psychiatrists and the
InterPsych group CIMH.
G Computers in Mental Health - InterPsych Forum CIMH
G Concerned Counselling
24 hr. telephone (1-888-415-TALK)/internet counseling service with licensed professional counselors.
For immediate help or just to talk, call or visit us right now. Ezine, chat, realaudio, more.
G Conferences in Psychology
Institute of Psychology (Bonn) - List of conferences in Germany, Europe and the rest of the world.
Information on conferences can be added by the user.
G Connecticut Psychological Association
G Copenhagen Psychology Department
G Contemporary Therapy Models
Comprehensive and readable overview of contemporary therapy models including Adlerian, Gestalt,
Psychoanalytic, Client Centered, Cognitive Behavior, Reality, Existential, and Jungian Therapy.
G Continuing Education
Psychiatric Times, CME multimedia library, CME conferences and books.
G Continuing Education Credits for Psychologists
Continuing Education Credits for Psychologists.On-line Courses. Read course material, take test, pay---
all on line.
G Cornerstone Professional Development Conferences for Educators
"Come and share as a community of learners, expanding our teaching skills and renewing our
professional growth. All workshops are led by both professional teachers and speakers, whose styles are
dynamic, interactive and offer practical strategies from long- term experience."
G CorTexT
"A non-profit educational organization, is a leading provider of continuing education seminars in the USA, Canada,
http://www.human-nature.com/odmh/c.html (8 of 11)04/03/2005 12:02:01
C - Online Dictionary of Mental Health
Australia, and United Kingdom. Our topics focus on the brain and behavioral sciences. Our instructors are from major
universities and medical centers."
G Council of Canadian Departments of Psychology
G Counseling Center Self-Help (SUNY-Buffalo)
"We have collected here a wide selection of documents, internet resources, referrals, and
reading list, all to help you with day-to-day stresses and difficult periods in your life. Please
note, this service is not meant to replace a face-to-face consultation with a trained counselor,
nor does this service provide "on-line" counseling (see "Where to go next" for referral
suggestions)."
G Counselling Ethics Source Page
Counselling Ethics source page - based on material used for teaching course "Problems of Ethics" as part of BA in
Counselling in Mental Health at Regent's College, London
G Counseling and Human Development Center
"The Counseling & Human Development Center is a pastoral psychotherapy center, interfaith in
orientation, with eight locations in New York City. Our fully-qualified interdisciplinary staff of
psychotherapists, social work therapists, psychiatrists and psychologists is uniquely qualified to address
the emotional and spiritual dimensions of human suffering and growth. CHDC provides over 8000 hours
of service each year to persons in the New York metropolitan area, and offers services on a sliding scale
based on ability to pay."
G Counseling and Nature: The Greening of Psychotherapy
Exposition of the principles of ecopsychology, which emphasizes the impact of the limbic system--the
"old" brain--on psychic health.
G Counselling and Psychotherapy Associates
CAP Counselling & Psychotherapy Associates Limited. A London UK team of Counsellors,
Psychotherapist, Psychologists and Doctors who offer their services to individuals and companies.
G Counseling Chat Forums
A Network designed to develop live "chat" forums on the Internet for mental health professionals.
G Tales of Mental Health Counselling
"As associate editor of the theory section of the Journal of Mental Health Counseling (JMHC), my broad
objective is to contribute to the process of publishing the best available theory articles that will serve to
distinguish the unique identity of mental health counseling and thereby contribute to establishing core
provider status for our profession. This goal speaks to Kelly's (1996) suggestion that we endeavor to
"capture and maintain a competitive share of the mental health market" (p. 2). In this article--my mission
statement, if you will--I consider several theoretical issues that I want to see further developed in the
JMHC. The ensuing discussion is informed by my own theoretical journey that has led me to to embrace
a social constructionist and solution-focused position for mental health counseling (Guterman, 1994,
1996a)."
http://www.human-nature.com/odmh/c.html (9 of 11)04/03/2005 12:02:01
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G Counseling in Meditation Psychology
G Counseling Psychology Discussion List Searchable Archives
G The Counseling Web: Counseling Psychology Resources
"Designed to be a central repository of Counseling and Counseling Psychology resources on
the WWW"
G Creative Arts Therapy Cyberjournal
G Creativity: Research and Development
Creativity: research and development. FAQ, Resources, 3D technolgy, Psyschology Essays, Links and
Bibliography (Spanish).
G Cults
G Cultural Association for Psychology Research
International resources with online documents concerning psychotherapy.
G CyberPsych
CyberPsych.org has the following mental health foundations (and sub-groups):
American Psychoanalytic Foundation
American Association of Suicidology
CyberPsych Anxiety Disorders Pages
Phobias and Related Anxiety Disorders SIG of AABT
Psychosomatics and Eating Disorders: The Psychoanalytic View
Society for the Exploration of Psychotherapy Integration (SEPI)
Low Cost Psychotherapy around New York
G CyberPsychologist
Self-help pages for the general user on various topics in mental health, including depression, anxiety,
relationships, addictive behaviors, career- and work-related issues, sex, and stress. Users may ask
questions and receive advice from the page's creator as well as from other users.
G Cyber-Psychotherapy Survey
Storm King is a Graduate student in Psychology and is conducting research that will describe the extent
of professional efforts to counsel or advise people by email. This research was approved by the school he
attends, the Pacific Graduate School of Psychology, located in Palo Alto, CA. Complete confidentiality
is assured to all participants. This survey is intended for mental health professionals and mental health
consumers who have entered into any kind of professional relationship over the Internet involving
psychotherapeutic services.
G CyberShrink
http://www.human-nature.com/odmh/c.html (10 of 11)04/03/2005 12:02:01
C - Online Dictionary of Mental Health
The Freudian Slip is CyberShrink's own tri-yearly magazine, written by Rachel
Goldberg, Ph.D., dealing with issues of general mental health. Tips, ideas, help, and
information await.To educate parents and families about day-to-day problems
involving children and adolescents.Chat about your experiences and problems in real
time with other people.Psychiatric disorders with their diagnistic criteria, treatment
guides, research, and published papers.
G Cybertherapy


human-nature.com Ian Pitchford and Robert M. Young - Last updated: 30 October, 1998 06:40 AM
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conversion disorders, counseling psychology, cults, death and dying, depression, dissociative
disorders, domestic violence, dreams, eating disorders, forensic psychology, gay, lesbian & bisexual,
grief, learning disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder, parenting, personality disorders,
professional counseling and psychotherapy, psychiatry, psychopathy, PTSD, rape, schizophrenia,
sexual disorders, self-esteem, self-help, stress, suicide, violence.
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G Dendron - Support Coalition
Support Coalition is an independent non-profit alliance dedicated to stopping
forced psychiatric human rights violations, and to promoting humane
alternatives. Led by psychiatric survivors, Support Coalition membership is
open to everyone in the public who shares the mission.
G Depth Therapy - complete on line book of depth therapy instructions.
G Depression
G Developmental Neuropsychology
G Deviant Behavior
G Dialectical Behavior Therapy in Patients with Borderline Personality Disorder
Barry Kiehn and Michaela Swales - "Patients showing the features of Borderline Personality Disorder as
defined in DSM-IV are notoriously difficult to treat. They are difficult to keep in therapy, frequently fail
to respond to our therapeutic efforts and make considerable demands on the emotional resources of the
therapist, particular when suicidal and parasuicidal behaviours are prominent."
G Disability Fact Sheets and Briefing Papers
G Disability Resources compiled by Billy Grace
G The Disability Rights Activist
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D - Online Dictionary of Mental Health
The Disability Rights Activist has the latest on issues that affect people with disabilities.
Just in time for the second session of the 105th Congress, the Disability Rights Activist
provides all the information you need to make your opinions known to legislators and
regulatory agencies. Hot issues now include two bills on attendant care (MiCASA and S.
879), SSI for children with disabilities, the Genetics Nondiscrimination Act, and Social
Security. The Disability Rights Activist has the information you need to become an
advocate for the rights of people with disabilities - information ranging from how to write a
letter to the editor and get it published to how to lobby Congress, from voter registration to
how we are portrayed by the media.
G Great Disability Web Sites
G Disability Studies (by Distance Education)
G Diseases, Disorders and Related Topics
Huge, partially annotated database of diseases and other biomedical information.
G Disorders
A section of MH Infosource: Education, CME credit, diagnostics and links by disorder.
G Dissociative Disorders
G Distance Education Clearinghouse
G Distance Education in Mental Health
G Doctor's Guide to the Internet
Doctor's Guide to the Internet is your one-stop repository for medical information, including
news on the latest psychiatry research. Disease pages, links and the most current medical
news and breakthroughs in an easily-accessible fashion. With patient pages, email updates
and an on-line bookstore, Doctor's Guide can help keep doctor's and patients alike up-to-date on the
always-changing field of medicine.
G Domestic violence
G The Dorset Research & Development Support Unit (RDSU)
The Dorset Research & Development Support Unit (RDSU) is a joint venture between Bournemouth
University and the five local NHS Trusts. The RDSU staff is available for research consultancy (from
research methodology to statistics and economic analysis). This service is free to all health service staff
working in Dorset. The RDSU HomePage keeps local researchers up to date with the latest grant
opportunities, calls for proposals, research training opportunities, research events, opportunities for
collaboration, as well as local and national research news.
G Douglas College (Canada)
Psychiatric Nursing, Advanced Diploma now offered online. For more information, check out our web
pages.
G Drama Therapy
http://www.human-nature.com/odmh/d.html (2 of 4)04/03/2005 12:02:09
D - Online Dictionary of Mental Health
G Dr. Bob's Mental Health Links
Links to mental health resources including listings of conferences, health organizations, and university
counseling centers and psychiatry departments. A unique feature is the famous 'psychopharmacology
tips'.
G Electric Dreams
Dream Interpretation database.
G The Drug Abuse Research Center (DARC)
The Drug Abuse Research Center (DARC) is a diverse research organization that
investigates psychosocial and epidemiological issues pertaining to drug use and conducts
evaluations of interventions for drug dependence. The group's portfolio of studies has
provided findings that have improved the understanding of the complex nature of drug use and
dependence; DARC findings have been useful in developing more effective strategies for dealing with
drug-related problems through prevention, treatment, and criminal justice approaches.
G Drugs
G On-line Dictionary of Street Drug Slang
The Indiana Prevention Resource Center on-line dictionary contains nearly 1,800 street drug slang terms from
the Indiana Prevention Resource Center files, with more than 1,200 additions from the National Drug and Crime
Clearinghouse slang term list.
Search for the word:
match words exactly match any part of a word
Table format Plain text format
Search and return matching entries
G Dual Diagnosis
G Dutch Union of Users and ex-Users in Mental Health
This is the homepage of the Working Group Labour of the Dutch Union of Users and ex-Users in Mental
Health (= Clientenbond in de ggz). Information about work, psychiatry, letters, membership.
G Dyslexia
G Dystonia
Information and other links on Dystonia.

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conversion disorders, counseling psychology, cults, death and dying, depression, dissociative
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grief, learning disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder, parenting, personality disorders,
professional counseling and psychotherapy, psychiatry, psychopathy, PTSD, rape, schizophrenia,
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G Eating Disorders
G EAP of Tucson, Inc
Maintains a large resource on many issues, including unique interactive self-screening tests
and entertaining denial-busting forms.
G Ecopsychology -- Well Mind, Well Earth
Ecopsychology in Action: Nature Activities, Books and Courses for Wellness, Spirit and Deeper
Learning.
G Educational Online Sources
Emphasis on learning disabilities.
G The Effectiveness of Psychotherapy: The Consumer Reports Study
Martin Seligman; APA document online
G EFPSA
European Federation of Psychology Students Associations
G Ego (Freud's Division of the Mind)
A site at Brown University investigating Freud's concept of Id, Ego and Superego.
G EINet - Psychiatry
Search for:
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Search Long output
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Matching any search term, or all search terms.
Search the Web - for each document:
Search all text within
Search title text only, or link text only.
Also search Galaxy Pages Gopher Titles Telnet Resources
G EINet - Psychology
G Electroconvulsive Therapy
G Eliza
An on-line simulation of the classic non-directive counseling simulation program.
G Emotional Support - Self Help
G Entheogen Chrestomathy
"Religion and Psychoactive Sacraments: An Entheogen Chrestomathy" contains extended
bibliographic information and short excerpts from over 350 books, dissertations, and topical issues of
journals on the topic of entheogens. Entheogens are psychoactive plants and chemicals used in a religious
context. Customary bibliographic information is given (author, date, title, publisher, and place) as well as
ISBN, a brief description, and contents. Contributors to anthologies are listed, and occasional "notes"
point out items of interest. The excerpts are chosen to present a diversity of ideas about entheogens, some
pro, some con, and many making non-judgmental commentary. The chrestomathys senior compiler,
Thomas B. Roberts, Ph.D., a Professor of Educational Psychology at Northern Illinois University,
considers it a "concept base" -- analogous to a data base, but a collection of ideas rather than numerically
coded observations and statistics. The entries are primarily drawn from religion, theology, philosophy,
psychology, sociology, anthropology, ethnobotany, and the health professions. Additional entries come
from law, education, popular culture, history, public policy, biography, art, and chemistry. A search
engine on the web site is available to help researchers identify files on topics that interest them. The
chrestomathy will continue to grow as new entries are added from time to time. "Religion and
Psychoactive Sacraments: An Entheogen Chrestomathy" was supported by a grant from the Horizons
Unlimited Foundation and is published online as a free service of the Council on Spiritual Practices.
G Equal Partners Productions
Our online catalog for our educational training videos in family and marital therapy and other mental
health topics.
G ESCOM
European Society for the Cognitive Sciences of Music
G Ethics
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G Ethnic Issues in Psychotherapy
G European Health Psychology Society
G European Psychological Institutes
G Exceptionality
G Exclusive to MHI
Columns by Peter Kramer, Sue Chance, Keith Ablow and others.
G The Existential Psychotherapy Site
THE Existential Psychotherapy site - lots of links, articles, events and book reviews.
G Experimental Psychology Resources
This page contains links to topics concerning Experimental Psychology and related issues.
G Expert Archives--Professional
Queries and responses are dated and arranged by topic.


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Top Ten Bestsellers (continuously updated): abuse, adhd, adoption, aging, aids, alcoholism,
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conversion disorders, counseling psychology, cults, death and dying, depression, dissociative
disorders, domestic violence, dreams, eating disorders, forensic psychology, gay, lesbian & bisexual,
grief, learning disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder, parenting, personality disorders,
professional counseling and psychotherapy, psychiatry, psychopathy, PTSD, rape, schizophrenia,
sexual disorders, self-esteem, self-help, stress, suicide, violence.
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G Factitious Disorders Page
"Factitious disorders are well-recognized among psychiatrists, but they have not
received the attention--or advocacy among consumers, families, and
professionals--that have greeted more common ailments such as depression.
However, factitious disorders can be every bit as disabling and further public and
professional education are vital."
G False Memory Syndrome Foundation
Resources for mental health professionals and those affected by false memory
syndrome, a condition in which an individual's identity and interpersonal
relationships are determined by a traumatic memory that is objectively false. Includes a definition of the
disorder; a description of the purpose and activities of the foundation; a FAQ; a newsletter; a
bibliography; a partially annotated index of related Internet sites; and links to moderated listservs for
general information, news, and research.
G Family Practice Handbook
A comprehensive, and searchable (see below) medical treatment manual (for professionals).
Keywords separated by a space are automatically searched together
(myocardial infarction). To find either one keyword or the other, but
not the two together, separate them with a comma (child,pediatric).
To find two words together in the same line, separate them with a semicolon (pediatric;clinic).
Enter keyword(s):

Case sensitive. Check this box if you want to find only
keywords containing uppercase letter(s), such as proper names or
keywords in titles. This finds AIDS but not aids. Leaving the box
unchecked (the default) finds all occurrences of a word, whether or
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not it contains capital letters.
Partial match. Check this box if you want to find partial matches
to a word (typing imag finds image, images, imaging as well as
imaginary). Use with care, as this may lead to excessive or irrelevant
"hits."
Number of misspellings allowed:
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Reduce these numbers for fewer responses, but this may result in a
less conclusive search.
G Family Resource Online
G Family Village: A Global Community of Disability-Related Resources
A well-organized site that contains valuable information for both individuals with
disabilities and their families as well as professionals in the fields of health care and
education.
G Family Violence
G Findingstone.com
"We are committed to providing a wide range of personal growth opportunities and therapeutic options for our clients.
Our workshops, counseling, and consulting programs all address that desire."
G Florida Mental Health Institute
The Louis de la Parte Florida Mental Health Institute is a unique resource for Florida. It was created over
20 years ago by the Florida Legislature to expand our knowledge about how best to serve the mental
health needs of Florida's citizens. The Institute researchers use applied research techniques to understand
practical problems, and develop and disseminate state-of-the-art technology and knowledge to improve
human services.
G Focussed Action Therapy (FACT)
G The Forensic Panel Letter - We update throughout the week with commentaries from
doctors, professors, and experts who provide an insider feel on recent higher court
decisions and scientific research.
G Forensic Psychiatry
This site provides links to forensic psychology and psychiatry sites on the WWW.
G Forensic Psychiatry & Medicine
G Hooper's Forensic Psychiatry
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G Forum Psychotherapie
Informationen zur Psychotherapie im allgemeinen und speziellen Methoden, inklusive Mailing-Liste zur
Psychotherapie.
G Foster Children United
Survivors of the System: Foster Children united is the first web site devoted entirely to current and
former foster children. This site is meant to be a place for foster children to share experiences and
support, network, and to empower themselves as a group.
G Fox News Health Wires
Health and medical news from the Fox News Network. Video available for some reports.
G FRAXA Research Foundation
Information on fragile X syndrome, the most common genetic disorder in humans and the
most common inherited cause of mental impairment, and on research being supported by the
FRAXA Research Foundation. Also includes information on diagnostic testing, excerpts
from the Foundation's newsletter, and reading lists.
G Free Associations (Journal)
G Future of the Internet
The future of the Internet is explored through the study of the past of other mass media


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Top Ten Bestsellers (continuously updated): abuse, adhd, adoption, aging, aids, alcoholism,
alternative medicine, anxiety disorders, autism, bipolar disorder, child development, child care,
conversion disorders, counseling psychology, cults, death and dying, depression, dissociative
disorders, domestic violence, dreams, eating disorders, forensic psychology, gay, lesbian & bisexual,
grief, learning disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder, parenting, personality disorders,
professional counseling and psychotherapy, psychiatry, psychopathy, PTSD, rape, schizophrenia,
sexual disorders, self-esteem, self-help, stress, suicide, violence.
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G Gambling (Pathological): Recognition and Intervention
Online article.
G Gender Issues
G The Genetic Epistemologist
Journal of the Jean Piaget Society
G Genetic Link Found for the Personality Trait of Novelty-Seeking
Online article.
G George Washington University Center for Professional Psychology
The George Washington University Center for Professional Psychology is a psychodynamically-oriented
program offering the Doctor of Psychology (Psy.D.) degree in clinical psychology.
G German Psychological Society
G The Gerontological Society of America
G Gestalt
G Gestalt Theoretical Psychotherapy
G Glaxo Neurological Centre
The Glaxo Neurological Centre is a unique non-medical advice and information centre for
people with neurological disorders and those who care for them.The Centre is run by an
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independent charitable trust the Mersey Neurological Trust and was built with funds from generous
donations of 1,000,000 from Glaxo plc and 250,000 from the Liverpool City Challenge.The Centre is
managed by a Management Commitee, chaired by Dr.Ian Williams, Consultant Neurologist, Walton
Centre for Neurology and Neurosurgery Liverpool,and is made up of people with a neurological
disability, Neurological Charities,a General Practitioner, Social Services and Local Business.
G The Glendon Association
The Glendon Association is a nonprofit corporation dedicated to understanding the
dynamics of self-destructive behavior and to alleviating the resulting social problems of
child abuse, suicide, violence, substance abuse, and disturbed family relationships. Of
particular interest is FAST, The Firestone Assessment of Self-Destructive Thoughts
(FAST), new from The Psychological Corporation, provides a unique view of your client's
self-destructive thought processes. The approach, which integrates cognitive and
psychoynamic concepts, is based on the clinical theory of Robert Firestone. This new scale
assesses the levels of self-destructive thoughts a person is experiencing, along the
Continuum of Negative Thought Patterns, which may lead to varying degrees of self-
destructive behavior. The FAST consists of 84 items that clients endorse on a 5-point,
Likert-type scale from "never" to "almost always." They consist of self-destructive thoughts
taken directly from clinical material derived from longitudinal study of client's negative thought processes. The
suicide risk subscale provides a brief measure of your client's suicidal potential. This new instrument is useful as
a screener for persons entering psychological treatment. FAST scores indicate areas in which the client is
experiencing the greatest degree of distress, allowing you to focus your interventions. It will also serve as a brief
pre-and post-therapy measure.
G Global Health Network Newsletter
G Geriatric Assessment Methods for Clinical Decision Making
G Greenwood Institute for Child Mental Health, University of Leicester - Division
of Child Psychiatry.
G Grief
G Dr. Grohol's Mental Health Page
G Group Psychotherapy
G Growth Groups
"Growth Groups is a New York City based Mental Health Provider with a website that has attracted 22,000 visits since
January 1998."
G The Guild of Psychotherapists
The Guild was founded in 1974 by a group of psychotherapists from Freudian, Jungian and
Phenomenological backgrounds who were agreed on what is critical in the practice of
psychotherapy. The Guild aims to provide a training in psychoanalytic psychotherapy
which recognises the importance of the contributions which have been made and continue
to be made by the traditions and schools of psychoanalysis and analytic psychology.
G Gulf War Syndrome
An article in the current issue of the APA Monitor suggests that exposure to low levels of certain
chemicals may be at the root of the Gulf War Syndrome.
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Top Ten Bestsellers (continuously updated): abuse, adhd, adoption, aging, aids, alcoholism,
alternative medicine, anxiety disorders, autism, bipolar disorder, child development, child care,
conversion disorders, counseling psychology, cults, death and dying, depression, dissociative
disorders, domestic violence, dreams, eating disorders, forensic psychology, gay, lesbian & bisexual,
grief, learning disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder, parenting, personality disorders,
professional counseling and psychotherapy, psychiatry, psychopathy, PTSD, rape, schizophrenia,
sexual disorders, self-esteem, self-help, stress, suicide, violence.
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| What's new | Search | Guestbook | Feedback | Add Your URL |
G Hardin Meta Directory of Internet Health Sources
G Harvard Mental Health Letter
G HealthAtoZ
HealthAtoZ.com is a premier search engine in Health and Medicine and receives many
million hits every month. Our team of distinguished medical professionals congratulate
you on developing an excellent website. Please submit your site for review and inclusion
into our database of select superlative sites. HealthAtoZ is undertaking an extensive marketing campaign
in the coming months.
G The Health Centre
G Health Finder
Online consumer health information service from the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
G Health Information On-Line
Article from the FDA Consumer, a publication of the U.S. Food and Drug
Administration (FDA), about how to assess the quality of online health information.
Discusses the problem of establishing the credibility of health and medical Web sites
and regulatory concerns about fraudulent offerings. Also includes a checklist for
assessing the reliability of information offered at a particular Web site and a contact
address for reporting suspected fraudulent offerings to the FDA.
G Health Psychology
G Healthtouch Drug Information Search Engine
Using our medication guide, you can find information about prescription or over-the-counter
medications. You will learn about the common uses of a drug, the proper ways to use the medicine,
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possible side effects, and other helpful information. It is best to discuss this medication information with
your pharmacist, doctor, or other health professional to find out how it applies to you and your particular
case. The information is provided by Medi-Span, one of the nation's most respected sources of drug and
medication information. To use this guide, enter the partial or complete name of the medicine below and
click on "Search for Match." (for example, enter the letters "aspi" for aspirin).

G Healthy Cities
"The context of all mental health is the community. From a long term concern with Community Mental
Health, we created the Healthy Cities Movement. Over 5000 programs, worldwide, attempt to find a
systemic solution, above and beyond therapies, to community issues. See this page and it's connections.
Link to it, and get part of the movement. You too can start a Healthy City program in your community.
Help is on-line." | REVIEW |
G Healthy Mind
"Welcome to HealthyMind.com. A healthy mind is something all of us would all like to have. If you
want to have healthier thoughts and feelings you've come to the right place! Life is not supposed to hurt--
at least, not all of the time. It is meant to be a positive, meaningful experience despite difficulties that
come along. It can have buoyancy, bounce, whimsy and surprise. However, when problems arise it can
be very difficult to experience these things."
G help! A Consumer's Guide to Mental Health Information
G History of Psychology
The Website for HISTORY OF PSYCHOLOGY, the new scholarly quarterly published by
the American Psychological Association for its Division of the History of Psychology.
G Holistic Internet Community
G Homosexuality Resources
G Hong Kong Psychological Database
This database (updated 1995) contains articles relating to psychological research on Hong Kong
individuals, from the book (Spinks & Ho, 1993) People, Culture and Society: A researcher's guide to
psychological studies in Hong Kong
What would you like to search for?
(example of a Boolean search: 'good;bad' will find all lines containing both 'good' AND 'bad')
Case insensitive Allow partial match to a word
Number of misspellings allowed:
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Maximum number of files returned:
Maximum number of matches per file returned:
Press this button to submit the query:
To reset the form, press this button:
G HON: Health on the Net Foundation
G Hospice Hands
Hospice Hands has an online chatroom, Q&A Forum, Employment and Education boards as well as an
exhaustive collection of Links (including a page of bereavement links) to hospice related sites and
articles.
G Human Behavior and Evolution Society
G Human Genome Project
The Human Genome Project is expected to produce a sequence of DNA representing
the functional blueprint and evolutionary history of the human species. However, only
about 3% of this sequence is thought to specify the portions of our 50,000 to 100,000
genes that encode proteins. Thus an important part of basic and applied genomics is to
identify and localize these genes in a process known as transcript mapping. When genes
are expressed, their sequences are first converted into messenger RNA transcripts, which can be isolated
in the form of complementary DNAs (cDNAs). Approximately half of all human genes had been
sampled as of 15 June, 1996. On this web site you can browse the Human Genome by chromosome!
G Human Relations Authority and Justice (Journal)
G Human Services Research Institute
G Hunter College Psychology Department
G Hyperjournal
Hyperjournal is a discussion list devoted exclusively to electronic journals, especially those
which publish on the World Wide Web. It is concerned with all aspects of the production and
publication of electronic journals, particularly those managed by academics themselves.
G Hypnosis

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Top Ten Bestsellers (continuously updated): abuse, adhd, adoption, aging, aids, alcoholism,
alternative medicine, anxiety disorders, autism, bipolar disorder, child development, child care,
conversion disorders, counseling psychology, cults, death and dying, depression, dissociative
disorders, domestic violence, dreams, eating disorders, forensic psychology, gay, lesbian & bisexual,
grief, learning disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder, parenting, personality disorders,
professional counseling and psychotherapy, psychiatry, psychopathy, PTSD, rape, schizophrenia,
sexual disorders, self-esteem, self-help, stress, suicide, violence.
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G ICD-10 (International Classicfication of Diseases)
"On these pages you will see a demonstration of a joint project to be carried out by the
Medical University of Lbeck, Department of Psychiatry as a WHO Collaborating
Center for Training and Research in Mental Health and the Fachhochschule Lbeck. In
this project the Clinical-Diagnostic Guidelines from Chapter V (F) of the International
Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) of WHO, together with the Research Criteria, are
converted into a hypertext document."
G Id
G Illinois Psychological Association
G Index of Psychology Resources in Italy and on the Net
G Indiana University Cognitive Science Program
G Indiana University Program in Animal Behavior
G Infoseek's Mental Health Links
G Infoseek's Psychiatry Links
G Innerspace
G Institute for Psychoanalysis & Psychotherapy of New Jersey (IPPNJ)
The Institute for Psychoanalysis and Psychotherapy of New Jersey (IPPNJ) is recognized by the state of
New Jersey as a non-profit educational corporation entitled to grant certificatesof completion to its
graduates. Its faculty consists of a diverse group of psychoanalysts with extensive post-graduate training
from a number of reputable psychoanalytic institutes.
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The overriding goals of IPPNJ are:
(1) the advancement of psychoanalysis as a method of treatment, a body of clinical experience, and a
theory of personality psychopathology, adaptation, and creativity; and
(2) the promotion of the highest attainable level of competence among mental health professionals who
practice psychoanalysis and psychoanalytically informed psychotherapy, supervision, and teaching.
G Institut fr Moderne Psychologische Therapie und Naturheilkunde
G Institute of Behavioral Medicine
"The Institute of Behavioral Medicine offers services for: people diagnosed with Cancer,
Diabetes, or other life-threatening illness, high school students and their families through
on-Campus Counselors programs, information and referral services, life-threatening illness
library services."
G Institute of Group and Family Therapy
G Institute of Mental Health Law
G Institute of Psychiatry (London, UK)
You can visit the Institute Library or go straight to the Mental Health page.
You can also visit the Psychiatry Research Trust or the Bethlem & Maudsley NHS Trust. We also host
the Royal College of Psychiatrists Research Unit here. For information about courses please go to the
relevant department or see the prospectus.
G Institute on Disability and Human Development
"The Institute on Disability and Human Development (IDHD) conducts research and provides services
for persons with mental and physical disabilities and their families. The Institute also carries out
interdisciplinary graduate education and outreach training activities. The Institute is an operating unit of
the College of Associated Health Professions (CAHP) at the University of Illinois at Chicago (UIC). As
a federally designated University Affiliated Program (UAP), the Institute is a part of a network of over
fifty similar programs affiliated with major universities across the United States. UAPs are provided
core funding by the Administration on Developmental Disabilities in the US Department of Health and
Human Services, as authorized by the Developmental Disabilities Act."
G Integration of Psychotherapy and Pharmacotherapy
Online article.
G Interaction of Type of Psychotherapy and Type of Patient: A Clinical Trial
G International Association for Cross-Cultural Psychology
G International Association of Applied Psychology
G International Association of Ecological Psychology
G International Association of Group Psychotherapy
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G International Association of Marriage and Family Counselors
G International Association of Spiritual Psychiatry
G International Journal of Psychiatry
Psychiatry Online - The most popular online psychiatry journal. You can search Priory Journals:
Enter one or more keywords connected with "and" and "or".
Examples: "Head", "Anxiety and Depression".
G Use Substring Matching to extend searches to
words which contain the given term as a substring.
Example: the query "heal" will return "heal", "health"
and "healthy"
G Start search: Reset:
G The International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine
G International Network for the Definition of Death
G International Psychoanalytical Association
Home page of the Association.
G The International Society for Mental Health Online
"The International Society for Mental Health Online (ISMHO) was formed in 1997 to
promote the understanding, use and development of online communication, information
and technology for the international mental health community."
G International Society for Psychophysics
G International Society for the Study of Dissociation
G International Society for the Study of Personal Relationships
G The International Stress Management Association
G The International Transactional Analysis Association
G International Union of Psychological Science
The International Voice of Psychological Science ... is the largest international psychological
organization, representing the psychological communities of 58 countries; ... works to promote the
development of the full breadth of psychology as a science and as a profession; ... is a voluntary
scientific organization, non-governmental, non-political, and not-for-profit; ... has as members national
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organizations of psychology, national academies of science, and similar organizations; ... is organized
like the United Nations -- its Assembly is composed of delegates from the National Members; the
IUPsyS aims to represent psychology in all countries in which scientific psychology is organized.
G An Internet Guide for the Health Professional
G Internet Health Guide
Public health information resource designed for the Internet community. Includes annotated index of
Internet health resources indexed by topic; health-related audio sites, along with the latest version of
RealAudio for downloading; information on and audio files from a national radio call-in show focusing
on health topics; and a search facility.
G Internet Mental Health Magazine
Contains, or links to, copies of published articles, booklets newsletters and stories of recovery selected
by psychiatrist Phillip W. Long. There are also editorials, letters to the editor and book reviews.
G Internet Organizations (Mental Health)
G InterPsych
InterPsych has grown to operate nearly 50 forums on a diverse range of mental health topics - now
serving over 10,000 members world-wide.
G Internet Science Journal
Allows professionals and serious amateurs to publish their science articles in hypertext
form. The article stays on your website, you keep the copyright, and you can upgrade the
article whenever you want.
G Israel Psychologist & Psychotherapist Home Page
G Italian Psychoanalytic Society
G Italian Psychology
Index of psychology resources in Italy and on the NET
G Italian Psychology
Vogliamo creare una rete di discussione sul mestiere dello psicologo nei servizi pubblici.

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professional counseling and psychotherapy, psychiatry, psychopathy, PTSD, rape, schizophrenia,
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G Japan Clinical Psychology Association
G Johns Hopkins Hospital Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences
"The Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences provides a wide range of services.
The inpatient units provide short-term acute care for most child, adolescent and adult
psychiatric disorders. Some inpatient units specialize in the care of eating disorders,
motivated behavior disorders, affective disorders, geriatric and neuropsychiatry, and pain
management. Electroconvulsive therapy is also available. As an alternative to inpatient care,
our general and specialty psychiatric day hospitals provide short-term acute care for most psychiatric
disorders."
G Journal for the Psychoanalysis of Culture and Society
G Journal of Abnormal Psychology
G Journal of Community Health Nursing
G Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology
G The Journal of Cognitive Rehabilitation
Monthly updated full reprints of past articles along with information about subscriptions and cognitive
rehabilitation software.
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G The Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication
A hypermedia publication: articles are accompanied by color photographs and diagrams,
movies, and hyperlinks to other CMC-related resources. Readers may perform keyword
searches and make annotations to the articles online. For further information, contact the
Editors at jcmc@usc.edu.
You can search all five issues of JCMC with the Verity search engine. Enter words or
phrases, separated by commas. (Try using these search hints).
We encourage you to comment on these papers.
G Journal of Constructivist Psychology
G Journal of Counseling Psychology
G Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
G Journal of Health Communication
G The Journal of Informatics in Primary Care
A Journal from The British Computer Society.
G Journal of Intellectual Disability Research
G Journal of Melanie Klein and Object Relations
G Journal of Mental Health
Home page of the bimonthly journal with a focus on practical and administrative issues in mental health
- available online.
G Journal of Mind and Behavior
"An educational and professional journal dedicated to the interdisciplinary approach within psychology
and related fields - building upon the assumption of a unified science. JMB is interested in: the
psychology, philosophy, and sociology of experimentation and the scientific method; the relationship
between methodology, operationism, and theory construction; the mind/body problem in the social
sciences, psychiatry and the medical sciences, and the physical sciences; philosophical impact of a mind/
body epistemology upon psychology and its theories of consciousness; phenomenological, teleological,
existential, and introspective reports relevant to psychology, psychosical methodology, and social
philosophy; and historical perspecives on the course and nature of psychological science."
G Journal of Psychiatry and Neuroscience
The Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience is an electronic version of the print journal by the same title.
The Journal of Psychiatry and Neuroscience publishes original research articles and review papers in
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clinical psychiatry (adult and child) and neuroscience related to major psychiatric disorders, particularly
schizophrenia, affective disorders and neurodegenerative diseases. It provides a forum for original basic
and clinical science research, and presents an integrated perspective on current and emerging issues in
clinical and biological psychiatry. Each issue also includes Editorials, Book Reviews and Letters to the
Editor. The Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience is the official journal of the Canadian College of
Neuropsychopharmacology and is published five times per year by the Canadian Psychiatric Association.
G Journal for the Psychoanalysis of Culture and Society
G Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association
G Journal of the Psychiatric Association of Thailand
G Journal of South Asia Women Studies
G Joyfire Healing Pages
"The JoyFire Healing Pages is a focused collection of "new edge" resources for those
spirits who have undertaken (consciously or unconsciously) the task of healing the Godess/
God They Are, including their Form, Emotions, and Heart. It's for those who have a sense
of Lost Essence, Lost Power, and or Lost Heart. It's time to call Home the many lost parts of Self to
regain full God/Goddess Consciousness within the physical Form."
G Jung, C.G.

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Top Ten Bestsellers (continuously updated): abuse, adhd, adoption, aging, aids, alcoholism,
alternative medicine, anxiety disorders, autism, bipolar disorder, child development, child care,
conversion disorders, counseling psychology, cults, death and dying, depression, dissociative
disorders, domestic violence, dreams, eating disorders, forensic psychology, gay, lesbian & bisexual,
grief, learning disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder, parenting, personality disorders,
professional counseling and psychotherapy, psychiatry, psychopathy, PTSD, rape, schizophrenia,
sexual disorders, self-esteem, self-help, stress, suicide, violence.
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G Karl Menninger School of Psychiatry and Mental Health Sciences
G Katholieke Universiteit Leuven Faculty of Psychology and Educational
Sciences
G KEN
The National Mental Health Services Knowledge Exchange Network
G Kidbits
Resource for parents providing tips on maintaining the physical and mental health of infants, children,
and adolescents.
G KinderStart.Com - the Largest Indexed Directory and Search Engine on the Web for Parents and Caregivers
G Kingshill Research - is an information resource for dementia sufferers and their carers which aims to provide
patients and carers with access to the information they need to understand and cope with dementia. It also offers
an overview of our work.
G Klein, Melanie
G Kolbe.com
"Discover how the freedom to be yourself is the key to success. You're perfect, Kolbe can prove it!"

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Top Ten Bestsellers (continuously updated): abuse, adhd, adoption, aging, aids, alcoholism,
alternative medicine, anxiety disorders, autism, bipolar disorder, child development, child care,
conversion disorders, counseling psychology, cults, death and dying, depression, dissociative
disorders, domestic violence, dreams, eating disorders, forensic psychology, gay, lesbian & bisexual,
grief, learning disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder, parenting, personality disorders,
professional counseling and psychotherapy, psychiatry, psychopathy, PTSD, rape, schizophrenia,
sexual disorders, self-esteem, self-help, stress, suicide, violence.
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G Lacan, J.
G R.D. Laing Web Site
G Latin Psychology/Psychiatry - InterPsych Forum LATIN-PSYCH
G Lesbianism Resources
G Licensure.com
Licensure.Com prepares students to take the NCE test by providing resources and methods to improve
memory. A test bank covering 8 areas included in the NCE is included.
G Lige Faculty of Psychology
G Linda Foundation
"Sometimes words can reach out and touch a heart, sometimes they can save a life. That is
the dream of The Linda Foundation . They sponsor My Sisters Place, a collection of poems
on the World Wide Web dealing with domestic violence and abuse. Brought together by the
story of one little girl killed at the age of nine in a domestic violence incident in her home,
these poets have donated their works on the subject for a collection. This collection can be
seen at the original My Sister's Place (at http://www.geocities.com/Paris/LeftBank/7808/
linda.html) or the mirror site created for the Phenomenal Women of the Web - Against
Domestic Violence site at My Sister's Place (at http://members.aol.com/Sher9/sisters.html). The site also
includes links to domestic violence related sources such as information, shelters and hotlines." If you
would like to help The Linda Foundation, Please fill out the form to be added to their mailing list at
(http://www.geocities.com/Paris/LeftBank/7808/foundation.html), or contact Sher9@aol.com.
G Living Large Network
Self-help site for people who are interested in living more expansively, having full and rich relationships,
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and devising better strategies for achieving our goals.
G Logotherapy

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M - Online Dictionary of Mental Health
Top Ten Bestsellers (continuously updated): abuse, adhd, adoption, aging, aids, alcoholism,
alternative medicine, anxiety disorders, autism, bipolar disorder, child development, child care,
conversion disorders, counseling psychology, cults, death and dying, depression, dissociative
disorders, domestic violence, dreams, eating disorders, forensic psychology, gay, lesbian & bisexual,
grief, learning disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder, parenting, personality disorders,
professional counseling and psychotherapy, psychiatry, psychopathy, PTSD, rape, schizophrenia,
sexual disorders, self-esteem, self-help, stress, suicide, violence.
[ HOME | A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z ]

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G McMan's Depression and Bipolar Web - More than 100 articles on all aspects of
depression and bipolar, plus news, links, books, forum, and newsletter.
G Magic Stream
E-zine and mental health resource. Extensive links on topics such as: addictions, recovery,
child abuse, fitness, depression, family, etc.We publish original writing focused on personal
growth and the universal in human emotion. The site was designed as a self-help resource,
but is utilized extensively by professionals as well.
G Mahidol University, Thailand, Department of Psychiatry
G Managed Care Clearinghouse Web Site
MCARE is pleased to announce the availability of its new website. This site provides the
most current information available on managed care, long-term services and supports,
and self-determination, including links to news articles, upcoming conferences and
events, government documents, research and policy papers, and individual perspectives.
MCARE also intends to host on-line discussions and to disseminate a series of videotapes
featuring national experts on managed-care issues. MCARE, the National Clearinghouse
on Managed Care and Long-Term Services and Supports for Adults with Developmental
Disabilities and Their Families, is funded through a grant from the Administration on
Developmental Disabilities at the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
G Martindale's Health Science Guide
G Massachusetts General HospitalMedAccess
G Mastering Stress
We have had a product called the Therapeutic Learning Program available to mental health professionals
for over 10 years. We are now offering a CD-ROM self-help product called MASTERING STRESS and
have just recently put up a website.
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G Maytal - Israel Institute for Treatment & Study of Stress
A professionally run site well worth a visit.
G McGill University
G McLean Hospital
"McLean Hospital is consistently ranked as one of the best hospitals for mental health care and research
in the United States, and maintains the largest research program of any US private psychiatric hospital."
G Medical College of Virginia Department of Psychiatry
G Medical Matrix
Guide to Internet Clinical Medicine Resources, a project of the American Medical
Informatics Association's Internet Working Group
G Medical & Mental Health Resources
Lee Hancock's guide to health resources on the Internet.
G Medical & Mental Health Resources (U. of Chicago)
G Medical Research Council Applied Psychology Unit
G Medical Students Interested in Psychiatry
PsyDoc2B - For Medical Students interested in Psychiatry. This is the web page "companion" to the
mailing list of the same name. Content includes: Subscription information, list activities, and links of
interest to medical students and mental health fans.
G Medications--Mental Health/Mental Illness
NIMH Document.
G Melissa's Therapy FAQ
Therapy from a client's perspective
G Mental Health Associates
This is a multispecialty mental health practice which provides timely informational articles on a variety
of mental health topics. We also provide the opportunity for consumers to email the group confidentially
to obtain preliminary information in response to personal mental health questions.
G Mental Health Concerns and Issues - This web site was developed to provide an accessible service for
people under the care of the mental health system. Based in Britain, it is run by individuals who are themselves
patients. The site is entirely independent and is not affiliated to any organisation. One of the major aims of this
site is to provide constructive information and discussion that will help patients promote the dignity and respect
that we all deserve.
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G The Mental Health Education Page
The Mental Health Education Page aims to take the mystery out of the theraputic process as well as
provide factual information about the nature and treatment of mental illness.
G Mental Health Infosource (Psychiatric Times)
A first-class mental health resource containing a large volume of original material. This site is
interesting, easy-to-use and very well presented.
G Mental Health Licensure Information
This site contains information and links for licensure of psychologists, professional counselors, social
workers, and marriage and family therapists. State board information, state rules and regulations,
licensure preparation links, and current licensure issues are listed.
G Mental Health Matters!
"User-friendly Directory for mental health professionals, consumer, and their families. Highly selective listings:
research, alternative treatments, libraries, societies, mental health activists, online support, self-help, MH Law,
databases, abuse, trauma, addiction, substance abuse, childhood didorders, phobias, panic attacks, anxiety,
anciety disorders, ADHD, alzheimer's disease, autism, depression, bipolar disorder, suicide, dissociative
disorders, abuse, PTSD, tourette's syndrome, suicide, sleep disorders, schizophrenia, OCD, grief, loss, gender
disorders, and more. If you still cannot find the information or resources you need, fill out the FREE SEARCH
form and I will search for you."
G Mental Health in the Media - InterPsych Forum - PSYMEDIA
G Mental Health Net
The Internet's biggest and best compilation of self-help resources. Compiled and managed by Dr John
Grohol.

G Mental Health Internet Links Page
G Mental Health Resources
G The Mental Health Review
Jointly published with the Centre for Mental Health Services Development (CMHSD), Kings College,
London. Now in its second year the Mental Health Review is a practical
quarterly journal which informs purchasers, policy analysts, provider managers
and senior practitioners in health, social services, and the independent sector,
about the latest developments in mental health services. By subscribing to the
journal, you will benefit from the focused pieces on developing, commissioning
and managing services as well as being able to draw on the CMHSDs
substantial experience and expertise in working at the interface between national
policy and local practice.
G Internet Mental Health
A very fine mental health resource based in Canada - thorough and well-organised.
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G David Sommers' Mental Health Cyber-Clinic
G Mental Health Research Institute - Australia (Melbourne)
G Mental Health Resources List
A comprehensive, annotated, and evaluative collection of resources.
G Mental Health Resources
Numerous links to information for patients and families on many mental health problems from 2 family
practice psychologists
G The Merck Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy
G Merger
The Newsletter of the Migration and Ethnic Relations Group for European Research.
G THE METANOIA GUIDE TO CONSUMER INTERNET MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES
Guide to online therapy, written by a former patient; introductions to legal and ethical concerns.
G MetaSelf -- A Visual Aid to Being Human
G MHinteractive
The interactive section of Mental Health Infosource. Ask the Expert, The Write Brain, mailing lists and
chat rooms.
G MHI Professional Directory
A data base of mental health professionals in the USA.
G MIND's Home Page
G Missouri Institute of Mental Health
"The Missouri Institute of Mental Health (MIMH) was founded in 1962, as the Missouri
Institute of Psychiatry. MIMH has a long history of training and educating professionals and the public
about mental illness. Originally established as the research and training arm of the Missouri Department
of Mental Health (DMH), in 1974 the Missouri Legislature transferred the Institute to the University of
Missouri-Columbia (UMC). Although the Institute reports to the Dean of the School of Medicine at
UMC , it retains strong ties to the DMH. All MIMH faculty hold appointments in the University's
Department of Psychiatry & Neurology."
G Juliet Mitchell on 'Sexuality, Psychoanalysis & Social Change'
I am interested in raising a number of what seem to me to be urgent questions about our theory and practice by
exploring these in the light of social changes. For me, the problems revolve around our understanding of
heterosexuality. So long as we do not try to correlate our theories of psychic life with social conditions - whether
these seem 'universal' or specific - without our intending it, they will become reflective of these very conditions.
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Indeed, I think this has already happened, in relation to both the castration complex and to mother-infant
relations.
G Multicultural Counseling and Psychotherapy Survey
G Munchausen Syndrome & Factitious Disorders Page

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N - Online Dictionary of Mental Health
Top Ten Bestsellers (continuously updated): abuse, adhd, adoption, aging, aids, alcoholism,
alternative medicine, anxiety disorders, autism, bipolar disorder, child development, child care,
conversion disorders, counseling psychology, cults, death and dying, depression, dissociative
disorders, domestic violence, dreams, eating disorders, forensic psychology, gay, lesbian & bisexual,
grief, learning disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder, parenting, personality disorders,
professional counseling and psychotherapy, psychiatry, psychopathy, PTSD, rape, schizophrenia,
sexual disorders, self-esteem, self-help, stress, suicide, violence.
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G National Academy of Neuropsychology
G National Alliance for the Mentally Ill
[US] Information on the National Alliance for the Mentally Ill (NAMI), a self-help,
support, and advocacy organization dedicated to improving the lives of people with severe
mental illness and their loved ones. Includes information on legislative activities, a list of
state alliances with contact information, book reviews, fact sheets on a variety of issues
related to mental illness, and information on telephone support and referral services.
G National Association of Alcoholism & Drug Abuse Counselors
G National Association for Christian Recovery
Resources and support for people recovering from addiction, abuse and/or trauma. Particularly helpful
for people seeking to integrate Christian faith with the recovery journey. On-line forum, over 2MB of
files, resouces for support group leaders and lots more.
G National Association of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapists
G National Association for Managers of Student Services
This site has a large range of sections already, including links for counselling & health promotion. Other
sections under development currently include New Deal information, curriculum links, careers and
eventually will include sections on current standards of good practice and codes of ethics in all the areas
of student services.
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G National Association of Mental Health Information Officers
G National Association for Rights Protection and Advocacy
G National Association of School Psychologists
G National Association for Self-Esteem
G National Association of Social Workers
G National Association of State Information Resource Executives
This site has numerous links to local Health, Human Services and Welfare pages, Education resources,
and connections to State Legislatures.
G The National Board for Certified Clinical Hypnotherapists - NBCCH
G National Coalition of Mental Health Professionals & Consumers
G National Center for Health Statistics
U.S. government agency providing statistical information that support policy decisions and actions to
improve the health of Americans. Site includes news releases and fact sheets on a wide range of health-
related issues; quick access to U.S. government statistics on crime, demographics, education, and health;
FAQs; the Monthly Vital Statistics Report and other publications and products; a link to FEDSTATS, a
statistical database supplied by more than 70 federal agencies, and links to other health-related databases,
clearinghouses, and comprehensive sites; and access to the search facility of the Centers for Disease
Control and Prevention.
G National Council for Community Behavioral Healthcare
G The National Directory of Mental Health Referral Services
A community service designed to help individuals, who are in need of pre-screened
referrals, find an appropriate mental health resource. L. JAMES GROLD M.D. F.A.P.A.,
Director of 1-800-THERAPIST, the sponsor of this web page.
G National Empowerment Center
G National Federation of Societies for Clinical Social Work
We are a national (U.S.) organization of about eleven thousand clinical social workers/psychotherapists.
This WWW site is maintained for clinical social workers who are members of state societies for clinical
social work. We welcome ALL visitors, and ask that you allow us to introduce ourselves with "About
NFSCSW".
G National Health Information Center
Health information referral service of the Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion of the U.S.
Department of Health and Human Services. Includes access to database with information from more than
1,100 organizations and government offices that provide health information on request to health-care
providers and the public. Information is also available on the annual Partnerships for Networked
Consumer Health Information conferences and other activities of the Office of Disease Prevention and
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Health Promotion and other federal health agencies.
G National Institute of Mental Health Home Page
This WWW server is a new service of the National Institute of Mental Health and will be
updated as changes occur.
G The National Library of Medicine
General information and databases, some free of charge, including the 60,000 image
collection of the History of Medicine (search: images history medicine)
Enter keywords for what you want to find on NLM
WWW servers:
match of the words and return
report.
G National Mental Health Association
"The National Mental Health Association, through its national office and more than 300 affiliates
nationwide, is dedicated to improving the mental health of all individuals and achieving victory over
mental illnesses. Founded in 1909 by Clifford W. Beers, a former psychiatric patient, NMHA is the
nation's only citizen volunteer advocacy organization dedicated to addressing all aspects of mental health
and mental illnesses. NMHA accomplishes its mission as a force for social change through: Advocacy,
Prevention, Information and Referral, Public Education, and your help."
G The National Psychologist
"An independent bimonthly newspaper for practitioners. We are delighted to present
here an annotated table of contents for our current issue, with a peek from time to time
about what is forthcoming. We welcome letters to the editor, and you can e-mail us from
the bottom of this page. We invite you to stimulate our thinking us as much as we hope
we stimulate yours! And, of course, we hope you will join us as a paid subscriber."
G Natural Medicine, Complementary Health Care, and Alternative Therapies
G Narrative Psychology/Therapy
G Needle in a Cyberhaystack
A Web Infofinder
G Neuroexam - Provides an interactive online guide to the neurological exam with streaming video
demonstrations. It also includes text describing the interpretation and anatomical basis of each part of the exam.
G Neuropsychobiology
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Exactly all
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International Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research in Biological Psychiatry, Pharmacopsychiatry,
Biological Psychology/Pharmacopsychology and Pharmacoelectroencephalography Official Journal of the
International Pharmaco-EEG Group (IPEG) The biological approach to mental disorders continues to yield
innovative findings of immense clinical importance. In four separately edited but closely related sections, this
journal facilitates immediate comparison of data resulting from various experimental and clinical approaches. It
features original and fundamental data on the relationship between neurophysiology, neurochemistry,
neuroendocrinology, genetics and between normal and abnormal behavior; pharmacoelectroencephalographic
studies and extensive information on how psychotropic compounds affect both normal and abnormal psychologic
states. Regular reviews report new methodologic approaches. Neuropsychobiology is a complete record of
strategies and methodologies employed to study mental functions.
G Neuroscience of the Mind on the Centennial of Freuds Project for a Scientific Psychology
Robert M. Bilder (Hillside Hospital Division of Long Island Jewish Medical Center, New Hyde Park, NY) & F.
Frank LeFever (Helen Hayes Hospital, West Haverstraw, NY), Eds.
Revisits Sigmund Freuds controversial psychology for neuroscientists, published posthumously in 1950 as the
Project for a Scientific Psychology. Attempts to contextualize the work historically, critically evaluate scientific
progress towards the Projects ultimate goals, and point to directions for future study to attain a psychology that
is a natural science. Contains the works of eminent scholars working at the interface of brain and behavioral
sciences.
G The New Mexico Psychological Association
G New Hope and Freedom Counseling Services
Since 1976, providing professional counseling & therapy from a Christian perspective - specializing in
individual psychotherapy, couples, sex, marriage, premarital, family, divorce recovery, substance abuse,
addictions, parenting skills, child, adolescent, depression, grief, obsessions, compulsions, OCD, fears,
anxiety, panic attacks, eating disorders, anorexia, bulimia, aging, retirement, men's issues, women's
issues, singles, relationships, sexual dysfunctions: inhibitions, lack of desire, intimacy & identity issues,
homosexuality concerns, sexual addictions, sexual mental, emotional and/or physical abuse, anger, hurt,
somatic stress & pain relief therapy. Corporate & church consultation; speakers bureau also available. A
not-for-profit, nondenominational community service organization, serving south-central & southeastern
Pennsylvania (PA), northern Delaware (DE), southern New Jersey (NJ), and north-eastern Maryland
(MD): with local offices in Wilmington, DE and Harrisburg, PA . Phone consultations available
anywhere. (800) 784-HOPE.
G New Hope Healing Institute
New Hope Healing Institute is a non-profit organization providing support to adult survivors of abuse & sexual
trauma on-line and off line. On line site includes information, a message forum, and links to other sites
G New Horizons
Newsletter of the Depressive and Manic Depressive Association. Includes articles on
government activity related to mental illness, coping with depression and other mood
disorders, research studies, and a membership application.
G New Mobility
New Mobility is a partial electronic version of the print magazine of the same title. Feature
articles and some departments are available as well as a feedback and chat room function. The site also
contains set of links to internet resources dealing with disabilities and spinal cord injury. While
unsentimental and uncompromising, New Mobility's voice is practical, knowing and friendly. New
Mobility covers people and issues that matter to people with disabilities: medical news and cure research;
jobs; benefits; civil rights; sports, recreation and travel; fertility, pregnancy and child care.
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G New York Psychotherapy Collective
A free referral service to New York area therapists.
G Network: Newsletter for the Society of Psychotherapy Research
The newsletter will now be settling into a regular publication sequence of one issue in the autumn and
one after the annual conference of SPR(UK) in March. The circulation varies between issues, the May/
June one generally going to the 200 odd SPR(UK) members and the autumn issue going to them and to
about 200 other selected addresses in Britain of psychiatry, psychotherapy and psychology training
institutions etc.
G NetQ
From the Rowland Institute for Science, makes it possible to get answers to questions while reading an
author's article. Currently, topics are restricted to "complex adaptive systems" such as evolutionary
computation, adaptive behavior, artificial life, etc. Answers to any questions already asked can be
accessed directly. You can type a new question onto a form to be forwarded automatically and
anonymously to the author, who will answer as soon as possible. Your question and its answer are added
to the article's Q/A structure and become available to everyone who follows, ultimately creating an
approximation to a high-quality interaction with the author available to many people.
G Neural Processing Letters
Abstracts of articles and information about the journal.
G Neuroanatomy and Neuropathology
G Neurofeedback Archive
G New England Institute for Psychoanalytic Studies
Clinical training programs in psychoanalysis and psychoanalytic psychotherapy -
neips@neips.org.
G New Jersey Medical School [UMDNJ-NJMS] Department of Psychiatry
G New York State Psychological Association
G Newsletter of the Society for Psychotherapy Research U.K
G The New Social Worker Online
THE NEW SOCIAL WORKER ONLINE provides an online career center, information about and
articles from THE NEW SOCIAL WORKER magazine, links to social work-related sites, and more.
G New York State Psychiatric Institute
G Neurolinguistic Programming
G NOAH: New York Online Access to Health
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G Northern Ireland Group For Art As Therapy (NIGAT)
G NorthWestern University Psychology Department
G North West Institute of Dynamic Psychotherapy
The Northwest Institute of Dynamic Psychotherapy (NWIDP) was established to provide advanced
training and further education in psychoanalytic and psychodynamic psychotherapy in the North West of
England. The NWIDP is the main training and accrediting body in the North West, and has links to the
University of Manchester, the NHS and other psychotherapy training organisations in the North of
England. The NWIDP is recognised as both a training and an accrediting body by the United Kingdom
Council for the Psychotherapies (UKCP), and Full members of the NWIDP are entitled to be Registered
as Psychoanalytic Psychotherapists by the UKCP
G Nurse Advocate: Nurses and Workplace Violence
G Nursing and Health Care Resources on the 'Net
The site provides lists of World Wide Web Sites, Mailing lists and Newsgroups relevant to
Nursing & Health Care.
G NYS Commission on Quality of Care
The New York State Commission on Quality of Care for the Mentally Disabled site
contains material which may be of interes to providers and users [including researchers] of
services for people deemed to have disabilities.
G NYU Medical Center, Dept. of Psychiatry


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disorders, domestic violence, dreams, eating disorders, forensic psychology, gay, lesbian & bisexual,
grief, learning disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder, parenting, personality disorders,
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G Object Relations
G Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
G Oedipus Complex
G OMNI: Organizing Medical Networked Information
" a gateway to quality Internet resources in medicine, biosciences, healthcare and health management"
G 1-2-3 Medical Billing Services
1-2-3 Medical Billing Services offers providers health care providers with full practice management,
electronic claims filing, soft collections, eligibility verifications, insurance followup and so much more!!
We provide you with Maximum Reimbursment!
G Online Psych
An excellent new Information source for mental health professionals and members of
the general public. Highly recommended.
G Ontario Mental Health Foundation
G Online Publications for Clinical and Health Psychology
G The Order
"The Order is a partcipation-platform/startingpoint dedicated to the nature, science, politics and spirituality of time-
management; it includes a chatroom, linking-library, e-literature, a graphic guide, designs, timetables, a searching-
system, a music-page and more."
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G Oregon Psychological Association
G Overcoming Depression
An interactive computer program to understand, alleviate and prevent depression.
G Oxford and Anglia Mental Health Web
Don't waste time surfing - go straight to Oxford & Anglia Mental Health Web, a library of
evidence-based mental health information, now official website for the Centre for Evidence-Based
Mental Health and the Computers in Mental Health Group, Royal College of Psychiatrists.


