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Sinh vin: Bi Th Phong

MC LC
MC LC ................................................................................................................i
BNG CH CI VIT TT ..................................................................................iii
DANH SCH HNH V, BNG BIU.................................................................... v
LI M U ..........................................................................................................1
CHNG 1 .............................................................................................................3
TNG QUAN MNG FTTx (FIBER TO THE X)....................................................3
1.1. Tng quan mng FTTx .......................................................................................3
1.2. Mi trng truyn dn ca mng FTTx...............................................................4
1.3. Cc cng ngh c s dng trong FTTx............................................................4
1.3.1. Mng quang tch cc AON...........................................................................5
1.3.2. Mng quang th ng PON ..........................................................................6
1.4. Gii thiu mng FTTH .......................................................................................7
CHNG 2 .............................................................................................................9
TNG QUAN V MNG QUANG TH NG (PON) .........................................9
2.1. Gii thiu mng quang th ng PON..............................................................9
2.1.1. M u.....................................................................................................9
2.1.2. Khi nim PON ...................................................................................... 10
2.2. Kin trc ca PON ........................................................................................... 11
2.2.1. Kin trc.................................................................................................... 11
2.2.2. Qu trnh truyn d liu trong PON ............................................................ 13
2.3. c im chnh ca PON.................................................................................. 14
2.4. Phn loi PON.................................................................................................. 14
2.4.1. APON/BPON ........................................................................................... 15
2.4.2. GPON ....................................................................................................... 16
2.4.3. EPON........................................................................................................ 17
2.4.3. WDMPON ................................................................................................ 17
2.4.4. Nhn xt .................................................................................................... 18
CHNG 3 ........................................................................................................... 21
CNG NGH MNG QUANG TH NG GPON ............................................. 21
3.1. Kin trc mng GPON ..................................................................................... 21
3.1.1. Thit b kt cui ng dy OLT (Optical Network Terminal) .................... 22
3.1.2. Khi mng quang ONU (Optical Network Unit) ......................................... 23
3.1.3. Mng phn phi quang ODN (Optical Distribution Network) ...................... 24
3.2. Cc thng s k thut c bn ca GPON............................................................ 26
3.2.1. Tc bit .................................................................................................. 26
3.2.2. Khong cch logic...................................................................................... 27
3.2.3. Khong cch vt l..................................................................................... 27
3.2.4. Khong cch si quang chnh lch ............................................................. 27
3.2.5. T l chia.................................................................................................... 27
3.3. K thut truy nhp v phng thc ghp knh................................................... 27
3.3.1. K thut truy nhp ..................................................................................... 27
3.3.2. Phng thc ghp knh.............................................................................. 28
3.4. M hnh OSI v chng giao thc GPON ........................................................... 29
Mc lc

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Sinh vin: Bi Th Phong

3.5. Cu trc phn lp ca mng quang GPON ........................................................ 30


3.5.1. Lp truyn dn hi t GPON (GTC)........................................................... 30
3.5.2. Chc nng ca cc phn lp trong lp truyn dn GTC ............................... 35
3.5.3. Lp ph thuc phng tin vt l GMD (GPON Physical Media Dependent
Layer) ................................................................................................................. 36
3.6. Khung truyn dn GTC .................................................................................... 37
3.6.1. Khung ng xung .................................................................................. 38
3.6.2. Khung ng ln ....................................................................................... 44
3.7. Phng thc ng gi d liu GEM.................................................................. 49
3.8. Giao thc ranging (sp xp) GPON................................................................... 52
3.8.1. Mc ch ................................................................................................... 52
3.8.2. Th tc sp xp.......................................................................................... 52
3.8.3. Giao thc ranging GPON ........................................................................... 53
3.9. Cp pht bng thng ng DBA trong GPON ................................................... 55
3.9.1. Khi nim cp pht bng thng................................................................... 55
3.9.2. Cp pht bng thng ng DBA ................................................................. 55
3.9.3. Cc loi T-CONT v tham s hot ng ..................................................... 57
3.10. Bo mt.......................................................................................................... 58
3.11. Sa li FEC (Forward Error Corection)........................................................... 60
3.12. Chuyn mch bo v trong phn mng GPON................................................. 62
3.12.1. Chuyn mch bo v ................................................................................ 62
3.12.2. Cc kiu cu hnh ca mng GPON kp v yu cu ca chuyn mch bo v
........................................................................................................................... 62
3.13. Kt lun ......................................................................................................... 65
CHNG 4 ........................................................................................................... 67
4.1. Gii thiu mng MANE ................................................................................... 67
4.1.1. Gii thiu chung v mng MANE .............................................................. 67
4.1.2. nh gi v cng ngh mng Metro Ethernet.............................................. 67
4.1.3. ng dng ca mng MANE....................................................................... 68
4.1.4. Kin trc mng MANE .............................................................................. 68
4.2. M hnh MANE Tha Thin Hu ..................................................................... 70
4.2.1. Lp truy nhp (Access) .............................................................................. 71
4.2.2. Lp thu gom (Aggregation)........................................................................ 72
4.3. Thit b GPON F61 ca hng ECI..................................................................... 72
4.3.1. c im k thut ...................................................................................... 72
4.3.2. Li ch....................................................................................................... 72
4.3.3. Cu trc phn cng .................................................................................... 73
4.3.4. M hnh cung cp dch v Triple play: bao gm dch v FTTH, dch v
LiveTV v VoD .................................................................................................. 73
KT LUN............................................................................................................ 67
TI LIU THAM KHO....................................................................................... 67