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Top Ten Bestsellers (continuously updated): abuse, adhd, adoption, aging, aids, alcoholism,
alternative medicine, anxiety disorders, autism, bipolar disorder, child development, child care,
conversion disorders, counseling psychology, cults, death and dying, depression, dissociative
disorders, domestic violence, dreams, eating disorders, forensic psychology, gay, lesbian & bisexual,
grief, learning disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder, parenting, personality disorders,
professional counseling and psychotherapy, psychiatry, psychopathy, PTSD, rape, schizophrenia,
sexual disorders, self-esteem, self-help, stress, suicide, violence.
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G Panic
G Panic Research
We are conducting continuous research into Panic attacks and this questionnaire is part of
this project.
G The Parent Handbook
Excellent multimedia guide for parents, including information on family therapy.
G Patient Advocacy
Healthier You, NARSAD, NARSAD Artworks and support resources.
G Pavilion Publishing Online
Pavilion Publishing is the UK's leading publisher and distributor of training materials and manuals in
health and social care. Pavilion is also a frontrunner in conference organisation for the health and social
care sectors, organising a range of events in association with other professional and academic agencies.
G Pennsylvania Psychological Association
G Perspectives - A Mental Health Magazine
A publication from Mental Health Net.
G Personal Construct Therapy
G Personality Disorders
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G Pharmaceutical Information Network
G Pharmacology Glossary
G Pharmacy Yellow Pages
G PharmaWeb
G Tim LeBon's Philosophical Counselling Site
Events, articles, and free e-mail philosophical counselling.
G Philosophy of Psychiatry
A bibliography on the philosophy of psychiatry compiled by Christian Perring.
G Philosophy Papers Online
A new web page devoted to online papers on consciousness. This has links to about 180 papers on the
topic, sorted into 22 categories ("The concept of consciousness", "The explanatory gap", etc.). The
majority of the papers are philosophical, but there are also quite a few empirical papers.Suggestions for
addition are welcome. I hope this encourages the practice of putting one's research online, which is
already the norm in disciplines such as physics and computer science. (Wherever possible, I suggest
retaining the right to self-publication when an article is published. This is standard practice at some
journals, and most other journals seem to find it agreeable.) For other sources of online philosophy, see
my previously advertised page of "individuals with online papers in philosophy": http://ling.ucsc.edu/
~chalmers/online.html. See also Joh Lau's list of online philosophy papers: http://www.hku.hk/philodep/
www/links.htm. Also recently added to the goodies on the web site is a page devoted to philosophical
humor. This one is at: http://ling.ucsc.edu/~chalmers/phil-humor.html. Suggestions for additions of all
sorts are welcome.-Dave Chalmers.
G PhotoTherapy Techniques - During PhotoTherapy sessions, photos are not just passively reflected upon in
silent contemplation, but also actively created, posed for, talkedwith, listened to, reconstructed, revised to form or
illustrate new narratives, collected on assignment, re-visualized in memory or imagination, integrated into art
therapy expressions, or even set into animated dialogue with other photos.
G The Pink Practice
G The Canadian Play Therapy Institute
G POL.it Psychiatry Online Italia
The Italian section of the international on line psychiatric magazine. Edited in Genoa, Italy by Francesco
Bollorino, MD researcher, University of Genoa.
G Positive Reinforcement
A Self-Instructional Exercise - L. Grant
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G Post Traumatic Stress Disorder
G Primal Centre
British Columbia, Canada, offers information about Primal Psychotherapy
G Primal Parenting
A Canadian-based International Organization formed to support, educate, advocate and
increase public awareness of the importance of Primal Parenting.
G The Primal Psychotherapy Page
Introduction and further documents - J.A. Speyrer
G Primal Therapy - See also www.primals.org
G Professional Academy of Custody Evaluators
G Professional Resource Press
Professional Resource Press is a publisher of books and other applied resources for health care
professionals in mental health and behavioral health fields.
G Progress: Family Systems Research and Therapy
G Process Press
G ProVisions Consulting Inc.
"We are a workplace wellness, mental health resource and executive and human resource
solutions firm serving the small and mid-sized business and clinical mental health provider
communities in Dallas, Texas. Our philosophy is that mental health and human resources
help maintain a healthy, productive work-force and impact bottom-line profits. Our
commitment is to offer reasonable priced services and products while maintaining quality,
confidentiality, and local access to all the qualified and licensed or certified ProVisions professionals."
G Pseudoscience in Psychology
I take a skeptical view of clinical psychology and psychiatry, based on the views of Thomas Szasz and Stanton
Peele.
G Psiconet
"I invite you to visite our site, the principal reference in Spanish in internet about psychoanalysis and
Psychology. We have a Program of Seminars with more than 12 seminars and more than 800
psychoanalysts and psychologists involved. We have the major journal on line in Spanish about
psychoanalysis and culture: the journal Acheronta and many other services."
G PsicoPortugal
The site is a psychology resources page in portuguese, adopting a constructivist-developmental aproach
to psychoterapy and career counseling. Esta a primeira pgina dedicada Psicologia feita em Portugal
http://www.human-nature.com/odmh/p.html (3 of 9)04/03/2005 12:03:37
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(pelo menos que eu saiba). Tomando como orientao terica uma viso construtivista-desenvolvimental,
sem rejeitar outras, pretende-se disponibilizar informao, links e outros recursos relativos Psicologia e
mais especificamente Orientao Vocacional e Psicoterapia.
G Psy Broadcasting Corporation
"PsyBC is a new internet-based broadcasting service that produces educationally oriented programs for
mental health professionals. The first set of programs consist of "standing panels" of experts who will be
selecting and discussing what they consider to be the best and most controversial of the current literature
in their topic area. The panel discussions will take place via email with each panelist making multiple
contributions per week. Subscribers will receive the broadcasts to their email boxes as the panelists'
conversations unfold. Subscribers will have the choice to interact with other subscribers or simply receive
the comments of the panelists. It will also be possible to submit questions and comments which may be
responded to by panelists. Authors of the journal articles or books being discussed will be invited to join
the discussion when possible."
G Psych Central: Dr. John Grohol's Mental Health Page
This was the first Web project of John Grohol, creator of Mental Health Net, and includes
material not found there such as articles and lists pertaining to mental health. The site also has
an extensive coverage of mailing lists and newsgroups whose focus is coping with various
disorders; a suicide helpline; symptoms lists and FAQs on health topics; reading lists with
reviews; and interactive chats with psychologist John.
G PSYCHE: an interdisciplinary journal of research on consciousness
G Psychiatric Informatics Fellowship
Home page for the fellowship at the University of Michigan Hospitals.
G Psychiatric Social Workers - InterPsych Forum PSYC-SOC
G Psychiatric News
G Psychiatric Nursing
G PsycOH!
Editor: Brett N. Steenbarger, Ph.D. Department of Psychiatry, SUNY Health Science Center
G Psychiatry On-Line
Currently the Web's most popular psychiatry journal. You can search Priory Journals:
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Enter one or more keywords connected with "and" and "or".
Examples: "Head", "Anxiety and Depression".
G Use Substring Matching to extend searches to
words which contain the given term as a substring.
Example: the query "heal" will return "heal", "health"
and "healthy"
G Start search: Reset:
G Psychiatry, Philosophy and Society (Distance Education)
G Psychiatry Practice Opportunities
G Psychiatry & Psychotherapy
G Psychiatry Star
G Psychiatric Times
G Psychiatry and Mental Health Meta List
Psychiatry, social work, research, mental health, pharmacology, jobs and more.
G Psychiatry Virtual Meta Index
A "gateway" to many internet resources forpsychiatrists (a virtual meta index to high quality
indexes of resources).
G PsychLink
G PsychNet-UK
A new site with an emphasis on the UK.
G Psychoanalytic Studies (Distance Education)
G Psychodiagnostic Chirology
G Psychodrama
Introduction, conference and workshop information - J. Plotkin
G Psychodramatic Methods in Psychotherapy
Online article.
G Psychodrama Research
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G Psychological Advisor Newsletter
G Psychologische Beitrge
G Psychologisches Institut der Universitt Bonn
G Resources for Psychology and Cognitive Sciences on the Internet
[Keyword-Search]
G Listing of US Psychology PhD Programs
Including hypertext links to 185 U.S. schools with psychology PhD programs, rank-ordered in quality
according to a report by the National Research Council.
G Psychology.Com - Home Page
G Psychology Departments Around the World
G Psychology Preprint Bulletin Board [PREP]
Provides immediate, free worldwide publication of academic psychology papers.
G Psychological Advisor Newsletter
An international, interactive magazine of psychological advice and opinion.
G Psychological Bulletin
G Psychological Diagnostic System
Compiled by John P. Smith, Ph.D.
G Psychological Online Documents
G Psychological Review
G Psychology of Religion
G Psychological Self-Help
"A comprehensive 1000 page summary of self-help methods completely online, searchable, and downloadable. Science-
based with 2000+ references but easy to read. Gives very detailed directions for self-change methods useful alone or as
supplements to therapy. Updated every year."
G Psychological Tests
Swedish site regularly updated with new articles by psychologists each week.
G Psychology Spring
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A resource for Turkish students.
G The Psychology of Virtual Communities
G Psychology Web Archive
G Psychomedia
The work of our group began in 1994 as a fortnightly seminar in the IIPG, the Italian Institute for Group
Psychoanalysis (founded in 1969 by Francesco Corrao, past President of SPI [the Italian Psychoanalytical
Society, an association member of the IPA. The seminar was a research-group on psychoanalysis of group-
individual relationship and in particular of inside-outside memory and communication processes, trying to
understand the static-conservative and dynamic-creative functions of "learning from experience" in the individual
and in the human groups. Psychomedia is centered on psychiatry, psychgology, psychoanalysis and
psychotherapy and obviously on the relation between mental health and communication. The idea was to group
in a single big web site the internet pages of all the must important psychoanalytically oriented associations,
members of italian branch of the EFPP, the European Federation for Psychoanalysis in the Public Sector.
G PsyMedX
"PsyMedX," "PsychConsult-Services," and "AlterMedX" present the current thinking of Greg Alter on computer-
mediated communication and practice management in organized behavioral healthcare. The pages include free
use of a threaded web discussion forum, information on practice management tools, and links to additional
practice management resources.
G Psychoneuroimmunology Finds Acceptance As Science Adds Evidence
Online article from The Scientist.
G Psychopharmacology Tips
G Psycoloquy - Refereed Interdisciplinary Journal of Psychology
G Psycho-Rehabilitation Program in Japan
G PsychScapes WorldWide Inc
Mental Health Workshops and Conferences Database - For many years we have published
and made available free access to the largest database of mental health continuing education
offerings in the world. We publish 5000-7000 listings annually, last year spanning 41
countries. All listings are searchable by topics, dates, locations, etc., at no cost. (We are
supported by workshop Providers and by subscriptions to the print version of our Registry.)
Our databases are updated every Monday, Wednesday, and Friday and contain the most
current information available.
G Psychotherapy Research
Journal of the Society for Psychotherapy Research.
G Psychotherapy and Philosophy
G Psychotherapy in Scotland
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G Psychotherapy Interviews
G Psychotherapy On-Line
G Psychosynthesis Home Page
G Psychotherapy in Japan
G Non Mainstream Psychotherapy Resources
G PsyDoc2B
PsyDoc2B (Pronounced Sigh Doc to be) is an internet mailing list for medical students who are
interested in psychiatry. It is a mailing list better described by the people who subscribe rather
than specific conversation topics.
G Psynopsis
Canada's Psychology Newspaper.
G The Society for the Exploration of Psychotherapy Integration
G Pulier's Personal Psychiatry and Behavioral Healthcare Resources


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Top Ten Bestsellers (continuously updated): abuse, adhd, adoption, aging, aids, alcoholism,
alternative medicine, anxiety disorders, autism, bipolar disorder, child development, child care,
conversion disorders, counseling psychology, cults, death and dying, depression, dissociative
disorders, domestic violence, dreams, eating disorders, forensic psychology, gay, lesbian & bisexual,
grief, learning disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder, parenting, personality disorders,
professional counseling and psychotherapy, psychiatry, psychopathy, PTSD, rape, schizophrenia,
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G Qualitative Report
The Qualitative Report (ISSN 1052-0147) is an online journal dedicated to writing and
discussion of and about qualitative and critical inquiry. The Qualitative Report serves as a
forum and sounding board for researchers, scholars, practitioners, and other reflective-
minded individuals who are passionate about ideas, methods, and analyses permeating
qualitative and critical study. These pages are open to a variety of forms: original, scholarly
activity such as qualitative research studies, critical commentaries, editorials, or debates
concerning pertinent issues and topics; news of networking and research possibilities; and
other sorts of journalistic and literary shapes which may interest and pique readers.The
Qualitative Report is published through Nova Southeastern University's School of Social & Systemic
Studies.
G The Qualitative Report Editorial Statement
G Quality Psychotherapy
Quality Psychotherapy loacted in Tampa Florida. Mental Health Counselors specializing in Trauma,
Grief, EMDR, Marital / Divorce, Gay / Lesbian, Depression, Anxiety, Eating Disorders, Stress / Anger
management.
G Queer Resources
G Questionnaire Helps Primary Care Physicians Detect Mental Disorders
Online article.
G Quitting Smoking Resources
"An internationally popular resource."

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Top Ten Bestsellers (continuously updated): abuse, adhd, adoption, aging, aids, alcoholism,
alternative medicine, anxiety disorders, autism, bipolar disorder, child development, child care,
conversion disorders, counseling psychology, cults, death and dying, depression, dissociative
disorders, domestic violence, dreams, eating disorders, forensic psychology, gay, lesbian & bisexual,
grief, learning disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder, parenting, personality disorders,
professional counseling and psychotherapy, psychiatry, psychopathy, PTSD, rape, schizophrenia,
sexual disorders, self-esteem, self-help, stress, suicide, violence.
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G Radical Psychology Network
The RadPsyNet home page.
G Rational-Emotive Therapy
G Recovery Bookstore
A growing collection of books that you can buy for yourself or as a gift. Submit your
favorite "recovery" book, and it is likely to be available for purchase soon afterwards.
G Wilhelm Reich Homepage
Introduction, bibliography, excerpts; mainly about Orgone Therapy - J. DeMeo
G Research
G Research Engines for Social Sciences
G Resources at MHI
PaperChase, drug information, associations and meeting calendar.
G Reuters Health Information Services
G Rhode Island Mental Health Network
An on-line internet web site dedicated to bringing high quality information services to
mental health care providers, patients, consumers and other interested parties. This site was designed &
organized with the help of mental health care providers from across Rhode Island. Practicing clinicians,
mental health advocates and others have all provided valuable ideas and input. An Editorial Advisory
Board of leading professionals currently oversees the on-going development of this site. The initial
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creation and ongoing site support and development is provided by CompuClaim, the only medical
management information service in Southeastern New England dedicated to serving the Mental
Healthcare Community. It is our intention to have this site serve both professionals and patients alike.
G Ritual Abuse
G The Rocamora School
This adult school site has articles, interviews and other resources on creativity and giftedness, and information on
awareness training to enhance intuition and talent development.
G Roskilde University Center for Cognitive Science
G Royal College of Psychiatrists
G Rural Psychiatry's Appeal Increasing as Urban Opportunities Diminish
Online article.
G RxList



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Top Ten Bestsellers (continuously updated): abuse, adhd, adoption, aging, aids, alcoholism,
alternative medicine, anxiety disorders, autism, bipolar disorder, child development, child care,
conversion disorders, counseling psychology, cults, death and dying, depression, dissociative
disorders, domestic violence, dreams, eating disorders, forensic psychology, gay, lesbian & bisexual,
grief, learning disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder, parenting, personality disorders,
professional counseling and psychotherapy, psychiatry, psychopathy, PTSD, rape, schizophrenia,
sexual disorders, self-esteem, self-help, stress, suicide, violence.
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G San Francisco Psychoanalytic Institute and Society
G Schizophrenia
G Schizophrenia and Depression Research Survey Site
This is a new site but is posted on NARSAD and several other sites. I have identified
unsuspected separation traumas in the first two years of life which correlate with the later
development of Schizophrenia, and the identical traumas in the next year of life correlate
with the later development of non-psychotic Major Depression. Sarnoff Mednick of USC tested and
confirmed one of the many traumas on the 6,000 patients in the Finnish database on Schizophrenia.
The web site also provides the latest information about new theoretical concepts, and the textbook --
which is described on the site -- was nominated for the Pulitzer for Advancements in the Field of
Psychiatry. The primary purpose of the web site is research, but it also provides new information on
Schizophrenia and Depression, and it describes the new Unification Theory of Mental illness.
G School of Psychiatry and Behavioural Sciences, University of Manchester
A leading WHO affliated centre for research and training in Psychiatry and Psychology. The site
highlights recent findings, academic publications, and includes a catalogue of training videos for sale.
G School Psychology - Online Resources
Online resources for the school psychology community. Counselors, educators, parents, psychologists,
students, researchers, et.al. welcomed.
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G Scientific American Explorations: Mind Over Body
News feature, including related links, on anosognosia--a mental disability that affects some
stroke victims--and its implications for understanding the relationship between mind and
body. Some people with this disorder, who, remarkably, do not recognize that they are
paralyzed, have been found, even more remarkably, not to be able to recognize paralysis in
others. "This finding seems to indicate that our awareness of ourselves is inextricably
entwined with our awareness of others."
G The Scientist
Complete issues of the biweekly "newspaper for the life sciences professional."
G Seattle Counseling Information
G Seasonal Affective Disorder
G Self-Help and Psychology Magazine
A lively and popular source of information of professional interest and material for lay people. It offers a
question column with answers by professionals; psychological book, software and movie reviews for
parents; an interactive corner; articles in many different departments ranging from sports psychology,
health, men's issues, women's issues, gay/lesbian/bisexual issues, parenting, work and career
transitioning to sexuality and relationships; newsgroups; an interactive corner; a full-service bookstore; a
classified section, and an extensive library of Internet self-help lists and links.
Search Self Help and Psychology Magazine!
Keywords: Case
G Self Help Systems
Self Help Systems principle product line is a series of interactive, multimedia
psychological self help products. Current and emerging multimedia technologies
provide a nearly ideal vehicle for effectively presenting self enhancement information,
strategies, and training. Due to it's remarkable effectiveness, there is little doubt that
multimedia will become the preferred method for delivering self help content in the near
future.
G Self Injury
G Self Injury and Related Issues - Free information about self-injury & related issues (dissociation, eating
disorders, childhood trauma and abuse, etc). Research based, with extensive input from self-injurers. A valuable
online resource for self-injurers, and for anyone interested in the complex phenomenon of self-injury.
Site maintained by Jan Sutton, author of Healing the Hurt Within: Understand and relieve the suffering behind
self- destructive behaviour.
G Self Esteem
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G Self Psychology
The Self Psychology Page is dedicated to discussion, information, and communication regarding Heinz
Kohut's psychoanalytic psychology of the self and contemporary developments. It is sponsored by the
International Council for Psychoanalytic Self Psychology.
G Sexual Abuse
G Sex Therapy
G Shareware Consultation with a Psychologist
G ShrinkTank BBS Web Site
"ShrinkTank BBS was founded and placed online in 1983, run by Rob Bischoff, Ph.D., on
a Commodore 64 computer. In 1984, it was moved to an IBM Clone XT machine (with
RamPage memory running under Desqview. Multi-tasking in 1984 on an XT!) and in 1986
to a brand new 80386/20DX machine. The 'tank' was online until May 31, 1996 as a single
line dial up (with a few exceptions, including the earthquake of 1989 in Silicon Valley,
CA). ShrinkTank BBS has always been a FREE system and this replacement Web Site will follow that
tradition."
G The Sidran Foundation
"THE SIDRAN FOUNDATION is a national nonprofit organization (501(c)(3)) devoted to education,
advocacy, and research related to: the early recognition and treatment of trauma-related stress in
children; the understanding and treatment of adults suffering from trauma-generated psychological
disorder To support people with traumatic stress conditions, and to educate mental health professionals
and the public, Sidran has developed the following programs:
The Sidran Press publishes books and educational materials on traumatic stress and dissociative
disorders. Recent titles include Managing Traumatic Stress Through Art, Soldier's Heart: Survivors'
Views of Combat Trauma, Trauma Research Methodology, and The Dissociative Child.
The Sidran Bookshelf on Trauma and Dissociation is an annotated mail order catalog of the best in
clinical, educational, and survivor-supportive literature on post-traumatic stress and dissociative
disorders and related subjects.
The PsychTrauma Infobase is a comprehensive computerized information database of resources,
including listings of therapists, organizations, conferences, trainings, and treatment facilities.
The PsychTrauma Resource and Information Service, drawing from the Infobase and Sidran's
extensive library, provides resources and referrals at no cost to callers from around the English-speaking
world.
The Dissociative Disorders Low-Cost Psychotherapy Clinic, a demonstration project, provides both
supervision for therapists inexperienced in the treatment of dissociation and low-cost therapy for clients
who otherwise could not afford treatment. This unique clinic was honored by the Peter F. Drucker
Foundation for Nonprofit Management with an award of special recognition for nonprofit innovation.
PsychTrauma Education and Training, is currently developing an introductory trauma treatment
curriculum for use in training mental health professionals and paraprofessionals who work in public
mental health agencies. Sidran has also developed public education workshops on the psychological
outcomes of severe childhood trauma for a variety of audiences: adult survivors, partners and supporters,
caregivers of abused children, and non-clinical professionals (such as teachers, social services personnel,
clergy, etc.)."
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G Six Senses Web Review Program
A sophisticated and highly usable healthcare and medical web site review program.
Advanced
G Associations &
Institutions
G Biotechnology
G Clinics &
Physician Group
Practices
G Diseases and
Conditions
G Emergency &
Ambulatory
G Employment
G Home Health
G Hospitals
G Insurance
G Managed Care
G Medical
Device &
Supply
G Miscellaneous
G Nursing Homes
& Long Term
Care
G Online
Publications &
Resources
G Pharmaceutical
G Public Health &
Government
G Sleep Disorders
G Treatment of Sleep Disorders
G Sleep and Psychology
G Social Psychiatry at the University of Groningen (Netherlands)
G Social Psychology Network
Provides a variety of links to psychology organizations, US schools with psychology PhD programs, and
social-psychological topics of the day.
G Social Security Online (USA)
Offers a wealth of information, including policy statements, answers to questions, publications about
disability insurance and SSI, legislative updates and press releases.
G The Social Worker Networker
G Society for the Advancement of Behavioral Economics
G Society for the Advancement of Women's Health Research
G Society of Behavioral Neuroendocrinology
G Society of Behavioral Medicine
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G Society for Chaos Theory in Psychology and the Life Sciences
G The Society for Computers in Psychology
G Society of Consultant Philosophers
Philosophical counselling, Socratic dialogue & Philosophy with children. Events, training courses,
details about how to join
G The Society for Experimental Social Psychology
G Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology
G The Society for Light Treatment and Biological Rhythms
G Society for Neuroscience
G Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues
G Society for Psychotherapy Research
The Society for Psychotherapy Research (SPR) is an international, interdisciplinary organisation
dedicated to the scientific study of psychotherapy in all of its various forms. There are currently four
regional chapters (North America, South America, Europe, England) and over 1,000 members world-
wide.
G Society for Quantitative Analyses of Behavior
G Society for a Science of Clinical Psychology
G Society for the Study of Neuronal Regulation
G Sociology & Psychology Resources
G SOLUTION Mailing List
G Somatoform Disorders
G SOS Psicolgo
La Asociacin tiene como objetivo responder, en lo posible, a personas deseosas de superar un estado crtico de
sufrimiento o de conflicto psicolgico individual y/o colectivo. Pone a su disposicin su revista mensual y sus
reuniones de grupo mensuales de reflexin. E.Graciela Pioton-Cimetti.
G Soulful Psychotherapy
Soulful Psychotherapy is a program and a publication concerned with the soul IN psychotherapy and the
soul OF psychotherapy. It is the program of the Interdisciplinary Psychotherapy Institute, a non-profit
(501(c)(3) corporation.
G Southern California Psychoanalytic Institute
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S - Online Dictionary of Mental Health
"This is the Home Page of the Southern California Psychoanalytic Institute, affiliated with the American
Psychoanalytic Association and the International Psychoanalytic Association. The site describes the
Institute, its various programs including full analytic training, advanced training in psychodynamic
psychotherapy, and its Extension programs. Also included are links to websites of related interest, and
information about the Institute's Psychoanalytic Clinic which offers low-fee psychoanalysis for qualified
applicants as well as other services."
G Southwest Psychotherapy Associates
"Southwest Psychotherapy Associates specializes in the treatment of addictive disorders.
Individual, group, and family counseling is provided.
Assessments/evaluations/consultations .Brief-solution focused therapy. Outpatient treatment. Drug
testing. Office hours by appointment. Licensed Chemical Dependency Counselor. Board Certified
Alcohol & Drug Counselor-Fellow. Diplomate-American Association of Psychotherapists.
Internationally Certified Alcohol & Drug Counselor. U.S. Department of Transportation/Substance
Abuse Professional."
G Special Education: Categorical Information
Meta-index of resources on attention deficit disorder, autism, cerebral palsy, communication disorders,
hearing impairment, learning disabilities, mental retardation, emotional disorders, brain injury, and
visual impairment.
G Special Equestrian Riding Therapy, Inc.
G Specifica
A comprehensive, up-to-date and indexed listing of sources of help with specific problem areas.
G St. George's Hospital Medical School, London
G Consumer Experience of Stigma Survey
A survey by Dr. Otto Wahl, Associate Professor of Psychology at George Mason University and by the National Alliance for
the Mentally Ill.
G Stress Management
Online article - Wesley E. Sime, U Nebraska at Lincoln.
G Stress Management and Emotional Wellness
Dedicated to those interested in maximizing performance and enhancing emotional health.
G Stressrelease.com
My site offers on-line tips regarding a variety of anxiety disorders as well as information
and on-line order forms for my self-help books, therapist manual, groups and consulting
services offered through the Center for Anxiety and Stress Treatment in California and
elsewhere by request. My book is part of a study at Scripps Medical Clinic. I am co-
author of a number of papers on panic and social phobia with the Univ. of Ca. at San
Diego's Medical Dept.A 10 week audiotape program is coming. Anxiety and Stress
Treatment in San Diego, Ca. My book is part of a research study at Scripps Medical
Clinic - Shirley Babior.
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G Subliminal Self-help Tapes: Promises, Promises...
Online paper - Beyerstein, B. & Eich, E. (1993).
G Substance Abuse
G Suicide
G Suicide: Read This First
G Superego
G Support Coalition
Support Coalition is an independent non-profit alliance dedicated to stopping forced psychiatric human
rights violations, and to promoting humane alternatives. Led by psychiatric survivors, Support Coalition
membership is open to everyone in the public who shares the mission.
G Support for Support Persons
G Swedish National Institute of Public Health
G Swiss Psychological Society
G Symbolisms in Dreams
HTML publication - R.J. Corelli
G Syracuse Behavioral Healthcare Home Page
G Leopold Szondi Forum
Freudian psychoanalysis is the ontogeny, Schicksalanalyse the genealogy, and Jung's Analytical psychology, the
archaeology of the deep mental processes." - L. Szondi.


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conversion disorders, counseling psychology, cults, death and dying, depression, dissociative
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grief, learning disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder, parenting, personality disorders,
professional counseling and psychotherapy, psychiatry, psychopathy, PTSD, rape, schizophrenia,
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G Talk Therapy Revisited: Reflections of a Physicist
Online article.
G Teaching Clinical Psychology
John Suler's homepage at Rider University. This resource contains a range of exercises for
classroom use among students.
G Telemedicine Information Exchange
Legal, legislative, and research issues; searchable worldwide database.
G Tennessee Association for Behavior Analysis
G Texas Association for Play Therapy
G Texas A&M University's Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Science
G ThePsych: The Internet Psychology Resource
Comprehensive directory of psych-related sciences, including psychology,psychiatry, psychoanalysis
etc.
G Therapeutic Learning Program
We have had a product called the Therapeutic Learning Program available to mental health
professionals for over 10 years. We are now offering a CD-ROM self-help product called
MASTERING STRESS and have just recently put up a website.
G Be Your Own Therapist
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G 1-800-Therapist
"This is a nationwide (US) therapist referral service dedicated to helping match callers with the
appropriate mental health specialist or agency. We have been awarded by the US Congress for our
community service and have received "Business of the Year" from Entrepreneur magazine."
G Therapeutic Adventure Web Site (Adventure Therapy)
G The Company Therapist
The Company Therapist is a fictional look at a psychiatrist's practice seeing patients primarily drawn
from a large computer company in San Francisco. Updated daily, the stories of the patients are told
through session transcripts, doodles, letters, anonymous faxes, personnel records and other material, all
of which is well organized and easily accessible through hypertext. Readers are invited to become
authors and create their own patients and write their sessions.
G Therapist Directory (US)
G The Therapy Corner
G Therapy Guide
Therapy-Guide helps in finding qualified, Hebrew speaking therapists in Israel and abroad.
The process of selection is explained, and links are supplied to other resources. Each therapist
can present a personal message, about his training, experience and attitudes
G Therapy Models
Comprehensive and readable overview of contemporary therapy models including Adlerian, Gestalt,
Psychoanalytic, Client Centered, Cognitive Behavior, Reality, Existential, and Jungian Therapy.
G Thought Field Therapy in the UK
"Thought Field Therapy is defined as "...a treatment for psychological disturbances which provides a
code that when applied to a psychological problem an individual is focusing upon will eliminate
perturbations in the Thought Field, the fundamental cause of all negative emotions. This code is elicited
using a causal diagnostic procedure through which the TFT algorithms were developed." The treatment
itself involves the stimulation of identified energy meridian points on the body in a defined and precise
sequence. Most individuals treated in this way report complete resolution of their problem in a matter of
minutes. Research in 1986 (replicated in 1996) has shown TFT to have a success rate of up to 97% in
the treatment of anxiety and phobias. Further information and research data can be obtained at The
Callahan Techniques Ltd. website at http://www.tftrx.com"
G The Tidal Model: An International Model of Mental Health Recovery
The Tidal Model, developed by Dr Phil Barker, focuses on the change process that lies
dormant within us all, and which helps reveal the meaning of our experiences, as we
reclaim those aspects of our lives, which have been submerged by mental distress.
G TLC Group
TLC Group has updated the "Grief Brief" section which includes many articles including
excerpts from some of our publications. We hope they will be helpful to you or someone you know. Also,
suggestions for Grief Briefs are always welcomed. Please feel free to print or copy these for yourself,
http://www.human-nature.com/odmh/t.html (2 of 4)04/03/2005 12:04:03
T - Online Dictionary of Mental Health
parishioners, patients, friends, students, loved one, etc. We will be adding more Grief Briefs from time to
time so check back often. If you find these useful, and haven't already, you may want to include a link to
our site for your Web visitors. We also offer a set of publications containing bulleted, practical
information---no stories or fillers---for individuals and professionals which cover different aspects of
grief and loss management.
G Together We Can
"These pages are a guide to creating an interagency system of education and human services. It is based
on a publication sponsored by the US Department of Education and the US Department of Health and
Human Services and written by Atelia I Melaville, Center for the Study of Social Policy and Martin J
Blank, Institute for Educational Leadership, with Gelareh Asayesh. This resource provides: step by step
guide guide for communities interested in creating a profamily system of integrated services to address
the complicated problems children and families face in today's society. Profiles of four collaboratives
with initiatives to integrate and link services to schools. A directory of key contacts and organizational
resources listing contact information on the initiatives cited in the guide and additional sources of
information and technical assistance."
G Tokyo Institute of Psychiatry
G The Silvan S. Tomkins Institute
G Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome
G TRANS
This is the site of a Journal of Psychoanalysis in French. The name of the journal is
TRANS, and the site provides the whole text of its older issues. One can find papers by
such major authors as Anzieu, Laplanche, Pontalis, etc.
G Transactional Analysis
G Transference as an Interactive Field
G Transformation (Self-Help)
G Traumatology
An electronic journal of PTSD research.
G Manuals for Empirically Validated Treatments
G Tulane University Department of Psychiatry and Neurology
G Tweed Valley Mental Health Service
G 12 Step Recovery
A page for recoveries of all types, focusing on 12 step recovery. AA, NA, CA, MA, OA, RA, OCA and
more. Resources and links.
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Top Ten Bestsellers (continuously updated): abuse, adhd, adoption, aging, aids, alcoholism,
alternative medicine, anxiety disorders, autism, bipolar disorder, child development, child care,
conversion disorders, counseling psychology, cults, death and dying, depression, dissociative
disorders, domestic violence, dreams, eating disorders, forensic psychology, gay, lesbian & bisexual,
grief, learning disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder, parenting, personality disorders,
professional counseling and psychotherapy, psychiatry, psychopathy, PTSD, rape, schizophrenia,
sexual disorders, self-esteem, self-help, stress, suicide, violence.
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G UC Berkeley School of Psychology
G UCHC Dept. of Psychiatry
G UK Hypnotherapy and Psychotherapy
G Understanding Mental Illness
Online graphical text.
G The Universe of Women's Health
A comprehensive and annotated index covering every aspect of women's health. A weekly update service is
available.
G Universittsklinikum fr Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie,Tbingen
G University of Auckland
School of Medicine Department of Psychiatry & Behavioural Science.
G Universidad de Barcelona
Departamento de Personalidad, Evaluacion y Tratamientos Psicologicos, Facultad de
Psicologia.
G University of British Columbia
Department of Psychiatry.
G University of California, Davis Department of Psychiatry
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G University of California San Diego Department of Psychology
G University of Chicago Department of Psychiatry
G University of Groningen Department of Social Psychiatry
G The University of Health Sciences Family Medicine Department
G University of Helsinki Cognitive Psychophysiology Research Unit and Department of General
Psychology
G University of Hong Kong - Department of Psychology
G University of Manchester School of Psychiatry and Behavioural Sciences
A leading WHO affliated centre for research and training in Psychiatry and Psychology. The
site highlights recent findings, academic publications, and includes a catalogue of training
videos for sale.
G University of Memphis Department of Psychology
G University of Michigan Psychiatry Home Page
G University of Pennsylvania Medical Center - Center for Mental Health Policy and Services Research
G University of Pennsylvania Psychology Department
Comprehensive pages maintained by Professor Jonathan Baron.
G University of Pittsburgh Psychiatry Department
G University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic Library
G University of Rochester Psychology Department
G University of Saskatchewan Psychiatry Department
G University of Sheffield Medical School, Department of Psychiatry
G University of Southampton Cognitive Science Department
G University of Syracuse University Department of Psychology
G University of Tasmania - Department of Psychology
G University of Tennessee College of Social Work
G University of Texas Medical Branch Psychiatry Department
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G University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas Psychiatry Department
G University of Wollongong Department of Psychology
G Urban Education Web
Has facilitates searching all ERIC database and a database of all ERIC digests online.
G US Department of Health and Human Services
G U.S. Pharmacopeia

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conversion disorders, counseling psychology, cults, death and dying, depression, dissociative
disorders, domestic violence, dreams, eating disorders, forensic psychology, gay, lesbian & bisexual,
grief, learning disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder, parenting, personality disorders,
professional counseling and psychotherapy, psychiatry, psychopathy, PTSD, rape, schizophrenia,
sexual disorders, self-esteem, self-help, stress, suicide, violence.
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G Vanderbilt University Center for Mental Health Policy
G Verbal and Emotional Abuse in Psychotherapy and Psychoanalysis
I have recently created a web site which will host a discussion relating to verbal and
emotional abuse of patients/clients in psychotherapy and psychoanalysis. I have created this
forum to raise consciousness among professional therapists and lay people in the interests of
patients, who are inevitably vulnerable, and as a means towards better practice.
G VSB Corp - Financial Resources for People with Life Threatening Illnesses
To inform people living with life-threatening illnesses that this option is now available to them. To
educate physicians and other medical professionals about this important patient resource.
G Victorian Mental Illness Awareness Council (VMIAC)
"The Victorian Mental Illness Awareness Council (VMIAC), based in Melbourne, Australia, is a
consumer/survivor-run advocacy organisation for people with mental health problems. Its membership
includes both consumer/survivor groups and individuals who have experienced difficulties with their
mental and/or emotional health."
G Victoria University of Wellington Psychophysics Laboratory
G Video Improvement Program
The Video Improvement Program is a guidance and counseling program for adolescents. It
can be done by any mental health professional with a camcorder and the VIP manual.
G Viktor-Frankl-Institut
"The Viktor-Frankl-Institute is a non-profit scientific society for Logotherapy and Existential Analysis."
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G Virtual Hospital Home Page
Supported by an award from the National Library of Medicine in conjunction with the National
Laboratory for the Study of Rural Telemedicine.
Search the Virtual Hospital:
Keywords separated by a space are automatically searched together (myocardial infarction). To find
either one keyword or the other, but not the two together, separate them with a comma (child,pediatric).
To find two words together in the same line, separate them with a semicolon (pediatric;clinic).
Enter keyword(s):

Case sensitive. Check this box if you want to find only keywords containing uppercase letter(s), such
as proper names or keywords in titles. This finds AIDS but not aids. Leaving the box unchecked (the
default) finds all occurrences of a word, whether or not it contains capital letters.
Partial match. Check this box if you want to find partial matches to a word (typing imag finds image,
images, imaging as well as imaginary). Use with care, as this may lead to excessive or irrelevant "hits."
Number of misspellings allowed:
Maximum number of files returned:
Maximum number of matches per file returned:
Reduce these numbers for fewer responses, but this may result in a less conclusive search.
G Virtual Psych
"This is a personal non-commercial hobby venture. I [Scott Wallace, Ph.D., R.Psych.] am a
registered clinical psychologist with expertise in clinical and organizational psychology and
consulted nationally for expertise on stress and change management. Virtual Psych is a non-
commercial venture that offers education in psychological principles for short-term and long-
term stress and change management."
G Virtual Reality

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Top Ten Bestsellers (continuously updated): abuse, adhd, adoption, aging, aids, alcoholism,
alternative medicine, anxiety disorders, autism, bipolar disorder, child development, child care,
conversion disorders, counseling psychology, cults, death and dying, depression, dissociative
disorders, domestic violence, dreams, eating disorders, forensic psychology, gay, lesbian & bisexual,
grief, learning disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder, parenting, personality disorders,
professional counseling and psychotherapy, psychiatry, psychopathy, PTSD, rape, schizophrenia,
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G Wayne State University Institute of Gerontology
G The Weaver spirituality, astrology,holistic healing, religions, psychotherapy,
NLP, new age page
G WebDoctor
"Navigating the Internet can be a daunting, time-consuming task. For most busy physicians,
the time required to map health-care resources eliminates the Internet as a practical library
tool. In order to resolve this shortcoming, we have created WebDoctor - the Internet Navigator for
Health-Care professionals. WebDoctor features a comprehensive, peer-reviewed index of Internet
medical resources that is designed to provide up-to-date medical information to practicing physicians.
More about WebDoctor..."
G WebEd
Continuing Education (CE) courses for mental health professionals.
G WebPsych Partnership
G Wellness Interactive Network
Index of sites in general health and medicine. Coverage includes topics in general health and
health care--diseases and conditions, pharmacy, fitness, homeopathy, nutrition, geriatrics,
heart-healthy lifestyles, living with diabetes, women's health, digestive and respiratory health,
and weight management. Site also features access to medical and pharmacological databases,
newsgroups, discussion groups, electronic newsletters, a local search facility, and a 72-hour
search service
G Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic Library
G What's New
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The latest news, special offers and updates to MHI.
G World Council of Psychotherapy
The WCP is an international roof organisation of Psychotherapy training organisations, founded with the
help of the European Association for Psychottherapy.
G World Federation of Therapeutic Communities
G World Health Organization
United Nations agency chartered to secure international cooperation in promoting the health
and well-being of all peoples. Site includes descriptions of the Organization's major health
programs worldwide; the World Health Report; the Weekly Epidemiological Record;; the
Statistical Information System (WHOSIS); information on World Health Day; regional
sources for news releases; newsletters; outbreak alerts; health advice for travelers;
publications, a library of medical and scientific documents, and links to databases; a local
search facility; and links to Internet search engines and index servers.
G WHO: International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10)
G Who's Who in Mental Health on the Web
G Windhorse Associates
Hospital-alternative for People with Mental Illness: Windhorse Associates, a non-profit organization led
by a coalition of professionals, family members and mental health consumers, provides community-
based treatment for persons suffering from life-disrupting mental disorders. Founded in 1981, the
Windhorse Program recognizes that significant recovery from mental illness can occur when supported
by authentic relationships within a household setting. The program may be used as an alternative to
hospitalization, for structured support in daily living, and as a transition to independent living. Our
approach emphasizes a compassionate response to extreme mental states without excessive reliance upon
medication.
G The World Council for Psychotherapy
G World Federation of Mental Health Newsletter
G World List of Universities with html links to 3000 of them
G World Wide Counseling in Meditation Psychology and Spiritual Life Practice
G World Wide Web Special Report
Article in the August, 1995 Psychiatric Times.
G The World Wide Web Virtual Library: Men's Health Issues
G Worldwide Wellness
G The Wounded Healer Home Page
G Writing Aids, Feldenkrais, Online Mental Health Services
http://www.human-nature.com/odmh/w.html (2 of 3)04/03/2005 12:04:19
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Home page of Leya Aum, MA, MFCC Marriage, Family, and Child Counselor Feldenkrais Method
Teacher Jin Shin Jyutsu Practitioner

and Freelance Writer.



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Winnicott. Lacan.
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For details of all events please visit the Centre's home page:
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| Head: Geraldine Shipton | Business Manager: Judith Taylor |
Centre for Psychotherapeutic Studies,
16 Claremont Crescent, Sheffield, S10 2TA
Tel: 0114 222 2973.
General office: 0114 222 2962. Fax: 0114 270 0619
Centre for Psychotherapeutic Studies
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http://www.shef.ac.uk/~psysc/
| Head: Geraldine Shipton | Business Manager: Judith Taylor |
Centre for Psychotherapeutic Studies,
16 Claremont Crescent, Sheffield, S10 2TA
Tel: 0114 222 2973.
General office: 0114 222 2962. Fax: 0114 270 0619
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Contacts - Centre for Psychotherapeutic Studies

Fax 0114 270 0619
Fax 0114 275 0026
Telephone 0114 22 followed by:
Geraldine Shipton, Head
Ms J Taylor (Centre Administrator and Business Manager)
Mrs S. Heppenstall (Secretary)
22960
22965
22960
Group Psychotherapy (15 Northumberland Road)
Professor Digby Tantam (Clinical Professor of Psychotherapy)
Graeme Farquharson - Lecturer and Programme Coordinator
Ms J Campbell (Based at Turvey)
Ms I Hudson (Based at Turvey)
Ms S Hutchinson (Based at Turvey)
22988
22986
22979
22979
22979
Individual Psychotherapy (15 Northumberland Road)
Professor Robert M. Young (Professor of Psychotherapy and Psychoanalytic
Studies)
Ms G Shipton (Programme Coordinator)
Ms A. Rosenfeld
Ms. R. Rozenberg
Ms M. Wilkinson
22983
22980
22963
22982
22963
Art Psychotherapy (14 Claremont Crescent)
Ms C Wood (Programme Coordinator)
Mrs I Samaraweera Secretary
Mr D Maclagan
Mr P Loftus
Ms T Richardson
Ms H Greenwood
22967
22964
22971
22968
22969
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Interdisciplinary Studies & Distance Learning
Dr S Homer (Psychoanalytic Studies)
Ms. Louise Goodwin (Psychiatry, Philosophy and Society)
Dr. Man Cheung Chung (Psychiatry, Philosophy and Society)
22977
22962
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Mr. K. Fahy
22976
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Ms J Allen Brown (Short Course Organiser)
22973
For details of all events please visit the Centre's home page:
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| Head: Geraldine Shipton | Business Manager: Judith Taylor |
Centre for Psychotherapeutic Studies,
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General office: 0114 222 2962. Fax: 0114 270 0619
Centre for Psychotherapeutic Studies
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Distance Education at the Centre for Psychotherapeutic Studies
MA in Psychoanalytic Studies by Distance Learning
The University
The University of Sheffield was founded in 1905 and is one of
Britain's major civic universities. It has 240 First degree courses,
over 170 taught graduate courses, and extensive MPhil and PhD
opportunities, offered throught 75 academic departments and 70
research centres and institutes. Graduate Students have access to
excellent library and computing facilities. A 25 million building
programme has provided new or expanded premises for academic
Departments and student accommodation. The University has its
own Sports Centre and Drama Studio, and a Students Union
recognised as one of the best in the UK.
The University is committed to maintaining its high quality of teaching and research, and to enhancing its reputation nationally and
internationally through its Distance Learning programmes. All Masters and Diploma courses at the Centre for Psychotherapeutic
Studies are accredited by the University of Sheffield and awarded at a Higher Degree Congregation ceremony.
Distance Learning
The Mental Health Section within The School of Health & Related Research currently offers the MA in Psychoanalytic Studies
by distance learning.
The programme of study for this MAs is the same as that for attending students and the details can be found in the course prospectus.
The programme consists of six modules, four taught modules and two modules for the dissertation. The MA by Distance Learning is a
two year part-time programme, with a compulsory eight day residential course at the beginning of each academic year. Students take
three modules per year
Mode of Delivery
The MA by distance learning will be delivered through print based materials. At the beginning of each module students will be
presented with:
(1) Study Guides: The Study Guide will provide the student with information and guidance on the specific material
delivered in that module. It will provide the student with details of tutorial arrangements, presentation and assessment
requirements, appeals and complaints procedures. The guide will also contain further information on specific journals,
Internet groups and forums, and academic and professional associations.
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Distance Education at the Centre for Psychotherapeutic Studies
(2) Course Material: Each module consists of a series of lectures or units. Each unit is equivalent to one lecture and each
module is delivered as a printed booklet. However, the number of units for each module may very according to the
material presented and the units for each module will be divided up into either a single booklet or a series of booklets
according to the structure and intellectual integrity of the material.
Entry Requirements
The entry requirements for the MA remains the same as full and part-time attending
course and can be found on the course prospectus.
Fees
The fees for an MA by distance learning are 2300 per annum. These fees are subject to a slight rise of about 5% each year.
The fees cover the cost of all course material, tutorial support and supervision, the residential course including accommodation and
breakfast, but not lunch and dinner or the cost of travel to and from Sheffield.
Fees may be paid in full at registration or the payment of fees may be spread over the first half of each year by prior agreement. To pay
the fee in installments candidates will require a UK bank account in order to set up a direct debit instruction. All fees must be paid in
pounds sterling.
Admissions Procedure
You can obtain an application form and full postgraduate prospectus from the address below. Simply complete and return the
application form to:
University of Sheffield,
Graduate School,
Graduate Admissions,
85 Wilkinson Street,
Sheffield,
S10 2TG, UK
It will normally take 2-3 weeks for your application to reach us in the Centre at which time you will receive acknowledgement of
receipt of the application and we will write for your references. The time for processing applications will depend on how soon the
references are returned. Your references will be very important when we consider you for the course so think carefully about who you
give as your referees and once you have made your application, contact them to let them know we will be asking for a reference. We
will not contact you until we have all three references so please keep a check on the progress of your application. Candidates without
the required degree pass may be contacted for a telephone interview.
Further Information
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Distance Education at the Centre for Psychotherapeutic Studies
If you wish to find out more about the Mental Health Section you can access our web site at:
http://www.shef.ac.uk/~scharr/mh
If you wish to know more about this course contact:
Trudy Coldwell
Course Secretary for the MA in Psychoanalytic Studies by Distance Learning
ScHARR
Regent Court
30 Regent St
Sheffield
S1 4DA
Email: t.coldwell@sheffield.ac.uk
Tel: 0114 - 222 2961
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The Human Nature Review edited by Ian Pitchford and Robert M. Young


| ISSN 1476-1084 | Table of Contents | What's New | Search | Feedback | Friday, March 04, 2005
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We are affiliated with a number of
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The power and limitations of reinforcement by Jeremy Genovese
Superb biography of a great pioneer by Iver Mysterud.
Thematic reasoning and theory of mind. Accounting for social inference difficulties in schizophrenia
by Rhiannon Corcoran and Christopher D Frith.
Biology Lurks Beneath: Bioliterary Explorations of the Individual versus Society by David Barash.
Paley's New Clothes by Sean Cunningham.
Narcissism guides mate selection: Humans mate assortatively, as revealed by facial resemblance,
following an algorithm of "self seeking like" by Liliana Alvarez and Klaus Jaffe.
Bridging the Two Cultures by David Barash.
Reflections from The Next Generation: These are the Voyages of Students in Evolutionary
Psychology by Maryanne L. Fisher, Daniel J. Kruger, Steven M. Platek and Catherine Salmon.
Evolutionary Psychology and the Explanation of Ethnic Phenomena by David Goetze and Patrick
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Human Kin Investment as a Function of Genetic Relatedness and Lineage by Gregory Webster.
On Social Justice and Political Struggle by Omar Swartz.
Language, Reflection and the Dimensions of Conduct by Peter Amato.
Which Infidelity Type Makes You More Jealous? Decision Strategies in a Forced-choice Between
Sexual and Emotional Infidelity by Achim Schtzwohl.
Cheaters Are Looked At Longer and Remembered Better Than Cooperators in Social Exchange
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Sarah Shettleworth reviews Evolution and Learning: The Baldwin Effect Reconsidered. Edited by
Bruce H. Weber and David J. Depew.
William L. Benzon reviews The Big Book of Concepts by Gregory L. Murphy.
Making Sense of Development? by Paul R. Gross
Peter King reviews Good Natured: The Origins of Right and Wrong in Humans and Other Animals
by Frans de Waal.
Sexual selection and the Male:Female Mortality Ratio by Daniel Kruger and Randolph Nesse.
Michael Ruse reviews Natural Ethical Facts: Evolution, Connectivism, and Moral Cognition by
William D. Casebeer.
Patrick Bateson reviews Genomic Imprinting and Kinship by David Haig.
Michelle Scalise Sugiyama reviews Practical Ecocriticism by Glen A. Love.
David Dickins reviews Perception of Faces, Objects, and Scenes: Analytic and Holistic Processes
edited by M. A. Peterson and G. Rhodes.
Rainer Kattel reviews Romanticism, Economics and the Question of Culture by Philip Connell.
Maryanne Fisher reviews On Fertile Ground: A Natural History of Human Reproduction by Peter T.
Ellison.
Mark Daims reviews Education as Enforcement: The Militarization and Corporatization of Schools
edited by Kenneth J. Saltman and David A. Gabbard.
Julian Derry reviews What Is Life? by Erwin Schrdinger.
Mark Daims reviews The Epidemic: The Rot of American Culture, Absentee and Permissive
Parenting, and the Resultant Plague of Joyless, Selfish Children by Robert Shaw M.D. with Stephanie
Wood.
How uncivilized! Reconfiguring narratives of innateness in Murrays Human Accomplishment by
Mark S. Roberts.
Samuel Wasser reviews Monster of God by David Quammen.
Herbert Gintis reviews Why Men Won't Ask for Directions: The Seductions of Sociobiology by
Richard C. Francis.
On the Naturalistic Fallacy: A conceptual basis for evolutionary ethics by John Teehan and
Christopher diCarlo.
Melvin Konner reviews Evolutionary Psychology and Violence edited by Richard W. Bloom and
Nancy Dess.
Andreas Wilke and Rui Mata review How Homo Became Sapiens: On the Evolution of Thinking by
Peter Grdenfors.
Semen Displacement as a Sperm Competition Strategy in Humans by Gordon Gallup and Rebecca
Burch.
Behind the evolution of social theory by Marlene Zuk.
Our Huxley by David Barash.
Science gets serious about consciousness by Bernard J. Baars.
Phil Gasper: An Interview with Philip Kitcher.
Logical Media Lunacy by David Edwards and David Cromwell.
On the Edge of Lunacy by George Monbiot.
Why the BBC Ducks the Palestinian Story by Tim Llewellyn.
Reporting the capture of Saddam Hussein: Let there be light in Iraq by Dibyesh Anand.
Go Find Me A Way To Do This: How Bush And Blair Chose War And Then Chose The Justification
by David Cromwell and David Edwards.
James Vaughn Kohl reviews Pheromones and Animal Behaviour: Communication by Smell and
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Taste by Tristram D. Wyatt.
Fritz Allhoff reviews Darwins Cathedral: Evolution, Religion, and the Nature of Society by David
Sloan Wilson.
The BBC on Hiroshima by David Edwards.
Richard Wrangham reviews The Tangled Wing: Biological Constraints on the Human Spirit by
Melvin Konner.
Gary Cox reviews Human Nature in Utopia: Zamyatins We by Brett Cooke.
Beware of Theories of Everything by David Sloan Wilson.
Critical Review of Philip Kitchers In Mendels Mirror: Philosophical Reflections on Biology by
Robert A. Wilson.
Tom Shellberg reviews Fossils, Finches, and Fuegians: Charles Darwins Adventures and
Discoveries on the Beagle, 1832-1836 by Richard Keynes.
Kofi Ankomah reviews Proudly We Can Be Africans: Black Americans and Africa, 1935 - 1961 by
James H. Meriwether.
James Brody reviews Natures Magic: Synergy in Evolution and the Fate of Humankind by Peter
Corning.
Kofi Ankomah reviews George Soros on Globalization by George Soros.
Christian Perring reviews Healing the Soul in the Age of the Brain: Becoming Conscious in an
Unconscious World by Elio Frattaroli.
read more >>>

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Estado de la solicitud a HONcode:
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Est en conformidad con los principios de HONcode
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Fecha de ltima revisin: 21 Aug 2004
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respeta y se compromete con los 8 principios auspiciados por el Cdigo de Conducta HON (HONcode)

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Principios Bsqueda de sitios HONcode Comentarios Health On the Net Foundation
http://www.hon.ch/HONcode/Spanish/?HONConduct97177104/03/2005 12:05:14
in Spanish
HONcode: Principles - Quality and trustworthy health information
HON Code of Conduct (HONcode) for medical and health Web sites

Principles
HONcode
HONcodeHunt
Verify or search HONcode
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Authority
1.
Any medical or health advice provided and hosted on this site will only be given
by medically trained and qualified professionals unless a clear statement is
made that a piece of advice offered is from a non-medically qualified individual
or organisation.
Principle 1
guidelines
Complementarity
2.
The information provided on this site is designed to support, not replace, the
relationship that exists between a patient/site visitor and his/her existing
physician.
Principle 2
guidelines
Confidentiality
3.
Confidentiality of data relating to individual patients and visitors to a medical/
health Web site, including their identity, is respected by this Web site. The Web
site owners undertake to honour or exceed the legal requirements of medical/
health information privacy that apply in the country and state where the Web
site and mirror sites are located.
Principle 3
guidelines
Attribution
4.
Where appropriate, information contained on this site will be supported by clear
references to source data and, where possible, have specific HTML links to that
data. The date when a clinical page was last modified will be clearly displayed
(e.g. at the bottom of the page).
Principle 4
guidelines

Justifiability
5.
Any claims relating to the benefits/performance of a specific treatment,
commercial product or service will be supported by appropriate, balanced
evidence in the manner outlined above in Principle 4.
Principle 5
guidelines

Transparency of authorship
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6.
The designers of this Web site will seek to provide information in the clearest
possible manner and provide contact addresses for visitors that seek further
information or support. The Webmaster will display his/her E-mail address
clearly throughout the Web site.
Principle 6
guidelines

Transparency of sponsorship
7.
Support for this Web site will be clearly identified, including the identities of
commercial and non-commercial organisations that have contributed funding,
services or material for the site.
Principle 7
guidelines

Honesty in advertising & editorial policy
8.
If advertising is a source of funding it will be clearly stated. A brief description of
the advertising policy adopted by the Web site owners will be displayed on the
site. Advertising and other promotional material will be presented to viewers in a
manner and context that facilitates differentiation between it and the original
material created by the institution operating the site.
Principle 8
guidelines
Version 1.6 April 1997

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Health On the Net Foundation
The book Consumer Informatics, co-
edited by HON board member, has
been named 2004 Book of the Year
Award winner by the HIMSS
Patients/individuals Medical Professionals Web Publishers
All HON Services are freely available.
Search for Health Information You Can TRUST!