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BNG CH CI VIT TT

Bng ch ci vit tt

Sinh vin: Bi Th Phong

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Bng ch ci vit tt

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Sinh vin: Bi Th Phong

n tt nghip

Sinh vin: Bi Th Phong

DANH SCH HNH V, BNG BIU


Hnh 1-1: Cc dng FTTx ........................................................................................4
Hnh 1-2: M hnh mng quang tch cc AON v mng quang th ng PON .........5
Hnh 2-1: M hnh mng quang th ng PON ...................................................... 12
Hnh 2-2: Cc kiu kin trc ca PON ................................................................... 13
Hnh 3-1: Cu trc mng GPON............................................................................. 21
Hnh 3-2: S khi OLT ..................................................................................... 22
Hnh 3-3: S khi ONU..................................................................................... 23
Hnh 3-4: Cu trc c bn mng cp quang thu bao.............................................. 24
Hnh 3-5: Cu trc c bn cc loi coupler............................................................. 25
Hnh 3-6: Coupler 8x8 c to ra t nhiu coupler 2x2 ........................................ 26
Hnh 3-7: TDMA GPON ........................................................................................ 28
Hnh 3-8: S tng ng m hnh OSI v chng giao thc GPON........................... 29
Hnh 3-9: Cu trc phn lp mng GPON .............................................................. 30
Hnh 3-11: User and C/M Plane ............................................................................. 32
Hnh 3-12: Mt T-CONT i din cho mt lin kt logic gia OLT v mt ONU .. 33
Hnh 3-13: T-CONT da trn ATM v ATM d trn GEM.................................... 34
Hnh 3-14: Chc nng iu khin truy nhp mi trng......................................... 35
Bng 3-1: Di bc sng c dng trong GPON.................................................. 21
Hnh 3-15: Truyn dn ng xung...................................................................... 38
Hnh 3-16: Cu trc khung ng xung ............................................................... 39
Hnh 3-17: M t chi tit cu trc khung ng xung........................................... 40
Hnh 3-18: C ch trng thi ng b ONU ........................................................... 40
Hnh 3-19: Truyn dn ng ln........................................................................... 44
Hnh 3-20: Cu trc khung ng ln .................................................................... 45
Hnh 3-21: M t chi tit cu trc khung ng ln................................................ 46
Hnh 3-22: ATM upload......................................................................................... 48
Hnh 3-23: DBA payload ....................................................................................... 49
Hnh 3-24: Cc khung GEM trong phn ti lung ln............................................ 49
Hnh 3-25: Cu trc gi GEM ................................................................................ 50
Hnh 3-26: Qu trnh phn mnh d liu trong gi GEM........................................ 51
Hnh 3-27: C ch trng thi m t GEM ............................................................... 51
Hnh 3-28: Sp xp GPON trong giai on 1.......................................................... 53
Hnh 3-29: Sp xp GPON trong giai on 2.......................................................... 54
Hnh 3-30: Cc bc hot ng ca DBA .............................................................. 57
Hnh 3-31: Thut ton AES-CTR ........................................................................... 60
Hnh 3-32: Downstream FEC ................................................................................. 61
Hnh 3-33: Upstream FEC...................................................................................... 62
Hnh 3-34: H thng quang kp.............................................................................. 63
Hnh 3-35: H thng OLT kp................................................................................ 63
Hnh 3-36: H thng kp ton b............................................................................ 64
Hnh 3-37: H thng kp mt phn......................................................................... 65
Hnh 4-1: M hnh mng MANE theo cc lp........................................................ 68
Hnh 4-2: M hnh cc im tham chiu................................................................. 70
Hnh 4-3: M hnh mng MANE Tha Thin Hu ................................................. 70
Hnh 4-4: Cu trc phn cng ................................................................................ 73
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Sinh vin: Bi Th Phong