Enter any keyword to retrieve trustworthy medical documents
MedHunt
Medical documents

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Special in-depth reports

Surveys
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Retrieve selected sources by medical terms

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Multimedia center

Conferences & Events
Medical conferences

HONproject
Initiatives and services
Daily News
Medical articles

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accreditation?

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MEDLINE/PubMed
Library of medicine

The Health On the Net Foundation (HON), created in 1995, is a Non-Governmental Organization under the aegis of the Direction gnrale de la sant
Dpartement de l'Action Sociale et de Sant (DASS - Rpublique et canton de Genve, Switzerland). HON's mission is to guide lay persons or non-
medical users and medical practitioners to useful and reliable online medical and health information. HON provides leadership in setting ethical standards for
Web site developers. (Read more about HON). HON thanks the support of the Geneva University Hospital, and the Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics.
Powered by Sun microsystems. The European Projects WRAPIN, ActiveHealth and PIPS are funded by: Federal Office for Education and Science (OFES),
Berne & the European Union.



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LA CRISIS DE ANSIEDAD, PANICO O ANGUSTIA (Y AGORAFOBIA)
Edvard Munch, "El Grito" (1893).
La Crisis de
Ansiedad, Pnico o
Angustia.
Adherida a los Principios del Cdigo HONcode
de Health On the Net Foundation
Esta pgina est dedicada a divulgar informacin acerca de las crisis de ansiedad (crisis y trastorno de angustia, ataque de
pnico) y agorafobia. Trabajando su autor en un Servicio Pblico de Salud, no tienen un objetivo comercial, no estn
patrocinadas por ninguna compaa, ni pretende dirigir potenciales pacientes a ningn tipo de consulta. Redactada con nimo
divulgativo, no recoge totalmente los conocimientos actuales en relacin con el tema. Busca el mayor eclecticismo terico, siendo
posible que no se haga justicia suficiente a un determinado modelo. Nunca podr sustituir a la evaluacin, consejo o tratamiento
individualizado por un especialista adecuado, recomendndose se sigan las eventuales indicaciones que dicho especialista pueda
sugerir en un momento determinado.
Indice de Contenidos
http://www.geocities.com/HotSprings/6333/ (1 of 6)04/03/2005 12:05:46
LA CRISIS DE ANSIEDAD, PANICO O ANGUSTIA (Y AGORAFOBIA)
1. INTRODUCCION
2. DEFINICIONES
2.2.1 Ejemplo de Sntomas
2.2.2 Ejemplo de Pensamientos
2.7.1 Ejemplo de Fobias
3. FRECUENCIA DE APARICION 4. CAUSAS
5. RIESGOS ASOCIADOS 6. TRATAMIENTOS FARMACOLOGICOS
7. TRATAMIENTOS PSICOTERAPEUTICOS 8. ASOCIACIONES DE AUTOAYUDA
9. ESTRATEGIAS DE SUPERACION PERSONAL 10. RECURSOS EN INTERNET
11. (Agora Pblica) 12. AUTOEVALUACION DE CONOCIMIENTOS
13. CASOS


LIBRO DE VISITAS
Me gustara saber que ha pasado por aqu, pero sobre todo me interesa su opinin
(favorable o desfavorable) o posibles sugerencias.
Si considera que la pgina le ha interesado por algo, o que puede mejorarse de alguna
forma, por favor, no dude en dedicar un minuto a exponer su opinin. Estoy seguro de que
ser de mucha ayuda, inters y motivacin para su mantenimiento y mejora.
(Utilice el Libro de Visitas exclusivamente para dar su opinin en relacin con la pgina. Si quiere dejar cualquier otro tipo de mensaje
o notificacin dirigido a otras posibles personas interesadas o contactar con ellas, utilice el Agora Pblica, donde encontrar un Tabln
de Mensajes con este fin, as como una utilidad "Chat" para charlar en directo).

http://www.geocities.com/HotSprings/6333/ (2 of 6)04/03/2005 12:05:46
LA CRISIS DE ANSIEDAD, PANICO O ANGUSTIA (Y AGORAFOBIA)
Firmar el "Libro de Visitas"
Ver el "Libro de Visitas"
Ver el "Libro de Visitas Antiguo" (Hasta
Nov. 2000)
Ver "otro Libro de Visitas" (Nov-Dic. 2000)
Ver "otro Libro de Visitas" (En-Feb. 2001)

Desafortunadamente me resulta imposible responder de forma individualizada a posibles
dudas o consultas particulares.
En caso de necesitar una aclaracin de alguno de los contenidos de la pgina, puede
dirigir su pregunta de forma concreta y puntual al Dr. Eizmendi, quien de forma totalmente
desinteresada y sin ningn compromiso por ambas partes, se ha ofrecido a intentar
responderle. Por favor, realice nicamente preguntas concretas y no espere un
seguimiento de su caso particular


Los contenidos principales de esta pgina (Cap. 1 a 9 y 12) han sido editados por SmithKline
Beecham, con la colaboracin de
Osasun Mentalaren Elkartea - Asociacin de Salud Mental
para su distribucin gratuita por Mdicos de Atencin Primaria y Psiquiatras entre
personas afectadas por el problema (La Crisis de Pnico y Trastorno de Angustia. Manual
para el paciente. Madrid, 1999).
http://www.geocities.com/HotSprings/6333/ (3 of 6)04/03/2005 12:05:46
LA CRISIS DE ANSIEDAD, PANICO O ANGUSTIA (Y AGORAFOBIA)
Premio "Mejor pgina Top10" Categora de Especialidades y
Enfermedades. Nov. 1998
Premio "OroPlata.Com". Marzo 2000
Clasificada Top 10, Abril 2000
Certificado Calidad, Julio 2000

Premio PortalCardio, Abril 2001
Cmo califica este sitio?
Seleccione una puntuacin:



Clicks "solidarios"
Por cada visita diaria que realice al siguiente enlace, los patrocinadores donarn cierta cantidad a proyectos de ayuda
seleccionados.
http://www.geocities.com/HotSprings/6333/ (4 of 6)04/03/2005 12:05:46
10 - (muy bueno)
VOTAR
LA CRISIS DE ANSIEDAD, PANICO O ANGUSTIA (Y AGORAFOBIA)
Tiene un mapa del mundo, donde cada vez que se ilumina un pas, hace referencia a una muerte por hambre.
Donaciones en alimentos.

Esta pgina forma parte del anillo contra el pnico y agorafobia: PAN-illo
[5 Sitios atrs | Anterior | Siguiente | 5 Sitios adelante | Sitio al azar | Listado de
Sitios ]
(PAN-illo est en desarrollo en la actualidad. Si desea que su pgina Web participe, pulse aqu)
pnico (y agorafobia) en espaol
[ Join Now | Ring Hub | Random | << Prev | Next
>> ]
2001-2004 WebRing Inc. - Help - Browse WebRing
1997 - 2004 Dr. Oscar Martnez Azumendi. Permitida su reproduccin, siempre que esta no tenga fines econmicos y se cite su
procedencia. Cualquier comentario o sugerencia ser bien recibido, aunque teniendo la pgina un nimo meramente informativo no
podrn responderse consultas particulares.

visitas desde Octubre de 1997

Ultima actualizacin: Enero 2000



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LA CRISIS DE ANSIEDAD, PANICO O ANGUSTIA (Y AGORAFOBIA)



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Health On the Net (HON): HONcode sample certificate
HON Code of Conduct (HONcode) for medical and health Web sites
HONcode
HONcodeHunt
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Sample of HONcode valid and official certificate
HON recommendation to Internet users: Before consulting
healthcare information, click on a website's HONcode accreditation.
When you click-to-verify, you MUST be directed to the personalized HON page
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Health On the Net (HON): HONcode sample certificate
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Make sure the URL of the certificate belongs to the Web site you come from. If
not, it may be a mirror site, or fraudulent use of the HONcode seal.
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Health On the Net (HON): HONcode: Principles in spanish
HON Cdigo de Conducta (HONcode) para sitios Web de Salud y Medicina
HONcode
HONcodeHunt
Verify or search HONcode
accredited Web sites:

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Principios
Autora
1.
Cualquier consejo mdico o de salud sugerido en este sitio Web solo ser
proporcionado por mdicos o profesionales de la salud especializados y
cualificados a menos que una clara declaracin exprese que una parte de la
sugerencia ofrecida no es de un profesional de la salud cualificado u
organizacin no mdica.
Directrices para el principio
1
Complementariedad
2.
La informacin proporcionada en este sitio est dirigida a complementar, no a
reemplazar, la relacin que existe entre un paciente o visitante y su mdico
actual.
Directrices para el principio
2
Confidencialidad
3.
Este sitio Web respeta la confidencialidad de los datos relativos a pacientes y
visitantes, incluyendo su identidad personal. Los propietarios de este sitio Web
se comprometen a respetar y exceder los requisitos legales de privacidad de la
informacin mdica o de salud que se aplican en los pases donde estn
localizados tanto el sitio principal como sus rplicas (mirrors).
Directrices para el principio
3
Atribucin, Referencias y Actualizacin
4.
Cuando sea apropiado, la informacin contenida en este sitio ser apoyada con
referencias claras a las fuentes de los datos y, si es posible, se establecern
hipervnculos a esos datos. La fecha en que una pgina clnica fue modificada
por ltima vez estar claramente identificada (ej. al final de la pgina).
Directrices para el principio
4
Garanta
5.
Cualquier requerimiento relativo a los beneficios o rendimiento de un
tratamiento especfico, producto comercial o servicio ser respaldado con las
evidencias adecuadas y objetivas, de la forma indicada en el anteriormente
citado Principio 4.
Directrices para el principio
5
Transparencia de los autores
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Health On the Net (HON): HONcode: Principles in spanish
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6.
Los diseadores de este sitio Web buscarn proporcionar informacin de la
manera ms clara posible y proporcionarn direcciones de contacto para que
los visitantes puedan buscar informacin adicional. El Webmaster indicar su
direccin E-mail claramente en todo el sitio Web.
Directrices para el principio
6
Transparencia del patrocinador
7.
El patrocinio de este sitio Web estar claramente identificado, incluyendo la
identidad de las organizaciones comerciales y no-comerciales que hayan
contribuido con fondos, servicios o material para este sitio.
Directrices para el principio
7
Honestidad en la poltica publicitaria
8.
Si la publicidad es una fuente de financiacin de este sitio, deber ser indicado
claramente. Se mostrar, en el sitio Web, una breve descripcin de la poltica
publicitaria adoptada por los propietarios. Los anuncios y otro material
promocional sern presentados a los visitantes en una manera y contexto que
faciliten la diferenciacin entre stos y el material original creado por la
institucin que gestiona el sitio.
Directrices para el principio
8
Versione 1.6 Aprile 1997
Traduccin al castellano por
- J.Daniel Delgado y el Servicio Aparato Digestivo del Hospital Universitario "Virgen
Macarena", Spain
- la Sociedad Espaola de Reumatologa, Spain y
- Carlos Becker from Tocogineconet, Buenos Aires University in Medicine Faculty,
Argentina

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HONcode Plugin - Health Information You Can Trust
HON Code of Conduct (HONcode) for medical and health Web sites
HONcode
HONcodeHunt
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or web address)
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Health Information You Can TRUST
HONcode Toolbar
HONcode toolbar for Internet Explorer (from versions 5+)

HONcode Status
G Automatically checks the accreditation of the website being viewed. The
HONcode seal appears in color if the website is in compliance with the
HONcode.
HONcode Search
G HONcode Search: There are two ways to search the HON database of
accredited websites.
H Enter a word or phrase into a familiar 'search box' or
H Select text using the mouse, and right-click to begin the search.
The HONcode toolbar is easy to download and add to your favorite web browser.
It connects in realtime to the HON server to verify the accreditation status of health/
medical websites, does not collect any personal information from you, and contains
no 'spyware' or hidden functions.
Download:
G Download the HONcode toolbar for Internet Explorer (from versions 5+).
G For Netscape users follow this link.
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HONcode Plugin - Health Information You Can Trust
The HON toolbar is a free service supported by the Canton of Geneva, Swiss
Government and European Union.
The plugins were developed jointly with software developers NetUnion
(www.netunion.com), of Lausanne, Switzerland as part of the
European research project ActiveHealth.

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HONcode Hunt - search trustworthy health information
Search HONcode site
The search or verification tool of HONcode accredited Web sites

Please enter in the field above word(s) or Web address
in order to retrieve only HONcode accredited Web sites
'
Principles

Complaints Health On the Net Foundation
http://www.hon.ch/HONcode/Hunt/04/03/2005 12:06:07
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in English
Report a HONcode compliance violation
HON Code of Conduct (HONcode) for medical and health Web sites
HONcode
HONcodeHunt
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accredited Web sites:

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address)
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Report an HONcode compliance violation
Quality & Trustworthiness of the Medical & Health Web
The HONcode is the oldest and the most widely used ethical code of
conduct for online medical and health- information. Available in 28
languages, the HONcode has nearly 4,000 members worldwide, in 72
countries.
HON Regular monitoring :
An accredited site is identified by the black and red seal on
its home page. While HON conducts periodic check-up visits
of each HONcode accredited Web site to maintain respect
for its high quality and ethical standards, HON relies on you
to report possible violations .
The "HONcode compliance violation" form is an online procedure for
reporting violations of HONcode accredited Web site that disregard of
one or more of the eight HONcode principles or misuse the HONcode
seal (see an example of a correct seal linked to its compliance
certificate). With the co-operation of the Web site operator , HON will
do its utmost to resolve the case.
Why should you fill this form:
G If the HONcode accredited site does not respect one or more
HONcode principle(s)
G If the site displays the HONcode seal (and is not retrieved by
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Health On the Net (HON): Copyright
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Version franaise

Copyright
All information (including graphics and web site design) contained on
the www.hon.ch site is copyright Health On the Net Foundation and
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HON material (information, text, image) can be used or distributed if
this copyright notice remains intact in every document or piece of
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send an e-mail to webmaster@healthonnet.org notifying the use of
HON material.
Information and images, included in this site, obtained from other
servers shall remain the copyright of the managers of those servers
and the authors of the respective documents.
The Code of Conduct for medical web sites(HONcode), its
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Health On the Net Foundation
The book Consumer Informatics, co-
edited by HON board member, has
been named 2004 Book of the Year
Award winner by the HIMSS
Patients/individuals Medical Professionals Web Publishers
All HON Services are freely available.
Search for Health Information You Can TRUST!


Enter any keyword to retrieve trustworthy medical documents
MedHunt
Medical documents

HONdossier
Special in-depth reports

Surveys
E-health trends


HONselect
Retrieve selected sources by medical terms

HONmedia
Multimedia center

Conferences & Events
Medical conferences

HONproject
Initiatives and services
Daily News
Medical articles

How to apply for the HONcode
accreditation?

Download the free HONcode Toolbar: Automatic verification of the accreditation status of health/medical websites.

MEDLINE/PubMed
Library of medicine

The Health On the Net Foundation (HON), created in 1995, is a Non-Governmental Organization under the aegis of the Direction gnrale de la sant
Dpartement de l'Action Sociale et de Sant (DASS - Rpublique et canton de Genve, Switzerland). HON's mission is to guide lay persons or non-
medical users and medical practitioners to useful and reliable online medical and health information. HON provides leadership in setting ethical standards for
Web site developers. (Read more about HON). HON thanks the support of the Geneva University Hospital, and the Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics.
Powered by Sun microsystems. The European Projects WRAPIN, ActiveHealth and PIPS are funded by: Federal Office for Education and Science (OFES),
Berne & the European Union.



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About Health On the Net (HON): Consumer Informatics - Applications and Strategies in Cyber Health Care
About Health On the Net Foundation
Beginnings
Mission & users
Statistics
Organisation
Awards &
Recognition
Awards
Book Award
eHealth2004
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Recognition
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Consumer Informatics:
Applications and Strategies in Cyber Health Care
HON is pleased to announce that Consumer Informatics:
Applications and Strategies for Cyber Health Care, co-edited
by HON board member Marion Ball, and Rosemary Nelson, has
been named 2004 Book of the Year Award winner by the
Healthcare Information and Management Systems Society
. The HIMSS Book of the Year Award honors a book that
offers "outstanding practical guidance and/or strategic insight for
healthcare information and management system professionals".
The Award will be presented during the HIMSS Annual
Conference (13-17 February in Dallas).
The choice of Consumer Informatics: Applications and Strategies for Cyber Health
Care as HIMSS Book of the Year reflects the shift in ownership of health information
away from a professional monopoly, toward a shared model. Patients and
physicians now collaborate in a two-way exchange, with benefits not only for the
economy, but for the individual and for the society as a whole.
This book explores the evolving fields of consumer health informatics and
telemedicine with reports on the electronic medical record, patient safety, and
quality care. Each chapter describes the role of computers, technology, and
telecommunications as enablers within a specific application focused on the needs
of consumers. The applications covered are ones which empower consumers as
they seek information, analyse their health care needs, and make decisions about
their own health care. Such applications empower professionals in their efforts to
serve patients, while increasing the knowledge of the consumer.
Health On the Net Board members have left their stamp throughout the volume. In
her preface, Marion Ball outlines the history of consumer health informatics and its
promise of empowered health consumers. Charles Safrans introduction entitled,
Care at a Distance, then sets out the case for patient-centered ICTs in a
healthcare environment where time is at a premium. In the opening chapter,
Collaborative Healthware, Dr. Safran goes on to describe one such system, linking
parents with their hospitalised preterm infants. When patients can provide input and
receive instructions from their healthcare providers, and research their condition or
that of a loved one guided by their physician, they are empowered to be more
effective participants in their own care. Dr. Safran writes,
"Clinicians need to embrace virtual patient visits as a way to revitalize
our deteriorating relationship with our patients. We need to design
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About Health On the Net (HON): Consumer Informatics - Applications and Strategies in Cyber Health Care
technology around the kind of care we seek to provide rather than
responding piece-meal to administrative burdens. While adding more
sophisticated technology to broken social systems almost never
solves the human problem, sometimes high tech and also produce
high touch. This book shows us how."
In Chapter 7, "Steps Toward Reliable Online Consumer Health Information", Ron D.
Appel and Celia Boyer describe the evolution of health information from traditional
knowledge and the origins of science to today's Internet. The general public now
enjoys unprecedented access to health sources representing divergent interests,
but steps need to be taken to protect consumers from potentially harmful
information. An ethical code of conduct based on disclosure, the HONcode and
other consumer-oriented tools developed by HON are presented to a wide audience
in Consumer Informatics.
"Patient Empowerment, Cybermedicine and Citizen Education", authored by Patrice
Degoulet et al, discusses the impact of new enabling technologies on patient and
physician. Due to issues of equity, cybermedicine alone will not bring about patient
empowerment. Transfer of responsibility from health professional to the patient does
not mean reduced liability for the physician. To fully benefit from the potential of
cybermedicine will require cultural and educational changes on the part of both
groups.
Consumer Informatics: Applications and Strategies for Cyber Health Care also
includes chapters on: Patient-Centered Communication; Disease Management and
Home Telehealth; and Biothreats and Disaster Management.
The book's audience includes healthcare professionals, healthcare administrators,
IT professionals, health informaticians and students.

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http://www.hon.ch/Global/Press/ConsumInfo.html
Last modified: Fri Feb 18 2005
http://www.hon.ch/Global/Press/ConsumInfo.html (2 of 2)04/03/2005 12:06:20
About Health On the Net (HON): Background
About Health On the Net Foundation
Beginnings
Mission & users
Statistics
Organisation
Awards &
Recognition
Last HON news
Helping HON
Funding
Press corner
Download
Disclaimer
Copyright
Feedback
Contacts
HON and Geneva
HON Projects

Version franaise

Our beginnings
Health On the Net Foundation's origins go back to September 7-8, 1995, when some
of the world's foremost experts on telemedicine gathered in Geneva, Switzerland, for
a conference entitled The Use of the Internet and World-Wide Web for Telematics in
Healthcare [1].
The 60 participants came from 11 countries [2]. They included U.S. heart surgeon Dr
Michael DeBakey [3], physicians and professors, researchers and senior
representatives of the World Health Organisation (WHO) [4], International
Telecommunication Union (ITU) [5], the European Laboratory for Particle Physics
(CERN) [6], the European Commission [7], the National Library of Medicine [8] and
the G7-Global Healthcare Applications Project [9].
As the conference wound up, they unanimously voted to create a permanent body
that would, in the words of the programme, "promote the effective and reliable use of
the new technologies for telemedicine in healthcare around the world."
HON's site went live some six months later. On March 20, 1996, www.hon.ch
became one of the very first URLs to guide both lay users and medical professionals
to reliable sources of healthcare information in cyberspace.
HON today
HON in the meantime has become one of most respected not-for-profit portals to
medical information on the Internet. We are a Swiss foundation, operating out of
Geneva with the generous support of local Geneva authorities [10].
Embedded in one of the liveliest, most innovative international centres for R&D in
medical informatics and life sciences, HON co-operates closely with the University
Hospitals of Geneva [11] and the Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics [12] . Our
distinguished Council members [13] and Webteam [14] hail from several European
countries and the U.S.A.
Among HON's distinguishing features are two widely-used medical search tools,
MedHunt [15] and HONselect [16], and the HON Code of Conduct [17]
(HONcode) for the provision of authoritative, trustworthy Web-based medical
information.
http://www.hon.ch/Global/ (1 of 2)04/03/2005 12:06:21
About Health On the Net (HON): Background
[1] The Use of the Internet and World-Wide Web for Telematics in Healthcare: http://
www.hon.ch/cgi-bin/about
[2] Invited participants: http://www.hon.ch/Conf/Info/participants.html
[3] Dr Michael DeBakey: http://www.hon.ch/Library/papers/debakey.html
[4] World Health Organisation: http://www.who.int/
[5] European Laboratory for Particle Physics International Telecommunication Union:
http://www.itu.int/
[6] European Laboratory for Particle Physics (CERN): http://www.cern.ch/Public/
[7] European Commission: http://europa.eu.int/comm/dg13/
[8] National Library of Medicine: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/
[9] G7-Global Healthcare Applications Project: http://strategis.ic.gc.ca/SSG/
in02287e.html
[10] Dpartement de l'action sociale et de la sant (DASS): http://www.geneve.ch/
Rechercher/dpt/main_sociale.htm
[11] University Hospitals of Geneva: http://www.hug-ge.ch/
[12] Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics: http://www.isb-sib.ch/
[13] Council members: http://www.hon.ch/Global/HON_organisation.html
[14] Webteam: http://www.hon.ch/Global/HONTeamPhoto.html
[15] HONcode: http://www.hon.ch/HONcode/
[16] MedHunt: http://www.hon.ch/MedHunt/
[17] HONselect: http://www.hon.ch/HONselect/

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http://www.hon.ch/Global/index.html
Last modified: Mon Mar 17 2003
http://www.hon.ch/Global/ (2 of 2)04/03/2005 12:06:21
About Health On the Net (HON): HON & eHealth2004
About Health On the Net Foundation
Beginnings
Mission & users
Statistics
Organisation
Awards &
Recognition
Awards
Book Award
eHealth2004
WSIS
Recognition
NGO status
Last HON news
Helping HON
Funding
Press corner
Download
Disclaimer
Copyright
Feedback
Contacts
HON and Geneva
HON Projects

Version franaise

6 May 2004:
HON Wins eEurope Award for eHealth
We are honoured to announce that HON has been named as
winner of the eEurope Award for eHealth - 2004, in the
category "eHealth Information tools and services for citizens."
Over 100 submissions were received for the award. HON
Executive Director Celia Boyer demonstrated HONs online
services before a jury at the EU High-Level Conference on
eHealth in Cork, Ireland on May 6th. The HON submission
focused on online information quality, addressing the fundamental
issue of standards for the presentation of health information.
The award was presented by Mr David Byrne, European
Commissioner for Health and Consumer Protection, who has
particular responsibility for Food Safety, Public Health and
Consumer Protection.
HON online tools for citizens include the HONcode accreditation system for online
information quality, HONselect directory and MedHunt search engine containing resources
for over 30,000 health and medical subjects, and WRAPIN: HON's next-generation search
application to guide consumers to trustworthy sources, analyzing online medical content to
help lay users deal with the ever-increasing number of health-related web pages.
For nearly ten years, HON has focused on the essential question of the provision of health
information to citizens: how can we incite information providers to respect ethical standards?
To cope with the unprecedented volume of healthcare information available on the Net, the
HONcode offers a multi-stakeholder consensus on standards to protect citizens from false or
misleading health and medical information.
HON wishes to share this award with its nearly 4,000 accredited Web sites. This
recognition rewards the efforts made by HON-accredited Web sites to maintain the
HONcode standard at the national, European and international levels. Currently,
Web sites in some 72 countries worldwide bear the HONcode seal.
HON would especially like to thank the Direction gnrale de la Sant,
Dpartement de lAction Sociale et de Sant (DASS Rpublique et Canton de
Genve, Switzerland) and the Geneva University Hospitals for their support since HON's
http://www.hon.ch/Global/eHealth2004/winner.html (1 of 2)04/03/2005 12:06:29
About Health On the Net (HON): HON & eHealth2004
creation in 1995, which have made possible the unrestricted delivery of HON's services, free
of commercial influence. HON web servers are powered by Sun Microsystems.
HON dedicated the eEurope Award for eHealth-2004 to the memory of Professor Jean-Raoul
Scherrer, great visionary of medical informatics, co-founder, defender and servant of the
HON Foundation who passed on two years ago.
The eEurope Awards are organised by the European Institute of Public Administration, with
the support of the Information Society Technologies Programme of the European
Commission, to recognise innovative initiatives in the areas of eGovernment and eHealth
within Europe.
WebCast archive of the awards ceremony
-Read the Conference resume
-Read here the announcement of the HON selection as a finalist.

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http://www.hon.ch/Global/eHealth2004/winner.html
Last modified: Mon May 24 2004
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Health On the Net Foundation for individuals
IJMI Special Issue
Health and the Internet
Call for participation
Patients/individuals Medical Professionnals Web Publishers
All HON Services are freely available.
Search for Health Information You Can TRUST!


Enter any keyword to retrieve trustworthy medical documents
MedHunt
Medical documents

Surveys
E-health trends

HONproject
Initiatives and services


HONselect
Retrieve selected sources by medical terms

HONdossier
Special in-depth reports

Daily News
Medical articles
HONmedia
Multimedia center


Download the free HONcode Toolbar: Automatic verification of the accreditation status of health/medical websites.

HON recommendation to Internet users: Before consulting healthcare information, click on a website's HONcode
accreditation.

The Health On the Net Foundation (HON), created in 1995, is a Non-Governmental Organization under the aegis of the Direction gnrale de la sant
Dpartement de l'Action Sociale et de Sant (DASS - Rpublique et canton de Genve, Switzerland). HON's mission is to guide lay persons or non-
medical users and medical practitioners to useful and reliable online medical and health information. HON provides leadership in setting ethical standards for
Web site developers. (Read more about HON). HON thanks the support of the Geneva University Hospital, and the Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics.
Powered by Sun microsystems. The European Projects WRAPIN, ActiveHealth and PIPS are funded by: Federal Office for Education and Science (OFES),
Berne & the European Union.



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http://www.hon.ch/Patients/individuals.html
Last modified: Mon Feb 21 2005
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Go
Health On the Net Foundation: Healthcare professionals center
IJMI Special Issue
Health and the Internet
Call for participation
Patients/individuals Medical Professionnals Web Publishers
All HON Services are freely available.
How to apply for the HONcode accreditation?


Enter any keyword to retrieve trustworthy medical documents
MedHunt
Medical documents
Daily News
Medical articles

Surveys
E-health trends


HONselect
Retrieve selected sources by medical terms

Conferences & Events
Medical conferences

HONmedia
Multimedia center
HONproject
Initiatives and services


Download the free HONcode Toolbar: Automatic verification of the accreditation status of health/medical websites.

MEDLINE/PubMed
Library of medicine

The Health On the Net Foundation (HON), created in 1995, is a Non-Governmental Organization under the aegis of the Direction gnrale de la sant
Dpartement de l'Action Sociale et de Sant (DASS - Rpublique et canton de Genve, Switzerland). HON's mission is to guide lay persons or non-
medical users and medical practitioners to useful and reliable online medical and health information. HON provides leadership in setting ethical standards for
Web site developers. (Read more about HON). HON thanks the support of the Geneva University Hospital, and the Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics.
Powered by Sun microsystems. The European Projects WRAPIN, ActiveHealth and PIPS are funded by: Federal Office for Education and Science (OFES),
Berne & the European Union.



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http://www.hon.ch/MedProf/med_prof.html
Last modified: Wed Feb 2 2005
http://www.hon.ch/MedProf/med_prof.html04/03/2005 12:06:33
Go
Health On the Net Foundation for Web Publishers
IJMI Special Issue
Health and the Internet
Call for participation
Patients/individuals Medical Professionnals Web Publishers
All HON Services are freely available.
How to apply for the HONcode accreditation?


Enter any keyword to retrieve trustworthy medical documents
HONmedia
Multimedia center
Surveys
E-health trends

HONdossier
Special in-depth reports

MedHunt
Verify if your site is already indexed

Add Medhunt to your site
Submit your medical and health
site

HONselect
Enter medical terms and retrieve selected
sources
Add HONslect to your site
HONproject
Initiatives and services

Conferences & Events
Medical conferences

Download the free HONcode Toolbar: Automatic verification of the accreditation status of health/medical websites.


The Health On the Net Foundation (HON), created in 1995, is a Non-Governmental Organization under the aegis of the Direction gnrale de la sant
Dpartement de l'Action Sociale et de Sant (DASS - Rpublique et canton de Genve, Switzerland). HON's mission is to guide lay persons or non-
medical users and medical practitioners to useful and reliable online medical and health information. HON provides leadership in setting ethical standards for
Web site developers. (Read more about HON). HON thanks the support of the Geneva University Hospital, and the Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics.
Powered by Sun microsystems. The European Projects WRAPIN, ActiveHealth and PIPS are funded by: Federal Office for Education and Science (OFES),
Berne & the European Union.



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http://www.hon.ch/HealthProv/providers.html
Last modified: Wed Feb 2 2005
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Go
Fondation "Health On the Net"
IJMI Numro spcial
Sant et Internet
Appel pour publication
Patients/Particuliers Professionnels mdicaux Responsables de sites
Tous les services HON sont gratuits.
L'information de sant fiable!


Entrez un(des) mot(s) cl(s) et obtenez des sites web fiables
MedHunt
Recherche libre de documents mdicaux

HONdossier
Chapitres dtaills

Enqutes
Les tendances du E-sant


HONselect
Encyclopdie mdicale

HONmdia
Centre multimdia

Confrences
Confrences internationales
HONprojet
Initiatives et services

Actualit
Articles mdicaux

Comment adhrer au
HONcode?

Tlchargez la Toolbar gratuite HONcode - Vrification automatique du statut des sites Web mdicaux et de sant.

MEDLINE/PubMed
Bibliothque mdicale

Cr en 1995 sous l'gide de la Direction gnrale de la sant, Dpartement Action Sociale et Sant de Genve (DASS - Rpublique et Canton de
Genve, Suisse), la Fondation "Health On the Net" (HON) est un organisme sans but lucratif accrdit par les Nations Unies, et bas Genve en
Suisse. HON se consacre au dveloppement et au support de la communaut mdicale internationale sur le web et Internet. Cette initiative est entreprise afin
de rendre accessible ce nouveau moyen de communication aux particuliers, au corps mdical et aux tablissements mdicaux. (Plus d'info propos de
HON). La Fondation Health On the Net est principalement parraine par: le Dpartement action sociale et sant de Genve, les Hpitaux Universitaires de
Genve, l' Institut Suisse de Bioinformatique et Sun Microsystems. Les projets europens WRAPIN, ActiveHealth et PIPS sont financs par: L' Office
Fdral de l'Education et de la Science (OFES), Berne & la Communaut Europenne .



Accueil Sur Nous Plan du site Commentaires Recherche HONewsletter Avertissement HON Contact

http://www.hon.ch/HomePage/Home-Page_f.html
Dernire modification: 22 fvrier 2005
http://www.hon.ch/HomePage/Home-Page_f.html04/03/2005 12:06:40
Go
Health On the Net(HON): MedHunt
All Web sites HONcode sites HONselect News Conferences Images
1. Enter word(s) in this field and select the form specified.

2. Refine with options.
Limit the display of the HONoured database:

3. Click Submit.


> submit site

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http://www.hon.ch/MedHunt/index.html
Last modified: Wed Feb 2 2005
http://www.hon.ch/MedHunt/04/03/2005 12:06:44
all the words
All Display: 10 Geographic/Domain: All
Submit Clear
HONdossier Health topics which deserve special attention

List of HONdossier :
Mother and Child Hepatitis B
Allergy Glossary Rare Diseases
Vision and Eye care FAQ Ageing
Stop smoking


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http://www.hon.ch/Dossier/110_HONDossier.htm
Last modified: Mon Aug 5 2002
http://www.hon.ch/Dossier/110_HONDossier.htm04/03/2005 12:06:46
Analysis of the surveys

Background Methodology Current Survey Analysis Copyright Version franaise
Analysis of the surveys
HON's survey tools allow you to analyse the results of our surveys according to your needs and your Web
browser.
General results of all questions from all surveys:
Surveys
Raw data
(Perl tools)
Raw data
(Java tools)
Data analysed by HON
Autumn 2004
>>>Your opinion is important to us,please fill the survey questionnaire on the
"Medical Internet usage"<<<
May/Jun 02


G Excerpt of the 8th HON's Survey of Health and
Medical Internet Users
G Results of USA and Europe
Feb/Mar 01
G Trends for medical Internet usage
May/Jul 00
G Healthcare professionals' experience of
the medical Net
Oct/Nov 99 Summary
Mar/Apr 99 Summary
May/Jun 98 Article presented at MEDNET'98
Aug/Sep 97
Feb/Mar 97
Attention: If you want richer, more detailed results from our survey data, please register for your exclusive
interactive analysis program. This offer is entirely free and without obligation. Our tool will allow you to
select specific topics and user-categories and compare results across surveys.
The HON Foundation conducts these surveys as a public service. All the results are available on-line under
certain terms and conditions. Health On the Net Foundation hopes that the results of these surveys will help
HON and other medical websites meet the needs of the Net community more effectively.
http://www.hon.ch/Survey/analysis.html (1 of 2)04/03/2005 12:06:50
Analysis of the surveys


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Disclaimer
HON
http://www.hon.ch/Survey/analysis.html
Last modified: Sun Nov 28 2004
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HONselect - English (Introduction)
All Web sites HONcode sites HONselect News Conferences Images
English - Franais - Deutsch - Espaol -
Portugus
Welcome to HONselect, HON's new search integrator for strictly medical and health queries.
HONselect combines five information types - MeSH terms, authoritative scientific articles,
healthcare news, Web sites and multimedia - into one service to focus and accelerate your search.
Navigate with most frequently used topics
Explore the 33,000 separate medical MeSH terms or select a
subject from these four popular categories:


Search by medical terms
Enter a specific word or just a part of the word (e.g. "hep" for
hepatitis)


- Most frequently used search terms
- List of rare diseases
! ! ! New Extract the medical terms (MeSH) from your site and link them to HONselect ! ! !


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http://www.hon.ch/HONselect/index.html
Last modified: Wed Feb 2 2005
http://www.hon.ch/HONselect/04/03/2005 12:06:53
Diseases Viruses & Drugs
Anatomy Psychiatry and Psychology
Search Clear
the whole word in MeSH term
HONmedia - Medical images
All Web sites HONcode sites HONselect News Conferences Images
Index A B C D E F G H I J K L
M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
Search HONmedia:

Submit images
About HONmedia
French version
Browse HONmedia by theme in 3 step
Step 1:
HONmedia is an unique repository of over 6'800 medical images and videos, pertaining to 1,700 topics and themes. This
peerless database has been created manually by HON and new image links are constantly being added from the world-
wide Web. HON encourages users to make their own image links available via the "Submit an image" service (above).

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HON
http://www.hon.ch/HONmedia/index.html
Last modified: Wed Jan 19 2005
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search
Choose header category in this list
HONmeeting - Health Conferences & Event
All Web sites HONcode sites HONselect News Conferences Images
Full text search:

Date
Jan
Feb Mar
Apr May Jun
Jul AugSep
Oct Nov Dec
Theme
Alphabet. / Browse
Location
USA /Europe /
Other
Submit a conference
Mailing service
Past conferences
Other resources

Archive(s):
" Internet in Health
for All "
Abstracts & Live
webcasting
What's up now: a selection of 10 current events

*
27 Feb 04 Mar
CME - 8th Mayo Clinic Endocrine Course
USA
*
28 Feb 04 Mar
CME - Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine: An Update for
Primary Care
USA
*
28 Feb 04 Mar
CME - Microsurgery of Aneurysms: Recent Advances
USA
*
01 Mar 13 Mar
Ist International Online Congress on IT in Biological Sciences
Spain
*
02 Mar 05 Mar
106th Annual Meeting of the American Society for Clinical
Pharmacology and Therapeutics (ASCPT)
USA
*
03 Mar 06 Mar
CME - 14th Annual Southwestern Conference on Medicine
USA
*
04 Mar 05 Mar
CME - Mayo Clinic's Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation for
Clinicians
USA
*
04 Mar
CME - 13th Annual Women Science, Dentistry, Osteopathy and
Medicine WISDOM
USA
*
04 Mar 05 Mar
International Congress on Esthetic Dentistry
France

05 Mar 06 Mar
CME - 9th Annual Virginia Liver Symposium and Update in
Gastroenterology
USA
*: - current conferences
CME: - Continuing Medical Education

Version franaise
http://www.hon.ch/cgi-bin/confevent (1 of 2)04/03/2005 12:07:00
Search
2005
HONmeeting - Health Conferences & Event

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Disclaimer
HON
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Projects and Initiatives: Introduction
HON's Initiatives & Services
Introduction
MARVIN
Hunt services
HONselect
HONcode
Surveys
HON publications

European Project
About HON

Version franaise
Introduction
This section details projects initiated by HON to help build the medical community
on the Internet.
MedHunt, HONselect and the HON Code of Conduct (HONcode) are among HON
services that actively promote effective Internet use and seek to demonstrate best-
in-class implementation and application. The first initiative, MedHunt, consists of an
intelligent and specialised search engine designed to locate Internet information
related to a given medical and health domain. The second, HONselect, is the first
assisted-search facility that integrates heterogeneous databases to offer users a
full assortment of healthcare information and resources available on the Web. The
third one is an authoritative set of voluntary guidelines designed to raise the quality
of Web-based medical and health information. The HONcode is today the most
widely endorsed set of ethical guidelines for site developers in this domain.

To support this and other Foundation projects, we continually seek constructive
relationships with other organisations that support the Foundation's goals and
provide advantages to all concerned. You can help us continue our work.

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http://www.hon.ch/Project/index.html
Last modified: Tue Apr 30 2002
http://www.hon.ch/Project/04/03/2005 12:07:02
HON - News : HealthDay Archive (200503)
All Web sites HONcode sites HONselect News Conferences Images

Themes:
A B C D E F G H I
J K L M N O P Q
R S T U V W X Y Z
Browse archive:
2005: M F J
2004: D N O S A J J M A M F J
2003: D N O S A J J M A M F J

Daily news powered by HealthDay

03/03/2005

Clinical Trials Update: Mar. 3, 2005
Health Tip: Avoiding Lyme Disease
Health Tip: Fighting Crohns Disease
Health Highlights: March 3, 2005
Ligament Tears Raise Knee Arthritis Risk
School Anti-Smoking Programs Don't Work
Shallow Socket Ups Hip Arthritis Risk
Virtual Reality Lets Children Escape Pain
03/02/2005

B Vitamins May Cut Fracture Risk After Stroke
Clinical Trials Update: March 2, 2005
European Doctors Often Withhold Life-Extending Care
For Better Bipolar Care, The Nose Knows
Gene Mutation May Help Cause Alzheimer's
Genes Predict Kidney Complications After Bypass Surgery
Health Tip: Fungal Infections
Health Tip: Massage Therapy Can Work
Health Highlights: March 2, 2005
New Clues to Inflammatory Bowel Disease
Phase I Cancer Trials More Effective Than Thought
Practice Improves Mammogram Diagnosis
Spotting Heart Valve Patients at Risk
Study Confirms Tamoxifen Raises Endometrial Cancer Risk
Sugar-Producing Proteins Point to New Diabetes Drugs




Disclaimer: Be advised that
HealthDay articles are derived
from various sources and may not
reflect your own country
regulations. The Health On the
Net Foundation does not endorse
opinions, products, or services
that may appear in HealthDay
articles.

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http://www.hon.ch/News/ (1 of 2)04/03/2005 12:07:05
Search news
HON - News : HealthDay Archive (200503)
http://www.hon.ch/News/index.html
Last modified: Thu Mar 3 2005
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HONcode: HONcode membership application
HON Code of Conduct (HONcode) for medical and health Web sites

HONcode membership application
HONcode
HONcodeHunt
Verify or search HONcode
accredited Web sites:

(enter any search terms
or web address)
Presentation
HONcode Toolbar
How to apply
Policing
Principles
Feedback
Contacts
Jeers

EU Quality
recommendation

cette page en
franais


You wish to support the HONcode initiative to improve the quality of medical and
health information available on the WWW. Whether you are a healthcare Web site
developer or an information provider, remember that by formally applying for
membership in the growing community of HONcode subscribers and displaying the
HONcode active seal and logo, you commit yourself to observe the HONcode
principles and to make the appropriate changes when required and to conform to
HONs decisions.
Before filling your HONcode application make sure to read the HONcode
Application Guidelines we developed for you in order to help you fulfil the
HONcode principles requirements.
Membership process:
HONcode membership is free. It is assumed that the Principles of the HONcode
and its implications (make the appropriate changes when required and respect the
principles) have been read and understood. You are hereby advised that your
application may be rejected and that HON is not obligated to state the reasons for
the rejection. Similarly, your HONcode accreditation may be terminated at any time
by HON. You agree to respect HON's decisions in these matters, and to remove the
HONcode active seal if requested to do so by HON.
Step 1: Complete the HONcode questionnaire which is the first step for the
membership process. It will help verify if your Web site follows all the HONcode
principles and, if not, to identify what modifications you must make before the review
by the HONcode team.
Step 2: Go to the "Next Step" button at the end of the questionnaire. This will allow
you to register your site, with a summary of its content, in the HONcode database.
Step 3: You will receive an email confirming the reception of your submission. Then
we will visit and review your site. If it meets HONcode standards, we will confirm its
registration in the HONcode and the MedHunt databases. If not, you will receive the
comments of the HONcode team regarding the modifications you should make in
order to comply to all the HONcode principles.
Step 4: At the end of the review process, if your webiste respects all the 8 principles,
you receive the instructions to display the HONcode logo on your Web site. It
includes a HONcode membership identification number (HONcode ID beginning with
"HONConduct....."). This HONcode ID is required for listing your site in the
http://www.hon.ch/HONcode/HONcode_membership.html (1 of 2)04/03/2005 12:07:06
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HONcode: HONcode membership application
HONcode database and to permit efficient communications with HON.
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introduccin a "La crisis de ansiedad, pnico o angustia (y agorafobia)

La Crisis de Ansiedad.
1.Introduccin

Adherida a los Principios del Cdigo HONcode de Health On the Net Foundation

PAN
Dios de los campos, ganados y
pastores en la mitologa griega. El
sentido de la voz Pan es "todo", de
manera que bajo su nombre se
adoraba a la naturaleza toda. Segn
la leyenda era hijo de Zeus y de
Calisto (u otros). Vino al mundo
con piernas, cuernos y pelos de
macho cabro. Su madre se espant
al verlo as. Hermes lo llev al
Olimpo, donde sirvi de mofa a
todos los dioses. Fue educado por
las ninfas como dios de los
bosques y prados y protector de los
pastores. Las cuevas le servan de
morada, as como las rocas y los
http://www.geocities.com/HotSprings/6333/1introdu.html (1 of 6)04/03/2005 12:10:40
introduccin a "La crisis de ansiedad, pnico o angustia (y agorafobia)
Terracota (Atica, S. IV A.C.) (Coleccin del autor)
Estas figurillas, producidas en gran nmero, eran compradas en los lugares de
culto y llevadas de vuelta a casa como recuerdo.
bosques, en los que cazaba y
danzaba con las ninfas. Protega y
velaba por la seguridad de los
rebaos y haca propicia la caza.
Era tambin dios de la msica,
atribuyndosele la invencin de la
flauta. Desafi a Apolo, en lid
musical, y le ense la ciencia de
la adivinacin. Tuvo de la ninfa
Eco un hijo llamado Inx. Am a
Pitis, metamorfoseada en pino.
Tuvo amores con Pito y Sirins. De
su amante Ega naci Epigan. Se
deca que a veces se diverta
causando miedo y terror,
escondindose por la noche para
sorprender a los viajeros que
atravesaban bosques y montaas.
De ah deriva la palabra pnico.
(Diccionario de la mitologa
mundial).

PROLOGO
A la edicin impresa: "La Crisis de Pnico y Trastorno de Angustia. Manual para el paciente".
Madrid, 1999.
Tradicionalmente, la relacin mdico paciente ha sido muy asimtrica. En tiempos remotos la autoridad
del mdico, sanador, o figura equivalente, estuvo cargada de sentido religioso y carismtico. Desde el
advenimiento de la medicina cientfica, la autoridad del clnico, sin perder del todo su antiguo carcter
cuasi sagrado y carismtico, ha estado reposando en su caudal de conocimientos "cientficos" que le han
facultado para emitir diagnsticos y administrar tratamientos. Tradicionalmente, del paciente se esperaba
confianza en el saber y en el sentido de la responsabilidad del clnico, y acatamiento de sus
recomendaciones y prescripciones. Hoy las cosas estn cambiando, y la relacin entre el clnico -ya sea
el mdico general, el psiquiatra o el psicoterapeuta- y los pacientes, tiende a establecerse en trminos
ms simtricos, de modo que la antigua relacin experto/provisor de tratamientos y paciente ignorante/
http://www.geocities.com/HotSprings/6333/1introdu.html (2 of 6)04/03/2005 12:10:40
introduccin a "La crisis de ansiedad, pnico o angustia (y agorafobia)
receptor pasivo, est evolucionando hacia una relacin de mutua colaboracin, con pacientes cada vez
ms informados y ms activamente partcipes de sus propios tratamientos.
Estos cambios son muy visibles en algunos aspectos de prctica mdica. As, por ejemplo, ante pacientes
con enfermedades graves resulta muchas veces imprescindible que el mdico recabe la opinin del
paciente sobre el enfoque teraputico a seguir, como cuando ha de decidirse acerca de opciones ms
conservadoras o ms arriesgadas. Es imposible concebir el tratamiento de enfermedades crnicas
(diabetes, hipertensin, o trastornos de ansiedad....) sin una activa implicacin de los pacientes, y
muchas veces tambin de sus familiares, no solamente para seguir las pautas de tratamiento
farmacolgico, sino para hacerse cargo de los cambios a efectuar en su vida diaria, en sus costumbres,
en la intensidad o en el tipo de trabajo, o para afrontar un radical replanteamiento de su vida a raz de la
emergencia de la enfermedad segn el impacto que sta produzca.
La prctica clnica exige mantener una buena comunicacin con los pacientes, de modo que ste es un
requisito para garantizar la calidad de la asistencia y eficiencia de los tratamientos. Cualquier clnico
sabe por propia experiencia hasta qu punto es importante explorar las ideas preconcebidas que el
paciente tiene acerca de su padecimiento, la informacin previa de que dispone, las expectativas ante el
diagnstico o el tratamiento. Ocuparse de estos aspectos es un ingrediente esencial de la prctica clnica.
Obviarlos, conduce a la falta de colaboracin, incumplimiento de tratamientos, insatisfaccin de los
pacientes, a la quiebra de la confianza y al menoscabo de la relacin, haciendo imposible la alianza
teraputica. No puede el mdico, y mucho menos el psicoterapeuta, actuar a espaldas de las expectativas
de los pacientes o al margen de la informacin de que dispongan. Compartir la informacin con el
paciente ha pasado a ser tanto una exigencia tcnica como un imperativo tico.
Ni que decir tiene que estas consideraciones previas ataen de forma particular a la prctica psiquitrica
y a la atencin a los problemas de salud mental. Lejos quedan ya los tiempos en que psiquiatras y otros
profesionales de lo "psico" abusramos de la jerga y de los trminos crpticos e ininteligibles. Cierto que
la dimensin psquica se resiste a ser conceptualizada en trminos del lenguaje corriente, pero esto no
nos exime de la responsabilidad de proceder a transferir a nuestros pacientes una buena parte de lo que
sabemos -y de lo que ignoramos-, democratizando as nuestra relacin con ellos y con la poblacin en
general. Y aportando de este modo nuestra dosis de colaboracin en pro de una mayor autonoma de las
personas y los grupos en el cuidado de su propia salud (mental). No renunciamos con ello a ejercer
nuestra responsabilidad teraputica, sino ms bien a elevar el rango, prestndonos a conducir el proceso
teraputico con pacientes mejor informados, ms conscientes quizs de las posibilidades y dificultades
de los tratamientos, tal vez ms exigentes tambin, pero en cualquier caso, en mejores condiciones de
compartir con el profesional los avatares del proceso teraputico. Del mismo modo, los familiares dejan
de ser considerados espectadores pasivos del proceso, y tienen la oportunidad de implicarse tambin,
segn los casos, colaborando en el tratamiento.
A mi modo de ver el gran mrito de este manual es precisamente el poder ser un poderoso instrumento al
servicio de esa necesidad, tan perentoria para todo paciente que padece trastornos de angustia, de
disponer de informacin clara y veraz, que puede leer y releer en la sala de estar de su casa, contrastarlo
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introduccin a "La crisis de ansiedad, pnico o angustia (y agorafobia)
con otras lecturas, comentarlo con amigos o familiares, discutirlo con el mdico o pedirle aclaraciones.
Por esto es muy de agradecer el trabajo realizado por el Dr. Oscar Martnez Azumendi, publicando para
su divulgacin esta gua que, lejos de cualquier improvisacin, es consecuencia de su amplia experiencia
en el abordaje de este tipo de problemas adquirida a lo largo de aos de trabajo en los Centros de Salud
Mental de Uribe Costa y Erandio (Vizcaya) con pacientes y familiares.
Convencido de la importancia y utilidad que habrn de derivarse de este manual, de alto inters tambin
para mdicos y dems profesionales de atencin primaria y de los servicios de salud mental, quiero
pensar que inaugura una nueva lnea de publicaciones por parte de los compaeros de la AEN, al
servicio de nuestros pacientes y de los ciudadanos en general.
Dr. Mariano Hernndez Monsalve. Psiquiatra.
Jefe de Servicio del Instituto Psiquitrico- SSM Jos Germain, de Legans. Madrid.
Presidente de la Asociacin Espaola de Neuropsiquiatra.
Enero 1999.

Justificacin del porqu de esta pgina.
A lo largo de los aos hemos comprobado que una parte importante de nuestra prctica profesional est
dedicada al tratamiento de personas con ataques de pnico. Estas personas son asaltadas por una
infinidad de preguntas que se repiten de forma muy similar entre ellas, a pesar incluso de las diferentes
presentaciones de cada caso particular.
Estas pginas surgen con la intencin de dar respuesta a algunas de estas preguntas. No pretende en
ningn caso recoger de forma exhaustiva el estado actual de conocimientos en la materia, sino
nicamente salir al paso de posibles dudas que no hayan sido suficientemente aclaradas por los motivos
que sean, utilizando una terminologa y profundidad de contenidos fcilmente entendible por la mayora
de personas. Tampoco pretende sustituir de ninguna manera la necesaria relacin de confianza entre el
mdico y el paciente, y que en definitiva ser la mejor base para la aclaracin y tranquilizacin ante
posibles dudas y temores. En todo caso, esperamos que pueda servir de complemento de esa interaccin
al disponerse de una informacin ampliada, tanto para el paciente como para sus allegados, que pueda
revisarse en la tranquilidad del hogar despejando algunos de los puntos menos claros.
Tambin se han incluido algunos consejos y tcnicas para su aplicacin personal en la resolucin de los
sntomas. Estos apuntes evidentemente no pueden sustituir un tratamiento especializado, aunque
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esperamos que lo complementen.
Por ltimo, sealar que debido a la mayor proporcin de aparicin del trastorno entre mujeres, el manual
podra ajustarse ms a la realidad si fuera escrito en femenino, o con recurso a las terminaciones en "o/
a", lo que resultara extremadamente cansado en su lectura. Hemos preferido mantener la redaccin en
masculino, no slo por cuestiones de estilo al dirigirnos tanto a hombres como a mujeres, sino por la
especial dificultad que tenemos los primeros a la hora de reconocer "el miedo", emocin sancionada
socialmente de forma ms negativa que en el caso de las mujeres.

[Inicio] [1. Introduccin]
[2. Definiciones] [2.2.1 Ejemplo de Sntomas][2.2.2 Ejemplo de Pensamientos][2.7.1 Ejemplo de Fobias]
[3. Frecuencia][4. Causas][5. Riesgos] [6. Frmacos][7. Psicoterapia][8. Autoayuda]
[9. Estrategias de superacin][10. Recursos en Internet] [11. ][12. Autoevaluacin]
[13. Casos]
1997 - 2000 Dr. Oscar Martnez Azumendi. Permitida su reproduccin, siempre que esta no tenga fines
econmicos y se cite su procedencia. Cualquier comentario o sugerencia ser bien recibido, aunque teniendo la
pgina un nimo mramente informativo no podrn responderse consultas particulares.




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LA CRISIS DE ANSIEDAD, PANICO O ANGUSTIA (Y AGORAFOBIA)
Edvard Munch, "El Grito" (1893).
La Crisis de
Ansiedad, Pnico o
Angustia.
Adherida a los Principios del Cdigo HONcode
de Health On the Net Foundation
Esta pgina est dedicada a divulgar informacin acerca de las crisis de ansiedad (crisis y trastorno de angustia, ataque de
pnico) y agorafobia. Trabajando su autor en un Servicio Pblico de Salud, no tienen un objetivo comercial, no estn
patrocinadas por ninguna compaa, ni pretende dirigir potenciales pacientes a ningn tipo de consulta. Redactada con nimo
divulgativo, no recoge totalmente los conocimientos actuales en relacin con el tema. Busca el mayor eclecticismo terico, siendo
posible que no se haga justicia suficiente a un determinado modelo. Nunca podr sustituir a la evaluacin, consejo o tratamiento
individualizado por un especialista adecuado, recomendndose se sigan las eventuales indicaciones que dicho especialista pueda
sugerir en un momento determinado.
Indice de Contenidos
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LA CRISIS DE ANSIEDAD, PANICO O ANGUSTIA (Y AGORAFOBIA)
1. INTRODUCCION
2. DEFINICIONES
2.2.1 Ejemplo de Sntomas
2.2.2 Ejemplo de Pensamientos
2.7.1 Ejemplo de Fobias
3. FRECUENCIA DE APARICION 4. CAUSAS
5. RIESGOS ASOCIADOS 6. TRATAMIENTOS FARMACOLOGICOS
7. TRATAMIENTOS PSICOTERAPEUTICOS 8. ASOCIACIONES DE AUTOAYUDA
9. ESTRATEGIAS DE SUPERACION PERSONAL 10. RECURSOS EN INTERNET
11. (Agora Pblica) 12. AUTOEVALUACION DE CONOCIMIENTOS
13. CASOS


LIBRO DE VISITAS
Me gustara saber que ha pasado por aqu, pero sobre todo me interesa su opinin
(favorable o desfavorable) o posibles sugerencias.
Si considera que la pgina le ha interesado por algo, o que puede mejorarse de alguna
forma, por favor, no dude en dedicar un minuto a exponer su opinin. Estoy seguro de que
ser de mucha ayuda, inters y motivacin para su mantenimiento y mejora.
(Utilice el Libro de Visitas exclusivamente para dar su opinin en relacin con la pgina. Si quiere dejar cualquier otro tipo de mensaje
o notificacin dirigido a otras posibles personas interesadas o contactar con ellas, utilice el Agora Pblica, donde encontrar un Tabln
de Mensajes con este fin, as como una utilidad "Chat" para charlar en directo).

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LA CRISIS DE ANSIEDAD, PANICO O ANGUSTIA (Y AGORAFOBIA)
Firmar el "Libro de Visitas"
Ver el "Libro de Visitas"
Ver el "Libro de Visitas Antiguo" (Hasta
Nov. 2000)
Ver "otro Libro de Visitas" (Nov-Dic. 2000)
Ver "otro Libro de Visitas" (En-Feb. 2001)

Desafortunadamente me resulta imposible responder de forma individualizada a posibles
dudas o consultas particulares.
En caso de necesitar una aclaracin de alguno de los contenidos de la pgina, puede
dirigir su pregunta de forma concreta y puntual al Dr. Eizmendi, quien de forma totalmente
desinteresada y sin ningn compromiso por ambas partes, se ha ofrecido a intentar
responderle. Por favor, realice nicamente preguntas concretas y no espere un
seguimiento de su caso particular


Los contenidos principales de esta pgina (Cap. 1 a 9 y 12) han sido editados por SmithKline
Beecham, con la colaboracin de
Osasun Mentalaren Elkartea - Asociacin de Salud Mental
para su distribucin gratuita por Mdicos de Atencin Primaria y Psiquiatras entre
personas afectadas por el problema (La Crisis de Pnico y Trastorno de Angustia. Manual
para el paciente. Madrid, 1999).
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LA CRISIS DE ANSIEDAD, PANICO O ANGUSTIA (Y AGORAFOBIA)
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LA CRISIS DE ANSIEDAD, PANICO O ANGUSTIA (Y AGORAFOBIA)
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Esta pgina forma parte del anillo contra el pnico y agorafobia: PAN-illo
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1997 - 2004 Dr. Oscar Martnez Azumendi. Permitida su reproduccin, siempre que esta no tenga fines econmicos y se cite su
procedencia. Cualquier comentario o sugerencia ser bien recibido, aunque teniendo la pgina un nimo meramente informativo no
podrn responderse consultas particulares.

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Ultima actualizacin: Enero 2000



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2defini.html
La Crisis de Ansiedad
2. Definiciones
verdef.pcx 5 abril 97 - 10:22am
Autor: Pedro De Carlo
Pgina adherida a los Principios del Cdigo
HONcode de Health On the Net Foundation

Indice del Captulo.

2.1 Qu diferencia existe entre el miedo, la angustia y la
ansiedad?
2.2 Qu es una crisis de angustia?
2.2.1. Qu es una crisis durante el sueo? 2.3 Qu es la hiperventilacin?
2.4 Qu es el trastorno de angustia? 2.5 Qu es la ansiedad anticipatoria?
2.6 Qu es la ansiedad generalizada? 2.7 Qu son las fobias?
2.8 Qu es la agorafobia? 2.9 Qu es la fobia social?
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2.10 Qu es la depresin?




2.1. QUE DIFERENCIA EXISTE ENTRE EL MIEDO, LA ANGUSTIA Y LA
ANSIEDAD?
Bsicamente la sensacin de angustia es muy similar al estado que domina al individuo con miedo. En
ambos casos, adems de la sensacin subjetiva y psicolgica de temor y amenaza, existen una serie de
sntomas corporales y respuestas del organismo que son muy similares a las que presentan los animales
cuando tienen que huir o enfrentar un peligro exterior. Ante una amenaza externa el organismo se pone
alerta, preparndose para la accin. Necesita ms energa en cerebro, brazos y piernas, lo que se
consigue a travs del oxgeno que llega a travs de la sangre. Entonces el corazn late ms deprisa y se
eleva la tensin arterial, adems de respirar ms profundamente para captar ms oxgeno. Los msculos
se tensan igualmente como forma de preparacin, mientras que el sudor permitir eliminar el exceso de
calor muscular. Adems, existen otra serie de ajustes internos como ciertas modificaciones en los
componentes de la sangre, para que en caso de recibir heridas stas coagulen rpidamente. Tambin la
digestin se enlentece para reservar ms sangre para cerebro y msculos, as como la pupila se dilata
como manera de aumentar la discriminacin visual.
Vemos entonces que existen toda una serie de modificaciones corporales, que si son tomadas por s solas
pueden ser sugerentes de enfermedad, pero que no son ms que respuestas adaptativas normales y
saludables ante una amenaza exterior.
Sin embargo, entre el miedo y la angustia existen una serie de matices que nos permiten diferenciarlos
claramente. Mientras que el miedo podemos considerarlo como una reaccin normal frente a peligros o
amenazas que vienen del exterior y son claramente reconocidos por el individuo, la angustia aparece
como un sentimiento aparentemente inmotivado y en la mayora de las ocasiones independiente de las
circunstancias objetivas externas. El miedo se acompaa siempre de algo concreto a lo que se teme,
mientras que en la angustia no se puede reconocer ese objeto, es un miedo indefinido o en todo caso los
temores estn asociados con situaciones frente a las que el individuo admite que est respondiendo
desproporcionadamente.
Existen tambin perodos en el desarrollo evolutivo del individuo, en el que ste no est libre de
sentimientos angustiosos como respuesta a circunstancias vitales adversas, tales como prdidas o
separaciones de seres queridos. Este tipo de angustia es considerada como normal y puede ser reflejo de
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la puesta en marcha de mecanismos de adaptacin.
La ansiedad es difcil diferenciarla conceptualmente de la angustia, utilizndose ambas palabras de
forma indistinta en muchas ocasiones. Las dos comparten una misma raz etimolgica (ANKH) que se
mantiene a lo largo de las diferentes palabras, ms o menos sinnimas, del tronco comn de lenguas
indoeuropeas. La palabra originaria quera decir angosto, estrecho o constreido, con equivalentes muy
precisos incluso en lenguas ms remotas. Por ejemplo, en egipcio antiguo, para hacer alusin al miedo
intenso se utilizaban dos smbolos, uno indicativo de estrechez y otro representando a un hombre
tumbado como si estuviera murindose.
Para nosotros y en general, la angustia hace referencia a una sensacin ms corporal, opresiva,
sobrecogedora, que llega a "encoger" el pecho o el estmago, el temor a morir o enloquecer lentifica el
paso del tiempo as como inhibe a la persona. La ansiedad sera una sensacin ms mental de sobresalto
y desasosiego mantenido, el tiempo aparece como acelerado mientras se teme que cualquier cosa
negativa puede ocurrir y la persona se siente continuamente en tensin y con "necesidad de aire".
Cierto grado de ansiedad es deseable y necesario para el normal manejo de las exigencias de la vida
cotidiana, jugando un papel muy necesario en la respuesta general de adaptacin ante el estrs. Este
nivel de ansiedad permite mejorar el rendimiento personal y la actividad, pero cuando rebasa un cierto
lmite aparece una evidente sensacin de malestar y se deteriora el rendimiento.
La relacin entre la ansiedad y el rendimiento se puede representar como una curva con forma de U
invertida y se conoce como Ley de Yerkes-Dobson. Esta ley fue enunciada en 1908 y, aunque hoy no se
acepta de forma tan simplificada, sigue teniendo una validez importante para entender el fenmeno de la
ansiedad y sus consecuencias.
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Con la anterior curva se explica como el aumento de la ansiedad ante determinado problema, aumenta
tambin la eficacia y rendimiento de la respuesta en un principio. Por ejemplo, ante un examen o una
entrevista se presta mayor atencin al estudio o los contenidos que pueden tener mayor importancia, se
est "motivado" (ansiedad normal) mejorando el rendimiento. Al aumentar esa ansiedad normal o
motivacin se llega a un nivel ptimo en la relacin ansiedad-eficacia, pero a partir de aqu cualquier
aumento, por mnimo que sea, genera una disminucin muy rpida del rendimiento. De esta forma se
puede llegar a una eficacia nula, como cuando la persona se queda con la mente en blanco o se bloquea
en la accin. Si este estado se mantiene aun en ausencia de demandas exteriores es cuando hablamos de
ansiedad patolgica, que puede configurar un trastorno psiquitrico con caractersticas propias o
asociarse a otro gran nmero de trastornos.




2.2. QUE ES UNA CRISIS DE ANGUSTIA?

Tambin llamada crisis de ansiedad o ataque de pnico. Este estado se corresponde con la aparicin ms
o menos repentina, muchas veces sin motivo aparente, de una sensacin de miedo intenso acompaado
de un importante malestar corporal y una serie de sntomas que pueden variar entre diferentes personas.
Estos sntomas pueden ser muy similares a los que se experimentan tras un susto o amenaza externa. Es
como si esta respuesta corporal se hubiera hecho muy sensible, saltando la seal de alarma de forma
automtica en situaciones normales y no peligrosas.
La Asociacin Psiquitrica Americana en su ltima clasificacin sugiere que para su diagnstico deben
recogerse cuatro o ms de entre un listado de sntomas (si se presentan menos de cuatro sntomas se
denominan "crisis sintomticas limitadas").
G 1.- Palpitaciones, sacudidas del corazn o elevacin de la frecuencia cardaca.
G 2.- Sudoracin.
G 3.- Temblores o sacudidas.
G 4.- Sensacin de ahogo o falta de aliento.
G 5.- Sensacin de atragantarse.
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G 6.- Opresin o malestar torcico.
G 7.- Nauseas o molestias abdominales.
G 8.- Inestabilidad, mareo o desmayo.
G 9.- Sensacin de que el mundo de alrededor ha cambiado o es irreal en algn sentido, o de que la
persona se encuentra como separada de s misma.
G 10.- Miedo a perder el control o volverse loco.
G 11.- Miedo a morir.
G 12.- Sensacin de entumecimiento u hormigueo en diversas partes del cuerpo.
G 13.- Escalofros o sofocos.
Manual Diagnstico y Estadstico (DSM - IV)
Por otra parte, la Organizacin Mundial de la Salud, en su Dcima Clasificacin Internacional de las
enfermedades, describe la crisis de pnico o "ansiedad episdica paroxstica" como:
1. Un episodio puntual de temor o de malestar.
2. Se inicia bruscamente.
3. Alcanza su mxima intensidad en pocos segundos y dura algunos minutos.
4. Deben hallarse presentes por lo menos cuatro de los sntomas listados a continuacin, uno de los
cuales debe ser de los grupos "A" a "D":
Sntomas autonmicos
a) Palpitaciones o golpeo del corazn o ritmo cardaco acelerado.
b) Escalofros.
c) Temblores o sacudidas.
d) Sequedad de boca (no debida a medicacin o deshidratacin).
Sntomas relacionados con el pecho o abdomen
e) Dificultad para respirar.
f) Sensacin de ahogo.
g) Dolor o malestar en el pecho.
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h) Nusea o malestar abdominal (p.e. estmago revuelto).
Sntomas relacionados con el estado mental
i) Sensacin de mareo, inestabilidad o desvanecimiento.
j) Sensacin de irrealidad (desrealizacin), o de sentirse fuera de la situacin (despersonalizacin)
k) Sensacin de ir a perder el control, de volverse loco o de ir a perder el conocimiento.
l) Miedo a morir.
Sntomas generales
m) Oleadas de calor o escalofros.
n) Adormecimiento o sensacin de hormigueo.
Clasificacin Internacional de Enfermedades. 10 Revisin.

A pesar de que para hacer un diagnstico de crisis de ansiedad suele ser suficiente un relativamente
pequeo nmero de sntomas de las reducidas listas anteriores, en la prctica la variabilidad y diversidad
de estos sntomas es mucho mayor, pudiendo afectar y alterar un gran nmero de sistemas corporales, lo
que llega a confundir an ms a la persona que lo sufre. Como ejemplo, en los GRAFICOS 1 a 6 se
recogen los sntomas, junto a su intensidad relativa, descritos por un grupo de 35 personas (20 mujeres y
15 hombres) que respondieron a un cuestionario especfico. Algunos de los pensamientos (cogniciones)
y sensaciones que pueden aparecer con mayor frecuencia se recogen en el GRAFICO 7,
correspondindose con las respuestas dadas por el mismo grupo de personas anterior.
Resumiendo, la crisis suele comenzar de forma brusca, alcanzando su mxima intensidad a los diez
minutos o menos. No necesariamente debe existir una situacin amenazante o un desencadenante claro,
pudiendo encontrarse la persona ms o menos tranquila en los momentos previos o incluso dormida.
Adems de aparecer algunos de los sntomas corporales de los listados anteriores y que varan de
persona a persona, este estado va acompaado de una intensa sensacin de peligro, muerte inminente y
la imperiosa necesidad de pedir ayuda o escapar.
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En general las personas que sufren una crisis
de angustia la describen como un miedo
intenso, con sensacin de estar a punto de
morir o sufrir un infarto o "derrame" cerebral,
o bien perder el control o "volverse loco". Esta
sensacin, acompaada de los sntomas
corporales que a veces son de gran intensidad,
hacen que la persona tienda a escapar como sea
de la situacin o lugar donde se encuentra y a
veces buscar ayuda mdica de urgencia.
Como la crisis llega a su pico mximo
aproximadamente a los diez minutos, en caso
de acudir a urgencias, cuando llegan al servicio
los sntomas se han calmado mucho o han
desaparecido, no encontrndose anomalas
cuando son explorados. De cualquier forma, no
es infrecuente que a pesar de haberse reducido
la intensidad de los sntomas la persona quede
en un estado de abatimiento, cansancio o
desgana que puede durar incluso durante horas
hasta que se recupera, tal y como se ha
pretendido reflejar en la ilustracin.

"Me encontraba en un supermercado un 24 de Diciembre, estaba con mi novia comprando unos
detalles para los regalos de Navidad. Al terminar de escoger las cosas, me dispuse a esperar en la fila
para pagar, de pronto empec a sentir mucho calor acompaado de mareos, me sent tan mal que le di
todo a mi novia y le dije que iba a salir a tomar un poco de aire. Me sent al punto de desmayarme,
pero al salir fuera me sent bien, sin molestias. Pas varios das pensando en lo que me haba pasado,
y empec a desarrollar ataques de pnico en todas las ocasiones que me encontraba en un lugar
cerrado. Para mi eran muy difciles las clases si me daba un ataque, aunque fueron contadas las veces
que me sal del saln. Todava no se me olvida, que por mucho tiempo, cada maana me levantaba y lo
primero que me deca es que estaba listo para luchar todo el da contra mis ataques de pnico y mi
fuerte depresin. Me repeta constantemente "Algn da saldr de esto, si tropiezo, me volver a
levantar sin importar cuantas veces me caiga, yo me levantar de nuevo", as estuve como ao y medio
con altas y bajas, pero aunque me costara muchos temores no dej de hacer todos mis deberes y
acuda a la escuela por las maanas, trabajaba a veces por las tardes, y por las noches iba a visitar a
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mi novia. Sin embargo, casi no salamos a ninguna parte, ya que tena miedo de sufrir un ataque de
pnico y que me fuera a desmayar. Con el paso del tiempo y tratamiento, poco a poco fui mejorando,
desde hace unos meses me he sentido muy estable anmicamente, sigo teniendo algn ataque de
pnico, mas sin embargo ya no les hago tanto caso y por lo tanto cada vez son ms espordicos."
Carlos, 26 aos.


2.2.1. QUE ES UNA CRISIS DURANTE EL SUEO?

En algunas personas pudiera ocurrir que durante la noche, mientras duermen, se despierten bruscamente
con sntomas corporales similares a los que aparecen durante una crisis de pnico, todo ello acompaado
de una gran angustia ante el temor a que algo grave les est pasando.
Hasta el momento, este tipo de cuadros no estn bien estudiados, no conocindose con precisin su
frecuencia de aparicin entre la poblacin. Las crisis nocturnas no se dan en la totalidad de personas con
un trastorno de pnico, oscilando su aparicin entre un 4 % a 69 % segn diferentes estudios en personas
con crisis diurnas y un 2 % de casos con crisis exclusivamente nocturnas.
No todas las interrupciones sbitas y angustiosas del sueo son debidas a una crisis de pnico, pudiendo
resultar de inters diferenciar estas de otras patologas como la apnea del sueo (parada u obstruccin
respiratoria breve), los terrores nocturnos, las pesadillas, la parlisis del sueo o la epilepsia nocturna.
Cuadros todos ellos ms o menos fciles de descartar con una exploracin detallada, sobre todo si
coexisten crisis diurnas.
Las crisis de pnico nocturnas suelen ocurrir en la primera mitad de la noche, y no suelen asociarse con
la fase "del soar". Algunas investigaciones han descrito que las personas con crisis nocturnas refieren
mas crisis durante el da y tienen mas sntomas corporales que las personas con crisis exclusivamente
durante el da, aunque la intensidad de los sntomas nocturnos puede ser menor que el nivel alcanzado
durante el da. La aparicin de crisis nocturnas puede condicionar tambin conductas de evitacin, que
en este caso seran temores a ir a la cama o a quedarse dormido.
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2.3. QUE ES LA HIPERVENTILACION?

La hiperventilacin o ventilacin pulmonar excesiva suele aparecer cuando la persona nota determinadas
dificultades respiratorias, como puede ser la sensacin de no poder aspirar suficiente aire por opresin
en el pecho. Esto hace que la persona sienta "hambre de aire", lo que a su vez le motiva a respirar ms
rpido y profundo, incluso saliendo a la ventana con el ansia de buscar aire fresco.
No tratndose realmente de una necesidad de oxgeno, se introduce una cantidad de aire superior a las
necesidades del organismo. Lo que se consigue es eliminar un exceso de anhdrido carbnico (CO2) que
provoca una "alcalosis respiratoria" (aumenta el pH de la sangre). De forma fisiolgica (normal), este
cambio en la composicin de la sangre hace que se libere menos oxgeno en los tejidos, entonces el
corazn de forma refleja aumenta la potencia y frecuencia de sus latidos. Tambin el lugar desde donde
se controla la respiracin se ve afectado, al haber menos CO2 se reduce la frecuencia respiratoria y para
compensarlo la persona la fuerza voluntariamente, aumentando la sensacin de disnea o ahogo. A partir
de aqu los sntomas de angustia empeoran, ya que se desencadenan una serie de fenmenos fisiolgicos
que suelen empezar con entumecimiento u hormigueo en los dedos de ambas manos aunque
ocasionalmente tambin puede afectarse slo una de ellas. Si la alcalosis persiste esta sensacin se va
extendiendo tambin a los dedos de los pies, el resto de los pies, la cara y especialmente la zona
alrededor de la boca. menos frecuentemente se pueden producir contracciones musculares e incluso
tetania (contraccin muscular mantenida), sobre todo en muecas y tobillos. Junto a lo anterior suele
coexistir cierta sensacin de atontamiento, as como de presin y agrandamiento de la cabeza. Ni que
decir tiene que la aparicin de estos sntomas secundarios a la hiperventilacin no hacen ms que
agravar la sensacin de pnico de la persona.
Una persona con una crisis de pnico puede correr el riesgo de hiperventilar, con el consiguiente
empeoramiento del cuadro, pero tambin se sabe que personas predispuestas pueden desencadenar la
propia crisis si fuerzan su respiracin de forma voluntaria.
Lea en el punto 9.2 (Qu puedo hacer en el caso de repetirse una crisis de angustia?) una estrategia
para evitar el riesgo de hiperventilacin.
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Mis primeras crisis comenzaron sintiendo que el aire no me llegaba a los pulmones y por lo tanto me
morira. Todos mis miedos giran alrededor de la falta de aire. Cuando comienzo a sentirme ansiosa, lo
primero que me sucede es que respiro en forma mucho mas rpida y eso me produce mucho mareo, me
parece que no puedo hablar y tengo una sensacin de hormigueo en las manos.
Angela, 27 aos.
Tengo dificultades para respirar, casi constantes, y la verdad que es algo que me desorienta mucho.
Es como que el aire entra a los pulmones pero no puede ser asimilado, por lo que me agito y tengo que
controlar todo el tiempo mi respiracin. Me ahogo, an estando sola, y cuando tengo que hablar, leer
o cantar, me falta el aire y me corto en el medio. Pareciera que el acto involuntario de respirar se ha
convertido en algo voluntario y al mismo tiempo, cuando quiero hablar con alguien y estoy as, se me
corta la voz, me agito y me pongo muy nerviosa por lo que me est pasando. En fin, me genera mucha
angustia, me inhabilita y me da miedo que me pase en momentos importantes.
Mara, 33 aos.




2.4. QUE ES EL TRASTORNO DE ANGUSTIA?

Tambin denominado trastorno de pnico o ansiedad paroxstica episdica en la clasificacin de la
Organizacin Mundial de la Salud. Este trastorno hace referencia a la sucesin de un cierto nmero de
crisis de angustia inesperadas. Adems y durante un perodo de tiempo (por ejemplo, 1 mes), la persona
vive atemorizada por la posibilidad de padecer una nueva crisis y sus posibles consecuencias. Todo ello
le puede llevar a modificar sus comportamientos habituales, buscando que las crisis no se repitan.
Dependiendo de la clasificacin diagnstica que se utilice este diagnstico ser ms o menos frecuente.
Por ejemplo, la clasificacin americana incluye aqu todos aquellos casos en que se repitan las crisis de
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pnico, independientemente de que presenten o no agorafobia, mientras que para la OMS slo recibirn
este diagnstico primario aquellas personas que no la presenten.
Soy abogado, con una buena situacin econmica, tres hijos, un matrimonio estable y me atrevera a
decir feliz. La vida me ha ido dando muchas cosas buenas pero desde hace aproximadamente 9 aos
empece a sentirme mal, con mucho miedo, inicialmente el miedo estaba referido a que en cualquier
momento poda perder todo, no existiendo razones aparentes para ello. Mi familia era la ms
perjudicada con esto, ya que tampoco comprendan qu es lo que me pasaba. Luego, con el tiempo
creo que se acostumbraron y me hacan poco caso. Ah, mi enfermedad tom otro rumbo, cada cierto
tiempo corramos de urgencia a la clnica ms cercana porque presentaba todos los sntomas de un
infarto cardiaco. Por supuesto en la clnica me trataban inicialmente por esa emergencia, pero al
cabo de unas dos o tres horas, mientras mi familia estaba desesperada porque poda pasarme algo
grave, me decan los mdicos que me fuera a casa y descansara porque no tena nada. Les discuta a
los mdicos que estaba muy mal, pero lisa y llanamente me echaban, y ah quedaba en la puerta de la
clnica, indignado porque no comprendan que estaba muy grave. Evidentemente, quienes ms sufran
eran mi mujer y mis hijos, ya que terminaba descargando mi enojo con ellos. Durante un par de aos
fui aproximadamente unas 20 veces a diversas clnicas por este tema, y siempre con el mismo
resultado : Seor, djese de tonteras, a usted no le pasa nada, tmese este relajante, duerma un poco
y se sentir bien !. Escuchaba que se hablaba de cualquier enfermedad y automticamente empezaba a
sentir los sntomas, hipocondriaco en su mxima expresin.
En una de esas visitas, un medico se neg a hacerme un electrocardiograma para ver si era algo del
corazn, ni siquiera quiso tomarme la tensin , se sent frente a mi y me pidi que realmente le
contara, pero de verdad, que me pasaba. Me dej atnito, si estoy con un ataque cardiaco ! le deca,
pero l volva a la misma pregunta. En definitiva, me recomend un psiclogo que conoca. Como a
travs de la conversacin que sostuvimos los sntomas fueron desapareciendo y adems no tenia nada
que perder, visit a este psiclogo con quien estuve en tratamiento durante seis meses. Me hizo muy
bien al principio, ya que cuando me daban esos supuestos ataques al corazn poda controlarlos, ya
no tena tanto miedo de andar solo por la calle, incluso en carretera iba ms tranquilo, ya no senta
tanto miedo de que me iba a morir en cualquier momento dejando a mis hijos pequeos, he de
contarles que de ese periodo tengo todo tipo de seguros, de enfermedad, de vida, de accidentes, etc.
Tuve una recada y volvieron las depresiones causadas por las crisis de duda respecto de todo : si era
posible tener un accidente, si me voy a morir porque escuch que hablaban de una enfermedad mortal
y yo siento los sntomas. No quera estar solo por ningn motivo, me daba miedo. Recurr a un
psiquiatra, cosa que no quera hacer. No tena un claro concepto de mi enfermedad, no entenda
porque estaba as si senta que tena todo para vivir feliz, incluso mi mujer me convenci para que
furamos una semana al Caribe, a descansar, sin nios, el viaje fue de ensueo, pero no descans
pensando todo el da que deba descansar, esa obsesin me agobiaba mas y por ende no poda
relajarme.
En fin, he superado gran parte de mi enfermedad, ya puedo ver en televisin programas de salud o
enfermedades sin empezar a sentir los sntomas de ella y puedo leer artculos relacionados con mi
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enfermedad sin que mi organismo se enferme. Lo malo es que si dejo de tomar las medicinas
automticamente me vuelven las crisis, el mdico me dice que deber estar tomando las medicinas
durante un par de aos y luego debo ir dejndolas poco a poco, tal como cuando empec.
Martn, 45 aos.




2.5. QUE ES LA ANSIEDAD ANTICIPATORIA?

Es un estado secundario tras la presentacin de un ataque de pnico y por el que la persona, a pesar de
no sufrir un nuevo ataque, vive atemorizada por la posibilidad de que la crisis se repita. Hay personas
que pueden desarrollar cierto grado de ansiedad anticipatoria incluso tras una o dos crisis, mientras que
otras no llegan a desarrollarla, incluso tras frecuentes crisis.
Alguien la describi muy grficamente como un estado de "miedo al miedo", que puede ser muy
incapacitante y confundirse con un estado de ansiedad generalizada si no se explora la existencia de
ataques de pnico previos. El individuo est continuamente pendiente de sus sensaciones corporales,
alerta ante posibles seales de aviso que anuncien la inminencia del ataque de pnico. Evidentemente
esto genera una importante tensin en las actividades diarias, sometidas a una hipervigilancia continua
para evitar verse sorprendido por la crisis.
En la siguiente figura se representa grficamente el aumento de la ansiedad basal tras la sucesin de una
serie de crisis de angustia.
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Incremento del nivel de ansiedad en el trastorno de pnico.
Adaptado de D.J. Nutt, 1996.




2.6. QUE ES LA ANSIEDAD GENERALIZADA?

Aunque el trastorno por ansiedad generalizada requerira por si mismo un manual similar al presente,
nicamente daremos una somera descripcin que nos permita hacernos una idea general.
La ansiedad generalizada con cierta frecuencia se asocia al trastorno por angustia, presentando algunas
similitudes con la ansiedad anticipatoria, por lo que en ocasiones se llega a confundir con ella. La
existencia de crisis de pnico con anterioridad apuntar ms hacia la ansiedad anticipatoria, aunque
ocasionalmente ambos tipos de ansiedad pueden coexistir a la vez o bien aadirse un trastorno por
angustia a cierto nivel de ansiedad generalizada ya existente previamente.
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La ansiedad generalizada se presenta de forma continua y no con picos o episodios de crisis. La
caracterstica principal es un estado mantenido de tensin y nerviosidad con preocupaciones en torno a
situaciones o acontecimientos pronosticados como desfavorables. Temores tpicos son los relativos a
accidentes, enfermedades, dificultades econmicas, laborales o familiares, sin guardar una relacin
directa con la realidad exterior objetiva ni ser reflejo nicamente del miedo a la aparicin de una
eventual crisis de angustia o sus consecuencias.
La persona est nerviosa, de mal humor, irritable e insatisfecha. La tensin mantenida puede resentir los
msculos generando dolores, sobre todo en espalda, cabeza y cuello. Los dolores de cabeza son
relativamente frecuentes en forma de presin, bien en la zona de la nuca o en la parte frontal mientras
que otras veces es un dolorimiento continuo de carcter pulsante. Aparecen adems sntomas corporales
como el aumento de la sudoracin, sobre todo en las manos, facilidad para ponerse rojo, sequedad de
boca o por el contrario mucha salivacin, molestias en la garganta, nauseas, eructos, molestias de
estmago, necesidad de orinar con frecuencia, ligera diarrea, temblor y agitacin interna.
No es infrecuente que por el estado de hipervigilancia continua la persona presente dificultades de
sueo, as como sensacin de cansancio y fatigabilidad durante el da. Las alteraciones del apetito
pueden oscilar desde su aumento a la disminucin, lo mismo que puede observarse en relacin al
impulso sexual. Tambin las capacidades mentales se resienten, apareciendo con frecuencia dificultades
para mantener la atencin y concentracin lo que favorece la distraibilidad, as como pueden existir
algunas dificultades de memoria.




2.7. QUE SON LAS FOBIAS?

Por fobias se entienden los temores excesivos e irracionales ante situaciones a las que la mayora de las
personas no asustan o en todo caso slo generan un malestar o incomodidad mnima. Por ejemplo,
permanecer un corto perodo de tiempo en un recinto muy pequeo (ascensor), aunque no sea agradable
o cmodo, se soporta con facilidad por la gran mayora de personas. Sin embargo puede haber
individuos que son incapaces de utilizar un ascensor y que en caso de hacerlo, sufrirn un estado de gran
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ansiedad que incluso puede llegar al nivel de una crisis de pnico.
Existen infinidad de fobias posibles, en realidad cualquier objeto o situacin puede ser motivo de
temores fbicos dependiendo de la persona. Los temores ms frecuentes suelen referirse a:
G Animales. Generalmente con inicio en la infancia.
G Ambiente. En relacin con la naturaleza y fenmenos atmosfricos (tormentas, viento,
precipicios, agua.... Tambin suele iniciarse en la infancia.
G Sangre, inyecciones, dao corporal. Suele darse con mayor frecuencia en algunas familias. Con
cierta facilidad se desencadenan reacciones vegetativas que pueden llegar al mareo o
desvanecimiento ante la visin de estas circunstancias.
G Situaciones. Como transporte, tuneles, puentes, aviones, ascensores, coches, espacios cerrados.
G Otros tipos. Como el temor al atragantamiento, vmitos, contraer una enfermedad, a caer si no
hay paredes cerca...
Algunas de las fobias asociadas en el grupo de 35 personas que respondieron al cuestionario de sntomas
de pnico, se recogen en el GRAFICO 8.
La mayora de las fobias son trastornos circunscritos que no necesariamente tienen que ir asociados a un
trastorno de angustia. Dos tipos particulares de fobias son la agorafobia y la fobia social, que se
describen a continuacin.




2.8. QUE ES LA AGORAFOBIA?

Es el miedo a lugares o situaciones donde escapar puede ser difcil (o embarazoso), o en el caso de
presentar alguno de los sntomas de la crisis de ansiedad o similares (diarreas, mareos...) no se puede
obtener ayuda inmediata. Aunque a veces la agorafobia puede aparecer sin crisis de ansiedad anteriores,
generalmente es posterior a ellas.
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De forma tpica, la persona comienza a evitar algunas situaciones o lugares temidos, pero al cabo del
tiempo puede que est muy limitado en cuanto al nmero y lugares donde se encuentra cmodo. Evita
as estar solo dentro o fuera de casa, las concentraciones de gente, lugares con mucho ruido o luces,
grandes almacenes o comercios, transportes pblicos, puentes o ascensores. En el caso de tener que
enfrentar alguna de estas situaciones, no lo hace ms que sometido a un intenso temor, tranquilizndose
algo si se encuentra en compaa de alguien de su confianza o con algo entre las manos como puede ser
un carrito. Esta dependencia enfermiza de otras personas pueden llegar a generar importantes tensiones
aadidas en las relaciones familiares.
Crculo vicioso de la agorafobia




2.9. QUE ES LA FOBIA SOCIAL?

El temor a aquellas situaciones de tipo social o pblico donde la persona puede sentirse observada. No
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asocindose de forma tan caracterstica como la agorafobia al trastorno de pnico, debe ser diferenciada
de esta, ya que aunque pueden presentarse aspectos similares entre los dos trastornos, resultan
bsicamente diferentes.
La fobia social se caracteriza por el miedo a ser censurado y el consiguiente bochorno y humillacin
pblica. Son frecuentes la aparicin de enrojecimientos de cara, sudor, temblor (por ejemplo al firmar en
pblico o levantar una taza) y bloqueos del habla. Comer en pblico puede ser una accin insoportable,
tendiendo a buscar mesas o lugares apartados. A diferencia de la agorafobia, se evitan las tiendas
pequeas, mientras que los grandes supermercados no generan dificultades hasta que llega la hora de
pagar. Tambin de forma diferencial, las personas cercanas que intentan apoyar o ayudar pueden
empeorar la situacin.




2.10. QUE ES LA DEPRESION?

Existe un relativamente gran nmero de cuadros que pueden clasificarse bajo el nombre de "depresin".
Sin embargo, bsicamente podemos decir que es un estado anmico de tristeza mantenida que se
acompaa adems de otros sntomas corporales variados. La persona deprimida refiere sentimientos de
tristeza, prdida de la capacidad para interesarse o disfrutar de las cosas, disminucin de la atencin y
concentracin, prdida de confianza en si mismo, autorreproches infundados, desesperanza hacia el
futuro, pesimismo y visin negativa de la propia vida, adems de disminucin de su vitalidad y
cansancio exagerado, trastornos del sueo, apetito, sexualidad u otras funciones corporales. Estos
sntomas pueden variar en intensidad o asociarse a otros dependiendo del tipo de depresin que se trate,
de igual forma que pueden ir asociados o no a situaciones o sucesos particulares de la vida de la persona.
A pesar de que a nivel de la calle generalmente llamamos "depresin" a muchos de los estados que
afectan psicolgicamente a una persona, es muy importante precisar que un trastorno por angustia NO es
una depresin, a pesar de que tras la aparicin de una crisis la persona pueda sentirse triste o miserable
durante unas horas o das. Sin embargo, no es infrecuente que tanto las crisis de ansiedad como la
depresin puedan coexistir en la misma persona. Bien porque las limitaciones impuestas por las propias
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crisis llegan a deprimir al sujeto, o bien por la aparicin de crisis en personas ya deprimidas con
anterioridad. En estos casos puede requerirse de tratamiento complementario pero, lo que es muy
importante, debe reconocerse que junto a los temores hacia la aparicin de una crisis, el propio estado de
nimo de desesperanza y falta de expectativas de mejora pueden frenar al individuo en sus esfuerzos
hacia la superacin del cuadro.
Tras un perodo de ansiedad muy elevada me sobrevino una depresin, de la cual he podido salir con
antidepresivos. La ansiedad te deja sin fuerzas para vencer la depresin y sta te deja sin ganas para
vencer la ansiedad. Estoy de acuerdo en que ansiedad y depresin son dos cosas distintas, pero pienso
que la primera puede provocar la segunda.
Pedro, 43 aos.



[Inicio] [1. Introduccin]
[2. Definiciones] [2.2.1 Ejemplo de Sntomas][2.2.2 Ejemplo de Pensamientos][2.7.1 Ejemplo de Fobias]
[3. Frecuencia][4. Causas][5. Riesgos] [6. Frmacos][7. Psicoterapia][8. Autoayuda]
[9. Estrategias de superacin][10. Recursos en Internet] [11. ][12. Autoevaluacin]
[13. Casos]

1997 - 2000 Dr. Oscar Martnez Azumendi. Permitida su reproduccin, siempre que esta no tenga fines
econmicos y se cite su procedencia. Cualquier comentario o sugerencia ser bien recibido, aunque teniendo la
pgina un nimo mramente informativo no podrn responderse consultas particulares.
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This page hosted by Get your own Free Home Page

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La Crisis de Ansiedad
Sntomas

Pgina adherida a los Principios del Cdigo
HONcode de Health On the Net Foundation
Los datos presentados a continuacin se corresponden con las respuestas dadas por 35 personas (20 mujeres y 15 hombres). Se
pidi que respondieran por escrito a un cuestionario especfico, previamente a la participacin en un taller psicopedaggico
dirigido al mejor conocimiento de las crisis de pnico.
Estos datos tienen nicamente un nimo orientativo, no pudiendo presuponerse que este perfil coincida exctamente con una
persona determinada. Normalmente, a pesar de que existen unos sntomas predominantes que coinciden en la mayora de personas,
la variabilidad entre individuos puede ser muy alta.
Con nimo de simplificar la presentacin, se han agrupado los sntomas por sistemas, aunque normalmente ocurren entremezclados
entre si. En azul se presenta el porcentaje de individuos (sobre 35) que refirieron el sntoma durante la crisis. En rojo, la intensidad
media relativa de ese sntoma, para ello se ha convertido a un porcentaje la escala utilizada del 1 al 4.

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GRAFICO 1
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GRAFICO 2
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GRAFICO 3
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GRAFICO 4
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GRAFICO 5
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GRAFICO 6
Utilice el botn de su navegador para volver a la pgina de donde vino, o el men de
abajo.
[Inicio] [1. Introduccin]
[2. Definiciones] [2.2.1 Ejemplo de Sntomas][2.2.2 Ejemplo de Pensamientos][2.7.1 Ejemplo de Fobias]
[3. Frecuencia][4. Causas][5. Riesgos] [6. Frmacos][7. Psicoterapia][8. Autoayuda]
[9. Estrategias de superacin][10. Recursos en Internet] [11. ][12. Autoevaluacin]
[13. Casos]
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1997 - 1999 Dr. Oscar Martnez Azumendi. Permitida su reproduccin, siempre que esta no tenga fines econmicos y se cite su
procedencia. Cualquier comentario o sugerencia ser bien recibido, aunque teniendo la pgina un nimo mramente informativo no podrn
responderse consultas particulares.







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La Crisis de Ansiedad
Pensamientos o Cogniciones

Pgina adherida a los Principios del Cdigo
HONcode de Health On the Net Foundation
Los datos presentados a continuacin se corresponden con las respuestas dadas por 35 personas (20 mujeres y 15
hombres). Se pidi que respondieran por escrito a un cuestionario especfico, previamente a la participacin en
un taller psicopedaggico dirigido al mejor conocimiento de las crisis de pnico.
Estos datos tienen nicamente un nimo orientativo, no pudiendo presuponerse que este perfil coincida
exctamente con una persona determinada. Normalmente, a pesar de que existen unos pensamientos
predominantes durante la crisis, que coinciden en la mayora de personas, la variabilidad entre individuos puede
ser muy alta.
En azul se presenta el porcentaje de individuos (sobre 35) que refirieron el pensamiento durante la crisis. En rojo,
la intensidad media relativa de ese pensamiento, para ello se ha convertido a un porcentaje la escala utilizada del
1 al 4.
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GRAFICO 7
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21cogni.html
Utilice el botn de su navegador para volver a la pgina de donde vino, o el
men de abajo.

[Inicio] [1. Introduccin]
[2. Definiciones] [2.2.1 Ejemplo de Sntomas][2.2.2 Ejemplo de Pensamientos][2.7.1 Ejemplo de Fobias]
[3. Frecuencia][4. Causas][5. Riesgos] [6. Frmacos][7. Psicoterapia][8. Autoayuda]
[9. Estrategias de superacin][10. Recursos en Internet] [11. ][12. Autoevaluacin]
[13. Casos]
1997 - 1999 Dr. Oscar Martnez Azumendi. Permitida su reproduccin, siempre que esta no tenga fines econmicos y se
cite su procedencia. Cualquier comentario o sugerencia ser bien recibido, aunque teniendo la pgina un nimo mramente
informativo no podrn responderse consultas particulares.





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La Crisis de Ansiedad
Fobias Asociadas

Pgina adherida a los Principios del Cdigo
HONcode de Health On the Net Foundation
Los datos presentados a continuacin se corresponden con las respuestas dadas por 35 personas (20 mujeres y 15
hombres). Se pidi que respondieran por escrito a un cuestionario especfico de fobias asociadas, previamente a
la participacin en un taller psicopedaggico dirigido al mejor conocimiento de las crisis de pnico.
Estos datos tienen nicamente un nimo orientativo, no pudiendo presuponerse que este perfil coincida
exctamente con una persona determinada. Tampoco estos temores tienen por que ir ligados forzosamente a un
trastorno de pnico, pudiendo ser independientes de l, aunque es posible que si la exposicin a la situacin
temida sea de suficiente intensidad se pueda producir una crisis.
En azul se presenta el porcentaje de individuos (sobre 35) que refirieron la fobia. En rojo, la intensidad media
relativa de ese temor, para ello se ha convertido a un porcentaje la escala utilizada del 1 al 4.
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GRAFICO 8
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men de abajo.

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21fobias.html
[Inicio] [1. Introduccin]
[2. Definiciones] [2.2.1 Ejemplo de Sntomas][2.2.2 Ejemplo de Pensamientos][2.7.1 Ejemplo de Fobias]
[3. Frecuencia][4. Causas][5. Riesgos] [6. Frmacos][7. Psicoterapia][8. Autoayuda]
[9. Estrategias de superacin][10. Recursos en Internet] [11. ][12. Autoevaluacin]
[13. Casos]

1997 - 1999 Dr. Oscar Martnez Azumendi. Permitida su reproduccin, siempre que esta no tenga fines econmicos y se
cite su procedencia. Cualquier comentario o sugerencia ser bien recibido, aunque teniendo la pgina un nimo mramente
informativo no podrn responderse consultas particulares.







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La Crisis de
Ansiedad
3. Frecuencia de aparicin

Err. El segundo grito, 1967.
Pgina adherida a los Principios del Cdigo
HONcode de Health On the Net Foundation

Indice del Captulo
3.1 Hay muchas personas a las que les pase esto? 3.2 Es un trastorno nuevo?
3.3 Es el trastorno de angustia idntico en todas las personas?


3.1 HAY MUCHAS PERSONAS A LAS QUE LES PASE ESTO?
Se calcula que entre el 1,5 y el 3,5% de la poblacin puede sufrir este trastorno, aunque se ha descrito
que hasta un 9,3 % de la poblacin general puede presentar alguna crisis aislada a lo largo de la vida.
Durante un mismo ao 1 2 de cada 100 habitantes lo sufrir. Entre un tercio y la mitad de ellos
presentar adems sntomas agorafbicos. Su presentacin puede verse influida por matices culturales,
pero se han observado sntomas similares en casi todo el mundo. Lo ms frecuente es que aparezca entre
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los 20 y los 45 aos. Podemos decir entonces que es un trastorno frecuente, sobre todo en el caso de las
mujeres que lo presentan 2 a 3 veces ms que los varones.
He tenido crisis de pnico recurrentes, acompaadas de agorafobia. Nunca deja de asombrarme,
aunque no debera ser as, que personas desconocidas entre s usen frases tan similares (idnticas, en
algunos casos) para describir sus sensaciones y sus temores. Esto para m fue un alivio en su momento
(a pesar de sentir mucho que otros pasaran por lo mismo que yo), ya que saber que no era el nico
que pasaba por esa situacin (es decir, que exista un patrn que poda llevar a un diagnstico y a un
tratamiento) me di la certeza que la recuperacin era posible. Les aclaro que estoy hablando de aos
atrs, y que la informacin sobre este problema era virtualmente inexistente.
Alberto, 40 aos.