Hnh 4-5: M hnh cung cp dch v triple play...................................................... 74


MC LC ......................................................................................................................... i
BNG CH CI VIT TT .......................................................................................... iii
DANH SCH HNH V, BNG BIU............................................................................ v
LI M U................................................................................................................... 1
CHNG 1 .................................................................................................................... 3
TNG QUAN MNG FTTx (FIBER TO THE X) .......................................................... 3
1.1. Tng quan mng FTTx............................................................................................... 3
Hnh 1-1: Cc dng FTTx................................................................................................... 4
1.2. Mi trng truyn dn ca mng FTTx .................................................................... 4
1.3. Cc cng ngh c s dng trong FTTx .................................................................. 4

....................................... 5
Hnh 1-2: M hnh mng quang tch cc AON v mng quang th ng PON.................... 5
1.3.1. Mng quang tch cc AON .................................................................................. 5
1.3.2. Mng quang th ng PON................................................................................. 6
1.4. Gii thiu mng FTTH............................................................................................... 7
CHNG 2 ...................................................................................................................... 9
TNG QUAN V MNG QUANG TH NG (PON) ................................................ 9
2.1. Gii thiu mng quang th ng PON ................................................................... 9
2.1.1. M u............................................................................................................. 9
2.1.2. Khi nim PON ............................................................................................. 10
2.2. Kin trc ca PON ................................................................................................... 11
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Sinh vin: Bi Th

2.2.1. Kin trc ............................................................................................................ 11


Hnh 2-1: M hnh mng quang th ng PON ................................................................ 12
Hnh 2-2: Cc kiu kin trc ca PON.............................................................................. 13
2.2.2. Qu trnh truyn d liu trong PON ................................................................. 13
2.3. c im chnh ca PON.......................................................................................... 14
2.4. Phn loi PON .......................................................................................................... 14
2.4.1. APON/BPON .................................................................................................... 15
2.4.2. GPON ................................................................................................................ 16
2.4.3. EPON................................................................................................................. 17
2.4.3. WDMPON ......................................................................................................... 17
2.4.4. Nhn xt............................................................................................................. 18
CHNG 3 .................................................................................................................... 21
CNG NGH MNG QUANG TH NG GPON .................................................... 21
3.1. Kin trc mng GPON ............................................................................................. 21
Hnh 3-1: Cu trc mng GPON....................................................................................... 21
3.1.1. Thit b kt cui ng dy OLT (Optical Network Terminal) ........................ 22
Hnh 3-2: S khi OLT ............................................................................................... 22
3.1.1.2. Khi kt ni cho (cross - connect shell).......................................................... 23
Khi ny cung cp chc nng kt ni v chuyn mch gia PON core shell v Service shell.
Cng ngh kt ni cho ph thuc vo dch v, cc kin trc bn trong OLT. OLT cung
cp chc nng kt ni cho ty thuc vo phng thc truyn dn la chn
(ATM/GEM). ............................................................................................................... 23
3.1.1.3. Khi dch v (service shell) ............................................................................. 23
Phn ny h tr chuyn i gia giao din dch v v giao din khung bn trong phn mng
PON. ............................................................................................................................ 23
3.1.2. Khi mng quang ONU (Optical Network Unit) ............................................... 23
Hnh 3-3: S khi ONU............................................................................................... 23
3.1.3. Mng phn phi quang ODN (Optical Distribution Network) .......................... 24
Hnh 3-4: Cu trc c bn mng cp quang thu bao ........................................................ 24
Hnh 3-5: Cu trc c bn cc loi coupler ....................................................................... 25
Hnh 3-6: Coupler 8x8 c to ra t nhiu coupler 2x2 .................................................. 26
3.2. Cc thng s k thut c bn ca GPON .................................................................. 26
3.2.1. Tc bit ........................................................................................................... 26
3.2.2. Khong cch logic .............................................................................................. 27
3.2.3. Khong cch vt l............................................................................................. 27
3.2.4. Khong cch si quang chnh lch .................................................................... 27
3.2.5. T l chia............................................................................................................. 27
3.3. K thut truy nhp v phng thc ghp knh ....................................................... 27
3.3.1. K thut truy nhp ............................................................................................ 27
Hnh 3-7: TDMA GPON.................................................................................................. 28
3.3.2. Phng thc ghp knh ..................................................................................... 28
3.4. M hnh OSI v chng giao thc GPON .................................................................. 29
Hnh 3-8: S tng ng m hnh OSI v chng giao thc GPON ..................................... 29
3.5. Cu trc phn lp ca mng quang GPON ............................................................. 30
Hnh 3-9: Cu trc phn lp mng GPON ........................................................................ 30
3.5.1. Lp truyn dn hi t GPON (GTC)................................................................. 30
3.5.1.1. Cu trc .......................................................................................................... 30
Hnh 3-11: User v C/M Plane ......................................................................................... 32
Hnh 3-12: Mt T-CONT i din cho mt lin kt logic gia OLT v mt ONU ............ 33
Mt ONU ring l c th c n nh vi mt hoc nhiu T-CONT (Hnh 3-12)............ 33
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Sinh vin: Bi Th