3.2 ES UN TRASTORNO NUEVO?

Es sobre todo en las ltimas dcadas cuando se ha dirigido la mayor atencin y se han dedicado los
mayores recursos a la investigacin sobre el trastorno de angustia, pero esto no quiere decir en absoluto
que este problema no existiera con anterioridad.
En este sentido hay quien reconoce excelentes descripciones del cuadro entre los escritos de la poetisa
Safo (650-590 A.C.) o los de Ctulo (84?-54? A.C.), mientras que Hipcrates (460?-377? A.C.), padre
de la medicina, describa algunos casos de personas con temores fbicos acompaados de sntomas de
pnico.
Sin querer perdernos en los largos aos de la historia de la medicina, daremos un salto hasta tiempos
ms cercanos a nosotros. Kraepelin (1856-1926), psiquiatra alemn considerado uno de los padres de la
psiquiatra moderna por sus precisas descripciones de algunas enfermedades, public el caso de un
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maestro con sntomas inconfundibles de angustia paroxstica.
Poco antes, el mdico Jacob Mendes DaCosta, en base a sus observaciones clnicas durante la guerra
civil norteamericana, describe un tipo de padecimiento que afectaba a muchos de los soldados. Por
ejemplo, relata el caso del voluntario William Henry H. que fue hospitalizado nada ms licenciarse.
Anteriormente y a pesar de su aparente buena salud sufri crisis diarreicas de forma previa a la batalla
de Fredericksburg, para posteriormente sentir un dolor punzante en el pecho y sufrir palpitaciones. Estos
sntomas reaparecan con cierta frecuencia acompandose de visin dbil y vrtigo, por lo que tena
que detener su marcha y ser atendido por las ambulancias. Fue herido en una de las batallas posteriores,
curando en un mes pero empeorando sus sntomas cardacos que reaparecan ante el mnimo esfuerzo.
Con el estudio de un gran nmero de este tipo de casos, DaCosta lleg a la conclusin de la inexistencia
de lesin alguna en el corazn, explicando los sntomas por cierta alteracin del sistema nervioso
vegetativo y denominando el cuadro "sndrome del corazn irritable". A partir de entonces este
diagnstico es frecuente entre soldados en la guerra Franco-Prusiana de 1870 y la de los Boers de 1890.
A finales de siglo, en 1895, Freud publica un trabajo donde describe la "neurosis de angustia" y
reconoce el papel decisivo jugado por la ansiedad que poda existir de forma crnica o aparecer en crisis
autolimitadas. En estos escritos refleja no slo algunas de sus hiptesis explicativas de las causas del
cuadro, sino que describe con particular cuidado algunas de las caractersticas de personalidad que
pueden asociarse al trastorno, as como enumera la multiplicidad de sntomas somticos posibles y la
asociacin con la agorafobia.
Durante la Primera Guerra Mundial se calcula que slo en el ejrcito ingls se vieron afectados unos
60.000 soldados por lo que entonces se llam "accin cardaca alterada" y eran fundamentalmente
tratados por mdicos internistas o cardilogos. En la Segunda Guerra Mundial el cuadro se describi
como "reaccin ansiosa", empez a ser tratado por psiquiatras dando lugar a notables avances, no slo
en su tratamiento especfico sino tambin aplicables en otro tipo de problemas psiquitricos, como
ocurri con el desarrollo de tcnicas grupales o la reincorporacin rpida a tareas militares como forma
de prevenir la consolidacin de las conductas de evitacin.
Tambin en la literatura encontramos reflejado este trastorno, llegando a alcanzarse tal riqueza
descriptiva que algunas citas han merecido aparecer en alguno de los ms prestigiosos Tratados de
Psiquiatra actuales. Como muestra valga el texto de H. G. Wells, que en 1919 publicaba en su obra
"The journal of a disappointed man" lo siguiente:
"He estado paseando por el campo. He llegado a casa aterrorizado por un ataque realmente violento de
palpitaciones. He pensado que cualquier persona con la que me encontrara podra ser el desafortunado
que tendra que llevarme a casa en brazos. A medida que encontraba a alguien en la calle, yo sopesaba
mentalmente sus fuerzas y consideraba si tendra suficiente presencia de nimo y qu hara para
ayudarme. Despus de cruzarme con mi amigo P.C. lament que la tragedia no se hubiese manifestado
todava, puesto que l me conoce y sabe donde vivo. Al cabo de un rato y despus de inclinarme
repetidas veces sobre el pretil del ro, llegu a la librera, entr y me sent, momento en que se
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desencaden toda la fuerza de mis palpitaciones. Mi cara quemaba por la sangre caliente; mis manos,
que sostenan el peridico, temblaban y reflejaban el pulso, y mi corazn disparaba bang! bang!,
pudiendo sentir mis latidos en las cartidas del cuello, hasta los grandes vasos de la regin occipital de la
cabeza. He intentado respirar muy lentamente, con mucho cuidado, por temor a agravar a la fiera.
Finalmente llegu a casa (no s cmo) y ol un frasco de sales. Ahora me encuentro mejor, pero muy
desmoralizado".




2.3 ES EL TRASTORNO DE ANGUSTIA IDENTICO EN TODAS LAS PERSONAS?

No. A pesar de presentar caractersticas comunes en todos los individuos, existen diferencias a veces
muy marcadas. Hay personas que presentan adems agorafobia con un grado variable de intensidad,
mientras que otras no la sufren o lo hacen en un grado menor. Adems, existen diferencias en el tipo de
sntomas que predominan. Para unas personas son ms evidentes los sntomas relacionados con el
corazn y aparato circulatorio, otras presentan ms dificultades de tipo respiratorio e incluso hay
personas en que predominan los sntomas de tipo psicolgico, como puede ser el miedo a perder el
control, morir o enloquecer.
El nmero de sntomas tambin es variable entre personas, algunas de ellas con un importante nmero
de sntomas diferentes, mientras que otras presentan nicamente 1 2 de ellos como en el caso de las
"crisis con sntomas limitados".
La frecuencia de las crisis tambin vara de forma marcada, desde frecuencias moderadas y regulares (1
vez a la semana durante meses) a frecuencias intensas pero limitadas (1 al da durante una semana). A
veces las crisis se repiten durante un perodo de aos con temporadas ms o menos largas sin sntomas,
mientras que otras parecen ocurrir nicamente durante un perodo determinado de la vida.
Hay personas que pueden tener una vida relativamente normal a pesar de mantenerse las crisis. En otras,
la sucesin de repetidas crisis puede llegar a alterar tanto al individuo y modificar de tal manera sus
hbitos cotidianos, que le hagan encerrarse en s mismo o generarse importantes tensiones en sus
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relaciones familiares, sociales o laborales.
Tambin existen algunas caractersticas comunes a todas aquellas personas con este trastorno, que
muestran una preocupacin tpica sobre las consecuencias que las crisis pueden tener sobre su salud
fsica. De forma extrema hay quien no puede dejar de creer que, a pesar de repetidas exploraciones o
controles mdicos, tiene una enfermedad que no est siendo bien diagnosticada y que en cualquier
momento puede poner en peligro su vida o su salud mental, no siendo infrecuente el peregrinaje
continuo de mdico en mdico buscando explicaciones y cura a sus sntomas corporales.




[Inicio] [1. Introduccin]
[2. Definiciones] [2.2.1 Ejemplo de Sntomas][2.2.2 Ejemplo de Pensamientos][2.7.1 Ejemplo de Fobias]
[3. Frecuencia][4. Causas][5. Riesgos] [6. Frmacos][7. Psicoterapia][8. Autoayuda]
[9. Estrategias de superacin][10. Recursos en Internet] [11. ][12. Autoevaluacin]
[13. Casos]
1997 - 1999 Dr. Oscar Martnez Azumendi. Permitida su reproduccin, siempre que esta no tenga fines
econmicos y se cite su procedencia. Cualquier comentario o sugerencia ser bien recibido, aunque teniendo la
pgina un nimo mramente informativo no podrn responderse consultas particulares.


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La Crisis de Ansiedad
4. Causas
------------------------------------------
- "Me diras, por favor, que camino debo tomar desde
aqu".
- "Eso depende mucho de adonde quieras llegar" dijo el
gato.
Lewis Carroll. Alicia en el Pas de las Maravillas.
Pgina adherida a los Principios del Cdigo
HONcode de Health On the Net Foundation

Indice del Captulo

4.1 Cuando o cmo puede aparecer una crisis? 4.2 Son imaginaciones mas?
4.3 Cual es la causa? 4.4 Es hereditario?
4.5 Son mis sntomas independientes de las
circunstancias que me rodean?
4.6 Somos las personas con estos sntomas
ms "dbiles" que las dems?
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4.1 CUANDO O COMO PUEDE APARECER UNA CRISIS?

Las crisis de angustia pueden aparecer de forma aislada sin otra sintomatologa asociada, siendo
entonces diagnosticadas como trastorno de angustia. Tambin pueden coexistir con otros trastornos
como pueden ser la depresin, fobias (miedos extremos a situaciones normales), trastornos obsesivo-
compulsivos, estados de ansiedad generalizada u otros trastornos mentales.
Existen tres tipos fundamentales de crisis:
A.- Crisis de angustia inesperadas, sin relacin aparente con estmulos externos. En este caso el inicio de
la crisis no se asocia con desencadenantes del ambiente.
B.- Crisis de angustia situacionales desencadenadas por estmulos del ambiente. Las crisis aparecen casi
exclusivamente tras imaginar o exponerse a una situacin determinada. Este tipo de crisis son tpicas de
las fobias, siendo las ms frecuentes las fobias sociales (miedo a encontrarse en pblico) y las fobias
especficas como pueden ser los miedos a ascensores, ratas, tormentas, etc.
C.- Crisis de angustia ms o menos relacionadas con una situacin determinada. Las crisis pueden
aparecer asociadas a determinada situacin, aunque existen ocasiones en que no aparecen en esa
situacin o aparecen sin darse la situacin temida.
En general, cuando existen crisis de angustia inesperadas hacemos el diagnstico de "trastorno de
angustia", mientras que si estas crisis estn desencadenadas por estmulos concretos hablamos de
"fobias". Sin embargo, no es infrecuente que con el transcurso del tiempo, la persona que sufre repetidas
crisis llegue a asociar su aparicin con determinadas situaciones concretas.
Tambin es posible que algunas enfermedades o alteraciones orgnicas de tipo hormonal, neurolgico,
cardaco, respiratorio o del metabolismo puedan presentarse con sntomas similares a las de un ataque de
pnico y donde puede ser difcil un diagnstico diferencial en un primer momento. En este caso, las
exploraciones complementarias, la evolucin temporal del cuadro y los sntomas asociados harn
relativamente fcil el diagnstico en la gran mayora de ocasiones.
Las crisis de pnico y ms frecuentemente un cierto estado de ansiedad generalizada tambin se puede
asociar a otras enfermedades somticas de diferentes maneras. Primero como consecuencia secundaria
derivada de la enfermedad, es decir, nerviosismo y angustia ms o menos proporcionada como reaccin
posterior al diagnstico de cualquier enfermedad. Tambin pueden aparecer estados de ansiedad o crisis
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como efecto secundario tras la utilizacin de algunos medicamentos recetados con fines diversos
(teofilinas, simpaticomimticos, antiparkinsonianos, esteroides, antihistamnicos, digital etc.) o tras el
consumo de otras drogas (cafena, alcohol, anfetaminas, cocana, cannabis, etc.). Es muy importante que
recuerde a su mdico cualquier producto que haya consumido ltimamente y de esta forma se valore su
potencial riesgo. Por ltimo, hemos de recordar la posibilidad de que el trastorno de ansiedad coexista
independientemente de cualquier otra enfermedad existente, como dos procesos diferenciados entre s.
El proceso diagnstico puede verse dificultado ya que uno de los temores ms intensos y frecuentes que
tiene la persona aquejada de crisis de pnico es precisamente, que una posible enfermedad orgnica pase
desapercibida por no ser investigada suficientemente. En este sentido, y an aceptando que la Medicina
no puede ser considerada una ciencia exacta, es muy importante que el paciente confe mnimamente en
las exploraciones realizadas. Existen personas que llegan a atormentarse por la duda, no ya de una
exploracin insuficiente, sino ante la suposicin, por ejemplo, de que la exploracin se ha realizado justo
cuando su corazn funcionaba bien, se le estn ocultando algunos datos de su propio estado e incluso de
cierta posibilidad de que sus anlisis se hayan podido cambiar o confundir sin querer o hayan sido
realizados por aparatos defectuosos.




4.2 SON IMAGINACIONES MIAS?

No. Los sntomas que experimenta la persona durante la crisis son reales, siendo fcilmente
comprobable, por ejemplo, cmo el corazn late ms de prisa o hay un aumento de la sudoracin.
Sntomas tan reales como cuando tras un susto o sobresalto tenemos palpitaciones, sudamos o notamos
fro, se nos traba la lengua o nos fallan las piernas. Como en este caso en que todo el mundo estara de
acuerdo en que los sntomas no se van a ver justificados por ninguna enfermedad corporal, en el caso del
trastorno de angustia no existen pruebas mdicas o anlisis particulares que permitan hacer su
diagnstico especfico. Muchas de las exploraciones clnicas que se realizan sirven para descartar otras
posibles enfermedades o problemas mdicos, sin embargo, otras muchas se llevan a cabo ante la
insistencia del paciente en su bsqueda de una explicacin mdica.
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La persona, ante lo real de sus sntomas corporales, en muchas ocasiones no puede aceptar que sus
padecimientos sean de origen psiquitrico y prosigue en su bsqueda de causas mdicas. Aceptar que
esos sntomas, al igual que los que sentimos tras un susto no tienen por qu ir asociados a una causa
mdica, es parte importante para su superacin.
Sin tener muchas evidencias al respecto, ni forma de saber con exactitud si esto correcto o no lo es, lo
cierto es que yo sent la crisis de pnico como algo eminentemente orgnico en principio. Mi vida
cambi un da entre los das de una forma brusca, sin preaviso, slo en la distancia que separa una
habitacin de otra; sent simplemente que mora (volv a tener esa sensacin innumerables veces).
Alguien podr decir que un proceso psquico del cual yo no era consciente me llev a ese estado. Es
posible que as fuera, pero yo no lo sent de ese modo (aclaro que hablo sobre sensaciones subjetivas,
no es mi intencin afirmar ni negar nada).
Alberto, 40 aos.




4.3 CUAL ES LA CAUSA?

Como muchos otros cuadros en Psiquiatra, todava no se conoce con toda exactitud la causa de este
problema. Hay evidencia de posibles alteraciones orgnicas o bioqumicas asociadas con el trastorno, as
como hay algunas teoras psicolgicas que intentan explicarlo desde diferentes puntos de vista.
Biolgicamente sabemos que, comparando con otras, las personas con trastorno de angustia reaccionan
con ms frecuencia con un ataque de angustia tras la inyeccin de un producto llamado Lactato Sdico.
De igual forma que tienen un mayor riesgo de desarrollar una crisis al aumentar su nivel en sangre de
Dixido de Carbono (CO2), tal y como sucede en la hiperventilacin. Tambin prosiguen las
investigaciones encaminadas a encontrar una posible base neuroanatmica subyacente sin resultados
concluyentes.
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Otro campo de estudio prometedor es el relativo a los diferentes trasmisores o mediadores del impulso
nervioso en las neuronas (neurotrasmisores). En relacin con ellos existen varias teoras que implican en
mayor o menor medida a diferentes sustancias (GABA, noradrenalina, serotonina y otros). La
confirmacin prctica de la importancia de estos sistemas viene de la mano de los diferentes frmacos
disponibles y sus resultados en el tratamiento de trastorno.
En relacin con la personalidad previa, con frecuencia se encuentran rasgos de ansiedad, miedos,
dificultades de adaptacin o dependencia emocional, sin que todo ello signifique necesariamente un
diagnstico psiquitrico definido. De igual forma, se suele encontrar un cierto nmero de personas con
este trastorno que durante su infancia o primera juventud reaccionaban con ansiedad desproporcionada
ante situaciones de separacin, real o temida, de sus seres queridos.
Dentro de las teoras psicolgicas, la psicoanaltica presupone la existencia de conflictos psicolgicos
subyacentes e inconscientes para la persona. La angustia sera la seal de alarma ante tensiones internas
no resueltas. Cuando un impulso inaceptable para la persona consciente trata de aflorar, la angustia
pondra en marcha algunos mecanismos de defensa para mantenerlo controlado. Cuando estos
mecanismos fallan, la angustia invadira la existencia de la persona. Existiran diferentes tipos de
angustia dependiendo del tipo de conflicto latente y que requerir de un abordaje muy cuidadoso para
que la persona pueda manejarlo de la mejor forma. No existen suficientes ensayos clnicos de calidad
suficientemente contrastados como para defender totalmente la exactitud de estas teoras; sin embargo,
es innegable que desde su aparicin, el psicoanlisis ayuda al mejor conocimiento y atencin de aquellos
conflictos que puede presentar una persona con este trastorno.
El conductismo supone que la ansiedad es el resultado de un proceso de aprendizaje condicionado.
Segn este punto de vista, la persona ha aprendido a reaccionar con miedo ante estmulos ambientales o
internos que normalmente no desencadenaran esta respuesta. Algunas conductas, como por ejemplo la
evitacin de la situacin temida, llegan a "mejorar" en algo el problema por lo que producen un cierto
placer secundario. Este "placer" (disminucin de la tensin) actuara entonces como refuerzo de esa
conducta, por lo que sta tiende a perpetuarse automticamente. Ms all de lo acertado o no de su base
terica, los tratamientos conductuales han demostrado su eficacia a corto plazo sobre todo en el
tratamiento de la agorafobia.
En la teora cognitiva, la ansiedad es el resultado de "cogniciones" (pensamientos o representaciones
mentales) patolgicos. La persona evaluara las situaciones que le rodean o sus propios estmulos
internos sacando conclusiones "defectuosas", que determinarn un tipo de respuestas o conductas
desproporcionadas o inadecuadas. En el caso de la angustia, el paciente tendera a sobreestimar el grado
de peligro, ya sea interno o externo, as como devala sus propias capacidades personales para
enfrentarlo. Un ejemplo tpico sera la aparicin de una crisis de angustia tras pequeas molestias
corporales que la persona interpreta como el anuncio inminente de la propia crisis, de ah la importancia
de ensear al paciente a desviar su atencin de estos pequeos sntomas, as como intentar aumentar la
autoconfianza en sus propios recursos.
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Por ltimo, es importante sealar algunas de las contribuciones de lo que se conoce como "teora de la
crisis" (en este caso en referencia a las llamadas "crisis vitales", no a las crisis de ansiedad en
particular"). Desde este punto de vista, que no necesariamente implica la adhesin a un modelo causal
determinado, se parte de la idea de que el proceso madurativo del ser humano viene marcado por una
serie de situaciones de crisis, generalmente originadas en lo que se denominan "sucesos
vitales" (circunstancias que ocurren en la vida de una persona, desequilibrando su existencia). Unas
sern naturales como la adolescencia o la menopausia, mientras que otras sern accidentales, como una
enfermedad o fallecimiento de un ser querido. En estas crisis, el individuo pondr a prueba sus recursos
personales y una vez superada, en la mayora de los casos, saldr ms fortalecido de ella, favorecindose
as el proceso madurativo. Tambin es posible que si la resolucin de la crisis no es adecuada, la persona
quede marcada de alguna forma para el futuro, debilitndose sus capacidades adaptativas ante nuevas
situaciones de tensin. Por este motivo, adems de ayudar a superar los sntomas ms agudos de
malestar psicolgico, se intenta que la persona busque posibles situaciones externas, que a veces incluso
pueden pasar desapercibidas, para animarle a enfrentarlas y dar una solucin operativa a largo plazo, ya
que se supone que los sntomas no son ms que reflejo de un perodo de inestabilidad emocional,
originados por una multiplicidad de causas. Si estas causas no son tenidas en cuenta, es muy posible que
la resolucin sintomatolgica no se acompae de un proceso adaptativo adecuado.
Desde este ltimo punto de vista, as como desde algunos de los presupuestos tericos anteriores, resulta
evidente aconsejar la mayor atencin no slo de los sntomas presentes sino tambin de posibles
conflictos, actuales o histricos, que estn influyendo en la vida de la persona.
En la siguiente figura, se presenta un esquema simplificado de las posibles causas que conducen al
trastorno de angustia, as como algunas de sus posibles consecuencias.
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Factores que conducen al trastorno por angustia y posibles consecuencias.
Adaptado de P. Kielholz y C. Adams, 1989.

No podemos terminar este apartado sin alertar de los riesgos derivados de la bsqueda de explicaciones
causales nicas y concretas, que inevitablemente sitan al individuo en posturas "exclusivistas". Por
ejemplo, si nos adherimos estrictamente a un modelo causal de tipo psicolgico, la medicacin ser
percibida como algo intil, sino peligroso o contraproducente. De la misma forma, un modelo
estrictamente biolgico conlleva el riesgo de favorecer en el individuo conductas de enfermo pasivo,
descuidando de esta forma otras circunstancias externas socio-familiares o personales.




4.4 ES HEREDITARIO?

La influencia de la herencia no es clara en estos momentos. Entre los pacientes con este trastorno se ha
encontrado un mayor nmero de parientes de primer grado con trastornos similares u otros como la
depresin o el alcoholismo, existiendo indicios de un posible papel hereditario que an est siendo
estudiado. Esta mayor ocurrencia familiar hace que en ocasiones los pacientes reconozcan sus sntomas
en los que ya tuvo hace tiempo un familiar. Si ese familiar estaba gravemente afectado o presentaba
adems otra problemtica diferente que es confundida por el paciente, pueden despertase fuertes temores
ante la posibilidad de evolucionar como el pariente aquejado por el problema. La mejor forma de
tranquilizar estos temores puede venir de la existencia actual de tratamientos eficaces que pueden
controlar el trastorno, as como de las diferentes evoluciones observables en cada persona, no slo
justificadas en la gravedad de los sntomas sino en las propias caractersticas personales de
afrontamiento del problema.
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En otras ocasiones el mismo tipo de temores se dirigen en sentido inverso y ms concretamente hacia el
futuro de los propios hijos. Merece la pena sealar desde un punto de vista preventivo que, en ocasiones
y a pesar de los esfuerzos de los padres por evitarlo, las alteraciones y modificaciones de la personalidad
que conlleva el trastorno pueden influir en la crianza y desarrollo de los hijos ms all de los meros
condicionantes genticos. Por este motivo resulta altamente gratificante comprobar como se pueden
mitigar algunas de las tensiones, limitaciones o hiperproteccin en los hijos, mediante pequeos
esfuerzos de autocontrol de las ansiedades o temores desmedidos de los padres. Si se preocupa por la
posibilidad de transmitir el trastorno a su descendencia, tenga en cuenta que si bien no le va a ser posible
modificar su herencia gentica, sin embargo, s es posible mejorar su estado y que sin duda esto tendr
importantes repercusiones benficas en su ambiente familiar.
Dedique un tiempo a pensar en qu sentido est afectando este trastorno en sus relaciones familiares. La
autocrtica debe ser constructiva y en todo caso dirigida al mejor autocontrol y dominio personal.
Recuerde que los sentimientos de culpa por no hacer bien las cosas, pueden ser paralizantes y empeorar
la situacin.




4.5 SON MIS SINTOMAS INDEPENDIENTES DE LAS CIRCUNSTANCIAS QUE
ME RODEAN?

En muchas ocasiones parecen no existir motivos aparentes para que una persona presente sntomas de
angustia en un momento dado. Pero si se profundiza algo, no es raro que se encuentren algunas
circunstancias de la vida que estn pasando desapercibidas a pesar de estar generando una importante
tensin en la persona. Muchas de esas circunstancias, sin llegar a ser dramticas, sern de tipo negativo,
como pueden ser relaciones familiares parcialmente insatisfactorias, dificultades laborales o
interpersonales, prdidas de seres queridos, etc. Otras pueden ser incluso positivas, como el nacimiento
de un hijo, que sin embargo aumenta las responsabilidades y limita la autonoma y movilidad personal.
Sean los posibles motivos que sean, es conveniente que recapacite sinceramente sobre su momento vital
en busca de ellos. Ponga todo su esfuerzo en la resolucin de posibles problemas. Por impotente que se
sienta para su solucin, siempre hay algo que se puede hacer, aunque sea de forma parcial. En cualquier
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caso, siempre ser mejor que utilizar la tcnica del avestruz, escondiendo la cabeza para no ver los
problemas.
Hable de sus problemas y dificultades con los dems, pida opiniones y asesrese ante posibles formas y
recursos disponibles para enfrentar las dificultades que tenga. Escuche cmo lo han hecho los dems. En
caso que las circunstancias vitales por las que est atravesando sean de una magnitud importante y que
Vd. se sienta en crisis, ponga todas sus energas en la bsqueda de soluciones, pero tenga en cuenta que
no es conveniente tomar decisiones importantes en momentos de crisis, sobre todo si estas decisiones no
estn directamente relacionadas con el problema que le atormenta. En situaciones de crisis, la capacidad
de decisin puede estar disminuida al estar alteradas algunas funciones mentales como la concentracin,
atencin o juicio crtico. Adems, el propio estado emocional de ese momento puede teir esas
decisiones. Por estos motivos, una opcin decisiva tomada en esta situacin puede no haber sido
valorada en todas sus consecuencias futuras o estar mediatizada por deseos inconscientes de cambio,
reparacin o venganza con consecuencias desastrosas.



4.6 SOMOS LAS PERSONAS CON ESTOS SINTOMAS MAS "DEBILES" QUE
LOS DEMAS?

En muchas ocasiones, la persona que sufre desajustes agorafbicos, o quizs sus familiares o amigos,
pueden preguntarse si estos sntomas no son ms que reflejo de cierta debilidad de carcter o
personalidad, suponiendo que simplemente son debidos a falta de voluntad para su superacin. Esto sin
duda, no es as. La persona con un trastorno de angustia presenta sus dificultades en relacin directa con
los sntomas, no implicando necesariamente un trastorno de personalidad previo. De esta forma, las
crisis de pnico pueden aparecer en una multiplicidad de individuos, independientemente de que
anteriormente se hayan mostrado como inseguros o muy seguros de si mismos, habiendo sido descrito
incluso en importantes personalidades histricas. Sin embargo, y a pesar de que el trastorno no implica
necesariamente falta de voluntad, s es muy importante que la persona que lo sufre no se abandone a la
desesperacin e impotencia, ya que todos los esfuerzos que realice para su superacin sin duda que sern
muy beneficiosos, sobre todo a la hora de enfrentar los temores a estar slo o fuera de casa.
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Trato de recordar y analizar como era mi vida antes de todo esto. Mis estudios iban bien, tenia mis
amigos y amigas, mi enamorado, trabaja en un laboratorio, poda decir que poda invitar a mis
amigas a un buen restaurante... Una de mis luchas era estar saludable, me desconcierta que antes de
que empezaran los ataques tenia muy buena condicin fsica, practicaba aerbic, natacin y realizaba
constantes campamentos, debido a mi carrera, que era muy exigentes (subir grandes alturas con
mochila, grandes caminatas en la sierra, etc.) de lo que no me arrepiento. Lo pas muy bien y conoc
lugares inimaginablemente bellos alejados de la ciudad.
En fin, no me siento mal porque todo haya cambiado, tal vez me ha ayudado a apreciarme y apreciar
lo que tengo a mi lado, mi familia y los verdaderos amigos, una vida disciplinada, grandes tesoros
como mi perrita que me impulsa cada maana a salir de casa y caminar, a ver las cosas desde otras
perspectiva, a saber que soy valiente y luchar hasta para divertirme aunque a veces el miedo me
consuma. Se que hay muchas asperezas que limar, pero sobre todo malos recuerdos que olvidar y
levantarse con una sonrisa cada maana, aunque a veces uno quiere llorar a mares.
Isabel, 36 aos.



[Inicio] [1. Introduccin]
[2. Definiciones] [2.2.1 Ejemplo de Sntomas][2.2.2 Ejemplo de Pensamientos][2.7.1 Ejemplo de Fobias]
[3. Frecuencia][4. Causas][5. Riesgos] [6. Frmacos][7. Psicoterapia][8. Autoayuda]
[9. Estrategias de superacin][10. Recursos en Internet] [11. ][12. Autoevaluacin]
[13. Casos]
1997 - 1999 Dr. Oscar Martnez Azumendi. Permitida su reproduccin, siempre que esta no tenga fines
econmicos y se cite su procedencia. Cualquier comentario o sugerencia ser bien recibido, aunque teniendo la
pgina un nimo mramente informativo no podrn responderse consultas particulares.
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Andy Warhol. Grito, 1984.
La Crisis de Ansiedad
5. Riesgos asociados
Pgina adherida a los Principios del Cdigo
HONcode de Health On the Net Foundation

Indice del Captulo
5.1 Puedo acabar con una enfermedad fsica
grave o morir por este trastorno?
5.2 Puedo llegar a perder totalmente la cabeza?
5.3 Se puede afectar mi sexualidad? 5.4 Qu otras consecuencias puede tener?

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5.1 PUEDO ACABAR CON UNA ENFERMEDAD FISICA GRAVE O MORIR POR
ESTE TRASTORNO?

Una persona con trastorno de angustia puede lgicamente desarrollar otras enfermedades fsicas de
mayor o menor importancia como el resto de la poblacin, pero no tienen por que ser consecuencia
directa del propio trastorno. Alguno de los temores ms frecuentes es la posible muerte por enfermedad
del corazn. En relacin con el corazn tenemos que recordar una vez ms que en general su
exploracin es normal. Ocasionalmente se encuentra una pequea alteracin de una de sus vlvulas
(prolapso de la vlvula mitral). Esta alteracin aparece tambin entre la poblacin general, aunque con
menor frecuencia. Se han dado dos explicaciones posibles para justificar el mayor nmero de hallazgos
entre personas con trastorno de angustia: a) son explorados con ms frecuencia e intensidad que la
poblacin general y por lo tanto existen ms posibilidades de encontrarlo; y b) aunque generalmente el
prolapso de la vlvula mitral es una alteracin benigna que no requiere tratamientos especiales, es
posible que en caso de generar pequeos sntomas o molestias estos lleguen a desencadenar la crisis de
pnico en aquellas personas predispuestas.
En otros casos, pueden existir extrasstoles aisladas que usualmente aparecen como arritmias
"benignas" (de origen supraventricular o ventricular), pero que alarman mucho a la persona que las
siente. Si despus de una evaluacin cardaca, se determina que las "palpitaciones" son benignas y no
hay enfermedad del corazn, no es necesario tratamiento alguno, no existiendo un riesgo evidente para
la persona. Para la mayora, esto suele ser suficiente para tranquilizarse, pero en ocasiones hay pacientes
a los que resulta muy difcil convencer y prosiguen en su demanda de exploraciones, que lgicamente
resultan ineficaces.
Sin embargo si puede existir un mayor riesgo de enfermedad cardaca pero no en relacin directa con las
crisis, sino con el estilo de vida adoptado como puede ser el sedentarismo consecuente a no salir de casa
o por el intento de evitar posibles crisis producidas por el ejercicio, as como por el alto consumo de
cigarrillos, alcohol y dietas pobres. En opinin de los cardilogos, con una exploracin cardaca normal
y sin otras enfermedades, ocpese de su corazn como el resto de personas (hbitos de vida, dieta,
ejercicio...) e intente tranquilizarse, ya que no es probable que "en una de estas se me pare", ni "esta
opresin o estos pinchacitos" quieren decir que su corazn est enfermo.
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En julio del ao pasado, me levant de mi cama a media noche con palpitaciones. Asustado me fui a
urgencias de un hospital. Me ingresaron para tenerme en observacin. Me dijeron que tuve una
arritmia supraventricular, no le dieron importancia y me enviaron a casa con un tranquilizante. Ya
haba tenido algunaspalpitaciones antes, quizs 2 4 veces en mi vida, pero nunca me haban
preocupado. Ahora, cuando menos lo espero, tengo palpitaciones, punzadas y como pequeos saltos
en el corazn. Son muy desagradables y es entonces cuando pienso que me morir o que tengo una
enfermedad del corazn. Esto me obsesiona. Lo nico que quiero saber es que no me pasar nada!.
Fernando, 28 aos.




5.2 PUEDO LLEGAR A PERDER TOTALMENTE LA CABEZA?

Este es otro de los temores ms frecuentes, aunque es muy improbable que suceda as. Es verdad que la
crisis de pnico puede ocurrir en personas aquejadas de otras enfermedades psiquitricas ms
devastadoras, sin embargo en este caso la sintomatologa predominante es otra claramente reconocible.
En general y fuera del momento agudo de la crisis el paciente es totalmente consciente de sus actos,
siendo capaz de juzgar de forma razonada a pesar de reconocer que muchas de sus conductas puedan
parecer desproporcionadas o sin sentido. De esta forma, el riesgo de ingreso psiquitrico por esta causa
es muy escaso.
En aquellos casos que no evolucionan suficientemente bien, puede ser posible que con el tiempo
aparezcan otros trastornos psiquitricos como la depresin, ansiedad generalizada o abuso y dependencia
de txicos. Estas situaciones requerirn atencin y tratamiento de forma aadida.
El suicidio es un desenlace muy raro en este trastorno. Se ha pensado que estas actuaciones iban
acompaadas de estados depresivos importantes o alcoholismo, pero parece ser que no son condiciones
indispensables, especulndose que una mala calidad de vida (mala salud, disfuncin social y laboral,
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dependencia financiera, etc.) pueden ser motivos aadidos para tomar esta decisin. De aqu una razn
ms para el tratamiento y apoyo adecuado a este tipo de problemtica y trastornos asociados. Tenga en
cuenta por otra parte que las ganas de desaparecer, dormirse y no despertar e incluso las meras ideas de
suicidio no implican un altsimo riesgo en este sentido. Generalmente estos pensamientos son muy
frecuentes en las personas que pasan una mala racha. A pesar de ello pueden ser muy amenazadoras y
angustiosas, por este motivo el mejor consejo es que la persona no guarde estas ideas para ella misma,
no debiendo temer el comentarlas abiertamente con su mdico o alguna persona de confianza.


5.3 SE PUEDE AFECTAR MI SEXUALIDAD?
La sexualidad puede verse afectada por diferentes motivos. Debido al propio estado anmico y de
preocupacin mantenida no es infrecuente que la persona vea disminuido su inters o capacidad de
disfrutar con estas relaciones, lo mismo que ocurre con el resto de "apetitos" humanos (alimentacin,
intereses personales...). Por una razn similar, no es de extraar que en un reciente estudio realizado en
Espaa sobre 1253 pacientes deprimidos, aproximadamente un 80 % refiera dificultades en este terreno
(Proyecto Disorder, 1998)
En algunos casos, incluso hay personas que conscientes de la activacin que se produce durante la
relacin (aumento de la frecuencia cardaca y respiratoria) evitan tener relaciones por temor a que estas
precipiten una crisis de ansiedad. Adems, algunos frmacos, generalmente antidepresivos, pueden tener
efectos inhibidores sobre el impulso sexual o sobre la capacidad de sentir placer.
Dado que la sexualidad tiene un componente fundamental de relacin y compaerismo con la pareja,
estas dificultades no solo llegan a inquietar al propio individuo por l mismo, sino que en muchas
ocasiones son una fuente de tensin aadida al imaginar que la relacin con la pareja pueda resentirse o
que esta acabe distancindose al no sentirse suficientemente satisfecha.
En general esta situacin revertir en la medida que mejora el resto de los sntomas, aunque puede pasar
un cierto tiempo mientras se normaliza. En el apartado 9.15 encontrar algunos consejos relacionados
con este tema.


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5.4 QUE OTRAS CONSECUENCIAS PUEDE TENER?

Desde un punto de vista corporal no existe un riesgo marcado de enfermar o morir por el trastorno de
angustia. Sin embargo, puede haber una disminucin importante en la calidad de vida de la persona. Se
ha dicho que los ataques de pnico son una de las experiencias desagradables ms intensas que puede
sufrir un individuo, viviendo aterrorizado ante el miedo a que se repitan. Las conductas de evitacin de
lugares y situaciones van limitando en gran medida sus movimientos, pudiendo quedar dependiente de
otras personas para desplazamientos mnimos.
Adems y progresivamente puede desarrollarse cierta alteracin de la personalidad previa, dando
muestras de ansiedad mantenida ante situaciones ms o menos normales. De igual forma, la persona
puede mostrarse aprensiva ante la menor dificultad de la vida, preocupndose excesivamente por la
salud de sus seres queridos o no soportando su separacin. De esta forma, un sntoma banal como un
dolor de cabeza en uno mismo o un familiar pasa a ser el primer signo de un posible tumor cerebral o
una salida de casa o retraso de un hijo conllevara indefectiblemente una catstrofe para l.
El convencimiento de sufrir importantes padecimientos fsicos puede acarrear mltiples faltas al trabajo
por visitas mdicas, adems de perodos de baja laboral. Por otra parte, la desvalorizacin y prdida de
confianza en s mismo hacen que disminuya el rendimiento laboral, lo que puede acarrear la prdida del
trabajo.
La depresin se asocia con mucha frecuencia al trastorno de angustia, bien sea de forma independiente
pero sobre todo como consecuencia de las limitaciones percibidas por la persona. Existen adems otros
problemas de tipo psiquitrico que pueden coexistir con este trastorno, teniendo que llamar la atencin
especialmente sobre el mayor riesgo de abuso de txicos (pastillas, bebidas alcohlicas...) como forma
de calmar la angustia.


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[Inicio] [1. Introduccin]
[2. Definiciones] [2.2.1 Ejemplo de Sntomas][2.2.2 Ejemplo de Pensamientos][2.7.1 Ejemplo de Fobias]
[3. Frecuencia][4. Causas][5. Riesgos] [6. Frmacos][7. Psicoterapia][8. Autoayuda]
[9. Estrategias de superacin][10. Recursos en Internet] [11. ][12. Autoevaluacin]
[13. Casos]
1997 - 1999 Dr. Oscar Martnez Azumendi. Permitida su reproduccin, siempre que esta no tenga fines
econmicos y se cite su procedencia. Cualquier comentario o sugerencia ser bien recibido, aunque teniendo la
pgina un nimo mramente informativo no podrn responderse consultas particulares.







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La Crisis de Ansiedad
6. Tratamientos Farmacolgicos
Pgina adherida a los Principios del Cdigo
HONcode de Health On the Net Foundation


Indice del captulo
6.1 Para qu sirven los medicamentos en el
trastorno de angustia?
6.2 Qu medicamentos son los apropiados?
6.3 Qu precauciones tengo que tomar si
inicio un tratamiento farmacolgico?
6.4 Qu tengo que tener en cuenta si me
recetan pastillas para dormir?
6.5 Tienen estos medicamentos un alto riesgo
de efectos secundarios?
6.6 Qu es la dependencia?
6.7 Qu es la tolerancia?
6.8 Cuanto tiempo tarda en hacer efecto el
tratamiento?
6.9 Qu pasa si el tratamiento no funciona?
6.10 Cuanto tiempo puede durar el
tratamiento?
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6.11 Es suficiente el tratamiento
farmacolgico para la superacin del trastorno
de angustia?


6.1 PARA QUE SIRVEN LOS MEDICAMENTOS EN EL TRASTORNO DE
ANGUSTIA?

Bsicamente su funcin consiste en controlar la aparicin de las crisis de angustia o en todo caso
disminuir su intensidad o frecuencia. Adems, pueden ser de utilidad en la mejora de otros sntomas
asociados como pueden ser la ansiedad generalizada, la depresin o el insomnio. De forma secundaria
tambin pueden ayudar en otros aspectos como puede ser la agorafobia. En este caso no porque el
medicamento acte especficamente sobre ella, sino porque, al controlarse las crisis y disminuir la
ansiedad, puede aumentar la autoconfianza de la persona y favorecer el enfrentamiento de sus
dificultades.




6.2 QUE MEDICAMENTOS SON LOS APROPIADOS?

El grupo de frmacos ms utilizados son los tranquilizantes o ansiolticos junto a los antidepresivos.
Estos ltimos no slo porque a veces es necesario tratar un estado depresivo asociado, sino porque en s
mismos tienen un efecto demostrado en el control de las propias crisis. En el caso de existir insomnio,
puede que se recete un hipntico o inductor del sueo durante un perodo limitado, aunque, si se han
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recetado tranquilizantes, generalmente suele ser suficiente aumentar nicamente la dosis de la noche, ya
que este mismo tiene el efecto de una "pastilla para dormir".
El tratamiento de eleccin vendr dado segn el criterio de su mdico, en base a sus caractersticas
personales y sntomas predominantes. Puede que de entrada se le recete exclusivamente un
tranquilizante o un antidepresivo, o bien que estos dos frmacos se asocien desde un principio. Existen
adems otras medicaciones que tambin pueden ser utilizadas en caso de no ser suficientes las anteriores.




6.3 QUE PRECAUCIONES TENGO QUE TOMAR SI INICIO UN TRATAMIENTO
FARMACOLOGICO?

La primera y fundamental es no modificar o suprimir la dosis recomendada sin consultar previamente
con su mdico. Estos medicamentos, en general, son bien conocidos y la experiencia acumulada con su
uso es muy amplia. Aunque son frmacos utilizados fundamentalmente por los psiquiatras, su mdico de
familia est capacitado para su manejo adecuado. Tanto unos como otros podrn aclarar sus dudas y
guiarle en su tratamiento. El consejo anterior sirve tanto en el caso de que le hayan recetado
tranquilizantes o antidepresivos, debiendo tener en cuenta adems que pueden ser necesarias a veces
varias semanas para lograr el beneficio mximo del medicamento. No suprima de forma prematura la
medicacin pensando que no le est haciendo ningn efecto.
Deber poner cierto cuidado en no consumir alcohol durante el tratamiento, as como extremar las
precauciones en caso de conducir o manejar mquinas peligrosas, ya que aunque no lo note sus reflejos
pueden estar ligeramente disminuidos. Como con la mayora de frmacos, estos medicamentos deben
evitarse en lo posible durante el embarazo, sobre todo durante los primeros meses de gestacin. An as,
algunos de ellos no estn totalmente contraindicados y en ocasiones puntuales los beneficios pueden
superar a los posibles riesgos.

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6.4 QUE HE DE TENER EN CUENTA SI ME RECETAN PASTILLAS PARA
DORMIR?

Las "pastillas para dormir" pueden ser un medicamento apropiado en caso de que el sueo se vea
alterado. Sin embargo es importante tener en cuenta los siguientes consejos:
1.- Si ya se estn tomando tranquilizantes para el trastorno de angustia puede ser suficiente aumentar la
dosis de la noche para conseguir mejorar el sueo, sin necesidad de otra medicacin diferente.
2.- Si se aade una medicacin para dormir, posiblemente potenciar los efectos de la que ya viene
tomando.
3.- Se recomienda que el tratamiento farmacolgico del insomnio se realice por perodos cortos,
bastando generalmente de 2 a 4 semanas para ello. Es preferible retomar el tratamiento ms adelante si
fuera necesario que mantenerlo de forma prolongada.
4.- Tenga especial cuidado si se levanta por la noche, ya que podra tropezarse al encontrarse bajo los
efectos de la medicacin. Este cuidado tambin debe extremarse al levantarse, ya que en algunas
personas todava persiste cierta somnolencia. En cualquier caso nunca se levante "de golpe" de la cama,
sino que debe hacerlo lentamente para permitir adaptarse a su organismo.
5.- No consuma bebidas alcohlicas y ponga especial cuidado al conducir o manejar mquinas
peligrosas.
6.- De igual forma que con los tranquilizantes, no deje las pastillas para dormir de repente si las lleva
tomando durante un largo perodo de tiempo. Disminuya progresivamente la dosis de acuerdo con su
mdico.
7.- Si ve que no consigue dormir no se desespere. Tome la medicacin slo si es necesario.
8.- Lea con detenimiento y aplique los consejos que se dan ms adelante en el apartado 9.4 relativo al
sueo.
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6.5 TIENEN ESTOS MEDICAMENTOS UN ALTO RIESGO DE EFECTOS
SECUNDARIOS?

Como con cualquier frmaco, existen una serie de efectos secundarios, interacciones y
contraindicaciones que no podemos reflejar en este manual con la suficiente profundidad. Por esto, es
muy importante que lea con detenimiento la informacin que viene incluida en cada envase del frmaco
que vaya a tomar y sobre todo que consulte con su mdico cualquier duda que pudiera surgirle, as como
le comunique cualquier otra medicacin que toma en esos momentos. Con un ajuste progresivo de la
dosis, estos tratamientos son bien tolerados en general.
Tenga en cuenta que los prospectos que vienen en el envase de los medicamentos no se ponen ah para
asustarle. Tampoco es lgico pensar que todos los efectos secundarios reflejados ocurren con frecuencia
o a todo el mundo. Su objetivo es darle una informacin lo ms veraz posible, ayudarle en la
cumplimentacin de la pauta prescrita, as como alertarle ante posibles efectos secundarios para que
pueda contrastarlos con su mdico. Aunque algunos de estos efectos indeseables puedan sonarle de
forma terrorfica, la abrumadora mayora de las veces no tienen por que ocurrir o en todo caso se tratan
de pequeas molestias algo incmodas al principio del tratamiento y que no entraan un grave riesgo
para su salud, desapareciendo al disminuir o suspender la dosis.
Muchos de nosotros tememos a las consecuencias adversas de la medicacin (hbito, dependencia
orgnica y psicolgica, acaso disfunciones sexuales, etc.), pero no creo que convivir con varias crisis
de pnico diarias sea un panorama mucho mas atractivo. No pretendo convencer a nadie de nada,
slo presento una experiencia personal, que tal vez d lugar a opiniones cruzadas. No es mi deseo ser
esclavo del pnico por el resto de mi vida, y si el precio a pagar son los posibles efectos indeseables
de la medicacin, personalmente estoy dispuesto a correr el riesgo. Frente a la calidad de vida que
nos propone la enfermedad que padecemos, no creo que tengamos otra posibilidad que echar mano de
todos los recursos de los que actualmente disponemos para mejorar en todo aquello que nos sea
posible (farmacoterapia, psicoterapia, grupos de soporte, tcnicas de autoayuda, etc.).
Alberto, 40 aos.
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6.6 QUE ES LA DEPENDENCIA?

Existen dos tipos de dependencia, la fsica y la psicolgica.
La dependencia fsica es un estado del organismo en el cual se necesita y busca el frmaco, a veces en
dosis mayores, no ya para controlar los sntomas por los que se empez a tomar, sino simplemente
porque "el cuerpo lo necesita" para encontrarse bien. Este tipo de dependencia puede aparecer con el
consumo mantenido de algunos medicamentos, siendo ms frecuente su desarrollo con el uso
prolongado de tranquilizantes. La dependencia, con necesidad imperiosa del medicamento y aumento
progresivo de la dosis, es ms improbable en el caso de los antidepresivos. De cualquier forma, siempre
resulta prudente que en el momento de reducir las dosis se haga de forma gradual y escalonada, tanto
para evitar fenmenos de abstinencia como para permitir que su organismo se vaya adaptando y evitar la
aparicin de un sndrome de discontinuacin. Este sndrome puede darse en personas que han tomado
antidepresivos (algunos ms que otros) durante una temporada y los suspenden de forma brusca
(abandonos, olvidos...). En horas o das pueden aparecer una serie de sntomas de malestar general e
incremento de la ansiedad que pueden ser confundidos con una recada y no atribuirse a la falta brusca
de medicacin, con lo que pueden verse reforzados los temores de la persona y entonces no atreverse
posteriormente a suspender el tratamiento. En cualquier caso, la reduccin deber ser progresiva,
controlada por su mdico y nunca deber precipitarse ante el temor de desarrollar una dependencia, ya
que en ese caso se correra un mayor riesgo de recada de la enfermedad.
Incluso tras un perodo muy prolongado tomando una medicacin de este tipo, la disminucin de la dosis
es relativamente fcil si la reduccin se hace de forma cuidadosa y gradual. En caso de notarse un ligero
aumento de la ansiedad, no se alarme, ya que suele tratarse de un fenmeno normal de duracin limitada
que no significa que vaya a recaer o aparecer un sndrome de abstinencia. Puede ayudarse a superar esta
situacin con alguna infusin como la tila o valeriana, de las que tampoco debe abusar.
La dependencia psicolgica hace referencia a la necesidad subjetiva de la medicacin, no por el riesgo
de aparicin de un sndrome de abstinencia, sino por el propio temor a no encontrarse bien si no se
dispone de la medicacin. Por este motivo la persona no se atreve a separarse de sus pastillas, vaya a
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donde vaya, no siendo infrecuente que la persona guarde pequeas reservas en bolsillos, bolsos y
maletas como forma de asegurarse que nunca le falten.



6.7 QUE ES LA TOLERANCIA?

Bsicamente es la necesidad de dosis cada vez ms elevadas para conseguir el mismo efecto. De igual
manera que la dependencia, la tolerancia es un fenmeno que se da principalmente con los
tranquilizantes y no con los antidepresivos. Por este motivo, una vez estabilizado el cuadro se suele
reducir en lo posible la cantidad de medicacin diaria al mnimo suficiente. Pero por otra parte, tampoco
es aconsejable precipitar una rpida disminucin de la dosis, ya que entonces puede aumentarse el riesgo
de recadas.
Mantener sin necesidad las mismas dosis que en el perodo agudo de tratamiento por temor a una
recada, sobre todo si estas son altas, puede hacer que cada vez sean necesarias dosis mayores en caso de
empeoramiento, adems de aumentar el riesgo de dependencia. En el caso de los antidepresivos, suele
ser ms frecuente mantener una dosis similar a la del inicio durante todo el tratamiento. De cualquier
forma, estudios fiables sealan que no es frecuente desarrollar tolerancia a los efectos antipnico de los
tranquilizantes, no siendo necesario normalmente incrementar la dosis de mantenimiento cuando el
tratamiento es a largo plazo.



6.8 CUANTO TIEMPO TARDA EN HACER EFECTO EL TRATAMIENTO?
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Los tranquilizantes y antidepresivos tienen tiempos diferentes para iniciar su accin.
En general, los antidepresivos necesitan un tiempo mayor para empezar a actuar y alcanzar su efecto
mximo. Es lo que se denomina "perodo de latencia". Este tiempo puede variar entre un tipo y otro de
frmacos, oscilando entre unos 10 das a unas semanas. Por este motivo es muy importante que no se
impaciente, buscando un efecto total e inmediato con la medicacin. Si al principio no se consigue
controlar todos sus sntomas de forma satisfactoria, confe en que con el paso de los das este objetivo
puede ser posible. No deje nunca un tratamiento por este motivo sin consultar antes con su mdico.
Tenga en cuenta adems que la medicacin puede ser conveniente que se paute en dosis bajas al
principio, para que su organismo se vaya acostumbrando y reducir as al mnimo el riesgo de efectos
secundarios desagradables. Si ve que su mejora no se alcanza con la velocidad que deseara y que su
mdico sigue subindole la dosis de medicacin, no piense que est ms grave de lo que se pensaba,
simplemente puede tratarse de que el tratamiento se est incrementando de forma adecuada para evitar
efectos secundarios y que todava se necesita un poco ms de tiempo para valorar sus resultados.
Los tranquilizantes suelen tener una mayor rapidez de accin en el control de los sntomas de ansiedad
cuando se inicia un tratamiento. Por este motivo, en muchas ocasiones se suelen recetar junto al
antidepresivo para ayudar mejor al paciente en las primeras semanas del tratamiento. Posteriormente,
una vez controlada la sintomatologa mayor, puede ensayarse la retirada progresiva de los
tranquilizantes, muy poco a poco y de forma cuidadosa por su mayor riesgo de dependencia.
No olvide que en ocasiones puede estar indicado mantener ambos tratamientos hasta el final, o bien
utilizar nicamente slo uno de ellos desde un principio.



6.9 QUE PASA SI EL TRATAMIENTO NO FUNCIONA?

Si pasado un mnimo de 8 a 12 semanas no se consigue controlar de forma mnimamente satisfactoria la
sintomatologa, lo primero que har su mdico es interrogarle acerca del cumplimiento puntual del
tratamiento, ya que una gran parte de los fracasos son debidos a un mal seguimiento o abandonos de la
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medicacin. Es muy importante que siga rigurosamente la pauta recetada. Si este no es su caso, o bien
han aparecido efectos secundarios que aconsejan la suspensin del tratamiento, no se desanime,
afortunadamente existen otros muchos medicamentos que pueden ensayarse de forma alternativa. El que
un grupo farmacolgico no funcione, no quiere decir que los otros existentes no vayan a hacerlo.
Recuerde adems, que mientras tanto, puede seguir haciendo mucho por Vd. mismo si sigue algunos de
los consejos de este manual.


6.10 CUANTO TIEMPO PUEDE DURAR EL TRATAMIENTO?

Dar una respuesta general a esta pregunta resulta difcil, ya que el tiempo necesario vara de persona a
persona.
Aunque en algunas ocasiones pueden ser suficientes unos pocos meses de tratamiento tras haberse
conseguido el control de los sntomas, un enfoque preventivo aconseja mantenerlo al menos de 8 a 12
meses para evitar recadas y reforzar la autoconfianza de la persona. En otros casos de ms larga
evolucin y donde las recadas pueden ser frecuentes, el tratamiento puede mantenerse durante ms
tiempo.
En cualquier caso no pretenda acelerar la retirada de la medicacin porque considere que "ya est
mejor". Discuta siempre sus dudas con el mdico y recuerde que nunca deber suspender de golpe y por
su cuenta un tratamiento.



6.11 ES SUFICIENTE EL TRATAMIENTO FARMACOLOGICO PARA LA
SUPERACION DEL TRASTORNO DE ANGUSTIA?
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Aunque para un grupo de personas puede ser relativamente suficiente el tratamiento farmacolgico, es
evidente que en general este tratamiento se beneficia y complementa con una gran variedad de tcnicas y
tratamientos de tipo psicolgico. Algunas de ellas son tcnicas que la persona puede aprender y utilizar
tanto en las situaciones de crisis como en otros momentos. Otros tratamientos requerirn la participacin
de diversos profesionales.
Como parece lgico, la persona afectada desea como primera medida mejorar su sintomatologa ms
aguda e incapacitante, por lo que algunos tratamientos irn dirigidos a este objetivo exclusivamente.
Pero adems merece la pena considerar si la persona pudiera beneficiarse de un abordaje ms amplio
que le permitiera enfrentar otras dificultades de personalidad o de tipo psicosocial que pudieran estar
actuando sobre ella.



[Inicio] [1. Introduccin]
[2. Definiciones] [2.2.1 Ejemplo de Sntomas][2.2.2 Ejemplo de Pensamientos][2.7.1 Ejemplo de Fobias]
[3. Frecuencia][4. Causas][5. Riesgos] [6. Frmacos][7. Psicoterapia][8. Autoayuda]
[9. Estrategias de superacin][10. Recursos en Internet] [11. ][12. Autoevaluacin]
[13. Casos]
1997 - 1999 Dr. Oscar Martnez Azumendi. Permitida su reproduccin, siempre que esta no tenga fines
econmicos y se cite su procedencia. Cualquier comentario o sugerencia ser bien recibido, aunque teniendo la
pgina un nimo mramente informativo no podrn responderse consultas particulares.
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7psicot.html
La Crisis de Ansiedad
7. Tratamientos
Psicoteraputicos
---------------------------------
Henry Mattisse, 1911
Pgina adherida a los Principios del Cdigo
HONcode de Health On the Net Foundation


Indice del captulo
7.1 Qu tipo de ayuda profesional puedo buscar? 7.2 Qu es la psicoterapia?
7.3 Qu es la psicoterapia de base psicoanaltica? 7.4 Qu es la psicoterapia de tipo cognitivo?
7.5 Qu es un tratamiento de tipo conductual? 7.6 Qu es la psicoterapia de apoyo?
7.7 Resulta de utilidad un abordaje de familia o
pareja?
7.8 Resulta de utilidad un tratamiento en
grupo?
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7.1 QUE TIPO DE AYUDA PROFESIONAL PUEDO BUSCAR?
A pesar de que existen muchas cosas que podr hacer por Vd. mismo, muchas de las tcnicas apuntadas
en el apartado anterior habrn de ser dirigidas por un profesional. Muy posiblemente el tratamiento
habr sido iniciado por su mdico de familia o psiquiatra (mdico especialista en enfermedades de la
mente), pudiendo participar con l otros profesionales no mdicos como psiclogos o personal de
enfermera. La mayora de las veces las intervenciones posibles estarn igualmente condicionadas por
los recursos pblicos disponibles, por lo que quizs Vd. mismo quiera ampliarlos de forma privada con
otro tipo de psicoterapia, o buscar el apoyo en un grupo de autoayuda.