Hnh 3-13: T-CONT da trn ATM v ATM d trn GEM .............................................. 34


Hnh 3-14: Chc nng iu khin truy nhp mi trng ................................................... 35
3.5.2. Chc nng ca cc phn lp trong lp truyn dn GTC................................... 35
3.5.2.1. Phn lp ng khung GTC (GTC framing sub-layer).................................... 35
Phn lp ng khung GTC thc hin 3 chc nng sau: ................................................... 35
3.5.3. Lp ph thuc phng tin vt l GMD (GPON Physical Media Dependent
Layer).......................................................................................................................... 36
Thng tin c truyn i bi sng mang quang hoc laser. Laser ny hot ng mt bc
sng no . Nhng quy nh v vic s dng bc sng cho upstream v downstream c
cho trong bng 3-1. ........................................................................................................... 37
Bng 3-1 quy nh 2 loi cu hnh si quang c dng, cu hnh mt si v cu hnh hai si
quang. Khi cng ngh truyn dn mt si quang c s dng, th s c nhiu bc sng cng
c dng trn mt si. ghp cc bc sng trn mt si, k thut ghp knh theo bc
sng WDM c s dng. Cn i vi cng ngh truyn dn s dng hai si quang, mi
hng truyn dn s c mt si ring v mt bc sng n. K thut iu ch c s dng
m ha d liu vo trong sng mang c gi l m NRZ, quy nh s dng mc logic
quang l pht mc cao cho bit 1, pht mc thp cho bit 0.................................................... 37
Khong cch logic ln nht gia OLT v ONU l 60 km. y l khong cch l thuyt c
gii hn bi quy nh v s thc thi v phn cng. Khong cch t OLT n ONU ny khc
vi khong cch t OLT n ONU kia. y c gi l khong cch chnh lch logic, c
quy nh khng qu 20 km. ............................................................................................... 37
T l chia tch chun l 1:64, lp TC h tr 1:128 cho tng lai. T l ny ph thuc qu cng
sut li ra ca b pht OLT v suy hao trn ng truyn. Tng qu cng sut c chia
cho tt c cc ONU kt ni vo mng. Pha trn lp vt l, cc gi d liu c m ha v gii
m. Lp thc hin nhng nhim v ny l lp truyn dn hi t GTC. ................................ 37
3.6. Khung truyn dn GTC ........................................................................................... 37
3.6.1. Khung ng xung .......................................................................................... 38
Hnh 3-15: Truyn dn ng xung................................................................................ 38
Hnh 3-16: Cu trc khung ng xung.......................................................................... 39
Hnh 3-17: M t chi tit cu trc khung ng xung..................................................... 40
Hnh 3-18: C ch trng thi ng b ONU ..................................................................... 40
3.6.1.2.2. Trng ID (Ident) ............................................................................................ 41
3.6.1.2.3. Trng PLOAMd (Physical Layer Operation Aministrative Managemant) .. 41
3.6.1.2.4. Trng BIP (Bit Interleaved Parity)................................................................ 42
3.6.1.2.5. Trng chiu di ti hng xung Plend (Payload Length downstream) .... 42
3.6.1.2.6. Trng b nh bng thng ng ln US BW (Upstream BW Map) ............. 42
3.6.1.2.7. Trng ti (Payload)........................................................................................ 43
3.6.2. Khung ng ln ............................................................................................... 44
Hnh 3-19: Truyn dn ng ln..................................................................................... 44
Hnh 3-20: Cu trc khung ng ln............................................................................... 45
Hnh 3-21: M t chi tit cu trc khung ng ln.......................................................... 46
3.6.2.2.1. Trng overhead lp vt l up ln (PLOu) ...................................................... 46
3.6.2.2.2. Trng PLOAMu ............................................................................................ 47
3.6.2.2.3. Trng PLSu (Chui nh mc cng sut)...................................................... 47
3.6.2.2.4. Trng bo co bng thng ng DBRu ......................................................... 47
3.6.2.2.5. Phn ti ............................................................................................................ 48
Hnh 3-22: ATM upload................................................................................................... 48
Hnh 3-23: DBA payload ................................................................................................. 49
3.7. Phng thc ng gi d liu GEM......................................................................... 49
Hnh 3-24: Cc khung GEM trong phn ti lung ln ...................................................... 49
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Sinh vin: Bi Th Phong