7.2 QUE ES LA PSICOTERAPIA?

El trmino psicoterapia se refiere a los tratamientos en que se utilizan tcnicas psicolgicas,
fundamentalmente a travs de la palabra. En el trastorno de angustia, ya sea para tratar la sintomatologa
principal u otras condiciones asociadas, han demostrado su utilidad las psicoterapias de apoyo, cognitivo-
conductual y psicodinmica o psicoanaltica. La mayor parte de estos abordajes pueden realizarse de
forma individual o en grupo y, ocasionalmente, pueden estar indicadas algunas intervenciones de tipo
familiar o de pareja.



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7.3 QUE ES LA PSICOTERAPIA DE BASE PSICOANALITICA?

Tambin llamada psicoterapia psicodinmica. Es toda aquella psicoterapia que se fundamenta terica y
tcnicamente en el trabajo de Freud y de sus discpulos. De utilidad en el trastorno por ansiedad
generalizada y menor efectividad ante las crisis de angustia agudas, bsicamente su objetivo sera hacer
conscientes los conflictos inconscientes que pueden estar influyendo en la vida de una persona. Para
ello, el profesional alienta al paciente a asociar sus pensamientos de la forma ms libre posible y de esta
forma ir saltando de un tema a otro hasta ocasionalmente poder entender algunos de los significados
inconscientes que un determinado hecho tienen para el paciente. Adems, se analiza la relacin existente
entre el propio paciente y el profesional (trasferencia), ya que se presupone que en esta relacin se
podrn encontrar pistas acerca del tipo de relacin que se establece con otras personas de importancia
para el paciente. Tambin es de gran importancia el anlisis de las resistencias que muestra el paciente a
la hora de profundizar en su mundo interno, as como de los mecanismos psicolgicos de defensa
utilizados para evitar los conflictos con el mundo exterior. Otro rea importante de observacin son los
sueos, ya que a travs de ellos, en muchas ocasiones, se puede entender mejor el inconsciente del
individuo. De igual forma que sucede con los sntomas, los sueos contendran cierto significado
simblico que hace referencia a los conflictos internos de las personas.
Dentro de las psicoterapias de orientacin analtica se encuentra el psicoanlisis, con algunas variantes
en su tcnica de aplicacin segn las escuelas. En general, exige una frecuencia de sesiones semanales
bastante elevada (entre 3 y 5) y se puede prolongar durante aos. El paciente se tumba en un divn
mientras el profesional permanece sentado tras l, en actitud neutral y primando la escucha ms que sus
propias intervenciones. Los consejos directivos o concretos son escasos.
A partir del psicoanlisis se han desarrollado toda otra serie de tcnicas de orientacin psicodinmica en
las que el profesional, si bien se adhiere a los postulados tericos del psicoanlisis clsico, se muestra
ms flexible en la tcnica. El paciente se sienta cara a cara con el terapeuta, pueden pactarse un menor
nmero de sesiones semanales, el profesional se muestra ms activo, no combatiendo sistemticamente
las resistencias del paciente, sino buscando reforzar su yo consciente para resolver los sntomas ms que
los conflictos internos inconscientes. Una modalidad particular es la psicoterapia dinmica breve o focal,
en la que el psicoterapeuta focalizando sobre la problemtica concreta del paciente, mediante algunas
hiptesis previas de trabajo y mostrndose muy activo en sus intervenciones, busca la solucin rpida de
los sntomas.
Todas ellas parten del supuesto de que la conducta y sntomas de la persona estn determinadas no solo
por su realidad actual, sino por las experiencias de su pasado. Estas experiencias pasadas pueden quedar
"almacenadas" de forma inconsciente, conformando el carcter del individuo as como los sntomas de
angustia. Descubrir esos conflictos ocultos sera el camino para ayudar al paciente a conocerse mejor y a
manejar de forma ms efectiva los mecanismos psicolgicos que generaron los sntomas.
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7.4 QUE ES LA PSICOTERAPIA DE TIPO COGNITIVO?

De eficacia probada en algunos casos de depresin y originalmente desarrollada por Beck, este tipo de
tcnica se fundamenta en el supuesto de que las crisis de angustia, ya sean espontneas o asociadas a un
estmulo externo, surgen de una interpretacin falsa y equivocada de tipo catastrfico de algunas
sensaciones corporales que no son ms que respuestas ms o menos normales a la ansiedad. Por
ejemplo, interpretar como un infarto inminente el aumento de la frecuencia del corazn o entender que
ciertas dificultades respiratorias desembocarn sin duda en el ahogo o incluso la muerte por asfixia. Es
decir, un estmulo corporal se asocia a un pensamiento (cognicin) de forma automtica, que puede
adquirir la caracterstica de un monlogo interno de carcter involuntario y que desemboca
ineludiblemente en un resultado catastrfico.
Los estmulos externos como puede ser un supermercado o los internos como algunas sensaciones
corporales, imgenes o pensamientos, se perciben con aprensin y miedo, lo que hace que aumente el
nivel de ansiedad y aparezcan nuevas sensaciones corporales, que se interpretan como la confirmacin e
inminencia de la catstrofe, desencadenndose el ataque de pnico. Basndose en esta cadena de
acontecimientos, se ensea al paciente a interrumpirla a travs de una serie de pasos que implican el
reconocimiento de los pensamientos y sensaciones corporales que van asociados con el ataque de
angustia, para posteriormente mostrarle, por ejemplo, cmo la hiperventilacin provoca esos mismos
ataques y cmo automticamente van asociados a la interpretacin catastrofista. Adems, pueden
utilizarse tcnicas de control de la respiracin as como el desarrollo de otro tipo de pensamientos menos
amenazantes y ms adecuados como respuesta a los sntomas corporales.
Normalmente la tcnica se inicia con la llamada "entrevista socrtica", donde se evita el asesoramiento
directo, los consejos moralizantes o los juicios de valor. La entrevista de tipo directivo se centra en
hechos reales y acontecimientos concretos, intentando delimitar y detallar lo ms posible el tipo de
cogniciones (pensamientos) asociados a cada situacin amenazante. El objetivo posterior pasa por la
reestructuracin cognitiva del paciente (reordenacin de su pensamiento). Identificando el pensamiento
negativo asociado al suceso, puede entonces analizarse hasta qu punto ste es inadecuado o exagerado,
descubriendo sus efectos negativos sobre conductas y sentimientos. Una vez conseguido esto, se anima
al paciente a considerar otras hiptesis menos amenazantes para explicar los sntomas.
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7.5 QUE ES UN TRATAMIENTO DE TIPO CONDUCTUAL?

Los tratamientos conductistas o de modificacin de conducta presuponen que una determinada conducta
puede entenderse como una respuesta condicionada a un estmulo. La base del tratamiento consistir
entonces en descondicionar algunas conductas del sujeto o bien condicionarle para el aprendizaje de
otras formas de respuesta ms adecuadas.
Estos tipos de tratamiento son muy directivos sin poner ningn nfasis sobre el mundo interno o historia
de desarrollo personal del paciente. En el trastorno de angustia se utilizan distintos tipos de tcnicas,
tiles sobre todo en los sntomas fbicos asociados.
- La desensibilizacin sistemtica introducida por Wolpe y sustentada en el concepto de "inhibicin
recproca". Es un tipo de descondicionamiento en el que se asocia una situacin placentera e
incompatible con la angustia, generalmente la relajacin, con estmulos o pensamientos que en otra
ocasin hayan generado ansiedad. El sujeto elabora una lista de estmulos de menor a mayor potencial
de generacin de ansiedad; luego, a lo largo de las sesiones de tratamiento y mientras se encuentra
relajado, se le pide que vaya imaginando progresivamente esas situaciones. Si aparecen signos de
intranquilidad se vuelve a la situacin anterior para seguir con posterioridad una vez tranquilizado. De
esta forma se contribuye a bloquear la ansiedad ante estos estmulos en la vida cotidiana. El tratamiento
termina con la desensibilizacin con exposicin en vivo, es decir, confrontando en la vida real la
situacin amenazante.
- Tcnicas de inundacin o implosin en las que se confronta al paciente durante un perodo de tiempo
relativamente dilatado con la situacin amenazante. Aparece entonces un alto nivel de angustia que poco
a poco va cediendo por extincin o agotamiento.
En ambos casos parece que la eficacia de cualquiera de las dos se sustenta en ltimo trmino en la
exposicin o enfrentamiento a la situacin real y atemorizante.

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7.6 QUE ES LA PSICOTERAPIA DE APOYO?

En general es la tcnica ms empleada en el abordaje de estos casos, siendo de una gran utilidad sobre
todo en cuadros agudos. En la mayora de ocasiones no se reconoce una base terica nica en su
aplicacin, recurriendo a aspectos parciales de cada una de las anteriores escuelas de pensamiento en
funcin de las necesidades particulares del caso. Por este motivo muchas veces se habla de orientacin
eclctica en estos abordajes.
Resulta bsico crear una atmsfera favorable propicia para una buena relacin mdico-enfermo, donde
este ltimo se sienta con la confianza suficiente para hablar libremente y sentirse escuchado. A partir de
aqu pueden ofrecerse explicaciones as como se intenta clarificar el problema e identificar posibles
conflictos asociados o latentes. Con la ayuda profesional se investigan posibles soluciones, haciendo
especial hincapi en la realidad objetiva, saliendo al paso de posibles distorsiones de ella, as como se
intentan reforzar las defensas del "ego" del paciente (los mecanismos psicolgicos para defenderse de la
ansiedad y adaptarse). Todo ello se acompaa de estmulos para incentivar el cambio personal en los
estilos de vida ms desadaptados. En muchas ocasiones se ofrecen sugerencias o consejos para
tranquilizar o ayudar en las decisiones al paciente, no solamente en aspectos meramente personales sino
tambin familiares o profesionales. El riesgo derivado de ello, y que se intenta evitar, sera generar una
relacin de dependencia extrema entre el paciente y el terapeuta.
En general, este tipo de psicoterapia suele asociarse a la prescripcin y control de medicacin
psicotrpica, dependiendo la frecuencia de las sesiones tanto de las propias necesidades del paciente
como de los recursos existentes en la propia clnica tratante.



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7.7 RESULTA DE UTILIDAD UN ABORDAJE DE FAMILIA O PAREJA?

Este tipo de tratamientos no son especficos o inevitablemente indicados en el trastorno de angustia. Sin
embargo, s puede resultar de inters que algn familiar directo conozca el trastorno e incluso ofrezca su
colaboracin para su mejor recuperacin. En otras ocasiones, este familiar tambin puede ser candidato
al apoyo a travs de sugerencias y explicaciones ante las ocasionales tensiones que pueden surgir por las
propias limitaciones y demandas del paciente. En el caso de que con el propio trastorno coexistan
dificultades relacionales bien establecidas, pudiera estar indicado un tratamiento de familia o pareja
dirigido a la mejor resolucin de esa problemtica.



7.8 RESULTA DE UTILIDAD UN TRATAMIENTO EN GRUPO?

Los abordajes en grupo pueden tener diferentes objetivos, desde un carcter ms o menos didctico y de
reforzamiento mutuo entre personas con la misma problemtica, hasta la exploracin de aspectos
histricos y psicolgicos personales y formas de relacin interpersonal.
En muchas ocasiones los tratamientos en grupo no son bien aceptados de entrada, ya que en general en
momentos de mayor inseguridad personal tendemos a encontrarnos ms cmodos y confiados en la
relacin unipersonal. Adems existen otras razones, que bajo la excusa de la vergenza o timidez, temor
a la falta de confidencialidad o miedo a ser abrumado por los sntomas de otros pacientes, hacen que
muchas personas desestimen esta posibilidad. Sin embargo, los tratamientos grupales no solo ofrecen
una alternativa ms econmica y de calidad, sino que aportan caractersticas especficas que no
encontramos en los tratamientos individuales. De esta forma, la posibilidad de poner en perspectiva los
propios problemas, recibir y ofrecer apoyo mutuo, comprobar otras maneras de afrontar el problema, as
como la existencia de mejoras esperanzadoras en otras personas, o poder explorar en un entorno
confiable las formas de relacin interpersonal, son todas ellas ventajas aadidas que son posibilitadas
por el encuadre grupal.
Este tipo de tratamientos pueden estar adems especialmente indicados en aquellas personas con ciertas
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dificultades de relacin interpersonal, permitindoles confrontar y analizar muchos de sus temores
fbicos al contacto social.



[Inicio] [1. Introduccin]
[2. Definiciones] [2.2.1 Ejemplo de Sntomas][2.2.2 Ejemplo de Pensamientos][2.7.1 Ejemplo de Fobias]
[3. Frecuencia][4. Causas][5. Riesgos] [6. Frmacos][7. Psicoterapia][8. Autoayuda]
[9. Estrategias de superacin][10. Recursos en Internet] [11. ][12. Autoevaluacin]
[13. Casos]
1997 - 1999 Dr. Oscar Martnez Azumendi. Permitida su reproduccin, siempre que esta no tenga fines
econmicos y se cite su procedencia. Cualquier comentario o sugerencia ser bien recibido, aunque teniendo la
pgina un nimo mramente informativo no podrn responderse consultas particulares.






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8autoay.html
La Crisis de
Ansiedad
8. Asociaciones de
Autoayuda
"Playa de Ereaga, Getxo"
Pgina adherida a los Principios del Cdigo
HONcode de Health On the Net Foundation


Indice del Captulo

8.1 Qu son las asociaciones de autoayuda? 8.2 Puedo buscar ayuda en Internet?

8.1 QUE SON LAS ASOCIACIONES DE AUTOAYUDA?

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Son agrupaciones de personas afectadas por un mismo problema o enfermedad, que buscan de esta
forma unir sus fuerzas para la mejor solucin de sus dificultades. Pueden formarse tanto en torno a
enfermedades o minusvalas fsicas como psquicas, en general no tienen nimo de lucro y solicitan la
colaboracin y participacin activa de los propios afectados.
Las principales funciones que pueden cumplir van desde la ruptura del aislamiento y sensacin de
soledad o exclusividad que puede tener una persona aquejada de una dificultad concreta, hasta movilizar
estados de opinin, por ejemplo a travs de los medios de comunicacin o mediante entrevistas con las
autoridades sanitarias, como manera de dirigir recursos asistenciales hacia la poblacin afectada.
Suelen ser una fuente de informacin valiosa y accesible para el enfermo y su familia, disponiendo en
muchas ocasiones de programas de tratamiento y rehabilitacin que complementan al resto de Servicios
Pblicos. Muchas de sus intervenciones se realizan de forma grupal, bien sea con la supervisin de un
profesional o sin l. El apoyo mutuo, el aprendizaje de posibles estrategias de afrontamiento, la
esperanza ganada al comprobar cmo otras personas con el mismo problema han evolucionado
favorablemente, la informacin concreta sobre aspectos de inters, la ruptura de la soledad, etc., son
algunos de los muchos aspectos beneficiosos de este tipo de grupos.
En el caso del trastorno de angustia y la agorafobia, ya desde hace aos se reconoce la utilidad de estas
Asociaciones en muchos pases occidentales. En Espaa, su desarrollo es muy reciente, existiendo
algunas Asociaciones que ya han iniciado su andadura como son:
Asociacin Nacional
Agorafobia
Informacin
Nacional.
Internet.
945 14 44 94
919 41 79 37
ezkarabatxo@jet.es
gasteizn@jet.es
Camins Oberts Barcelona 934 90 03 33
AADA. Asociacin para la
Ayuda y Divulgacin de la
Agorafobia y Fobia Social.
http://teleline.terra.es/personal/
aadabcn
Barcelona.
Informacin a
otras
Comunidades
934 90 03 33
lun-vi 10 a 14 h.
lun-jue 16 a 20 h.
aadabcn@suport.org
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TRASTORNS D'ANSIETAT.
Grups d'Ajuda Mtua.
(Pnico-Agorafobia, Fobia
social y T. Obsesivo
Compulsivo). http://teleline.
terra.es/personal/ansietat/
Barcelona, Sant
Cugat del Valls
y Vilanova i la
Geltr
616 90 88 62
de 18 a 22 h.
ansietat@tiscali.es
Associaci Gironina
Agorafobics
Gerona
Jaume609392462
Quim 619705652
Teresa 686847106
Helena 972817837
quimvencells@yahoo.es
Associaci Gironina Gerona (Palams) 972 30 28 16
Espacios Abiertos / Leku
Irekiak http://www.terra.es/
personal6/lekuirekiak
Vizcaya
(Portugalete)
944 93 78 33 lekuirekiak@terra.es
Asociacin Alavesa de
Agorafobia
Vitoria
649 71 05 71
945 14 44 94
919 41 79 37
ezkarabatxo@jet.es
gasteizn@jet.es
Asociacin Balear
Palma de
Mallorca
670 33 80 52 edmuga@arrakis.es
Asociacin Valenciana para la
Ansiedad (AVA). http://www.
avansiedad.com
Valencia
620 01 50 99
636 52 44 01
info@avansiedad.com

Valencia (en
proyecto)
659 54 49 61 Raquelclari@jazzfree.com
Espacios Abiertos Alicante
610 99 13 38
mar-vi de 19 a 21 h.
agoratas@yahoo.es
Horizontes Abiertos
Palmas de Gran
Canaria
928 46 82 28
Asociacin Gallega. http://
salman.nu/aga
Lugo 982 23 16 48
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Asociacin Enfermos de
Agorafobia de Albacete. http://
www.geocities.com/
adealba_2000/
Albacete
967 61 18 83
967 52 31 44
adealba_2000@terra.com
meneses@ctv.es
Zaragoza
976 25 30 11
976 55 73 97

Caminando libres. Asociacin
Andaluza para la Ansiedad y
la Agorafobia. http://teleline.
terra.es/personal/acm00000/
Mlaga 952 60 43 25
acm00000@teleline.es
Asociacin Madrilea
Agorafobia. http://es.geocities.
com/rubencas2000/
Madrid 617 83 79 30
rubencas@canal21.com
Lista de discusin a travs de
Internet
http://groups.msn.com/
Problemasdeansiedad


Agradecera informacin de cualquier otra Asociacin no recogida
En las ya existentes podrn informarle de la situacin en su Comunidad, e incluso de los pasos a dar para
constituir una nueva Asociacin si no cuenta con una cercana. Tenga en cuenta que, como en toda
Asociacin de Autoayuda, su participacin activa ser muy bien recibida.




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8.2 PUEDO BUSCAR AYUDA EN INTERNET?

Internet resulta una fuente inagotable de informacin. Aunque, debemos advertir que en algunas
ocasiones, esta informacin no resulta totalmente fiable, partiendo de fuentes poco claras o con intereses
particulares. El mejor consejo es, en todo caso, contrastar suficientemente cualquier tipo de informacin
y que considere que, en general, no existen recetas o soluciones infalibles para todo el mundo.
Un aspecto todava poco conocido es la enorme potencialidad que tiene este medio para el intercambio,
entre personas con el mismo inters o problemtica, no slo de informacin, sino de apoyo, aliento e
incluso compaa. En el captulo 10 ("Enlaces") encontrar informacin acerca de algunos de esos
lugares a donde dirigirse con este fin. Si Vd. presenta algn tipo de problemtica similar a la tratada en
esta pgina, anmese a visitarlos (y participar). Si presenta otro tipo de sntomas, recuerde que con un
poco de inters seguro que encuentra otros lugares que se adapten mejor a su situacin. Sin embargo,
una de las mayores limitaciones para su utilizacin, viene derivada del idioma y de la cultura en que se
hayan inmersos, ya que generalmente se desarrollan en Ingls, con una participacin masivamente
norteamericana. En todo caso, siempre le queda la posibilidad de participar en la "plaza
pblica" () que encontrar en esta pgina. Le animo encarecidamente a hacerlo, quizs as
consigamos con el tiempo un foro en Espaol que se adapte ms a nuestras propias necesidades.



[Inicio] [1. Introduccin]
[2. Definiciones] [2.2.1 Ejemplo de Sntomas][2.2.2 Ejemplo de Pensamientos][2.7.1 Ejemplo de Fobias]
[3. Frecuencia][4. Causas][5. Riesgos] [6. Frmacos][7. Psicoterapia][8. Autoayuda]
[9. Estrategias de superacin][10. Recursos en Internet] [11. ][12. Autoevaluacin]
[13. Casos]
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1997 - 2000 Dr. Oscar Martnez Azumendi. Permitida su reproduccin, siempre que esta no tenga fines
econmicos y se cite su procedencia. Cualquier comentario o sugerencia ser bien recibido, aunque teniendo la
pgina un nimo mramente informativo no podrn responderse consultas particulares.





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Gilbert & George. Grito, 1984.
La Crisis de Ansiedad
9. Estrategias de superacin personal
Pgina adherida a los Principios del Cdigo
HONcode de Health On the Net Foundation


Indice del Captulo

9.1 Qu puedo aplicar o utilizar por mi mismo/a?
9.2 Qu puedo hacer en el caso de repetirse
una crisis de angustia?
9.3 Qu puedo hacer para relajarme?
9.4 Qu puedo hacer para mejorar mi
sueo?
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9.5 Cmo intento dejar de ver la botella medio
vaca y verla medio llena?
9.6 Cmo puedo superar el miedo a salir
de casa?
9.7 Es bueno que me relacione con otras
personas?
9.8 Debo prestar alguna atencin especial
a mi familia?
9.9 Qu consejos u orientaciones se pueden dar a
los que me rodean?
9.10 Puedo hacer ejercicio?
9.11 Es conveniente que siga algn tipo de dieta
especial?
9.12 Puedo tomar bebidas alcohlicas?
9.13 Cmo puedo saber si estoy bebiendo
demasiado?
9.14 Puedo fumar?
9.15 Qu puedo hacer para mejorar mi
sexualidad?


9.1 QUE PUEDO APLICAR O UTILIZAR POR MI MISMO/A?

Sin duda existen un gran nmero de tcnicas que la persona puede aplicar para ayudarse a s misma y
que presentaremos a continuacin. Pero la primera y ms genrica actitud se resume en CONFIANZA.
1.- Confianza en uno mismo y sus capacidades.
2.- Confianza en los dems y en el grado de ayuda que se puede recibir del exterior. Ayuda que no solo
vendra del apoyo, aliento y consejos que las personas cercanas pueden brindar, sino del propio hecho de
hablar y compartir con los dems, evitando en lo posible la tendencia al aislamiento.
3.- Confianza en los profesionales que le atienden y en su mejor disposicin a ayudarle. Es evidente que
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siempre existe un riesgo de olvido e incluso equivocacin por parte de su mdico o personal asistencial,
pero entienda que sus preocupaciones por el estado de salud de su cuerpo muchas veces pueden llegar a
ser desmedidas por la propia ansiedad. Las demandas continuas de atencin y exploraciones a veces
innecesarias pueden llegar a hacer que la relacin con su mdico llegue a resentirse. En cualquier caso
intente siempre aclarar con l sus miedos, temores o dudas, permitiendo de esta forma que ste pueda
verle ms como una persona necesitada de ayuda y comprensin que como alguien que va exigiendo
actuaciones, que desde su punto de vista pueden no ser necesarias.
4.- Confianza en que el trastorno de angustia no va a deteriorar de forma irreversible su salud corporal o
mental y que muy posiblemente mejorar de forma importante.
5.- Confianza en que va a poder mejorar mucho por Vd. mismo y que hay muchas cosas que puede hacer
para controlar su estado.
Quiero contarles parte de mi recuperacin. Tengo una profesin universitaria, cosa que no se cmo
logr, por que fue en la peor etapa de mi vida. Sufr de ataques de pnico durante 7 aos. Todava
siento ansiedad (ahora manejable y pocas veces necesitada de medicacin en bajas dosis) ante ciertas
situaciones concretas. Bueno, creo que tengo algunas ideas fbicas, y ellas tambin me producen
cierta ansiedad y el temor a perder el control de mi misma y que otros lo asuman, no ser capaz de
desenvolverme por mi misma, quedarme sola en un futuro, no tener como ganarme la vida y la
desaprobacin social. He eliminado de mi dieta el caf, puedo tomar t no muy cargado, nada de
fumar, licores de cuando en cuando sin no exceder del vaso y medio. El calor es algo prcticamente
intolerable y si puedo estar en lugares con aire acondicionado me siento en la gloria.
Hago ejercicio moderadamente.He pasado por todas las etapas tpicas del trastorno, desarroll
agorafobia sin llegar a un caso severo pero si limitante en ciertas pocas. Tuve los pensamientos
tpicos del trastorno de pnico como el temor a la muerte sbita y volverme loca, despersonalizacin,
nauseas y mareos apenas me despertaba, llegue a pesar hasta 38 kilos, problemas gstricos,
depresin, sensacin de ahogo. He tenido ataques tan intensos que me tumbaban a la cama, problemas
con la familia que pensaban que era una hipocondraca, llena de manas y engreda segn ellos, esto
me haca sentir tan insegura que varias veces tuve que disimular que tenia un ataque o que desfalleca
de la ansiedad para que no me cataloguen de esa manera ni me acosen con la idea. Fu difcil
contarles a mi familia lo que me suceda, an no lo entienden del todo. Mi hermana, sin saberlo, fue
mi compaera de apoyo, los primeros 3 meses bamos juntas a todas partes y ella no se daba cuenta
cuando a veces la apresuraba para regresar a casa.
No se como contarles como supere la agorafobia, antes no poda ni subir al autobs, ni ir al mercado,
restaurantes, cines, teatros o discotecas. Si antes fui dura conmigo para llegar a esto, tambien fui un
poco dura para salir. No me negu a nada, especialmente a lo que era salir fuera de casa. Recuerdo
sentarme en el borde la cama, sudar y sudar. Coga el auto y me marchaba bastante lejos de casa, tuve
todos los ataques habidos y por haber, justo poda sostener el volante, pero ya de regreso me senta
mejor. Algo que aprend y aprendo de la ansiedad y del pnico es que de alguna forma me hicieron ser
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mas persona, mas humana, mucho mas comprensiva y sensible al dolor humano. Se que no estoy del
todo curada, tengo ms caminos que recorrer y superar.
Isabel, 36 aos.




9.2 QUE PUEDO HACER EN EL CASO DE REPETIRSE UNA CRISIS DE
ANGUSTIA?

1.- Reconozca que se trata de una crisis de angustia que ya ha tenido en alguna otra ocasin. Como
entonces ocurri, a pesar del mal rato que pas, no significa que le vaya a ocurrir nada fatal ni sin
remedio.
2.- Recuerde que a pesar de parecer "eterna", la crisis llega a su mximo en escasos minutos. Intente
despreocuparse de su duracin, aceptando que a pesar de ser un estado muy desagradable va a pasar en
unos minutos.
3.- Busque ayuda sin alarmismos. Si se halla entre un grupo de personas puede simplemente comentar
que se encuentra momentneamente indispuesto y pedir que alguien de confianza le acompae a un
lugar ms tranquilo. Sintese o pasee sin apresuramiento en espera de que la crisis disminuya su
intensidad. La persona que le acompaa estar dispuesta a ayudarle si se diera el caso. Si se encuentra
solo no pretenda que vengan a ayudarle de inmediato, si llama a alguien para cuando llegue sus sntomas
ya se habrn calmado en gran medida. En todo caso y si se encuentra muy asustado y hablar con alguien
le tranquiliza, telefoneel y explique su estado en ese momento, hable unos momentos y pdale que le
vuelva a llamar pasados 5 10 minutos. Puede que esto le tranquilice, al saber que hay alguien
pendiente de cmo se encuentra.
4.- Intente relajarse lo ms posible, no dirija su atencin de forma mantenida a los sntomas. Cuanto ms
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se fije en aquellas partes de su cuerpo que parecen funcionar mal, ms sensible se encontrar hacia los
pequeos cambios, aumentando el temor y empeorando los sntomas. Desve su atencin hacia aquellas
otras partes del cuerpo que no dan muestras de alteracin intentando relajarlas. Tambin puede distraer
su atencin dirigindola a estmulos neutros del ambiente, como puede ser fijarse en las matrculas de
los coches que pasan, examinar los productos cercanos del supermercado o incluso contar de tres en tres
desde cien hacia atrs hasta controlar la ansiedad.
5.- Respire de forma pausada, intente acompasar sus respiraciones sin hacer inspiraciones profundas. La
sensacin de falta de aire o ahogo puede que le haga respirar muy rpido y de forma profunda. En
algunas personas este tipo de respiracin empeora los sntomas de la crisis al producirse lo que se llama
una "alcalosis respiratoria" debida a la hiperventilacin. Los signos de la alcalosis aparecen tras un
perodo de ventilacin forzada, con sensacin de mareo, visin borrosa, acorchamiento en manos, pies o
cara e incluso contracturas en zonas como mueca o tobillo. En caso de iniciarse sntomas de este tipo,
la persona se asusta an ms empeorando el cuadro. Recuerde entonces que:
G La sensacin de falta de aire es ms subjetiva que real.
G Nadie se ha ahogado en una crisis de angustia. Es imposible. Incluso en el caso de llegar a perder
el conocimiento por una respiracin forzada, los propios mecanismos reguladores del organismo
harn que el ritmo respiratorio vuelva a la normalidad, estabilizando la situacin.
G Respire, por la nariz y con el diafragma (lea el siguiente apartado) de la forma ms pausada
posible a pesar de la sensacin de falta de aire. No acelere el ritmo ni respire muy
profundamente.
G En el caso de no haber podido controlar bien la respiracin y aparecer signos como mareo,
entumecimiento o acorchamiento en alguna parte del cuerpo, un remedio muy eficaz consiste en
respirar manteniendo una bolsa de papel sobre nariz y boca. De esta forma se vuelve a
reintroducir en los pulmones parte de los gases que se han forzado a expulsar durante la
respiracin. Esta tcnica resulta muy eficaz y en muy poco tiempo los sntomas desaparecern. A
veces suele ser ms difcil convencer al paciente de que respire dentro de la bolsa, precisamente
por su bsqueda forzada de aire, que como hemos visto no hace ms que empeorar el cuadro.
6.- Si su corazn late muy deprisa recuerde que eso no significa la inminencia de un ataque cardaco.
Espere unos momentos para comprobar cmo su corazn recupera progresivamente su ritmo normal. En
caso de asustarle mucho esta situacin, puede probar a realizar la siguiente tcnica, que busca provocar
lo que se llama el "reflejo de Valsava". Aumente la presin del abdomen sacando con fuerza la tripa
durante 3 a 5 segundos. Con ello el corazn disminuir rpidamente la frecuencia de sus latidos. Puede
repetir la tcnica hasta una decena de veces si es necesario.
7.- Algunas personas han odo o se les ha aconsejado que en caso de repetirse una crisis de angustia se
coloquen una pastilla tranquilizante debajo de la lengua para frenar su evolucin. Desde un punto de
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vista estrictamente farmacolgico, esta estrategia no resulta ms eficaz que tomarse directamente la
pastilla, ya que la absorcin es relativamente similar de las dos formas y requiere un perodo de tiempo,
que aunque no es muy dilatado, generalmente es algo mayor que la duracin normal de una crisis. De
esta forma, atribuir la mejora a la toma de medicacin en su inicio es una equivocacin, ya que por
rpida que sea la absorcin la mejora tambin se producira sin ella. En cualquier caso esta estrategia, o
la simple toma oral de la pastilla, puede ser de alguna ayuda en aquellas personas que temen
sobremanera a las crisis, que estas duren mucho tiempo o que vengan seguidas por un estado de
ansiedad importante que limite mucho su funcionamiento. El riesgo es que la persona quede muy
dependiente de la medicacin, sin poder separarse de ella y en un estado de hipervigilancia continua que
le mantenga en actitud de alerta ante los mnimos sntomas para tomarse la pastilla. De la misma
manera, y en contra de lo que piensan algunas personas, algunas medicaciones inyectables se absorben
ms lentamente, por lo que no necesariamente es mejor una "inyeccin" que una "pastilla" para el
control de la crisis aguda.
Hace 1 ao que sufro de ansiedad y pnico. Siento que todo se dio de un da para otro, aunque por
suerte yo misma me di cuenta de mi problema y ped ayuda psicolgica a los pocos meses. Trato de
controlar mis ataques de pnico y ansiedad por mi misma (con una ayudita de mi psicloga). Se que
todo est en mi cabeza, que mis miedos a morirme de un paro cardiaco al asustarme estn en mi
mente. Se que tal vez suene fcil, pero no... me cuesta mucho poder luchar conmigo misma. Siento
como si existieran dos Cristinas. Una, la racional, la que sabe que NO tiene ninguna enfermedad
cardiaca ni de ningn otro tipo y que todo est en su atolondrada cabecita. Otra, la "panicosa", la
negativa que se muere de miedo a que le pase algo, a morirse de un paro, y que se pone tan nerviosa y
angustiada que empieza con taquicardia, debilidad corporal y otros varios sntomas. Cuando tengo los
ataques de ansiedad, pienso que esa va a ser la ultima vez, que me voy a morir, pero como todos
sabemos se sobrevive, aunque vengan otros ataques de ansiedad futuros con los que lidiar. Es muy
difcil hacer que las dos Cristinas se pongan de acuerdo. Pero con mucha paciencia se logra.
Cristina, 20 aos.



9.3 QUE PUEDO HACER PARA RELAJARME?

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A continuacin expondremos dos tipos diferentes de relajacin que pueden ser utilizados de forma
independiente o conjunta. La primera de ellas deriva de un mayor control respiratorio, mientras que la
segunda focaliza sobre los msculos en general.
Relajacin respiratoria.
Una persona normal suele respirar de 12 a 16 veces por minuto cuando no est excitada o muy relajada.
En situaciones de ansiedad es muy frecuente que el individuo mantenga un tipo de respiracin
superficial y ocasionalmente entrecortada con suspiros. Este tipo de respiracin se realiza bsicamente
mediante el esfuerzo de los pequeos msculos que hay entre las costillas, movilizando sobre todo la
parte superior del pecho. Sin embargo, la parte ms baja de los pulmones apenas son ventilados. Para
favorecer su ventilacin se requiere la participacin de otro gran msculo que separa el pecho del
abdomen, el diafragma. La respiracin diafragmtica o profunda no moviliza nicamente el pecho sino
que desplaza el abdomen cada vez que tomamos y expulsamos aire. De esta forma se ventilan los
pulmones en su totalidad con una mejor oxigenacin de la sangre.
La tcnica de la respiracin diafragmtica es sencilla y puede ser utilizada de forma preparatoria a los
ejercicios de relajacin muscular. Pero recuerde que, debido precisamente a su sencillez, tambin puede
ser aplicada en cualquier ocasin en que se note tensin o ante alguna amenaza concreta, como puede
ser el temor a la ocurrencia de una crisis de angustia. Para conseguir este tipo de respiracin siga esta
serie de sencillos pasos:
G Limpie y mantenga bien abierta su nariz.
G Con los ojos abiertos o cerrados, dirija la atencin a sus movimientos respiratorios. Muy
posiblemente comprobar que la parte del cuerpo que se mueve es el pecho.
G Coloque una o dos manos sobre la tripa. Tome aire lentamente por la nariz y compruebe que sus
manos se desplazan empujadas por el abdomen. Haga una pequea pausa y suelte el aire por la
boca, observe cmo sus manos vuelven a la postura inicial.
G Repita estos movimientos sin apresuramiento. Una respiracin muy profunda y rpida sera
negativa por el riesgo existente de hiperventilacin que explicamos anteriormente.
G Mantenga esta respiracin durante unos minutos. Aproveche este tiempo para repetirse
internamente algunas frases tranquilizadoras del tipo: "Me estoy tranquilizando", "No me va a
pasar nada", "Puedo dominarme", "Soy capaz de enfrentar la situacin", "Estoy exagerando mis
miedos", o cualquier otra que sea ms apropiada para ese momento.
Estos ejercicios puede realizarlos en su casa o lugar de trabajo, pero tambin es posible llevarlos a cabo
de forma discreta en lugares pblicos como transportes o incluso haciendo la compra en un
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supermercado. Si est sentado, concntrese en su respiracin, ponga la mano sobre la tripa y repita para
s mismo que va a tranquilizarse. Si est andando o empujando un carro de compra, concntrese
igualmente en su respiracin, desentindase de lo que estaba haciendo hasta entonces por unos
momentos e intente sugestionarse con la idea de que se est tranquilizando. Si est solo, puede quitarse
los zapatos para sentir el suelo bajo los pies y notar su propio equilibrio. Si desea puede abrir los brazos
y extenderlos con los hombros hacia atrs al tomar el aire, para posteriormente flexionarse hacia
adelante al expulsarlo. Otra posibilidad es tumbarse sobre una alfombra o moqueta manteniendo un libro
ligero sobre la tripa, lo que le permitir concentrase en sus movimientos hacia arriba y abajo.
Recuerde que utilice la tcnica que utilice, es muy importante que se concentre sobre la entrada y salida
de aire y sus movimientos respiratorios, mientras se sugestiona repitindose frases tranquilizadoras.

Relajacin muscular general.
Esta tcnica permite al organismo disminuir el estado de tensin mantenido por la ansiedad y que puede
acabar en diversas contracturas y agarrotamientos musculares, as como un estado de tensin mental que
disminuye parte de sus capacidades. Existen varias tcnicas de relajacin muscular, aqu le proponemos
una de ellas basada en la contraccin-relajacin progresiva de los diferentes grupos musculares. No se
desanime si en algn momento, sobre todo los primeros das, no consigue relajarse lo suficiente.
Dedique todos los das entre 10-15 minutos a la maana y la tarde a relajarse. Hacer una pausa y dedicar
unos minutos para Vd. mismo seguro que no le puede hacer dao verdad?.
Elija un momento y ambiente en que previsiblemente no vaya a ser interrumpido. Sultese la ropa que
pueda oprimirle y qutese los zapatos, anillos, reloj o pendientes. Tmbese boca arriba sobre una
superficie firme no demasiado dura y si quiere apoye la cabeza sobre un cojn no muy alto. Coloque los
brazos a lo largo del cuerpo cmodamente con las palmas hacia abajo. Las piernas extendidas y
ligeramente separadas sin cruzarlas.
Puede acompaarse o no de msica ambiental no demasiado estridente segn sus preferencias. Si se
encuentra en su lugar de trabajo posiblemente no pueda tomar todas las disposiciones apuntadas
anteriormente, pero si lo piensa seguro que encuentra un lugar donde poder relajarse sentado durante 5-
10 minutos. No deje de realizar los ejercicios por pereza o una aparente falta de resultados inmediatos.
Una vez dispuesto a relajarse cierre los ojos e inicie la tcnica de respiracin profunda descrita
anteriormente durante un par de minutos, mientras se sugestiona con la frase "voy a relajarme". Una vez
conseguido un ritmo respiratorio adecuado es deseable que se mantenga a lo largo de toda la sesin de
relajacin. A continuacin vaya recorriendo las diversas partes del cuerpo mentalmente segn las
instrucciones que le damos seguidamente y que antes tendr que haberse aprendido. Existen tambin en
el mercado cintas de cassette grabadas que pueden dirigirle en sus primeras sesiones. Posteriormente
seguro que podr realizar los ejercicios de forma casi automtica.
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G Extienda los pies tanto como pueda doblando los dedos hacia delante. Sienta la tensin durante
unos instantes y relaje los msculos disfrutando de ese alivio. Reptalo dos o tres veces. Relaje
por ltima vez sus pies.
G Respire profunda y pausadamente un par de veces para recuperar el ritmo respiratorio antes de
proseguir con el siguiente grupo muscular. Haga esto cada vez que termine con una parte de su
cuerpo antes de empezar con la siguiente.
G Contraiga con fuerza la pantorrilla. Sienta la tensin y su alivio dos o tres veces. No es necesario
aqu que mueva o flexione sus piernas, slo pngalas en tensin. Suba hacia arriba y contraiga
ahora los muslos, sienta la tensin y su alivio, haga lo mismo con las nalgas. Respire
pausadamente un par de veces.
G Contraiga y relaje la parte inferior de la espalda dos o tres veces, concntrese en sus sensaciones.
Respire pausadamente e imagine que sus piernas pesan ms. Al irse relajando notar que se
apoyan ms sobre el suelo, como si realmente pesaran ms. Respire pausadamente y permanezca
as unos momentos disfrutando de la sensacin.
G Es el turno del abdomen. Ponga dura la tripa con fuerza, reljese, repita el ejercicio. Respire e
imagneselo cada vez ms flojo.
G Ahora pase a los puos, cirrelos con fuerza firmemente, reljelos. Contraiga con fuerza los
msculos del brazo, no es necesario que los doble aunque puede hacerlo si lo desea, sienta la
tensin, reljelos, repita el ejercicio. Recupere la respiracin pausada y profunda imaginando que
sus brazos cada vez pesan ms, descansando sobre el suelo. Disfrute de esta sensacin.
G Levante con fuerza los hombros y djelos caer. Sienta la tensin y la relajacin. Respire.
G Contraiga las paletillas de la espalda con fuerza dos o tres veces, observe sus sensaciones.
Respire.
G Contraiga la nuca y reljela. Gire el cuello a la derecha y reljelo. Gire el cuello a la izquierda y
reljelo.
G Contraiga y relaje con fuerza los diferentes msculos de la cabeza. Arrugue la frente, arquee las
cejas, cierre con fuerza los ojos, arrugue la nariz, apriete las mandbulas, apriete los labios, pegue
con fuerza la lengua al paladar. Respire profundamente y disfrute al sentir cmo su cabeza cada
vez pesa ms hundindose sobre el cojn o suelo.
G Recorra mentalmente su cuerpo, puede notar cierta sensacin de pesadez o ligero calor. Reptase
en este momento "estoy tranquilo/a".
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G Para terminar, vaya moviendo lentamente sus brazos y piernas. Abra los ojos y levntese
lentamente, si se incorpora de forma brusca podra llegar a marearse ligeramente.


9.4 QUE PUEDO HACER PARA MEJORAR MI SUEO?

Tenga en cuenta que el sueo es un estado natural y necesario para la recuperacin del organismo que se
repite en ciclos. Estos ciclos pueden ir desajustndose imperceptiblemente, como un reloj que atrasa o
adelanta, por lo que es fundamental que sea especialmente cuidadoso en el mantenimiento de ese ciclo.
1.- La cantidad de sueo necesario vara de persona a persona, incluso para una misma persona puede
haber temporadas en que un menor tiempo de sueo puede ser suficiente. En general, con la edad se
duerme menos horas con un sueo algo ms ligero y ms despertares a lo largo de la noche. Tambin
pueden aparecer algunas alteraciones como son los ronquidos y contracciones de piernas o brazos.
2.- Permanezca en cama el tiempo justo. Si pasa ms tiempo del necesario en la cama puede aumentar el
sueo superficial y fragmentado. Reduzca el tiempo que permanece en cama.
3.- Evite las siestas, ya que alteran el ritmo corporal del sueo.
4.- Levntese siempre a la misma hora. De esta forma favorecer la regularidad del sueo. Aunque no
haya dormido bien, levntese, incluso en fines de semana.
5.- Asle lo mximo posible la habitacin de ruidos ambientales del exterior. El doble acristalamiento o
unos cortinones pesados pueden ser una solucin.
6.- Ponga un especial cuidado con la temperatura de la habitacin, que deseablemente no ha de ser muy
alta o muy baja. De madrugada (4 5 de la maana) la temperatura corporal es mnima.
7.- Dormir con sensacin de hambre o tras una gran cena puede ser ms difcil. Mtase en la cama un
rato despus de una cena ligera. Un vaso de leche templada antes de acostarse puede ayudarle a dormir
mejor.
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8.- Si bebe mucho a ltima hora de la tarde puede que tenga que levantarse varias veces a orinar durante
la noche. Tampoco es aconsejable no beber nada, ya que la boca seca puede tambin alterar la calidad
del sueo.
9.- Las bebidas con cafena, sobre todo si son tomadas a lo largo de la tarde, alteran el sueo incluso en
personas que creen que no les afecta. El tabaco tambin produce alteraciones del sueo.
10.- El alcohol puede favorecer el inicio del sueo, pero lo altera de forma importante. De cualquier
forma no lo consuma si est en tratamiento con frmacos.
11.- El ejercicio fsico regular mejora el sueo. El ejercicio ocasional o extremo no lo favorece.
12.- Busque algo rutinario para hacer a la hora de acostarse, por ejemplo leer o hacer punto durante un
rato. Evite las actividades excitantes o que mantengan su atencin como son los programas de televisin.
13.- De cualquier forma, si hay das en que no consigue dormir tmelo con calma. El insomnio es
desagradable pero no especialmente peligroso. Si no puede dormir acptelo as, cuanto ms se excite
menos conseguir relajarse. Encienda la luz y haga algo poco interesante pero que le distraiga o
practique alguna tcnica de relajacin. No sirve para nada quedar dando vueltas en la cama
atormentndose con el pensamiento. Si hoy no duerme bien maana podr hacerlo mejor.



9.5 COMO INTENTO DEJAR DE VER LA BOTELLA MEDIO VACIA Y VERLA
MEDIO LLENA?

No es infrecuente que una persona aquejada de un trastorno de angustia se muestre pesimista y tienda a
rumiar cada pequeo aspecto de la vida desde una negra perspectiva, imaginando dificultades
insalvables y anticipando siempre desenlaces fatales. Esta predisposicin puede verse adems agravada
por un estado depresivo aadido o por caractersticas de personalidad previa.
Es importante que se mentalice acerca de que en muchas ocasiones est exagerando y dando demasiada
importancia a temas que no la tienen. Muy posiblemente esto tambin ya lo sabe, aunque se siente
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incapaz de frenar esos pensamientos. Intente ver algunos aspectos positivos de su vida y valrelos. No se
de por vencido, enfrente sus dificultades y ver como a medio plazo la confianza y satisfaccin con Vd.
mismo aumentan. Intente adems no abrumar a los que le rodean con sus preocupaciones, con ello solo
conseguir que poco a poco las personas cercanas se vayan distanciando y le califiquen de exagerado.
Haga un esfuerzo todos los das en este sentido.



9.6 COMO PUEDO SUPERAR EL MIEDO A SALIR DE CASA?

La respuesta ms contundente sera saliendo!. Pero parece ms conveniente que intente ir enfrentando
sus miedos de forma escalonada y sin excesivas prisas, aunque sin perder de vista que el objetivo ltimo
ser enfrentar en vivo y en directo aquellos lugares que ahora le asustan.
Aunque los consejos que se acompaan a continuacin pueden requerir de la intervencin de un
profesional para su mayor efectividad, es probable que puedan ayudarle si persevera en su aplicacin.
Recuerde que la superacin de la mayora de sus temores puede requerir incluso meses.
Podr empezar imaginando las situaciones temidas en casa. Para ello, reljese durante unos minutos y a
continuacin imagnese en un lugar que le atemorice, por ejemplo un supermercado, focalice su atencin
sobre el ambiente que puede existir en ese lugar, as como los primeros sntomas de ansiedad que
apareceran si estuviera realmente all. Permite que la ansiedad aumente pero no hasta niveles
insoportables. Desve entonces su atencin para una vez disminuida, volver a imaginarse la situacin.
El siguiente paso ser ir enfrentando gradualmente sus temores en vivo. Para ello, quizs necesite ir
acompaado los primeros das con una persona de su confianza. Plantese una estrategia escalonada de
consecucin de objetivos, marcndose claramente qu es lo que quiere conseguir. Para ello puede ser de
utilidad que dedique al principio un tiempo a reflejar por escrito todas aquellas actividades que le
generan cierta tensin y los objetivos concretos a alcanzar.
Lgicamente estos objetivos sern menos ambiciosos en un principio para ir aumentando en complejidad
en la medida que va superando etapas. Al principio puede ser suficiente conseguir salir de casa, pasear
por los alrededores, hacer un corto trayecto en un transporte pblico o hacer una compra en una tienda
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de los alrededores. Progresivamente ir aumentando la distancia de las salidas, la duracin de los
trayectos en transportes pblicos o las dimensiones de los locales donde puede hacer sus compras. En un
principio, esto deber ser posible hacerlo acompaado, aunque el objetivo final ser hacerlo solo.
Mrquese una tarea progresiva para practicarla diariamente. Por ejemplo, si ve que se encuentra
incapacitado para estar solo a ms de tres kilmetros de su domicilio, los pasos a recorrer podran ser: a)
Pasear acompaado hasta el punto en que empezara a sentir pnico. b) Repetir esos paseos con el
acompaante unos pasos por detrs. c) Realizar el paseo en "crculo", encontrndose con el compaero
en el punto prefijado. d) Pedir al compaero que le espere en determinado lugar. e) Salir Vd. primero y
esperar la llegada del otro. f) Salir a pasear solo mientras su compaero est en casa. g) Por ltimo,
pasear cuando ste se encuentre lejos.
Ciertamente estos ejercicios pueden parecer engorrosos o demasiado simples en un primer momento,
siendo sta la principal razn para su abandono o mala prctica a pesar de su efectividad. Otro riesgo
muy frecuente es querer "acelerar" el proceso con la consiguiente recada y reforzamiento posterior de
las conductas de evitacin. Por ejemplo: una persona con temor a los transportes pblicos, es posible que
no vea el sentido o la utilidad de viajar solo hasta la siguiente parada en su trayecto, as que cuando cree
que est un poco mejor decide hacer un largo recorrido. En el caso de que empiece a notar miedo segn
transcurren las paradas, decide abandonar o aguantarlo con grandes posibilidades de provocarse una
crisis de ansiedad. Esta ser para l la confirmacin de que es imposible que pueda montarse de nuevo
en ese medio.
Recuerde que necesita ir acostumbrndose y confiando de forma progresiva, aunque los pasos
intermedios parezcan carecer de sentido o utilidad. En la superacin de sus dificultades es necesaria
cierta "dosis" de miedo superable, pero no correr el riesgo de desencadenar el pnico.
Ayer pude exponerme a una situacin temida. Fui a almorzar con mis ex-compaeros de trabajo, no
solo eso, sino que sub a buscarlos a mi ex-trabajo y salud al Gerente. Al principio no fue bien, ya
que la ansiedad no me dejaba actuar libremente (senta que temblaba toda por dentro, se me
contracturaban las piernas y la mandbula y no poda respirar bien). En un momento casi salgo
corriendo... pero me qued. Despus de un rato de estar en la empresa, empec a sentirme ms
cmoda, luego fuimos a comer afuera con mis amigos y realmente lo pas muy bien, habl durante
toda la comida y me divert mucho. Despus me senta eufrica por haberlo realizado. Es realmente
asombroso cmo uno se tranquiliza en forma inmediata y se tiene ms confianza cuando logra
controlarse en una situacin temida. No por eso dejo de tener miedo a que me vuelvan a ocurrir esas
cosillas desagradables, pero me siento bien!. Esto es muy bueno. Para los que todava no se han
animado a enfrentarse con sus propios miedos, puedo asegurarles que vale la pena sentir el terror que
esto nos provoca, con el fn de verlo controlado. Creo que es una fantstica forma de superarlo!.
Ahora creo que todo se puede, aunque cueste mucho.
Mara, 33 aos.
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9.7 ES BUENO QUE ME RELACIONE CON OTRAS PERSONAS?

S. Es un aspecto que debe cuidar especialmente. Muchas personas con trastorno de angustia tienden a
recluirse en casa por temor a las crisis o a evitar los contactos sociales por miedo a aparecer como ms
dbiles, hacer el ridculo o sentirse incmodos o inseguros en este tipo de relaciones.
Las relaciones de amistad y sociales proporcionan al ser humano un importante sentimiento de
compaa, aumenta la autoestima, ayuda a ampliar y relativizar nuestros puntos de vista, as como es una
de las ms accesibles fuentes de ayuda, tanto material como afectiva. Compartir parte de su tiempo con
alguna persona de confianza no solo puede ser de gran utilidad para motivarle a salir de casa o ayudarle
a enfrentar situaciones que le apuran, adems es una buena manera de distraerse y le da la posibilidad de
desahogarse en aquellos temas que quiz no pueda o no quiera comentar en casa. Pero recuerde que las
amistades no slo estn para ayudarle, sino que tambin Vd. va a poder ayudarles y acompaarles.
Sentirse til y comprobar lo importante que puede llegar a ser para los dems, as como valorar
positivamente todo lo que puede llegar a hacer desinteresadamente por ellos va a ser una manera muy
agradable de aumentar su autoestima y poner a prueba sus propios recursos personales.
Estos consejos son especialmente importantes si Vd. se trata de una ama de casa que no trabaja fuera de
casa. En muchas personas el trabajo suele ser una de las fuentes de contactos sociales. Este tipo de
relaciones, sin llegar a reunir todas las caractersticas de lo que entendemos como "amistades", permiten
confrontar opiniones, intercambiar experiencias y puntos de vista, as como servir de apoyo mutuo en
ocasiones difciles. Sin embargo, la persona que trabaja exclusivamente en casa pasa muchas horas sola
y en el caso de salir fuera mantiene nicamente contactos espordicos y superficiales con otras personas.
Estos contactos, que antes al menos se vean facilitados por el tamao de las ciudades y la necesidad de
comprar diariamente productos perecederos en pequeos comercios de barrio, cada vez son ms difciles
de establecer, debido al aumento del vecindario y la proliferacin de grandes superficies comerciales,
ms impersonales y que hacen innecesario la compra regular de pequeas cantidades de alimentos
bsicos. Por este motivo, es muy importante que recapacite si ste puede ser su caso. No dude entonces
en buscar soluciones a travs de grupos deportivos, educativos o culturales, donde podr entrar en
contacto con otras personas adems de desarrollar otras facetas de su persona. No descuide tampoco las
oportunidades para quedar con otras mujeres que pueden nacer en la parada del autobs de sus hijos o en
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una "degustacin". Se ver sorprendida de la diferente calidad de vida que puede llegar a tener si es
capaz de salir del crculo exclusivo de las relaciones familiares y del hogar.
Creo que muchos de nosotros percibimos la soledad como el pan de cada dia. Uno quisiera
simplemente que te tomaran de la mano, que te acariciaran y no te digan nada, solamente que estn
all. Pero la convivencia exige muchas cosas y entre dar y dar tambin se espera recibir. En mi caso
no es tan malo, tengo mi pareja pero siempre tengo en mi pensamiento que tal vez de alguna otra
forma dependa demasiado de l y se que no es bueno. El sabe de mi problema y me ayuda, pero es
difcil que comprenda totalmente esta enfermedad y, aunque yo no quiera, en el fondo tengo que
ocultar algunas cosas. Es difcil.
Isabel, 36 aos.



9.8 DEBO PRESTAR ALGUNA ATENCION ESPECIAL A MI FAMILIA?

S, por muchos motivos. Su propio estado puede a la larga generar cierta tensin familiar, como en
cualquier caso donde alguno de los miembros no se encuentra bien o tiene algn problema. Vd. va a
necesitar mucho del apoyo y comprensin de sus familiares ms cercanos, pero entienda que tambin
ellos tienen sus propias necesidades y que en todo caso pueden verse desbordados o desorientados
acerca de la mejor forma de ayudarle. Si adems, su carcter se ha alterado mostrndose ms irritable,
quejoso, exigente o crtico, puede que su familia no llegue a aceptarlo totalmente. Tambin puede ser
que aparezca como retrado y reservado y sea visto como desentendindose de los problemas cotidianos
familiares.
Sea el caso que sea, hable con su familia lo ms directa y sinceramente que pueda y dgales claramente
el tipo de ayuda que necesitara en ese momento. Si cree que no llegan a entender totalmente lo que le
pasa, utilice este mismo manual para explicrselo, pero entienda y asuma por su parte que el hecho de
"estar enfermo" no le va a justificar totalmente en todas sus demandas de atencin por justificadas que
puedan ser para Vd. mismo.
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Tenga en cuenta adems que a pesar de estar en este momento muy necesitado de ayuda, sigue habiendo
muchas cosas que puede seguir haciendo por ellos. Preocuparse, atender y dedicar un tiempo de forma
altruista a su familia es una de las mejores formas de aumentar su autoestima.
Por otra parte, algunas de las dificultades familiares que pudieran aparecer en estos momentos quiz no
sean ms que reflejo de algunos roces mal resueltos, que venan arrastrndose con anterioridad y que
ahora se destapan ms claramente en forma de crisis, coincidente con sus propios sntomas. Piense que,
como en toda crisis, en general todo el mundo tiene su parte de razn, considere seriamente los puntos
de vista de los dems, exponga con tranquilidad sus opiniones y sobre todo intente que por su parte no
llegue a romperse nunca la posibilidad de seguir dialogando. Si en algn momento llegan a discutir
acaloradamente, retome con posterioridad el tema con el nimo de solucionarlo. Si es necesario pida
opiniones o intermediacin a personas de su confianza.
Muchos de nosotros, agorafbicos, hemos visto como s e alejaban de nosotros seres queridos
(familiares, amigos, pareja...) por no comprender la situacin. No se trata ya de buscar culpables o
vctimas, no es ese el punto; es bastante razonable ese alejamiento, ya que cuando nos invitan por
aos a salir, a pescar, a cualquier actividad de aquellas que nos exponga a la situacin temida, y
nosotros respondemos invariablemente con una excusa (generalmente, una mentira piadosa), bien
pueden pensar que nuestra negativa pasa por el desinters o por el desprecio.
Estar en nosotros saber cmo explicar esta situacin del modo mas claro posible, no para obtener
compasin, por supuesto, sino para reclamar un poco de paciencia. Recordemos que a nosotros
mismos nos cuesta muchsimo reconocer nuestra enfermedad como tal.
Alberto, 40 aos.




9.9 QUE CONSEJOS U ORIENTACIONES SE PUEDEN DAR A LOS QUE ME
RODEAN?
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Quizs pueda ser de utilidad que les pida que lean este Manual. Muchas veces las personas del entorno
inmediato no llegan a aceptar o entender totalmente la importancia o gravedad del trastorno por angustia
en un ser querido por varias razones:
- Desconocimiento de la existencia de este tipo de cuadros.
- Dificultades emocionales en ellos mismos al no poder soportar el sufrimiento de un ser querido,
utilizndose entonces la tcnica del avestruz negando la existencia del problema o creyendo que slo se
trata de una cuestin de falta de voluntad o exageracin.
- Alteracin de los hbitos familiares y aumento de la carga percibida por los seres cercanos.
- Posible percepcin por parte de ellos de que quizs est sacando algunas ventajas de su situacin,
como por ejemplo no asumir determinadas responsabilidades dentro del hogar o recibir ms atenciones
de su entorno. Evidentemente un trastorno por angustia nunca va a explicarse exclusivamente como una
forma de llamar la atencin o de desentenderse de sus obligaciones, incluso puede estar indicado que
parte de todo ello se asuma como un aspecto necesario para la superacin del problema. Discuta con sus
familiares sus dificultades y necesidad personal de apoyo y cario, pero est abierto tambin a
considerar la justeza de algunas de sus quejas. En toda enfermedad puede existir su parte de ganancia
secundaria, que puede ser explotada. Un ejemplo caracterstico son las pequeas dolencias infantiles que
se acompaan indefectiblemente de algn da sin escuela, comidas de capricho, algn que otro regalito
sin importancia y la posibilidad de ver la tele tumbadito en la cama de los padres o arropado en la butaca
de la sala.
Solicite abiertamente la comprensin y cario de los que le rodean ya que necesita ser alentado, apoyado
e incluso gratificado con pequeos detalles que refuercen sus progresos, adems de cierta paciencia en
caso de recadas o aparente lentitud en la evolucin. Sin embargo, no espere que los dems hagan todo
por Vd., evitando exagerar la necesidad de cuidados, ya que todo ello lo nico que har es entorpecer su
evolucin.
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Recibir informacin sobre este problema me parece de gran utilidad, sobre todo porque me ha
aclarado una importante serie de conceptos que me han ayudado a comprender la enfermedad que
actualmente tiene mi familiar, y de alguna manera me ha ayudado a encuadrar su ansiedad dentro de
un determinado grupo. Actualmente est pasando por una fase de "miedo al miedo", debido a que hace
un ao tuvo una fase de ataques de ansiedad muy seguidos y muy fuertes que la sumieron en un
perodo de baja de entre tres y cuatro meses. Aunque actualmente tiene miedo a que dicho ataque
pueda repetirse, tan solo quedan leves retazos en la memoria y su futuro se presenta bastante bien. En
fin, supongo que debemos vivir con ello y seguir luchando para intentar conseguir una cierta
estabilidad en lo que a la ansiedad se refiere.
Un familiar.



9.10 PUEDO HACER EJERCICIO?

Puede y debe hacer ejercicio. El tipo de ejercicio ms indicado para cada persona viene matizado por su
estado de salud general as como sus preferencias. En caso de que no est acostumbrado, es preferible
que empiece con un ejercicio suave hasta ir ponindose en forma. En cualquier caso, no realice deportes
extremadamente violentos ni llegue a un sobreesfuerzo importante si no est preparado para ello. Esto
no est indicado para nadie pero adems puede ser que en el caso del trastorno de angustia, la persona se
asuste al comprobar que su frecuencia cardaca aumenta con el esfuerzo y tema la aparicin de una
crisis. Empiece progresivamente, si nota que su pulso se acelera no se alarme, piense que es lo normal
con el ejercicio, disminuya si quiere un poco el esfuerzo y siga a continuacin.
Si no realiza algn deporte con asiduidad no pretenda hacerlo a partir de ahora solo y por su cuenta, ya
que corre el riesgo de abandonar su prctica rpidamente. Es mejor que se "fuerce" a realizarlo
quedando a una hora determinada con algn amigo o compaero o bien acuda a un gimnasio o
polideportivo. De esta forma, adems de ser ms difcil que lo deje debido al compromiso, se ajustar a
unas horas determinadas, obligndose a planificar mejor su tiempo y tendr ms oportunidades de
socializarse. Todo ello no tiene nada que ver con hacer ejercicio, pero sin duda que son beneficios
aadidos muy importantes.
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9.11 ES CONVENIENTE QUE SIGA ALGUN TIPO DE DIETA ESPECIAL?

No, a excepcin de aquella que se le haya podido recomendar por otros motivos como la hipertensin,
colesterol o sobrepeso. Sin embargo, s es conveniente que recuerde que una dieta variada y equilibrada,
rica en alimentos frescos y fibra, de bajo contenido graso y azcares con moderacin, est indicada para
mantener un buen estado de salud en general. Adems, en el caso del trastorno por angustia, una mayor
atencin a este tipo de dieta puede estar indicado por varios motivos. Si existe tendencia a permanecer
en casa por el temor a la crisis, adems de aumentar la posibilidad de picar entre horas, se disminuye de
forma importante el ejercicio realizado y por consiguiente el aporte de caloras necesario. Adems, no es
infrecuente que si existe adems cierta alteracin aadida del estado de nimo, apetezcan ms un tipo de
alimentos que otros, siendo generalmente los menos saludables, con un alto contenido en grasas y
azcares los que ms se consumen. Esto es muy evidente en el caso del chocolate, que muchas personas
tienden a consumir de forma exagerada en perodos de mayor alteracin del nimo.
No se trata de que no se d ningn "capricho" si le apetece, pero tenga en cuenta que si abusa de los
caprichos corre un gran riesgo de engordar, lo que puede disminuir su autoestima en un momento que la
necesita mucho.
Si est tomando adems medicamentos, algunos de ellos pueden hacer que tienda a ganar peso y
causarle cierto estreimiento, por lo que la importancia de una dieta equilibrada y rica en fibra cobra una
importancia mxima.
Atencin especial merecen las bebidas estimulantes como el caf, t y refrescos de cola. Si bien parece
oportuno aconsejar que no se tomen en absoluto, en todo caso su consumo siempre ha de ser moderado y
nunca por la tarde, ante el riesgo de alteracin del sueo que conllevan. Tenga mucho cuidado de no
intentar contrarrestar los efectos de una posible somnolencia debida al uso de medicamentos mediante
caf. Si ste es su caso, consulte con su mdico, ya que una disminucin o redistribucin de la dosis
recetada puede ser suficiente.
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No se si le sucede a Uds, pero en mi caso el caf y todo lo que tiene que ver con la cafena no lo puedo
tolerar. Tomar caf es para mi tener definitivamente un ataque de angustia y, lo peor, prolongado. No
es que no me guste, ya que me encanta. Me doy a veces el gusto, pero cuando estoy en mi casita,
porque he tenido experiencias no muy agradables.
Isabel, 36 aos.



9.12 PUEDO TOMAR BEBIDAS ALCOHOLICAS?

No si est tomando medicacin, ya que pueden potenciarse entre s algunos de sus efectos. A pesar de
que la abstinencia est indicada desde el punto de vista mdico, ante situaciones sociales concretas,
como festividades y celebraciones especiales, podra dar algn sorbo de bebidas de baja graduacin
(vino, champn) para "brindar", si no toma dosis excesivamente altas de medicacin. Recuerde que esto
no es darle carta blanca para beber grandes cantidades, sino permitirle actuar "socialmente", alejando de
Vd. la imagen de enfermo. En estos casos, intente distanciar entre s lo mximo posible, pero sin alterar
mucho, su horario habitual entre la dosis de medicacin y la bebida.
No beba ms que una pequea cantidad a sorbos cortos y con el estmago lleno (lo ms prudente es que
discuta todo esto con su mdico). No suspenda la toma de medicacin para poder as beber en estas
ocasiones, podra precipitar un estado mayor de ansiedad si disminuye demasiado la concentracin del
frmaco en su organismo.
Si no toma medicacin puede beber de forma moderada y prudente, si su estado de salud general no lo
desaconseja. Tenga especial cuidado con el consumo de bebidas alcohlicas, ya que es muy frecuente
que aumente con los perodos de mayor ansiedad, al utilizarse consciente o inconscientemente como un
mal remedio casero contra ella. Recuerde que la frecuencia de personas con abuso o dependencia del
alcohol aumenta entre las personas con trastorno de angustia.

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9.13 COMO PUEDO SABER SI ESTOY BEBIENDO DEMASIADO?

Esta pregunta resulta muy difcil de responder de forma genrica, ya que depende de muchos factores,
como pueden ser el peso, edad, sexo y estado de salud general. Discuta sus dudas con su mdico. Si
quiere tener una orientacin aproximada en torno al riesgo que presenta su forma de beber, responda
sinceramente "Si" o "No" a las siguientes cuestiones:
1.- Ha tenido alguna vez la impresin de que debera beber menos?.
2.- Le ha molestado alguna vez la gente criticndole su forma de beber?.
3.- Se ha sentido alguna vez mal o culpable por su costumbre de beber?.
4.- Alguna vez lo primero que ha hecho por la maana ha sido beber para calmar sus nervios o para
librarse de una resaca?.
El anterior cuestionario fue diseado en Estados Unidos (Ewing, 1970) y validado posteriormente en
Espaa (A. Rodrguez Martos, R. Surez 1984; A. Rodrguez Martos, 1986). Aunque no tiene un
objetivo estrictamente diagnstico, si es muy sensible para detectar a aquellas personas en riesgo de
presentar problemas con el alcohol. Si ha respondido positivamente a una de las preguntas es muy
posible que est bebiendo en exceso. Si son dos o tres las respuestas positivas, casi con toda
probabilidad el alcohol est siendo un problema. No se ponga disculpas y busque el remedio necesario.
Cuatro respuestas positivas pueden ser diagnsticas de alcoholismo.
Como regla general se considera abstemia aquella persona que nunca ha consumido grandes cantidades
de forma habitual, aunque lo haga ocasionalmente en pequeas cantidades. Bebedor leve o moderado es
el varn que consume menos de 40 gramos de alcohol al da (280 gr /semana) o la mujer que consume
menos de 24 gr /da (168 gr /semana). Bebedor excesivo o de riesgo es aquella persona que sobrepasa
los lmites anteriores. El clculo de los gramos de alcohol que contiene una bebida se realiza de forma
sencilla mediante la siguiente frmula:
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Gramos de alcohol ingerido = 0.8 X centmetros cbicos de bebida X
grados/100
En la tabla que sigue a continuacin, se presentan unas equivalencias orientativas para el clculo de la
cantidad total de alcohol consumido en un determinado perodo.
BEBIDA GRADOS CANTIDAD GRAMOS
CERVEZA
4 Quinto 6.4

Tercio 10.7

Litro 32
VINO
12 Vaso (100 cc) 9.6

Litro 96
VERMUT
16 Copa (50 cc) 6.4
OPORTO, JEREZ
20 Copa (50 cc) 8
LICOR DULCE
30 Copa (50 cc) 12
COAC, GINEBRA, RON, VODKA, WHISKY
40 Copa (50 cc) 16
Equivalencias en gramos de alcohol por bebida



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9.14 PUEDO FUMAR?

Por poder s, pero no debe, como el resto de la poblacin. En el caso de las personas ansiosas el riesgo
del tabaco es an mayor, ya que se tiende a aumentar de forma importante su consumo. Recuerde
adems que el tabaco puede alterar la estructura del sueo. En el caso de no poder dejar de fumar o no
desear hacerlo por el motivo que sea, mantngase alerta ante el aumento en su consumo, buscando al
menos disminuir la cantidad total de cigarrillos diarios, no apurarlos hasta el filtro, apagndolos a la
mitad y no aspirar con fuerza su humo.



9.15 QUE PUEDO HACER PARA MEJORAR MI SEXUALIDAD?

Como vimos en el captulo 5, la sexualidad puede afectarse por diferentes motivos. El primer consejo
general en este sentido es doble.
Por una parte no intente "forzar" la situacin, de esta forma solo conseguir empeorarla. Para mantener
relaciones satisfactorias es necesario una gran dosis de espontaneidad en ellas, es muy difcil conseguir
una relacin plena mientras la cabeza est ocupada pensando si se conseguir o no o si se llegar a "dar
la talla" o satisfacer totalmente a la pareja. De esta forma es ms probable que el impulso se inhiba o
llegue incluso a evitarse por temor al fracaso.
Por otra, comente sus dificultades con su pareja. Explquele que su aparente "desinters" no es debido a
un alejamiento afectivo, sino a su propio estado personal. Aclarar esta situacin les permitir enfrentar
las posibles dificultades en este campo con mayor naturalidad y paciencia. Recuerde adems que no es
necesario que siempre los dos miembros de la pareja lleguen a la satisfaccin completa, adems de que
en muchas ocasiones puede ser necesario un perodo de "calentamiento" ms dilatado de lo que
habitualmente se requera con anterioridad.
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En el caso de que sus dificultades vengan derivadas directamente del temor a sufrir una crisis durante la
relacin sexual, por un incremento del ritmo cardaco o de la respiracin, puede actuar como hemos
aconsejado con cualquier otro temor. Tmese un tiempo sufiente para ir enfrentando poco a poco sus
sensaciones, si considera que se est activando demasiado, comntelo con su pareja y descanse un rato.
Una vez recuperado un mayor control de la situacin, prosiga con la relacin. Si el primer da no lo
consigue, no se desanime, puede ser lgico. Como hemos comentado, para tener una relacin
plenamente satisfactora es necesaria cierta espontaneidad que evidentemente estar algo disminuida en
un principio.
Por ltimo, en caso de aparecer dificultades en este sentido, no dude en comentarlas con su mdico. Este
no slo podr orientarle y tranquilizarle, sino que valorar la posibilidad de modificar su tratamiento
farmacolgico si se considerara que este puede influir en su sexualidad. Nunca abandone un tratamiento
por su cuenta por este motivo sin haberlo consultado antes con su mdico.



[Inicio] [1. Introduccin]
[2. Definiciones] [2.2.1 Ejemplo de Sntomas][2.2.2 Ejemplo de Pensamientos][2.7.1 Ejemplo de Fobias]
[3. Frecuencia][4. Causas][5. Riesgos] [6. Frmacos][7. Psicoterapia][8. Autoayuda]
[9. Estrategias de superacin][10. Recursos en Internet] [11. ][12. Autoevaluacin]
[13. Casos]
1997 - 1999 Dr. Oscar Martnez Azumendi. Permitida su reproduccin, siempre que esta no tenga fines
econmicos y se cite su procedencia. Cualquier comentario o sugerencia ser bien recibido, aunque teniendo la
pgina un nimo mramente informativo no podrn responderse consultas particulares.

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La Crisis de
ansiedad
10. Recursos en Internet
Pgina adherida a los Principios del Cdigo
HONcode de Health On the Net Foundation

Como era de esperar, las posibilidades de consulta en relacin con el tema son muchsimas.
Empec a recoger aquellas que iba encontrando, hasta que me di cuenta que la lista se haca interminable
y que poca utilidad iba a tener (a no ser que se disponga de horas y horas de consulta, y al final tampoco
queda nada en claro). Me decid entonces a elegir las que me parecieron ms importantes. Las primeras
en descartar fueron aquellas que presentaban un contenido claramente comercial (clnicas, consultorios,
compaas farmacuticas, ventas de aparatos de relajacin...), la mayor parte con informaciones
sesgadas e incluso alguna claramente parcial y dirigida hacia sus propios intereses.
Desafortunadamente, todava, casi todo est en ingls. Un cierto nmero de pginas en castellano se
encuentran relacionadas entre si formando PAN-illo. Todas ellas forman un "anillo", del que esta
pgina es propietaria y promotora, con el fin de facilitar la navegacin a personas interesadas. Las
pginas participantes son reconocibles por incluir todas ellas lo siguiente:
Esta pgina forma parte del anillo contra el pnico y
agorafobia: PAN-illo
[5 Sitios atrs | Anterior | Siguiente | 5 Sitios adelante | Sitio al
azar | Listado de Sitios ]
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(PAN-illo est en desarrollo en la actualidad. Si desea que su pgina Web participe, pulse aqu)

(Pulse "Listado de Sitios" para un listado actualizado hasta este momento)

Al final se ha incluido un "buscador" mdico con el que poder ampliar cualquier informacin
relacionada, adems de un formulario para comunicar posibles enlaces que pudieran ser citados
aqu.

Es posible que con el tiempo la lista pueda haber quedado algo anticuada y lo que es muy seguro
es que existir un mayor nmero de pginas interesantes que las aqu recogidas.

Para empezar (y casi terminar) las ms completas en ingls:
Anxiety Panic internet resource (tAPIr). http://www.algy.com/anxiety/
Quizs la mejor que encontr al principio. Punto de partida ideal para empezar la navegacin el no
profesional. Mantenida por voluntarios, con alguna ayuda econmica comercial. Cantidad de
informacin, consejos, enlaces con "chats" especficos donde poder comunicar con otras personas con
ansiedad o pnico. Infinidad de enlaces relacionados con el tema.
Anxiety-Panic.com http://anxiety-panic.com/default.cfm
"Buscador" de pginas relacionadas con el tema.
Panic Disorder. http://panicdisorder.miningco.com Muy completa y con muchos recursos de apoyo.
Hay una seccin de enlaces, "no en ingls", que merece la pena vigilar.
Internet Mental Health. http://www.mentalhealth.com/dx/fdx-an01.html
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Muy completa. Enciclopedia gratuita de informacin sobre salud mental. Diseada por el psiquiatra
canadiense Dr. Phillip Long, y programada por su colega Brian Chow. En el enlace propuesto se aborda
el tema del trastorno de angustia, con informacin, diagnstico, tratamientos, enlaces... (esta direccin se
abre con un pequeo test diagnstico, si no se desea rellenar, simplemente se pincha en "Quit" y se
accede a los contenidos).
Anxiety Disorders Association of America http://www.adaa.org/
Informacin, recursos, enlaces...
En Espaol:
Agorafobia: http://www.geocities.com/HotSprings/Spa/9279/ Mantenida por "Charly". No pretende
tener un nimo excesivamente tcnico, pero con gran entusiasmo divulgativo y de apoyo. Promotora de
la Asociacin Agorafobia.
Enrique: http://www.geocities.com/HotSprings/5361/Agora.html Descripcin de vivencias personales
con la Agorafobia.

Otros idiomas:

Arthur Anderson: http://www.netaxs.com/people/aca3/
En ingls. Informacin de A.S.A.P. (grupo de noticias). El primer museo virtual de psicologa. Tiene un
diccionario, en espaol, con algunos trminos en relacin con el pnico y la ansiedad.
Cherri: http://www.geocities.com/HotSprings/1277/
En ingls. De 34 aos y con ataques de pnico desde los 6. Amplia informacin y consejos. Tiene un
grupo de apoyo. Tambin un "ChatRoom" (abierto los Domingos a las 6 pm CST).

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Otros recursos:

"Noticias" (News). Hay intercambios de informacin y apoyo muy valioso.
En Ingls, se puede suscribirse las "news" de "A.S.A.P." alt.support.anxiety-panic, muy visitada y
activa. Tambin alt.recovery.panic-anxiety.self-help, menos movida. Otra posibilidad, las BBS de
Anxiety Panic Internet resource (tAPIr) y Panic Disorder, citadas arriba.

"Tablones de anuncios". Donde cada persona puede dejar el suyo o intercambiar opiniones o
comentarios.
En esta misma pgina encontrar , a la que est invitado a visitar y participar.
La BBS de tAPIr. En ingls.

"Listas de discusin". Es necesario suscribirse con un sencillo trmite. Se reciben y envan
mensajes, a todos los miembros de la lista, a travs del correo electrnico. As puede intercambiarse
informacin, apoyo y aliento.

"Chats" (tertulias). Aqu se puede contactar, "en directo", con personas con problemticas
similares, intercambiar informacin, consultas...
En las pginas de Anxiety Panic Internet resource (tAPIr) y Panic disorder, citadas arriba, se
anuncian varias.
Tambin en el , de esta misma pgina, encontrar una opcin para realizar una tertulia en directo.
Es difcil coincidir con otras personas, pero puede intentar dejar una convocatoria en el tabln de
anuncios de "Assembly".
http://www.geocities.com/HotSprings/6333/10intern.html (4 of 7)04/03/2005 12:11:49
10intern.html
Esta otra, mantenida por Concerned Counseling tiene acceso pblico con carcter comercial.

Consultas puntuales. Ofertado en Espaol. Por el Dr. Jordi Mondragn.
Buscador de temas mdicos
Health On the Net Foundation
Medical Document Finder
World-Wide Medical Search
And Or Adj Free


Comunicacin de otros enlaces de inters
Si conoce otros enlaces de inters, le agradecera me lo comunicara para su
posible inclusin en esta pgina.
(Cada vez que rellene un campo no apriete "enter")
1) Nombre y apellidos
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2) Direccin URL:
3) Descripcin de la pgina y sus contenidos:

LOS MENSAJES LLEGAN SIN DIRECCION DEL REMITENTE (ANONIMOS). SI QUIERE,
ESCRIBA AQUI SU DIRECCION DE CORREO ELECTRONICO:
("No apriete"Enter")

GRACIAS POR SU VISITA

[Inicio] [1. Introduccin]
[2. Definiciones] [2.2.1 Ejemplo de Sntomas][2.2.2 Ejemplo de Pensamientos][2.7.1 Ejemplo de Fobias]
[3. Frecuencia][4. Causas][5. Riesgos] [6. Frmacos][7. Psicoterapia][8. Autoayuda]
[9. Estrategias de superacin][10. Recursos en Internet] [11. ][12. Autoevaluacin]
[13. Casos]

1997 - 1999 Dr. Oscar Martnez Azumendi. Permitida su reproduccin, siempre que esta no tenga fines
econmicos y se cite su procedencia. Cualquier comentario o sugerencia ser bien recibido, aunque teniendo la
pgina un nimo mramente informativo no podrn responderse consultas particulares.
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Leku Irekiak. Asociacin para la ayuda y divulgacin de la Agorafobia de la CAV.
Asociacin para la
Ayuda y Divulgacin
de la Agorafobia de la
Comunidad Autnoma
Vasca.





E- MAI L:
lekuirekiak@terra.es
Tel.: 94 4937833


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http://www.terra.es/personal6/lekuirekiak/04/03/2005 12:12:41
asociacion de enfermos de agorafobia

Principal
Que es la agorafobia
Presentacin
Asesoramiento tecnico
Servicios
Estatutos
ASOCIACION DE ENFERMOS DE
AGORAFOBIA
DE ALBACETE

Qu es la agorafobia?

Es un miedo aterrador a lo que pueda ocurrir cuando nos
encontramos en lugares pblicos, suele ir acompaado de
ansiedad. (Taquicardias, Mareos, Temblores, Ataques de
pnico, Sudoracin exagerada, Sensacin de ahogo, Etc...)


SI NECESITAS AYUDA, QUIERES COLABORAR COMO
VOLUNTARIO O QUIERES MS INFORMACIN LLMANOS:
A D E A
CENTRO DE OCIO Y CULTURA
C/ GABRIEL CISCAR, N 20
02005 ALBACETE
http://www.geocities.com/adealba_2000/ (1 of 2)04/03/2005 12:12:47
asociacion de enfermos de agorafobia
TELEFONO:
967 61 18 83 - 967 52 31 44




Nuestro e-mail



http://www.geocities.com/adealba_2000/ (2 of 2)04/03/2005 12:12:47
home2



Caminando Libres.

Esta es una pgina de informacin sobre trastornos de ansiedad en la que espero encontris
respuesta a algunas dudas que se os plantearan de forma casi automtica a todos aquellos
que padezcis un trastorno de este tipo.
Es sobre todo una luz de esperanza y una gua hacia los tratamientos que se han demostrado
ms eficaces contra este tipo de trastornos que empiezan a ser demasiado habituales en
nuestra sociedad y en nuestros das.
La agorafobia y la fobia social son seguramente los dos trastornos de ansiedad ms molestos
e incluso incapacitantes. Y seguramente los ms comunes, claro.
En el fondo el tratamiento de estos problemas se reduce a una cuestin de superacin
personal. Siempre el peso de la recuperacin recae en el sujeto y el punto de vista que este
tenga del problema es bsico para su recuperacin. De la misma forma que un marinero novato
cree que olas de dos metros pueden hundir su embarcacin en tanto que para uno veterano
olas de doce metros forman parte del paisaje, para una persona que padece estos trastornos
puede parecer que jams podr curarse porque percibe el problema con un tamao que no
tiene.
Es parte del trastorno. La ansiedad y el pnico se retroalimentan a si mismos continuamente y
constituyen un circulo del que es muy difcil salir si no se tienen una motivacin slida, una
orientacin clara, un tratamiento correcto y voluntad para llevarlo a feliz termino.
As es que espero que si os adentris en esta pgina os decidis a dar la batalla a la ansiedad
con todas las consecuencias.
Sern naturales los tropiezos, el desanimo que les acompaa, las recadas, etc, pero el premio
a la constancia suele ser la victoria y en este caso la misma es...la vida, que no es poco.

http://www.terra.es/personal/acm00000/ (1 of 2)04/03/2005 12:12:50
home2

ltima actualizacin 17 de diciembre de 2004.

Esta pgina forma parte del anillo contra el pnico y
agorafobia: PAN-illo
[5 Sitios atrs| AnteriorSiguiente5 Sitios adelante | Sitio al azar |
Listado de Sitios ]
PAN-illo est en desarrollo en la actualidad. Si desea que su pgina Web participe, pulse aqu

NOTA DEL AUTOR DE LA PGINA: Muchos os habris dado cuenta de que esta pgina era
antiguamente la pgina de la asociacin "Caminando Libres". En tanto la asociacin no
funcione como es debido y a pleno rendimiento esta pgina pasa a ser personal y me
responsabilizo del contenido de la misma con la salvedad de los vnculos a foros y contactos
personales que desconozco en su mayora.
Si tenis cualquier duda o sugerencia escribid a : acm00000@teleline.es


http://www.terra.es/personal/acm00000/ (2 of 2)04/03/2005 12:12:50
Agorafobia
Nos estamos mudando a
www.amadag.com

Sentimos las molestias, estamos registrando un dominio y
eso nos llevara un par de dias, pero esperamos que os
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Para contactar con nosotros pueden llamar:

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* 913567829 Secretara
El horario de secretaria es Martes, Mircoles, Jueves de 18:00 a 21:00



N visitantes
Para ponerse en contacto con nosotros a travs del e-mail:
amadag_asociacion@hotmail.com
Tambin pueden visitarnos directamente a nuestra direccin

C/ Martnez Izquierdo N 40 LOCAL (en horario de secretara)












Archivo noticias
http://es.geocities.com/rubencas2000/ (1 of 2)04/03/2005 12:12:56
Agorafobia






http://es.geocities.com/rubencas2000/ (2 of 2)04/03/2005 12:12:56
Problemas_de_ansiedad
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Reply
Recommend Message 1 of 4 in Discussion
From: ccaricia1957 (Original Message) Sent: 1/1/2004 1:37 PM
Hola!: Encontr esto que puede ser til para los que viven en Catalua:

ASOCIACIN CATALANA DE TRANSTORNOS DE
ANSIEDAD
> Grupos de autoayuda
Los objetivos de los grupos de autoayuda son los siguientes:
~ Tener la oportunidad de expresar los miedos que siente cada uno de los afectados teniendo el
convencimiento de que le van a comprender y a ayudar en todo cuanto sea posible ya que nadie le
entender mejor que una persona que siente las mismas angustias y problemas.
~ Escuchar puntos de vista de otros compaeros que sufren los mismos sntomas y comprobar que su
comportamiento es totalmente normal. Sobre todo ayuda a no sentirse ya ms un "bicho raro" e iniciar
una relacin con otras personas, sumamente enriquecedora.
~ Ver que el trastorno no corresponde en absoluto a un problema mental grave, que hay muchas
personas que lo padecen y tambin que con el debido tratamiento es posible superarlo.
> Grupos teraputicos
Autoestima: En este taller se encontraran las herramientas que nos ayudarn a incrementar la
capacidad de sentirnos bien con nosotros mismos y a afirmar nuestra personalidad.
Relajacin: En este taller se trabajarn las diversas formas de conseguir experimentar comodidad y
bienestar, siguiendo las indicaciones de un especialista.
Habilidades sociales: Se desarrollarn distintas habilidades, as como la manera de afrontar
comportamientos sociales.
Comunicacin: Se trabajarn diversas formas de comunicacin con los dems y se darn
herramientas para salvarlas con xito.
> Talleres
Cineterapia: En este taller se trabajar una lnea temtica de carcter psicoteraputico a partir de una
serie de filmes. Se tratar: la dependencia, el vnculo, el abandono, etc.
http://groups.msn.com/Problemasdeansiedad/general.msnw?action=get_message&mview=0&ID_Message=270&all_topics=0 (1 of 4)04/03/2005 12:13:05
Go
Problemas_de_ansiedad
Autoconocimiento por medio de la escritura: A travs de los distintos niveles, este taller se propone
dar los conocimientos precisos para conocer la propia personalidad, as como la de los dems, a travs
de la letra.
> Atencin telefnica
A travs de una lnea telefnica de ayuda pretendemos dar informacin y ayuda a aquellas personas
que estn sufriendo las primeras crisis de pnico o que ya han desarrollado la agorafobia.
Orientacin sobre centros de asistencia donde pueden dirigirse o la posibilidad de
compartir aquellas experiencias que les permitan entender mejor lo que les est
sucediendo y as afrontarlas mejor.
La lnea es atendida por personas que ya han pasado circunstancias parecidas y que podrn ofrecer una
mejor asistencia a los que est padeciendo el trastorno.
Existe tambin la posibilidad de contactar con un voluntario exagorafbico o exfbico social durante la
noche, mediante un mvil.
> Orientacin a las familias
De acuerdo con los objetivos de la Asociacin, organizamos unas charlas mensuales, conducidas por
psiclogos clnicos, dedicadas a las familias de los afectados, o a todas aquellas personas que conviven
con un agorafbico y desean conocer tanto la enfermedad como la mejor manera de interpretar o
conducirse frente a una situacin de crisis.
> Conferencias
La Asociacin confecciona un programa de conferencias a cargo de prestigiosos especialistas con la
finalidad de que se tenga siempre una informacin actualizada de las ltimas investigaciones y de los
puntos ms interesantes que ayuden a conocer los diferentes aspectos del trastorno.
> Servicio de voluntarios
Estamos organizando un servicio de voluntariado para acompaar a los asociados a su tratamiento
mdico o psicolgico, siempre y cuando sea ello imprescindible debido a las limitaciones de
desplazamiento que impone la agorafobia y siempre que la familia no pueda atender estas necesidades.
Telf. Asociacin 93 430 12 90 ~ aadabcn@suport.org
http://www.terra.es/personal/aadabcn/home.htm
First Previous 2-4 of 4 Next Last
Reply
Recommend Message 2 of 4 in Discussion
From: ccaricia1957 Sent: 1/1/2004 1:41 PM
Sigo poniendo asociaciones:
Asociacin Valenciana para la Ansiedad (AVA).
http://www.avansiedad.com
Valencia
620 01 50
99
636 52 44 01
info@avansiedad.com
Reply
Recommend Message 3 of 4 in Discussion
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Problemas_de_ansiedad
From: ccaricia1957 Sent: 1/2/2004 7:21 PM
http://es.geocities.com/rubencas2000/ ( Asociacin contra el pnico y agorafobia en
Madrid)
Reply
Recommend Message 4 of 4 in Discussion
From: ccaricia1957 Sent: 1/3/2004 1:53 PM
ANIMARSE A VIVIR:
Direccin postal: Polideportivo Gorki Grana. Santa Mara de Oro. 3530
Castelar. Buenos Aires. Argentina.
Telfono de contacto: 4623.1588 (Telfono particular de la coordinadora,
Patricia Mondrik) / 15.5.0292181
Direccin electrnica: No dispone de pgina web.
Correo electrnico: pamondrik@yahoo.com.ar
Asociacin Ayuda: Tratamiento y Recuperacin de los trastornos de Ansiedad:
Direccin postal: Mansilla 3624. Capital Federal. 1425 Buenos Aires.
Argentina.
Telfono de contacto: 4825-3838 / 4822-9966 / 4822-9306 (horario de
secretara: 10 a 13h y 14 a 20h)
Direccin electrnica: http://www.asociacionayuda.org
Correo electrnico: ayuda@asociacionayuda.org y a.ayuda@abaconet.com.
ar
Observaciones: Atiende todos los trastornos de ansiedad. Para trastorno de
pnico y agorafobia: zona Palermo, lunes y mircoles de 18 a 19:30h. Para fobia
social y otros trastornos: zona Palermo, viernes 18 hs
INTEGRA: Centro especializado en el tratamiento integral de la ansiedad:
Direccin postal: Vctor Hugo 45. Col. Anzures. Mxico, DF. CP 11590.
Telfono de contacto: 5254-5845, 5254-5619, 5254-5601, 5254-7410.
Direccin electrnica: http://www.integra-ansiedad.com
Correo electrnico: integra_ansiedad@hotmail.com
Observaciones: Se ocupa de todos los trastornos de ansiedad: agorafobia,
fobia social, pnico, ansiedad generalizada, trastorno obsesivo-compulsivo, etc.
Ofrecen servicios de clnica y de enseanza para especialistas. La institucin es la
primera a nivel especializado que existe en Mxico, fuera del Instituto Nacional de
Psiquiatra, donde no existe una clnica particular para trastornos de ansiedad.
JUNTOS PODEMOS:
Direccin postal: Sevilla.
Telfono de contacto: 657 632 020
Direccin electrnica: No dispone de pgina web.
Correo electrnico: No dispone de correo electrnico.
Observaciones: Se ocupa de trastornos de ansiedad en general.
First Previous 2-4 of 4 Next Last
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Informacin, apoyo y autoayuda, en espaol, para personas
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Red Interhispana de los Trastornos de Ansiedad
Red dirigida a todas aquellas personas que padecen cualquier trastorno
de ansiedad (agorafobia, fobia social, trastorno obsesivo compulsivo,
trastorno de pnico, ansiedad generalizada), a sus familiares y a
profesionales interesados.
Asociacin Andaluza de Agorafobia.
Pgina de la Asociacin Andaluza de Agorafobia. Esta pgina pretende
dar a conocer este trastorno y ofrecer ayuda a todas aquellas personas
que lo padezcan en la Comunidad Autnoma Andaluza.
Asociacion Catalana de Trastornos de Ansiedad
Diez aos en Barcelona promoviendo el tratamiento de los trastornos de
ansiedad: agorafobia, fobia social, ansiedad generalizada, trastorno
obsesivo compulsivo y depresin. Antigua AADA Camins Oberts
LA CRISIS DE ANSIEDAD, PANICO O ANGUSTIA (Y
AGORAFOBIA)
Informacin y apoyo sobre la crisis de ansiedad, pnico o angustia (y
agorafobia. para pacientes, familiares o profesionales no especializados.
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Enlaces
ACTAD
Asociacin Catalana de Ansiedad
Quines Somos?
Servicios ACTAD
Ansiedad
Agorafobia
Fobia Social
Trastorno Obsesivo Compulsivo
Depresin
Enlaces
Contacte con nosotros

ENLACES DE INTERS

En esta seccin publicamos los enlaces de inters enviados a ACTAD a travs del correo electrnico.
Escrbanos para sugerir su sitio favorito.
Todos los vnculos publicados a continuacin enlazan con documentos externos al portal de ACTAD. Por
tanto nuestra Asociacin no avala necesariamente todos sus contenidos, formatos e ideologas. La
responsabilidad en cuanto a su publicacin atae de forma exclusiva a sus respectivos autores.


psiquiatria24x7
pnlnet
psiquiatra.com
psicocentro
plnet
Sociedad Espaola para el Estudio de la Ansiedad y el Estrs
National Institute of Mental Health
PAN-illo
The Anxiety Panic Internet Resource
Anxiety-Panic.com.
Asociacin Americana de Psiquiatra
Salud Mental en Internet
National Institute of Mental Health
Asociacin Ayuda contra la ansiedad
Depression Screening.
MedlinePlus Enciclopedia Mdica: Estrs y ansiedad
Ansiedad y fobias
Ansiedad
Cmo controlar los ataques de ansiedad y stress.
Ansiedad, un problema que tiene solucin
Pnico
Qu es la ansiedad a hablar en pblico? Por qu se produce? ...
Ansiedad
Test Psicomtrico de Ansiedad
Alimentacin y ansiedad
Ansiedad - Glosario de los Sintomas
Escala de Ansiedad y Depresin de Goldberg
Trastorns d'Ansietat - Grups d'Ajuda Mtua
Ansiedad
Trastornos de ansiedad
ansiedad
Ansiedad, angustia
Ansiedad y depresin
Desrdenes de Pnico, Ataques de Pnico, Ansiedad Generalizada
http://www.actad.org/contact1.html (1 of 3)04/03/2005 12:13:20
Enlaces
Los trastornos de ansiedad en la prctica mdica general
La Red De La Ansiedad (The Anxiety Network)
NAMITrastornos de ansiedad - Anxiety Disorders
viatusalud
Trastornos de ansiedad
Trastornos de Ansiedad
Gua de tratamientos de los trastornos de ansiedad
Trastornos de ansiedad
Crisis de ansiedad Foros Fobia Social
Ansiedad
Ansiedad ante los exmenes
Trastornos de Ansiedad
La terapia cognitivo-conductual en problemas de ansiedad ...
Ansiedad y depresin
Ansiedad
Fobia Club
Asociacin Ayuda contra la ansiedad
Ansiedad org
Red Interhispana de los Trastornos de Ansiedad
NIMH
Psiquiatria y psicologa
Buscasalud
Fobia social
Diccionario de Ansiedad y Trastornos de Pnico
Colegio Oficial de Psiclogos de Espaa
Psicomundo
Fobia social net
Fobia y angustia
Asociacin Latinoamericana para Ayuda Mental en Crisis
Estrs Postraumtico Secundario a Accidentes de Trnsito
Asociacin Ayuda contra la ansiedad
Fobia Social
El joven sufre la Fobia Social
Unidad de Investigacin en Fobia Social
Tratamiento Cognitivo Conductual de la ansiedad
STAR, Sociedad de investigacin sobre estrs y ansiedad
Asociacin americana sobre trastornos de ansiedad
Instituto Americano de Salud mental
Recursos sobre fobia social y ansiedad
Pgina sobre ansiedad de la Asociacin Americana de Salud Mental
Asociacin Internacional sobre el manejo del estrs
Pnico y ansiedad
Colegio Oficial de Psiquiatras del Reino Unido
Recursos sobre el maneo de la ansiedad y el pnico
Directorio de recursos psicolgicos





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Panic / Anxiety
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From Cathleen Henning,
Your Guide to Panic /
Anxiety Disorders.
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School Violence and Youth
Trauma - Who Is Affected?
No matter how many news reports
we hear about school violence, we
are still shocked, frightened and
saddened. Media, educators and
parents seek ways to prevent
violence. At the same time, helping
the victims is a priority. Violent
events may cause emotional
damage of which many people are
unaware. That damage may
continue or even begin long after
the event took place. Before our
youth are overcome with emotions
that may lead to serious psychiatric
problems, we may learn ways to
help them through communication,
observation, and education. Read
more ...
Thursday March 03, 2005 #
Could Your Panic Be Anger?
Anger attacks and panic attacks
are very similar. Studies have
shown that many people with
depressive and anxiety disorders
also experience anger attacks. Are
you one of them? Read more ...
Wednesday March 02, 2005 #
Medication Helps Me Feel
'Normal'
Kelly has been having panic
attacks since childhood. It wasn't
until adulthood that she tried
medication. Over the years, it's
been the medication that has
helped her lead a full life, including
marriage and pregnancy with twins.
Read Kelly's story ...

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Learn about the Purple Pill
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Anxiety Disorder
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Compulsive Disorder
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More: Submit your own anxiety
success story | Read more stories
Tuesday March 01, 2005 #
How to Use Nature to Reduce
Stress and Anxiety
Can spending time in nature reduce
stress and anxiety? Environmental
psychologists believe our
surroundings influence our mental
health. Here's how you can bring
nature into your life to help your
sense of well-being. Read more ...
Monday February 28, 2005 #
Anxiety Disorder Self-Tests
If you're wondering if you're having
symptoms of an anxiety disorder,
these self-tests can help you learn
more about the disorders and their
symptoms. If you're having
troubling symptoms of any kind,
particularly if they're interfering with
your normal routines and activities,
please do talk to a trusted
healthcare provider.
G Panic Attacks Screening
Quiz
G Generalized Anxiety
Disorder (GAD) Screening
Quiz
G Obsessive-Compulsive
Disorder (OCD) Screening
Quiz
G Social Anxiety Disorder
(Social Phobia) Screening
Quiz
G Post-Traumatic Stress
Disorder (PTSD) Screening
Quiz
Sunday February 27, 2005 #
This Week's Blog: Peaceful
Thoughts
The author of Peaceful Thoughts is
a 33-year-old woman recovering
from agoraphobia. Of her blog she
writes, "Im on my path of recovery
from agoraphobia and this is my
inner safety journal. Each day Ill try
to think of at least one time when I
felt secure and calm. Also, Ill be
adding images that have a special
meaning or just make me smile."
Read Peaceful Thoughts ...
More: Submit your anxiety blog to
our directory | Read more anxiety
blogs
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Enter email address
Panic - Anxiety Disorders Help and Support
Sunday February 27, 2005 #
Medication - A Difficult Decision
Are you confused about whether or
not to take medications for your
anxiety disorder? Has medication
been prescribed by a doctor or
psychiatrist on your treatment
team? This article addresses a
number of reasons why people
might not take medications, and
what you might want to consider if
you have these concerns. Read
more ...
Saturday February 26, 2005 #
What to Do When You Can't
Afford Medications
Have you been prescribed a
medication that you cannot afford?
Before going broke (or going
without), take a look at these
suggestions for cutting your
medication costs. Read more ...
Friday February 25, 2005 #
Guilt and Your Recovery
Everyone feels guilty at some time,
but some people feel guilty most of
the time. Guilt may lead to self-
hatred and depression, and it may
stand in the way of recovery from
anxiety disorders. Before guilt
makes your recovery from anxiety
disorders even more difficult, find
out what it is and what you can do
about it. Read more ...
Thursday February 24, 2005 #
Acceptance and More
After years of struggling with panic
disorder, Andy asked for help.
Along with medication, therapy
became a big part of his recovery.
Today, he leads a happy, full life,
including flying, driving, and even
public speaking. Read Andy's
story ...
More: Submit your own anxiety
success story | Read more stories
Wednesday February 23, 2005 #
Display Latest Headlines | |
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Self-Help Support Groups
Self-help and support groups for anxiety disorders are a way of empowering people to
help themselves, and others, on the path to recovery. Participation in a self-help group
can end the painful isolation of suffering alone with a disorder that is disruptive and
debilitating for the individual and those people around him/her. An effective group will
help members achieve recovery through mutual support as well as provide them with
updated information about causes and treatment, eliminating some of the myths about
anxiety disorders.
The ADAA Self-Help Support Group Network is available in nearly all states and
various countries around the world. The list of support groups is provided as a service
of the ADAA, but it does not represent an evaluation or recommendation by the
association. Furthermore, the ADAA does not endorse the use of a self-help group as
a substitute for proper diagnosis and treatment. Please check with your treatment
provider about the benefits of joining a support group as part of one's overall treatment
regimen.
The ADAA is constantly listing new groups and updating information about current
groups.
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http://www.adaa.org/Public/index.cfm (1 of 2)04/03/2005 12:14:06
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Kansas North Carolina
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Wyoming
South Africa Canada Mexico Australia
Please contact at the ADAA at (240) 485-1001, or by email at self-help@adaa.org for
additional information about self-help support groups, including:
How to start a group of your own
Adding a new group to the ADAA network
Notification of any changes in a group's status or contact information.