Hnh 3-25: Cu trc gi GEM .......................................................................................... 50


Bng 3-2: Cc m PTI trong tiu GEM ........................................................................ 50
Hnh 3-26: Qu trnh phn mnh d liu trong gi GEM .................................................. 51
Hnh 3-27: C ch trng thi m t GEM ......................................................................... 51
3.8. Giao thc ranging (sp xp) GPON.......................................................................... 52
3.8.1. Mc ch ............................................................................................................ 52
3.8.2. Th tc sp xp.................................................................................................. 52
3.8.3. Giao thc ranging GPON .................................................................................. 53
Hnh 3-28: Sp xp GPON trong giai on 1.................................................................... 53
Hnh 3-29: Sp xp GPON trong giai on 2.................................................................... 54
3.9. Cp pht bng thng ng DBA trong GPON ......................................................... 55
3.9.1. Khi nim cp pht bng thng ......................................................................... 55
3.9.2. Cp pht bng thng ng DBA........................................................................ 55
3.9.2.1. Cc chc nng DBA............................................................................................ 55
3.9.2.2. Hot ng DBA................................................................................................... 56
Hnh 3-30: Cc bc hot ng ca DBA ........................................................................ 57
3.9.3. Cc loi T-CONT v tham s hot ng............................................................ 57
3.10. Bo mt................................................................................................................... 58
Hnh 3-31: Thut ton AES-CTR ..................................................................................... 60
3.11. Sa li FEC (Forward Error Corection) ................................................................ 60
Hnh 3-32: Downstream FEC ........................................................................................... 61
Hnh 3-33: Upstream FEC................................................................................................ 62
3.12. Chuyn mch bo v trong phn mng GPON ...................................................... 62
3.12.1. Chuyn mch bo v ........................................................................................ 62
3.12.2. Cc kiu cu hnh ca mng GPON kp v yu cu ca chuyn mch bo v 62
Loi A, h thng quang kp ........................................................................................ 63
Hnh 3-34: H thng quang kp........................................................................................ 63
Loi B, h thng OLT kp .......................................................................................... 63
Hnh 3-35: H thng OLT kp.......................................................................................... 63
Loi C, h thng kp ton b ...................................................................................... 64
Hnh 3-36: H thng kp ton b...................................................................................... 64
Loi D, h thng kp mt phn ................................................................................... 64
Hnh 3-37: H thng kp mt phn................................................................................... 65
3.13. Kt lun .................................................................................................................. 65
CHNG 4 .................................................................................................................. 67
4.1. Gii thiu mng MANE............................................................................................ 67
4.1.1. Gii thiu chung v mng MANE...................................................................... 67
4.1.2. nh gi v cng ngh mng Metro Ethernet ................................................... 67
4.1.3. ng dng ca mng MANE .............................................................................. 68
4.1.4. Kin trc mng MANE...................................................................................... 68
Hnh 4-1: M hnh mng MANE theo cc lp .................................................................. 68
Hnh 4-2: M hnh cc im tham chiu........................................................................... 70
4.2. M hnh MANE Tha Thin Hu ............................................................................ 70
Hnh 4-3: M hnh mng MANE Tha Thin Hu ........................................................... 70
4.2.1. Lp truy nhp (Access)...................................................................................... 71
4.2.2. Lp thu gom (Aggregation) ............................................................................... 72
4.3. Thit b GPON F61 ca hng ECI............................................................................ 72
4.3.1. c im k thut .............................................................................................. 72
4.3.2. Li ch ................................................................................................................ 72
4.3.3. Cu trc phn cng ........................................................................................... 73
Hnh 4-4: Cu trc phn cng .......................................................................................... 73
Danh sch hnh v, bng biu

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Sinh vin: Bi Th Phong

4.3.4. M hnh cung cp dch v Triple play: bao gm dch v FTTH, dch v LiveTV
v VoD......................................................................................................................... 73
Hnh 4-5: M hnh cung cp dch v triple play................................................................ 74
KT LUN..................................................................................................................... 67
Sau thi gian tm hiu v nghin cu v n Nghin cu cng ngh GPON v ng dng
trin khai trn mng VNPT Tha Thin Hu, em nm bt c cc vn sau: ............ 67
Hiu mt cch tng qut v mng FTTx. ..................................................................... 67
Cc loi mng quang th ng PON............................................................................ 67
Cc k thut, giao thc, cu trc khung truyn dn, cp pht bng thng ng, k thut
ng khung GEM... trong cng ngh mng quang th ng GPON..................................... 67
V cui cng tm hiu v cu trc cng nh m hnh ng dng cng ngh GPON vo
mng vin thng Tha Thin Hu nh mng MANE, FTTH. ............................................. 67
TI LIU THAM KHO .............................................................................................. 67

Bng 3-2: Cc m PTI trong tiu GEM.............................................................. 50

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Sinh vin: Bi Th Phong

LI M U
VNPT hin l nh cung cp dch v vin thng hng u vi h tng mng li
rng khp c nc v cung cp nhiu loi dch v vin thng. Mng truy nhp bng
rng hin ti ca VNPT ch yu da trn h tng mng truy nhp cp ng s dng
cng ngh xDSL, v c bn mi ch p ng cho cc dch v truy nhp tc thp
(Mbit/s). S pht trin ca cc khu vc kinh t nh: khu cng nghip, khu cng ngh
cao, khu thng mi, chung c cao cp, ... cng vi s pht trin ngy cng ln mnh
ca cc t chc kinh t nh: ngn hng, kho bc, cng ty, ... to ra nhu cu rt ln
trong vic s dng cc dch v tin ch tch hp thoi, hnh nh v d liu. Bn cnh
, cc dch v ng dng trn Internet ngy cng phong ph v pht trin vi tc
nhanh chng nh cc dch v mua bn trc tuyn, ngn hng, cc dch v o to t
xa, game trc tuyn, c bit nhu cu v cc loi dch v gia tng tch hp thoi,
hnh nh v d liu ang ngy cng tng. S pht trin ca cc loi hnh dch v mi,
i hi h tng mng truy nhp phi p ng cc yu cu v bng thng rng, tc
truy nhp cao. Cng ngh truy nhp cp ng in hnh nh xDSL c trin khai
rng ri, tuy nhin nhng hn ch v c ly v tc khng p ng c yu cu
dch v. V vy nghin cu trin khai cc gii php truy nhp quang l vn cp thit
hin nay nhm xy dng h tng mng truy nhp p ng cung cp cc dch v bng
rng cht lng cao. Qua cng t ra nhng vn cn gii quyt cp bch i vi
mng truy nhp ca VNPT. Do vy, nghin cu trin khai gii php truy nhp mi
nhm chim lnh th trng dch v mi l rt cn thit i vi VNPT.
Cng ngh truy nhp quang th ng GPON c ITU chun ha, hin nay
l mt trong nhng cng ngh c u tin la chn cho trin khai mng truy nhp ti
nhiu nc trn th gii. GPON l cng ngh hng ti cung cp dch v mng y
, tch hp thoi, hnh nh v s liu vi bng thng ln tc cao. Do vy GPON s
l cng ngh truy nhp la chn trin khai hin ti v tng lai.
n Nghin cu cng ngh GPON v ng dng trin khai trn mng
VNPT Tha Thin Hu nhm mc ch tm hiu nhng c im k thut c bn
ca cng ngh GPON v tm hiu nhng ng dng trin khai cng ngh GPON trn
mng vin thng trn a bn Tha Thin Hu. Lun vn thc hin gm 04 chng:
Chng 1: Trnh by tng quan v mng FTTx.

Li m u

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Sinh vin: Bi Th Phong

Chng 2: Trnh by tng quan v mng quang th ng PON, tm hiu v cc loi


mng PON.
Chng 3: Cng ngh mng quang th ng GPON. Tm hiu nhng c im k
thut ca cng ngh GPON, trong nghin cu v cu trc khung truyn dn,
ranging v cp pht bng thng ng...
Chng 4: Trnh by v nhng ng dng trin khai m hnh mng GPON ca VNPT
Tha Thin Hu.
Do thi gian nghin cu n v thc tin kin thc bn thn c hn nn s
khng trnh khi thiu st, v vy em mong nhn c s ng gp kin ca qu
thy c v cc bn.