Anxiety Disorders Association of America
8730 Georgia Avenue, Suite 600
Silver Spring, MD 20910, USA
Main # (240) 485-1001
Fax # (240) 485-1035
2004 Anxiety Disorders Association of America.
All Rights Reserved.

http://www.adaa.org/Public/index.cfm (2 of 2)04/03/2005 12:14:06
Index of /HotSprings/Spa/9279
Index of /HotSprings/Spa/9279
Name Last modified Size Description
Parent Directory 08-May-2004 08:30 -
http://www.geocities.com/HotSprings/Spa/9279/04/03/2005 12:14:08
http://www.geocities.com/HotSprings/5361/Agora.html
Con sta pgina no es mi intencin dar una leccin magistral sobre la agorafobia, sino explicar
de la forma mas clara posible mi experiencia personal con la enfermedad. Puede que hasta
me sirva de terapia y todo. Por otro lado, me gustara conocer otras personas que estn
pasando por el mismo aro. Lo mismo que en su da recib ayuda para superar el problema,
estara (humilde mano, por supuesto) en lo que pudiese a quien lo requiriera.
Tras sta introduccin os dir que soy un varn de 36 aos, casado, sin hijos, residente en
una poblacin cercana a Bilbao y agorafbico desde hace 12 aos aproximadamente. Hasta
la fecha nadie conoce mi "secreto" salvo mi mdico de cabecera y la persona que me trat en
su da. Lo referente al tratamiento que recib lo detallar ms adelante.
En la actualidad me considero rehabilitado en un grado importante. Si tuviera que valorar
entre 0 y 10 el nivel de calidad de vida que disfruto, podra puntuarme con un 9. Ese punto
que me falta lo achaco a que, puntualmente, tengo momentos de debilidad en los que tengo
que pelear de firme para no dejarme llevar por el miedo.
En este punto, lo que pretendo hacer es un gran "flash-back" e intentar relatar como discurri
mi enfermedad desde su desencadenamiento hasta la actualidad. Carezco de un diario de
aquella etapa, el cual hubiese reflejado con ms exactitud lo que me ocurra, pero bueno,
tendr que fiarlo todo a mi memoria, con lo frgil que es la pobre.
Cuando empez todo aquello, tendra unos 24 aos y no haca mucho que haba terminado la
"mili". Consegu un trabajo en prcticas en una empresa informtica y sala con una chica
estupenda. Todo pareca ir bien. Una tarde, dirigindome hacia el pueblo de mi novia en el
autobs, empec a notar una increble sensacin de ahogo. Casualmente, el autobs iba
abarrotado y las posibilidades de salir de mi asiento eran nulas. Mi corazn ira a 200
pulsaciones por lo menos y la impresin de que me sobrevena un infarto era total. Al cabo de
un rato la angustia pas y me qued totalmente anonadado por lo ocurrido. A partir de ese
da, empez un autntico calvario. Poco a poco las situaciones que me producan ansiedad
fueron en aumento. Las comidas familiares o de negocios se me hicieron insoportables. Era
incapaz de tragar un bocado hasta que no me bajaba en nivel de ansiedad. Recuerdo una vez
que cenbamos en casa de un cuado celebrando su cumpleaos, y me toc sentarme en un
lugar del que no poda salir. Inmediatamente empec a sentir el clsico "ataque de pnico" y a
pasar el trago como fuera. En aquella poca estos ataques eran bastante frecuentes. All
http://www.geocities.com/HotSprings/5361/Agora.html (1 of 4)04/03/2005 12:14:11
http://www.geocities.com/HotSprings/5361/Agora.html
estaba yo, con la boca seca y llena de entremeses sin poder tragar. Cuando termin el ataque
qued completamente relajado y pude disfrutar de la cena. Por aquella poca descubr que no
quedaba ms remedio que pasar por la tempestad para poder llegar a la calma, lo cual me
llev a huir de aquellas situaciones que me producan fobia. Una vez obtuve el carn de
conducir dej de utilizar los transportes pblicos. Utilizaba siempre que poda mi propio
vehculo, buscando mil excusas para no ir en el otros. Olvidaba decir que en aquella poca
utilizaba el alcohol para enfrentarme a algunas situaciones, sobre todo previamente a las
cenas de amigos y dems, aunque con resultados bastante desiguales.
Aquellos aos fueron bastante difciles. Al principio hice el clsico peregrinaje de mdico en
mdico buscando una explicacin fisiolgica al asunto. Como frecuentemente tena
inapetencia, ardor de estmago y otros sntomas, recurr a especialistas del aparato digestivo,
que, tras mltiples pruebas, me indicaron que todo estaba en orden. Incluso visit el famoso
(bueno, famoso por estos pagos) "Brujo de Burlada" con idntico resultado.
Recuerdo que los sntomas no se reducan a momentos puntuales en los que me expona a
una situacin difcil, sino que, en muchas ocasiones, la sensacin de inestabilidad, como de
estar medio mareado, duraba mucho tiempo. El lugar en el que mejor me encontraba era en
casa, pero claro, con 25 aos, estar en casa no es la mejor forma de pasar el tiempo. Por
entonces, mi vida se reduca a trabajar con ordenadores entre semana (estar concentrado en
el desarrollo de aplicaciones me mantena abstrado de todo) y el fin de semana, con mi
coche, tomando copas con los amigos. De vez en cuando surga alguna actividad "fuera de
programa" y era entonces cuando empezaban los apuros. A saber. Hice amistad con un
compaero de trabajo y quedamos en hacer una "escapadita" en Semana Santa a la Costa de
Levante. Haciendo los planes disfrutaba y sufra al mismo tiempo pensando en lo que se me
avecinaba. Recuerdo que el viaje lo pas fatal. No pude comer nada durante todo el da y no
vea la salida a aquel tnel. Poco a poco me fui reponiendo y los das siguientes fueron de lo
ms divertido que me haba pasado. Por mas vueltas que le daba no entenda porque no
poda disfrutar desde el principio si saba que todo iba a terminar "irremediablemente" bien.
Vindolo desde ahora me cuesta entender como no ca en una depresin de caballo ante
tantas pegas para realizar una vida "normal". Supongo que no tena tiempo.
Casualmente, como ocurre en todos los rdenes de la vida, me top con un libro titulado
"Agorafobia: naturaleza y tratamiento", donde se explicaba con pelos y seales todas las
sensaciones que me traan de cabeza. Fue como una revelacin para m. Me dije: "estas mal
de la cebolla, pero no parece que te vayas a convertir en un psicpata, por lo menos a corto
plazo". En lo que no se ponan de acuerdo en el libro era en el origen de la agorafobia. Que si
poda deberse a algo orgnico, segn algunos autores, o por agentes ambientales, segn
otros. En el fondo me daba lo mismo, lo interesante era que decan que se poda eliminar
parcial o totalmente y la panacea era el tratamiento de exposicin, es decir, echarle "huevos"
al asunto y hacer lo que, justamente, no te pide el cuerpo. Es ms, lo que no quieres hacer ni
por el forro.
http://www.geocities.com/HotSprings/5361/Agora.html (2 of 4)04/03/2005 12:14:11
http://www.geocities.com/HotSprings/5361/Agora.html
A partir de ese momento me empec a interesar por el tema y, casualmente, un buen da,
encontr un anuncio en el peridico donde se pedan voluntarios para un estudio sobre fobias.
Acud raudo a la cita y comenc mi primera "confesin" del problema. Les habl largo y
tendido sobre mis vivencias y me sent aliviado al contarme los "expertos" que haba cantidad
de gente que estaba tan incapacitada que no poda ni salir de casa. Lo mo me pareci de risa
ante semejantes cuadros. Al cabo de unos das me llamaron para una nueva cita. En ella me
indicaron que haba "conseguido" entrar en el programa, aunque, eso s, por los pelos. Por lo
visto mis niveles de ansiedad eran de los ms bajos del estudio. El mismo consista en
realizar una serie de exposiciones a situaciones fbicas en escala creciente de dificultad, por
supuesto, para valorar, a posteriori, las mejoras obtenidas en los niveles de ansiedad. Por
primera vez en mucho tiempo tuve que coger el autobs para ir al trabajo. Poco a poco me fui
animando y la verdad es que logr realizar autnticas proezas para aquella poca. Al final del
programa era capaz de hacer el trayecto Bilbao-San Sebastian con unos niveles de ansiedad
casi nulos. Al terminar el programa, que dur un par de meses aproximadamente, fue
estupendo comparar la situacin de partida y en la que me encontraba entonces. Desde aquel
da nada ha sido igual.
Han pasado unos cuantos aos desde aquella experiencia y pienso que fue bastante
determinante, por no decir decisiva, en mi proceso agorafbico. Consegu dejar de tener el
miedo que te entra solo de pensar que tienes que enfrentarte a una situacin "amenazadora".
En realidad este miedo previo es el quid de la cuestin, ya que desencadena todo el proceso.
Para terminar tengo que reconocer que mi curacin no es total. Todava mantengo fbias
"residuales", por llamarlas de alguna manera. Soy un hipondraco bastante acusado (ser por
eso que me gusta tanto Woody Allen), por lo que tengo un gran respeto por las enfermedades.
No me gusta realizar deportes de riesgo, como por ejemplo viajar en avin, dd ddaunque lo
hago con cierta frecuencia. Tengo una ligera claustrofobia, lo cual no hace evitar los
ascensores, ni mucho menos. Ahora mismo estoy recordando que hace unos meses yendo en
el telefrico de Montjuit (mal escrito, seguro) en Barcelona me puse bastante nervioso. No
entenda como un recorrido tan simple me estaba alterando tanto. Pero es que con este
asunto cada uno tiene sus pequeas "prevenciones".
Pues hasta aqu llegaron las aguas. Si alguien se ha sentido identificado con estas cosillas y
quiere contarme alguna de las suyas, estar encantado de leerlas y, por supuesto,
responderlas.
agorero@hotmail.com
http://www.geocities.com/HotSprings/5361/Agora.html (3 of 4)04/03/2005 12:14:11
http://www.geocities.com/HotSprings/5361/Agora.html
A continuacin, y por gentileza de un colega que responde al e-mail:
luisalva@santandersupernet.com ( y nunca mejor dicho lo de que responde), os indico
algunas direcciones interesantes. Huelga decir que estara encantado de incluir direcciones
nuevas.
Direcciones
Transtornos de
ansiedad
(recomendado)
Sociedad
para el
estudio de
la ansiedad
y el estrs
Psiconet
Venza sus
temores (libro
recomendado)
Panic
Disorders
Eres el/la visitante n
Contador disponible por gentileza de Pedro Hurtado


http://www.geocities.com/HotSprings/5361/Agora.html (4 of 4)04/03/2005 12:14:11
Arthur
Web Sites by
Arthur Anderson
& Friends
Arthur & Panic Disorder
http://anxiety-panic.com/arthur
Personal experiences, essays and advocacy regarding panic
disorder.
The ASAP Dictionary of Anxiety & Panic Disorders
http://anxiety-panic.com/dictionary
Definitions, acronyms and statistics of anxiety, panic and
related disorders.
Anxiety-Panic.Com
http://anxiety-panic.com
Search engine for anxiety, panic, phobia, trauma, stress,
obsession, depression and related disorders.
Dr. Marvin Lifschitz
http://unifynet.com/marvin
Psychologist, psychotherapist & psychoanalyst in New York
City and Westchester, NY.
Dr. Pierre Mouradian
http://unifynet.com/dentist
http://www.netaxs.com/people/aca3/ (1 of 2)04/03/2005 12:14:14
Arthur
Dentist in Central Philadelphia.
http://www.netaxs.com/people/aca3/ (2 of 2)04/03/2005 12:14:14
Arthur
The ASAP
Dictionary of Anxiety
and Panic Disorders
Has been officially moved to
http://anxiety-panic.com/dictionary
Please update appropriate links and bookmarks.
http://www.netaxs.com/people/aca3/AD-ESP.HTM04/03/2005 12:14:16
Panic No More
Hi! My name is Cherri and I have had panic attacks since I was 6 years old.
Long time huh? Through these pages, I will tell you my story of dealing with
panic disorders, how I met my wonderful husband, and the story of my
father's fight with cancer.
These pages are dedicated to Jesus Christ. I praise him every day for saving
me of my sins!! And, without Him, I wouldn't have the skills to be able to
reach people worldwide that suffer from panic disorders. They are also
dedicated to my father's memory who, for many years, fought off his panic
attacks and was finally able to be free of them but was diagnosed with
kidney cancer in September of 1997. On April 13th, 1998 daddy lost his
fight. But he is no longer suffering and is with his Maker now. I know that
one day I will be reunited with daddy in Heaven.
The Lord led me to a wonderful place on the Internet to get inspiration
delivered to my email every day. I would like to share this with you and,
hopefully, it will help those of you that are troubled, lost, or just need a little
guidance in your life from our one TRUE Master, Jesus Christ. Please go to
Live Prayer and read the sinners prayer, sign up for the daily devotionals,
or read testimonies. May God Bless you!
For those of you who don't know what panic attacks or panic disorders are or
those of you who have them but aren't sure how to deal with them, I am going
to be explaining some of my experiences with them and give you some insight
into how I have managed to go from around 2 or 3 a week to an average of 3 a
YEAR!!
Panic disorders are unexplained and unprovoked fight-or-flight responses.
Your body displays the normal physiological response to a life-threatening
situation or extreme physical exertion, but there is no apparent stimulus. By
this I mean that there is no apparent reason to feel panicky.
Through my experience with panic attacks, there would be no reason for me
to feel "nervous" but something in my brain would tell my body there was
something wrong and my body would try to fight back by going into a panic
http://www.geocities.com/HotSprings/1277/ (1 of 3)04/03/2005 12:14:25
Panic No More
attack situation. I would start to feel shaky, my legs would feel like limp
noodles, I would get headaches, and so on. My other links tell more about the
physical problems and psychological problems of the attacks.
Click the link below to visit my new message board.
Message Board
For more information on my experiences with panic disorders, and some of
my favorite LINKS, please click on the links below:
Psychological
Physical
Treatment
Q & A
How We Met
My Memorial to a wonderful father
Some of my other website creations
Henderson Women's Connection
Guyo Missions
http://www.geocities.com/HotSprings/1277/ (2 of 3)04/03/2005 12:14:25
Panic No More
Lose Weight, Feel GREAT!!
Bible Verse of the Moment
But ye are a chosen generation, a royal priesthood, an
holy nation, a peculiar people; that ye should shew
forth the praises of him who hath called you out of
darkness into his marvellous light; - KJV 1 Peter 2:9
Add Bible Verse of the Moment to your Website!
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Consulta Psiquiatrica Virtual. Realiza cualquier consulta sobre salud mental.


Pgina auditada por
Versin
en
cataln

visitas desde el
21-12-1998:

Dr. Jordi Mondragn
G Consultorio Psiquitrico
Virtual
G Consulta Psiquitrica
Personalizada
G Consulta Psiquitrica
Normal
G Informaciones de inters
G Quienes somos?
G Enlaces a pginas de
psiquiatra en espaol
G Otras pginas de inters
G Busca
CONSULTORIO PSIQUITRICO
VIRTUAL
El Consultorio Psiquitrico Virtual est en
funcionamiento desde finales de 1996. Dirigido desde
Barcelona por el Dr. Jordi Mondragn, psiquiatra.
Respondemos a cualquier problema que tengais
relacionado con la Salud Mental. Hemos organizado el
Consultorio en dos reas, la Consulta Psiquitrica
Personalizada , en la que teneis que pagar el
equivalente a 25 Euros por una consulta inicial y dos
consultas ms, con respuesta rpida, en 24-48 horas, y
personalizada. La Consulta Psiquitrica Normal la
respondemos gratuitamente, aunque el plazo de
respuesta oscila entre 2 y 3 semanas. La informacin
que manejamos es estrictamente confidencial,
manteniendo estrictamente los principios del Cdigo
Deontolgico del Colegio de Mdicos de Barcelona.
Si quereis una visita "en vivo" tambin podeis llamar
al telfono slo para urgencias 607568173
Entendemos la Consulta Virtual como una
herramienta, que se ha mostrado de gran inters para
todos los usuarios de internet de habla hispana, que
sirve para poder tener una segunda opinin acerca de
cualquier tema de salud mental que os preocupe,
aunque nunca como un sistema de diagnstico o de
tratamiento alternativos a las consultas presenciales.
Cualquier orientacin diagnstica que os podamos dar
http://www.consulta-psiquiatrica.com/ (1 of 2)04/03/2005 12:17:29
Consulta Psiquiatrica Virtual. Realiza cualquier consulta sobre salud mental.
es meramente orientativa y en ningn caso definitiva.
Os podemos orientar tambin hacia especialistas en
psiquiatra que residan en vuestra zona de residencia.
Si las dudas que teneis son genricas o quereis
informacin sobre otros recurtsos en internet sobre
psiquiatra, os recomendamos que visiteis las pginas
de Informaciones de inters (que contienen
documentacin acerca de una buena parte de
enfermedades mentales y que vamos ampliando y
corrigiendo progresivamente) y la de enlaces a pginas
de psiquiatra en espaol. Tambin hemos recogido
otras pginas en ingls ya que contienen informacin
que creemos imprescindible para ampliar el
conocimiento en determinados temas de salud mental.

E-mail: jordimondragon@consulta-
psiquiatrica.com

Miembro de la Asociacin Internacional de
Webmasters Sanitarios

Miembro de la International Society
of Mental Health Online
WEB acreditada por el
Colegio Oficial de
Mdicos de Barcelona

ltima actualizacin : 1 de mayo de 2004
Jordi Mondragon 1994-2004
Subscribimos
los
principios de
HONcode
de la Health
On the Net
Foundation


Recomienda esta pgina a un amigo
Si quieres buscar las ultimas novedades en Psiquiatra:
Ver ltimas publicaciones mdicas de Psiquiatra en
GALENICOM.
http://www.consulta-psiquiatrica.com/ (2 of 2)04/03/2005 12:17:29
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Yahoo! Privacy Policy
Yahoo! takes your privacy seriously. Please read the following to
learn more about our privacy policy.
NOTICE: Click here for important information about safe
surfing from the Federal Trade Commission.
What This Privacy Policy Covers
G This policy covers how Yahoo! treats personal information that Yahoo! collects
and receives, including information related to your past use of Yahoo! products
and services. Personal information is information about you that is personally
identifiable like your name, address, email address, or phone number, and that
is not otherwise publicly available.
G This policy does not apply to the practices of companies that Yahoo! does not
own or control, or to people that Yahoo! does not employ or manage. In
addition, certain Yahoo! associated companies such as Inktomi, Overture, and
Altavista have their own privacy statements which can be viewed by clicking
on the links.
Information Collection and Use
General
G Yahoo! collects personal information when you register with Yahoo!, when you
use Yahoo! products or services, when you visit Yahoo! pages or the pages of
certain Yahoo! partners, and when you enter promotions or sweepstakes.
Yahoo! may combine information about you that we have with information we
obtain from business partners or other companies.
G When you register we ask for information such as your name, email address,
birth date, gender, zip code, occupation, industry, and personal interests. For
some financial products and services we may also ask for your address, Social
Security number, and information about your assets. Once you register with
Yahoo! and sign in to our services, you are not anonymous to us.
G Yahoo! collects information about your transactions with us and with some of
our business partners, including information about your use of financial
products and services that we offer.
G Yahoo! automatically receives and records information on our server logs from
your browser, including your IP address, Yahoo! cookie information, and the
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page you request.
G Yahoo! uses information for the following general purposes: to customize the
advertising and content you see, fulfill your requests for products and services,
improve our services, contact you, conduct research, and provide anonymous
reporting for internal and external clients.
Children
G When a child under age 13 attempts to register with Yahoo!, we ask that he or
she have a parent or guardian create a Yahoo! Family Account to obtain
parental permission.
G Yahoo! will not contact children under age 13 about special offers or for
marketing purposes without a parent's permission.
G Yahoo! does not ask a child under age 13 for more personal information, as a
condition of participation, than is reasonably necessary to participate in a given
activity or promotion.
Information Sharing and Disclosure
G Yahoo! does not rent, sell, or share personal information about you with other
people or nonaffiliated companies except to provide products or services you've
requested, when we have your permission, or under the following
circumstances:
H We provide the information to trusted partners who work on behalf of or
with Yahoo! under confidentiality agreements. These companies may
use your personal information to help Yahoo! communicate with you
about offers from Yahoo! and our marketing partners. However, these
companies do not have any independent right to share this information.
H We have a parent's permission to share the information if the user is a
child under age 13. Parents have the option of allowing Yahoo! to
collect and use their child's information without consenting to Yahoo!
sharing of this information with people and companies who may use this
information for their own purposes;
H We respond to subpoenas, court orders, or legal process, or to establish
or exercise our legal rights or defend against legal claims;
H We believe it is necessary to share information in order to investigate,
prevent, or take action regarding illegal activities, suspected fraud,
situations involving potential threats to the physical safety of any
person, violations of Yahoo!'s terms of use, or as otherwise required by
law.
H We transfer information about you if Yahoo! is acquired by or merged
with another company. In this event, Yahoo! will notify you before
information about you is transferred and becomes subject to a different
privacy policy.
G Yahoo! displays targeted advertisements based on personal information.
Advertisers (including ad serving companies) may assume that people who
interact with, view, or click on targeted ads meet the targeting criteria - for
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example, women ages 18-24 from a particular geographic area.
H Yahoo! does not provide any personal information to the advertiser
when you interact with or view a targeted ad. However, by interacting
with or viewing an ad you are consenting to the possibility that the
advertiser will make the assumption that you meet the targeting criteria
used to display the ad.
H Yahoo! advertisers include financial service providers (such as banks,
insurance agents, stock brokers and mortgage lenders) and non-financial
companies (such as stores, airlines, and software companies).
G Yahoo! works with vendors, partners, advertisers, and other service providers
in different industries and categories of business. For more information
regarding providers of products or services that you've requested please read
our detailed reference links.
Cookies
G Yahoo! may set and access Yahoo! cookies on your computer.
G Yahoo! lets other companies that show advertisements on some of our pages set
and access their cookies on your computer. Other companies' use of their
cookies is subject to their own privacy policies, not this one. Advertisers or
other companies do not have access to Yahoo!'s cookies.
G Yahoo! uses web beacons to access Yahoo! cookies inside and outside our
network of web sites and in connection with Yahoo! products and services.
Your Ability to Edit and Delete Your Account Information and Preferences
General
G You can edit your Yahoo! Account Information, including your marketing
preferences, at any time.
G New categories of marketing communications may be added to the Marketing
Preferences page from time to time. Users who visit this page can opt out of
receiving future marketing communications from these new categories or they
can unsubscribe by following instructions contained in the messages they
receive.
G We reserve the right to send you certain communications relating to the Yahoo!
service, such as service announcements, administrative messages and the
Yahoo! Newsletter, that are considered part of your Yahoo! account, without
offering you the opportunity to opt-out of receiving them.
G You can delete your Yahoo! account by visiting our Account Deletion page.
Please click here to read about information that might possibly remain in our
archived records after your account has been deleted.
Children
G Parents can review, edit, and delete information relating to their child's Yahoo!
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account using tools offered by Yahoo! Family Accounts.
G If a parent chooses not to allow us to further collect or use a child's information,
parents enrolled in Yahoo! Family Accounts can delete their child's account by
signing into that child's account and then visiting our Account Deletion page.
Please click here to read about information that might possibly remain in our
archived records after your account has been deleted.
Confidentiality and Security
G We limit access to personal information about you to employees who we
believe reasonably need to come into contact with that information to provide
products or services to you or in order to do their jobs.
G We have physical, electronic, and procedural safeguards that comply with
federal regulations to protect personal information about you.
G To learn more about security, including the security steps we have taken and
security steps you can take, please read Security at Yahoo!.
Changes to this Privacy Policy
G Yahoo! may update this policy. We will notify you about significant changes in
the way we treat personal information by sending a notice to the primary email
address specified in your Yahoo! account or by placing a prominent notice on
our site.
Questions and Suggestions
G Yahoo! is TRUSTe-certified. This certification applies to all English-language
sites under the Yahoo.com domain. If you feel that your inquiry has not been
satisfactorily addressed, you should contact TRUSTe, an independent privacy
organization. TRUSTe serves as a liaison with Yahoo! to resolve your concern.
G If you have questions or suggestions, please complete a feedback form or you
can contact us at:
Yahoo! Inc.
Customer Care - Privacy Policy Issues
701 First Avenue
Sunnyvale, CA 94089
(408) 349-5070
Effective Date: March 28, 2002
Copyright 2004 Yahoo! Inc. All rights reserved. Terms of Service
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Copyright Home - Media Relations Home - Info Center Home
Copyright and Intellectual Property Agent for Notice
Yahoo! respects the intellectual property of others, and we ask our users to do the same. Yahoo! may, in
appropriate circumstances and at its discretion, disable and/or terminate the accounts of users who may be repeat
infringers.
If you believe that your work has been copied in a way that constitutes copyright infringement, or your intellectual
property rights have been otherwise violated, please provide Yahoo!'s Copyright Agent the following information:
1. an electronic or physical signature of the person authorized to act on behalf of the owner of the copyright or
other intellectual property interest;
2. a description of the copyrighted work or other intellectual property that you claim has been infringed;
3. a description of where the material that you claim is infringing is located on the site;
4. your address, telephone number, and email address;
5. a statement by you that you have a good faith belief that the disputed use is not authorized by the copyright
or intellectual property owner, its agent, or the law;
6. a statement by you, made under penalty of perjury, that the above information in your Notice is accurate and
that you are the copyright or intellectual property owner or authorized to act on the copyright or intellectual
property owner's behalf.
If you are seeking permission to use Yahoo! trademarks, logos, service marks, trade dress, slogans, screen shots,
copyrighted designs, or other brand features, please contact the permission requests department, not the copyright
agent.
Yahoo!'s Agent for Notice of claims of copyright or other intellectual property infringement can be reached as
follows:
By mail:
Daniel Dougherty
c/o Yahoo! Inc.
701 First Avenue
Sunnyvale, CA 94089
By phone:
(408) 349-5080
By fax:
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Yahoo!
(408) 349-7821
By email:
copyright@yahoo-inc.com
Please note that, due to security concerns, attachments cannot be accepted. Accordingly, any notification of
infringement submitted electronically with an attachment will not be received or processed.
Copyright 2004 Yahoo! Inc. All Rights Reserved.
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Yahoo! Community Guidelines
Home - Help
Yahoo! Community Guidelines
Yahoo! communities (Chat, Groups, Homepages, Message Boards, Profiles, etc....)
give Yahoo! members a place to meet, interact, and share ideas with each other. Just
like a real community, you may have different opinions than others in Yahoo!
communities.
The Yahoo! community experience is best when people follow a few rules. Here are
some key ones to remember:
1. Do not harass, abuse, or threaten other members.
2. Do not post content that is obscene or otherwise objectionable.
3. Try to stay on topic. If you want to discuss a topic that is not related to the
community area in which you are participating, try going to another topic area
or create a new one.
4. Refrain from using these community services for commercial or advertising
purposes.
5. Don't post copyrighted content without permission from the owner.
6. Adult-oriented content is permitted only in areas marked as "adult content"
areas. You must be 18 years old or over to access these areas (for example,
adult chat and adult groups). Note: Yahoo! GeoCities does not have an "adult
content" area.
Yahoo! does not edit the content in our Yahoo! communities. Postings that violate the
Terms of Service may be removed and lead to the deletion, without notice, of your
Yahoo! ID and everything associated with it, including email accounts,groups, posts,
homepages and profiles.
Please report any violations of the TOS to our Customer Care Team.
Copyright 2002 Yahoo! Inc. All rights reserved.
Privacy Policy - Terms of Service - GeoCities Terms of Service
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Yahoo!

Yahoo! - Help
1. ACCEPTANCE OF TERMS
Welcome to Yahoo GeoCities! Yahoo provides the Yahoo GeoCities service to you, subject to the
following Terms of Service ("TOS"), which may be updated by us from time to time without notice to
you; provided that, we will not alter Section 7 ("Content Submitted to Yahoo GeoCities") without prior
notice to and acceptance by you. You can review the most current version of the TOS at any time at:
http://docs.yahoo.com/info/terms/geoterms.html. Please note that other Yahoo services, outside of
Yahoo GeoCities, are governed by a different Terms of Service.
2. DESCRIPTION OF SERVICE
Yahoo GeoCities currently provides users with access to a rich collection of on-line resources,
including personal web page hosting services (the "Service"). Unless explicitly stated otherwise, any
new features that augment or enhance the current Service, including the release of new Yahoo
GeoCities resources, shall be subject to the TOS. In order to use the Service, you must obtain access
to the World Wide Web, either directly or through devices that access web-based content, and pay any
service fees associated with such access. In addition, you must provide all equipment necessary to
make such connection to the World Wide Web, including a computer and modem or other access
device. Please be aware that Yahoo has created certain areas on the Service that contain adult or
mature content. You must be at least 18 years of age to access and view such areas.
3. YOUR REGISTRATION OBLIGATIONS
In consideration of use of the Service, you agree to: (a) provide true, accurate, current and complete
information about yourself as prompted by the Service's registration form (such information being the
"Registration Data") and (b) maintain and promptly update the Registration Data to keep it true,
accurate, current and complete. If you provide any information that is untrue, inaccurate, not current or
incomplete, or Yahoo has reasonable grounds to suspect that such information is untrue, inaccurate,
not current or incomplete, Yahoo has the right to suspend or terminate your account and refuse any
and all current or future use of the Service (or any portion thereof). You also understand and agree that
the service may include certain communications from Yahoo!, such as service announcements,
administrative messages and the Yahoo! Newsletter, and that these communications are considered
part of Yahoo! membership and you will not be able to opt out of receiving them.
4. YAHOO PRIVACY POLICY
Pursuant to Yahoo's privacy policy, we may disclose to third parties certain aggregate information
contained in your Registration Data or related data, provided that, such information will NOT include
personally identifying information, except as specifically authorized by you or in the good faith belief
that such action is reasonably necessary to comply with the law, legal process, to enforce the TOS, or
under any of the other circumstances set forth in our privacy policy, as may be amended from time to
time. For more information, please see our full privacy policy at http://docs.yahoo.com/info/privacy/.
5. MEMBER CONDUCT
You understand that all information, data, text, software, music, sound, photographs, graphics, video,
messages or other materials ("Content"), whether publicly posted or privately transmitted, are the sole
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responsibility of the person from which such Content originated. This means that you, and not Yahoo,
are entirely responsible for all Content that you upload, post or otherwise transmit via the Service.
Yahoo does not control the Content posted via the Service and, as such, does not guarantee the
accuracy, integrity or quality of such Content. You understand that by using the Service, you may be
exposed to Content that is offensive, indecent or objectionable.
You agree to not use the Service to:
(a) upload, post or otherwise transmit any Content that is unlawful, harmful, threatening, abusive,
harassing, tortious, defamatory, vulgar, obscene, libelous, invasive of another's privacy, hateful, or
racially, ethnically or otherwise objectionable;
(b) harm minors in any way;
(c) impersonate any person or entity, including, but not limited to, a Yahoo official, forum leader, guide
or host, or falsely state or otherwise misrepresent your affiliation with a person or entity;
(d) forge headers or otherwise manipulate identifiers in order to disguise the origin of any Content
transmitted through the Service or develop restricted or password-only access pages, or hidden pages
or images (those not linked to from another accessible page);
(e) upload, post or otherwise transmit any Content that you do not have a right to transmit under any
law or under contractual or fiduciary relationships (such as inside information, proprietary and
confidential information learned or disclosed as part of employment relationships or under
nondisclosure agreements);
(f) upload, post or otherwise transmit any Content that infringes any patent, trademark, trade secret,
copyright or other proprietary rights of any party;
(g) upload, post or otherwise transmit any unsolicited or unauthorized advertising, promotional
materials, "junk mail," "spam," "chain letters," "pyramid schemes," or any other form of solicitation,
except in those areas of the Service that are designated for such purpose;
(h) upload, post or otherwise transmit any material that contains software viruses or any other
computer code, files or programs designed to interrupt, destroy or limit the functionality of any
computer software or hardware or telecommunications equipment;
(i) disrupt the normal flow of dialogue, cause a screen to "scroll" faster than other users of the Service
are able to type, or otherwise act in a manner that negatively affects other users' ability to engage in
real time exchanges;
(j) interfere with or disrupt the Service or servers or networks connected to the Service, or disobey any
requirements, procedures, policies or regulations of networks connected to the Service;
(k) intentionally or unintentionally violate any applicable local, state, national or international law,
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including, but not limited to, regulations promulgated by the U.S. Securities and Exchange
Commission, any rules of any national or other securities exchange, including, without limitation, the
New York Stock Exchange, the American Stock Exchange or the NASDAQ, and any regulations having
the force of law;
(l) "stalk" or otherwise harass another;
(m) collect or store personal data about other users;
(n) promote or provide instructional information about illegal activities, promote physical harm or injury
against any group or individual, or promote any act of cruelty to animals. This may include, but is not
limited to, providing instructions on how to assemble bombs, grenades and other weapons, and
creating "Crush" sites;
(o) use your home page (or directory) as storage for remote loading or as a door or signpost to another
home page, whether inside or beyond Yahoo GeoCities;
(p) have multiple Yahoo GeoCities addresses that are within the same Yahoo GeoCities neighborhood
or that have the same theme; or
(q) engage in commercial activities without enrolling in Yahoo-approved affiliate programs. This
includes, but is not limited to, the following activities:
G offering for sale any products or services;
G soliciting for advertisers or sponsors;
G conducting raffles or contests that require any type of entry fee;
G displaying a sponsorship banner of any kind, including those that are generated by banner or
link exchange services, with the sole exceptions of the GeoGuide Banner Exchange program
and the Internet Link Exchange; and
G displaying banners for services that provide cash or cash-equivalent prizes to users in exchange
for hyperlinks to their web sites.
6. SPECIAL ADMONITIONS FOR INTERNATIONAL USE
Recognizing the global nature of the Internet, you agree to comply with all local rules regarding online
conduct and acceptable Content. Specifically, you agree to comply with all applicable laws regarding
the transmission of technical data exported from the United States or the country in which you reside.
7. CONTENT SUBMITTED TO YAHOO GEOCITIES
Yahoo does not claim ownership of the Content you place on your Yahoo GeoCities Site. By submitting
Content to Yahoo for inclusion on your Yahoo GeoCities Site, you grant Yahoo the world-wide, royalty-
free, and non-exclusive license to reproduce, modify, adapt and publish the Content solely for the
purpose of displaying, distributing and promoting your Yahoo GeoCities Site on Yahoo's Internet
properties. This license exists only for as long as you continue to be a Yahoo GeoCities homesteader
and shall be terminated at the time your Yahoo GeoCities Site is terminated.
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You acknowledge that Yahoo does not pre-screen Content, but that Yahoo and its designees shall
have the right (but not the obligation) in their sole discretion to refuse or remove any Content that is
available via the Service. Without limiting the foregoing, Yahoo and its designees shall have the right to
remove any Content that violates the TOS or is otherwise objectionable. You agree that you must
evaluate, and bear all risks associated with, the use of any Content, including any reliance on the
accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of such Content.
8. INDEMNITY
You agree to indemnify and hold Yahoo, and its subsidiaries, affiliates, officers, agents, co-branders or
other partners, and employees, harmless from any claim or demand, including reasonable attorneys'
fees, made by any third party due to or arising out of your Content, your use of the Service, your
connection to the Service, your violation of the TOS, or your violation of any rights of another.
9. NO RESALE OF SERVICE
You agree not to reproduce, duplicate, copy, sell, resell or exploit any portion of the Service, use of the
Service, or access to the Service.
10. GENERAL PRACTICES REGARDING USE AND STORAGE
You acknowledge that Yahoo may establish general practices and limits concerning use of the Service.
Currently, each Yahoo GeoCities address allows particular individuals to have 15MB of disk space for
his or her files.
11. MODIFICATIONS TO SERVICE
Yahoo reserves the right at any time and from time to time to modify or discontinue, temporarily or
permanently, the Service (or any part thereof) with or without notice. You agree that Yahoo shall not be
liable to you or to any third party for any modification, suspension or discontinuance of the Service.
12. TERMINATION
You agree that Yahoo, in its sole discretion, may terminate your password, Yahoo GeoCities Site, use
of the Service or use of any other Yahoo service, and remove and discard any Content within the
Service, for any reason, including, without limitation, for lack of use or if Yahoo believes that you have
violated or acted inconsistently with the letter or spirit of the TOS. Yahoo may also in its sole discretion
and at any time discontinue providing the Service, or any part thereof, with or without notice. You agree
that any termination of your access to the Service under any provision of this TOS may be effected
without prior notice, and acknowledge and agree that Yahoo may immediately deactivate or delete your
Yahoo GeoCities Site and all related information and files in your Yahoo GeoCities Site and/or bar any
further access to such files or the Service. Further, you agree that Yahoo shall not be liable to you or
any third-party for any termination of your access to the Service.
13. ADVERTISEMENTS AND PROMOTIONS
Yahoo runs advertisements and promotions on Yahoo GeoCities Sites. By creating your Yahoo
GeoCities Site, you agree that Yahoo has the right to run such advertisements and promotions. The
manner, mode and extent of advertising by Yahoo on your Yahoo GeoCities Site is subject to change.
Your correspondence or business dealings with, or participation in promotions of, advertisers found on
or through the Service, including payment and delivery of related goods or services, and any other
terms, conditions, warranties or representations associated with such dealings, are solely between you
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and such advertiser. You agree that Yahoo shall not be responsible or liable for any loss or damage of
any sort incurred as the result of any such dealings or as the result of the presence of such advertisers
on the Service.
14. LINKS
The Service may provide, or third parties may provide, links to other World Wide Web sites or
resources. Because Yahoo has no control over such sites and resources, you acknowledge and agree
that Yahoo is not responsible for the availability of such external sites or resources, and does not
endorse and is not responsible or liable for any Content, advertising, products, or other materials on or
available from such sites or resources. You further acknowledge and agree that Yahoo shall not be
responsible or liable, directly or indirectly, for any damage or loss caused or alleged to be caused by or
in connection with use of or reliance on any such Content, goods or services available on or through
any such site or resource.
15. YAHOO PROPRIETARY RIGHTS
You acknowledge and agree that the Service and any necessary software used in connection with the
Service ("Software") contain proprietary and confidential information that is protected by applicable
intellectual property and other laws. You further acknowledge and agree that Content contained in
sponsor advertisements or information presented to you through the Service or advertisers is protected
by copyrights, trademarks, service marks, patents or other proprietary rights and laws. Except as
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or create derivative works based on the Service or the Software, in whole or in part.
Yahoo grants you a personal, non-transferable and non-exclusive right and license to use the object
code of its Software on a single computer; provided that you do not (and do not allow any third party to)
copy, modify, create a derivative work of, reverse engineer, reverse assemble or otherwise attempt to
discover any source code, sell, assign, sublicense, grant a security interest in or otherwise transfer any
right in the Software. You agree not to modify the Software in any manner or form, or to use modified
versions of the Software, including (without limitation) for the purpose of obtaining unauthorized access
to the Service. You agree not to access the Service by any means other than through the interface that
is provided by Yahoo for use in accessing the Service.
16. DISCLAIMER OF WARRANTIES
YOU EXPRESSLY UNDERSTAND AND AGREE THAT:
(a) YOUR USE OF THE SERVICE IS AT YOUR SOLE RISK. THE SERVICE IS PROVIDED ON AN
"AS IS" AND "AS AVAILABLE" BASIS. YAHOO EXPRESSLY DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES OF
ANY KIND, WHETHER EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE IMPLIED
WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NON-
INFRINGEMENT.
(b) YAHOO MAKES NO WARRANTY THAT (i) THE SERVICE WILL MEET YOUR REQUIREMENTS,
(ii) THE SERVICE WILL BE UNINTERRUPTED, TIMELY, SECURE, OR ERROR-FREE, (iii) THE
RESULTS THAT MAY BE OBTAINED FROM THE USE OF THE SERVICE WILL BE ACCURATE OR
RELIABLE, (iv) THE QUALITY OF ANY PRODUCTS, SERVICES, INFORMATION, OR OTHER
MATERIAL PURCHASED OR OBTAINED BY YOU THROUGH THE SERVICE WILL MEET YOUR
EXPECTATIONS, AND (V) ANY ERRORS IN THE SOFTWARE WILL BE CORRECTED.
(c) ANY MATERIAL DOWNLOADED OR OTHERWISE OBTAINED THROUGH THE USE OF THE
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SERVICE IS DONE AT YOUR OWN DISCRETION AND RISK AND THAT YOU WILL BE SOLELY
RESPONSIBLE FOR ANY DAMAGE TO YOUR COMPUTER SYSTEM OR LOSS OF DATA THAT
RESULTS FROM THE DOWNLOAD OF ANY SUCH MATERIAL.
(d) NO ADVICE OR INFORMATION, WHETHER ORAL OR WRITTEN, OBTAINED BY YOU FROM
YAHOO OR THROUGH OR FROM THE SERVICE SHALL CREATE ANY WARRANTY NOT
EXPRESSLY STATED IN THE TOS.
17. LIMITATION OF LIABILITY
YOU EXPRESSLY UNDERSTAND AND AGREE THAT YAHOO SHALL NOT BE LIABLE FOR ANY
DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, CONSEQUENTIAL OR EXEMPLARY DAMAGES,
INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO, DAMAGES FOR LOSS OF PROFITS, GOODWILL, USE, DATA
OR OTHER INTANGIBLE LOSSES (EVEN IF YAHOO HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY
OF SUCH DAMAGES), RESULTING FROM: (i) THE USE OR THE INABILITY TO USE THE
SERVICE; (ii) THE COST OF PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS AND SERVICES
RESULTING FROM ANY GOODS, DATA, INFORMATION OR SERVICES PURCHASED OR
OBTAINED OR MESSAGES RECEIVED OR TRANSACTIONS ENTERED INTO THROUGH OR
FROM THE SERVICE; (iii) UNAUTHORIZED ACCESS TO OR ALTERATION OF YOUR
TRANSMISSIONS OR DATA; (iv) STATEMENTS OR CONDUCT OF ANY THIRD PARTY ON THE
SERVICE; OR (v) ANY OTHER MATTER RELATING TO THE SERVICE.
18. EXCLUSIONS AND LIMITATIONS
SOME JURISDICTIONS DO NOT ALLOW THE EXCLUSION OF CERTAIN WARRANTIES OR THE
LIMITATION OR EXCLUSION OF LIABILITY FOR INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES.
ACCORDINGLY, SOME OF THE ABOVE LIMITATIONS OF SECTIONS 16 AND 17 MAY NOT APPLY
TO YOU.
19. SPECIAL ADMONITION FOR SERVICES RELATING TO FINANCIAL MATTERS
If you intend to create or join any service, receive or request any news, messages, alerts or other
information from the Service concerning companies, stock quotes, investments or securities, please
read the above Sections 16 and 17 again. They go doubly for you. In addition, for this type of
information particularly, the phrase "Let the investor beware" is apt. The Service is provided for
informational purposes only, and no Content included in the Service is intended for trading or investing
purposes. Yahoo shall not be responsible or liable for the accuracy, usefulness or availability of any
information transmitted via the Service, and shall not be responsible or liable for any trading or
investment decisions made based on such information.
20. NOTICE
Notices to you may be made via either email or regular mail. The Service may also provide notices of
changes to the TOS or other matters by displaying notices or links to notices to you generally on the
Service.
21. COPYRIGHTS
Yahoo respects the intellectual property rights of others and we ask our users to do the same. Please
see our copyright policy at http://docs.yahoo.com/info/copyright/copyright.html.
22. GENERAL INFORMATION
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The TOS constitute the entire agreement between you and Yahoo and govern your use of the Service,
superceding any prior agreements between you and Yahoo or GeoCities (including, but not limited to,
any prior versions of the TOS). You also may be subject to additional terms and conditions that may
apply when you use affiliate or other Yahoo services, third-party content or third-party software. The
TOS and the relationship between you and Yahoo shall be governed by the laws of the State of
California without regard to its conflict of law provisions. You and Yahoo agree to submit to the
personal and exclusive jurisdiction of the courts located within the county of Santa Clara, California.
The failure of Yahoo to exercise or enforce any right or provision of the TOS shall not constitute a
waiver of such right or provision. If any provision of the TOS is found by a court of competent
jurisdiction to be invalid, the parties nevertheless agree that the court should endeavor to give effect to
the parties' intentions as reflected in the provision, and the other provisions of the TOS remain in full
force and effect. You agree that regardless of any statute or law to the contrary, any claim or cause of
action arising out of or related to use of the Service or the TOS must be filed within one (1) year after
such claim or cause of action arose or be forever barred. The section titles in the TOS are for
convenience only and have no legal or contractual effect.
23. VIOLATIONS
Please report any violations of the TOS to our Content Violation Reporting Form.
Copyright Yahoo! Inc. All rights reserved. Privacy Policy - Terms of Service
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Guestbook Join

Nombre (no necesario apellidos) y edad : francisco
Regin o Pas : ECUADOR
Es afectado, familiar, profesional,...? : PROFESIONAL
Cmo lleg hasta aqu? : INVESTIGACION
Sus comentarios : ES MUY UTIL PARA LAS PERSONAS QUE HACEMOS SALUD
MENTAL EN AMERICA LATINA ES LA MEJOR FORMA DE PROTEGER LA FAMILIA Y
LA SOCIEDAD PARA CREAR UN MUNDO MAS JUSTO Y MAS HUMANO
Email, no necesario si prefiere mantenerlo oculto :
URL sugerida :

Nombre (no necesario apellidos) y edad : Francisco 42 aos
Regin o Pas : Chile - Santiago
Es afectado, familiar, profesional,...? : afectado
Cmo lleg hasta aqu? : por el buscador de Altavista
Sus comentarios : Quisiera que destinaran un espacio en la pgina de
entrada al "Sndrome de ansiedad generalizada, o "Generalized anxiety
disorder", hay mucha gente que podra beneficiarse entendiendo esta
enfermedad que es ms frecuente de lo que se cree. Yo especfic
Email, no necesario si prefiere mantenerlo oculto :
panchoval3@entelchile.net
URL sugerida :

Nombre (no necesario apellidos) y edad : Francisco 42 aos
Regin o Pas : Chile - Santiago
Es afectado, familiar, profesional,...? : afectado
Cmo lleg hasta aqu? : por el buscador de Altavista
Sus comentarios : Quisiera que destinaran un espacio en la pgina de
entrada al "Sndrome de ansiedad generalizada, o "Generalized anxiety
disorder", hay mucha gente que podra beneficiarse entendiendo esta
enfermedad que es ms frecuente de lo que se cree. Yo especfic
Email, no necesario si prefiere mantenerlo oculto :
panchoval3@entelchile.net
URL sugerida :

Nombre (no necesario apellidos) y edad : Francisco
Regin o Pas : Chile - Santiago
http://us.geocities.yahoo.com/gb/view?member=ansiedad.geo (1 of 5)04/03/2005 12:23:46
Yahoo! GeoCities
Es afectado, familiar, profesional,...? : afectado
Cmo lleg hasta aqu? : por el buscador de Altavista
Sus comentarios : Quisiera que destinaran un espacio en la pgina de
entrada al "Sndrome de ansiedad generalizada, o "Generalized anxiety
disorder", hay mucha gente que podra beneficiarse entendiendo esta
enfermedad que es ms frecuente de lo que se cree. Yo especfic
Email, no necesario si prefiere mantenerlo oculto :
panchoval3@entelchile.net
URL sugerida :

Nombre (no necesario apellidos) y edad : Sol
Regin o Pas : Mexico
Es afectado, familiar, profesional,...? : Afectado
Cmo lleg hasta aqu? : A traves de yahoo
Sus comentarios : Yo padezco ataques de pnico desde hace 13 aos, ahora
tengo 37, he estado con tratamiento psiquitrico desde hace 10 aos. Tomo
medicamentos siempres (desde que inicie mi tratamiento practicamente), pero
algunas veces an con ellos siento miedo, mucho m
Email, no necesario si prefiere mantenerlo oculto :
URL sugerida :

Nombre (no necesario apellidos) y edad : Alejandro (26)
Regin o Pas : Argentina
Es afectado, familiar, profesional,...? : Soy afectado actualmente en
tratamiento
Cmo lleg hasta aqu? : Intentando saber algo mas de este problema. La
busqueda la hice a traves de Google
Sus comentarios : Me parecio sencillamente, excelente. Mis mas sinceras
felicitaciones al creador. Estoy seguro de que asi como me ayudo a mi a
confirmar algunas de mis percepciones, seguramente ayudara a muchos mas
que sufren este mal, pero que aun no saben de que se trat
Email, no necesario si prefiere mantenerlo oculto :
URL sugerida :

Nombre (no necesario apellidos) y edad : Estela
Regin o Pas : California
Es afectado, familiar, profesional,...? : Soy afectada
Cmo lleg hasta aqu? : por que me interesa saber
Sus comentarios : Yo soy Estela y le tengo miedo a las alturas quisiera saber
como se le llama a eso.
Email, no necesario si prefiere mantenerlo oculto : Este122000@yahoo.
com
URL sugerida :
http://us.geocities.yahoo.com/gb/view?member=ansiedad.geo (2 of 5)04/03/2005 12:23:46
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Nombre (no necesario apellidos) y edad : ailed
Regin o Pas : venezuela
Es afectado, familiar, profesional,...? : afectado
Cmo lleg hasta aqu? : mi papa lo busco
Sus comentarios : Es super completo en informacion pero le falta un poco de
aliento a la superacion, me pregunto cuanto dura esto y si es necesaria la yuda
profesional
Email, no necesario si prefiere mantenerlo oculto : ailed58@hotmail.com
URL sugerida :

Nombre (no necesario apellidos) y edad : marcelo maturana
Regin o Pas : decima
Es afectado, familiar, profesional,...? : afectado
Cmo lleg hasta aqu? : buscando informacion
Sus comentarios :
Email, no necesario si prefiere mantenerlo oculto :
URL sugerida :

Nombre (no necesario apellidos) y edad : marcelo maturana
Regin o Pas :
Es afectado, familiar, profesional,...? :
Cmo lleg hasta aqu? :
Sus comentarios :
Email, no necesario si prefiere mantenerlo oculto :
URL sugerida :

Nombre (no necesario apellidos) y edad : salvador 71 aos
Regin o Pas : mexico
Es afectado, familiar, profesional,...? : familiar
Cmo lleg hasta aqu? : por internet
Sus comentarios : dado que un familiar mio padece de un trastorno de
ansiedad severo,me he dedicadoa investigar para aprender a entender esta
enfermedad asi como para protegerme a mi mismo ,por lo que este tipo de arti
culos me partece que son de mucha importencia para s
Email, no necesario si prefiere mantenerlo oculto :
URL sugerida :

Nombre (no necesario apellidos) y edad : salvador 71 aos
Regin o Pas : mexico
Es afectado, familiar, profesional,...? : familiar
http://us.geocities.yahoo.com/gb/view?member=ansiedad.geo (3 of 5)04/03/2005 12:23:46
Yahoo! GeoCities
Cmo lleg hasta aqu? : por internet
Sus comentarios : dado que un familiar mio padece de un trastorno de
ansiedad severo,me he dedicadoa investigar para aprender a entender esta
enfermedad asi como para protegerme a mi mismo ,por lo que este tipo de arti
culos me partece que son de mucha importencia para s
Email, no necesario si prefiere mantenerlo oculto :
URL sugerida :

Nombre (no necesario apellidos) y edad : salvador 71 aos
Regin o Pas : mexico
Es afectado, familiar, profesional,...? : familiar
Cmo lleg hasta aqu? : por internet
Sus comentarios : dado que un familiar mio padece de un trastorno de
ansiedad severo,me he dedicadoa investigar para aprender a entender esta
enfermedad asi como para protegerme a mi mismo ,por lo que este tipo de arti
culos me partece que son de mucha importencia para s
Email, no necesario si prefiere mantenerlo oculto :
URL sugerida :

Nombre (no necesario apellidos) y edad : Juan Alberto Montes A.
Regin o Pas : Chile
Es afectado, familiar, profesional,...? : Amigo
Cmo lleg hasta aqu? : Navegando
Sus comentarios : Encuentro muy buena vuestra pgina, pero echo de
menos un documento para bajar en formato comprimido, y que pueda ser leido
en formato word o similar
Email, no necesario si prefiere mantenerlo oculto : jmontes@salv.codelco.
cl
URL sugerida :

Nombre (no necesario apellidos) y edad : Ana
Regin o Pas : Mlaga (Espaa)
Es afectado, familiar, profesional,...? : Profesional y familiar
Cmo lleg hasta aqu? : buscando informacin
Sus comentarios : Soy estudiante de enfermeria e hija de afecctada de
ansiedad. Estaba buscando informacion sobre tecnicas de relajacin e
informacion sobre la ansiedad para mi madre, y esta pagina me ha sido de
mucha ayuda. Enhorabuena al creador y a todos los colaborador
Email, no necesario si prefiere mantenerlo oculto : anuk21@hotmail.com
URL sugerida :

Next 15
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Nombre (no necesario apellidos) y edad : Cristian
Regin o Pas : Chile
Es afectado, familiar, profesional,...? : familiar
Cmo lleg hasta aqu? : internet
Sus comentarios : Me gust mucho la informacin gracias por la ayuda
Email, no necesario si prefiere mantenerlo oculto : tiancri@latinmail.com
URL sugerida : |

Nombre (no necesario apellidos) y edad : Julieta
Regin o Pas : Mexico
Es afectado, familiar, profesional,...? : Afectada desde hace 12
Cmo lleg hasta aqu? : Buscando informacion acerca de la angustia.
Sus comentarios : Es increible saber que no eres la unica persona que lo
padece. De cierta manera es como un alivio, y no se siento uno solo, puesto que
en mi caso me causa mucha verguenza mis ataques de angustia y panico. Me
transformo en alguien irracional en cuestion de
Email, no necesario si prefiere mantenerlo oculto :
URL sugerida :

Nombre (no necesario apellidos) y edad : PILAR 52
Regin o Pas : Espaa
Es afectado, familiar, profesional,...? : profesional
Cmo lleg hasta aqu? : buscando sobre psicologia del trabajo
Sus comentarios : muy interesante en general
Email, no necesario si prefiere mantenerlo oculto :
URL sugerida :

Nombre (no necesario apellidos) y edad : Martha Berenice, 22 aos
Regin o Pas : Mexico
Es afectado, familiar, profesional,...? : afectado
Cmo lleg hasta aqu? : Buscando
Sus comentarios : Me gusto la pagina de internet y estoy buscando ayuda,
ya que no tengo otra manera de buscar a un especialista en la materia, en mi
pas es caro y por el momento no tengo los recursos para ir a consulta y este es
un sitio fabuloso para mi situacin pero c
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Email, no necesario si prefiere mantenerlo oculto : mabe08@yahoo.com
URL sugerida :

Nombre (no necesario apellidos) y edad : Martha Berenice
Regin o Pas : Mexico
Es afectado, familiar, profesional,...? : afectado
Cmo lleg hasta aqu? : Buscando
Sus comentarios : Me gusto la pagina de internet y estoy buscando ayuda,
ya que no tengo otra manera de buscar a un especialista en la materia, en mi
pas es caro y por el momento no tengo los recursos para ir a consulta y este es
un sitio fabuloso para mi situacin pero c
Email, no necesario si prefiere mantenerlo oculto : mabe08@yahoo.com
URL sugerida :

Nombre (no necesario apellidos) y edad : Martha Berenice
Regin o Pas : Mexico
Es afectado, familiar, profesional,...? : afectado
Cmo lleg hasta aqu? : Buscando
Sus comentarios : Me gusto la pagina de internet y estoy buscando ayuda,
ya que no tengo otra manera de buscar a un especialista en la materia, en mi
pas es caro y por el momento no tengo los recursos para ir a consulta y este es
un sitio fabuloso para mi situacin pero c
Email, no necesario si prefiere mantenerlo oculto : mabe08@yahoo.com
URL sugerida :

Nombre (no necesario apellidos) y edad : lucy
Regin o Pas : Barranquilla,Colombia
Es afectado, familiar, profesional,...? : afectada
Cmo lleg hasta aqu? : deseando conocer mas acerca de mi problema
Sus comentarios : la pagina esta divina,completisima,bien orientada y sobre
todo los casos ilustran perfectamente muchos de mis sintomas,yo actualmente
me encuentro en tratamiento psicologico,mas no farmacologico,y me parece
segun lo leido hoy que debo consultar con mi med
Email, no necesario si prefiere mantenerlo oculto : luchavilla2000@yahoo.
com
URL sugerida :

Nombre (no necesario apellidos) y edad : MAYRA MICHELE
Regin o Pas : PUERTO RICO
Es afectado, familiar, profesional,...? : SOY AFECTADA
Cmo lleg hasta aqu? : BUSCANDO INFORMACION
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Sus comentarios : YO HACE CASI TRES AOS PADECI DE ATAQUES DE
PANICO Y AHORA DESPUES DE ESE TIEMPO ME HAN COMENZADO A DAR Y
TENGO MIEDO HASTA DE SALIR AVECES CON MIEDO A QUE ME DEN ES
HORRIBLE TENER ESTO.
Email, no necesario si prefiere mantenerlo oculto :
TIGRITA888@HOTMAIL.COM
URL sugerida :

Nombre (no necesario apellidos) y edad : YANIRA
Regin o Pas : PUERTO RICO
Es afectado, familiar, profesional,...? : UNA TIA
Cmo lleg hasta aqu? : ME INTERESA TODO LO QUE TENGA QUE VER
CON PSICOLOGIA
Sus comentarios : si pueden enviarme informacion, es importante para mi ya
que pienso hacer mis estudios posgraduados en psicologia y salud mental.
Email, no necesario si prefiere mantenerlo oculto : Yani130@hotmail.com
URL sugerida :

Nombre (no necesario apellidos) y edad : josu gabriel
Regin o Pas : Per
Es afectado, familiar, profesional,...? : profesional
Cmo lleg hasta aqu? : solo
Sus comentarios : son muy generosos y sigan adelante. Gracias por su gran
ayuda
Email, no necesario si prefiere mantenerlo oculto : gavasa@latinmail.com
URL sugerida :

Nombre (no necesario apellidos) y edad : ivannia
Regin o Pas : costa rica
Es afectado, familiar, profesional,...? : profesional
Cmo lleg hasta aqu? : estudio psicologia y estaba en busca de
informacion
Sus comentarios :
Email, no necesario si prefiere mantenerlo oculto :
URL sugerida :

Nombre (no necesario apellidos) y edad : juanra-33
Regin o Pas : spain
Es afectado, familiar, profesional,...? : afectado
Cmo lleg hasta aqu? : revista cnr
Sus comentarios : me gustaria poder adquirir el libro crisis de pnico y
transtornos de la angustia pero no se como. me podeis ayudar?
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Email, no necesario si prefiere mantenerlo oculto : juanra@colvet.es
URL sugerida :

Nombre (no necesario apellidos) y edad : Pame
Regin o Pas : Chile
Es afectado, familiar, profesional,...? : afectado
Cmo lleg hasta aqu? : buscando informacion en el net
Sus comentarios : sin duda alguan esta es una de las mejores paginas que
eh visitado sobre este tipo de enfermedades, yo estuve con un cuadro depresivo
ansioso por mas o menos un ao y medio y en realidad la informacion obtenida
aqui es de gran ayuda para reforzar nuestros
Email, no necesario si prefiere mantenerlo oculto : epumari@chile.com
URL sugerida :

Nombre (no necesario apellidos) y edad : CRIS 25 aos
Regin o Pas : Espaa
Es afectado, familiar, profesional,...? : Afectado
Cmo lleg hasta aqu? : buscando
Sus comentarios : Personalmente me ha parecido una pgina interesante y
de gran ayuda, te hace entender algo ms esta "enfermedad" y te ayuda a no
sentirte un "bicho raro". Lo cierto es que he navegado y no he encontrado nada
parecido. Felicidades y nimo a los que como yo
Email, no necesario si prefiere mantenerlo oculto : sanchi@inicia.es
URL sugerida :

Nombre (no necesario apellidos) y edad : Carmen 29
Regin o Pas : Tenerife
Es afectado, familiar, profesional,...? : Afectada
Cmo lleg hasta aqu? : Buscando informacin
Sus comentarios : Me alegr mucho encontrar esta pgina y me tranquiliza
ver que cada vez se habla ms abiertamente sobre este tema. Pedezco ataques
de pnico desde hace 6 meses y para mi ha sido lo ms duro por lo que he
tenido que pasar. Todo mi mundo se derrumb de repe
Email, no necesario si prefiere mantenerlo oculto : carmen1972@terra.es
URL sugerida :

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