Li m u

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Sinh vin: Bi Th Phong

CHNG 1
TNG QUAN MNG FTTx (FIBER TO THE X)
1.1. Tng quan mng FTTx
Trc y, cc h thng mng truy nhp c s dng ch yu l cp ng,
ng dng cho cc dch v c lu lng thp. Vic s dng cp ng c nhng li ch
nh chi ph thp, kh nng lp t v trin khai n gin. Tuy nhin, cp ng c
nhiu hn ch nh bng thng nh, kh nng chng nhiu km, suy hao ln, phm vi
truyn nh.
Cng ngh truyn dn bng cp quang khc phc hon ton nhng nhc
im ny. Truyn dn bng cp quang khng b nhiu do tn hiu c truyn bng
nh sng, suy hao nh, phm vi truyn dn ln v c bit bng thng truyn dn ca
cp quang ln n hng trm Ghz, p ng c cc nhu cu truyn dn i hi tc
cao, bng thng ln nh voice, video, internet tc cao.
Thi gian qua, lnh vc internet trn ton th gii c nhng bc t ph
mnh m. Gp phn khng nh trong qu trnh pht trin ny l cng ngh ADSL.
Vi kh nng truyn ti d liu gp nhiu ln so vi cng ngh quay s, ADSL
mang internet n gn vi chng ta hn. Tuy nhin, vi nhng nhu cu ngy cng i
hi bng thng cng nh tc v cht lng ngy cng ln, cng ngh truyn dn
cp quang FTTx ra i s thay th ADSL trong tng lai.
FTTx (Fiber To The x) l 1 thut ng ni chung ch mt kin trc mng s
dng cp quang kt ni vin thng. Bao gm cc loi sau: p quang ti giao im FTTN (Fiber To The Node), cp quang ti t thit b - FTTC (Fiber To The Curb),
cp quang ti ta nh - FTTB (Fiber To The Building), cp quang ti tn nh - FTTH
(Fiber To The Home).
Mng FTTx hin ang c xem l s ng mt vai tr quan trng trong 2-3
nm ti do tim nng cung cp bng thng cho khch hng ln hn so vi cp ng,
p ng nhu cu truyn thoi, d liu v video trn nn IP. Cc cng ngh thng
c s dng to dng cc mng FTTx, bao gm c cc mng quang th ng,
mng quang tch cc, cc ng dy thu bao s (DSL)Cc dng mng FTTx nh
hnh 1-1.

Chng 1: Tng quan mng FTTX (Fiber To The X)

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Sinh vin: Bi Th Phong

Hnh 1-1: Cc dng FTTx


1.2. Mi trng truyn dn ca mng FTTx
Cu trc mng FTTC tng t nh mng HFC (Hybrid fibre-coaxial). Tn hiu
t CO (Central Office) c ni n node bng cp quang, t node n h thu bao
vn s dng cp ng trc hoc cp xon i. Trong trng hp ny, khong cch t
node n u cui thit b khong vi trm mt. u im ca FTTC ch, vn c th
s dng li mng cp ng c trin khai trc .
Hai mng FTTB v FTTO c cu trc tng t nhau v gn ging vi FTTC.
im khc bit ln nht gia chng l FTTB v FTTO c thit b u cui quang t
rt gn h thu bao, ch khong vi chc mt.
FTTH l mt dng hon ton khc. Vi FTTH, dy cp quang s c ko n
tn thit b u cui ca thu bao.
1.3. Cc cng ngh c s dng trong FTTx
Hai cng ngh c s dng trong mng FTTx l mng quang tch cc AON
(Active Optical Network) v mng quang th ng PON (Passive Optical Network).

Chng 1: Tng quan mng FTTX (Fiber To The X)

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Sinh vin: Bi Th Phong

Hnh 1-2: M hnh mng quang tch cc AON v mng quang th ng PON
1.3.1. Mng quang tch cc AON
AON l cu trc mng im-im (point to point), thng thng mi thu bao
c mt ng cp quang ring chy t thit b trung tm (Access Node) n thu bao.
phn phi tn hiu, mch quang tch cc AON s dng cc thit b s dng
in phn tch d liu nh mt chuyn mch, switch, router hoc multiplexer. Mi
t chuyn mch c th qun l ti 1000 khch hng, thng thng l 400-500 khch
hng. Cc thit b chuyn mch ny thc hin chuyn mch v nh tuyn da vo lp
2 v lp 3.
AON c nhiu u im nh: tm ko dy xa (ln n 70 km m khng cn b
lp, tnh bo mt cao, d dng nng cp bng thng thu bao khi cn, d xc nh
li Tuy nhin, cng ngh AON cng c khuyt im l chi ph cao do: vic vn
hnh cc thit b trn ng truyn u cn ngun cung cp, mi thu bao l mt si
quang ring, cn nhiu khng gian cha cp
Chng 1: Tng quan mng FTTX (Fiber To The X)

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Sinh vin: Bi Th Phong

Mt nhc im rt ln ca mng quang tch cc chnh l thit b chuyn


mch. Vi cng ngh hin ti, thit b chuyn mch bt buc phi chuyn tn hiu
quang thnh tn hiu in phn tch thng tin ri tip tc chuyn ngc li
truyn i. iu ny s lm gim tc truyn dn ti a c th trong h thng FTTx.
Ngoi ra do y l nhng chuyn mch c tc cao nn cc thit b ny rt t,
khng ph hp vi vic trin khai vi quy m ln cho mng truy cp.
1.3.2. Mng quang th ng PON
Mng quang th ng khng s dng cc thit b tch cc trong mng phn phi
ca n. Thay vo , cc thit b quang th ng s iu khin lu lng trn mng
da vo vic chia tch nng lng ca cc bc sng quang hc.
Cu trc c bn ca mng PON l cu trc im-a im, bao gm thit b u
cui ng dy OLT (Optical Line Terminal) c t ti trm trung tm ca nh
khai thc dch v (CO, Central Office) v cc b kt ni u cui ONU/ONT (Optical
Network Unit/Optical Network Terminal) c t gn hoc ti nh thu bao. Gia
chng l h thng phn phi tn hiu bao gm h thng cp quang v cc thit b tch
ghp th ng.
Tn hiu ng xung s c OLT truyn broadcast n cc ONU bao gm d
liu v cc tn hiu ng b cho ONU. Da vo tn hiu nhn c m cc ONU s
tch tn hiu tng ng vi cc thu bao. Tn hiu ng ln ca cc ONU c kt
hp li bng phng thc a truy nhp phn chia theo thi gian (TDMA). Trong
trng hp ny, OLT s quyt nh khe thi gian m tng ONU c php s dng.
Thng thng, cc h thng PON s dng mt si quang cho c chiu ln v chiu
xung. Bc sng c s dng cho chiu xung l 1490nm hoc 1550nm, bc
sng s dng cho chiu ln l 1310nm.
u im ca PON l n s dng cc thit b th ng khng cn ngun cung cp,
khng ph thuc vo iu kin mi trng v c th t bt c u. Do cc iu kin
nh trn nn chi ph u t, vn hnh v bo tr cho cc thit b ny thng r hn rt
nhiu so vi cc thit b tch cc. Cu trc mng PON cho php ngi dng chia s
cng mt si quang. iu ny lm gim chi ph v cp quang v cc thit b t ti
trung tm ca nh cung cp dch v. Do Splitter khng cn ngun nn h thng cng
tit kim in hn v khng gian cha cp cng t hn so vi AON.

Chng 1: Tng quan mng FTTX (Fiber To The X)

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Sinh vin: Bi Th Phong

Tuy nhin PON cng c nhiu khuyt im nh kh nng cp bng thng khi
thu bao yu cu (do kin trc im n nhiu im s nh hng n nhng thu bao
khc trong trng hp dng ht bng thng), kh xc nh li hn do 1 si quang
chung cho nhiu ngi dng (32 ngi dng), tnh bo mt cng khng cao bng
AON (c th b nghe ln nu khng m ha d liu).
1.4. Gii thiu mng FTTH
Cng ngh FTTH (l mng vin thng bng thng rng bng cp quang c
ni n tn nh cung cp cc dch v tc cao nh in thoi, Internet tc cao
v TV) ang c trin khai kh mnh m trn th gii. Tiu chun ny cn c gi
bng tn khc l FTTB, khc vi FTTC-ng dn cp quang ch n bn ngoi
ng, cn dn vo nh vn l tiu chun dy ng nh c.
Vi cng ngh FTTH, ngi s dng c cung cp mt ng dn hon ton
bng cp quang, tn hiu lun n nh, khng b nh hng bi nhiu in t hay thi
tit. Mng cp quang cn mang li tnh bo mt v an ton thng tin cao v rt kh
trch tn hiu t mt tuyn cp quang.
S dng cng ngh FTTH, nh cung cp dch v c th cung cp tc
download ln n 10 Gigabit/giy, nhanh gp 200 ln so vi ADSL 2+ (hin ch c
th p ng 20 Megabit/giy). Tc truyn dn vi ADSL l khng cn bng, c tc
ti ln lun nh hn tc ti xung (Bt i xng, Download > Upload) v ti a
20 Mbps. Cn FTTH cho php cn bng, tc ti ln v ti xung nh nhau (i
xng, Download = Upload) v cho php ti a l 10 Gbps, c th phc v cng mt
lc cho hng trm my tnh.
Vi ADSL, chiu di cp ti a cn 2.5 km t s n nh cn thit, cn vi
FTTH th cn s ny ln ti 10 km. c bit, nh bng thng vt tri ca mnh,
FTTH c bit hiu qu vi cc dch v: Hosting Server ring, VPN (mng ring o),
Truyn d liu, Game Online, IPTV (truyn hnh tng tc), VOD (xem phim theo
yu cu), Video Conferrence (hi ngh truyn hnh), IP Camera FTTH ha hn s
truyn bt c by k ng dng no m ngi dng yu cu.
Chi ph vn hnh, bo tr, bo dng cho mng FTTH cng r hn so vi mng
cp ng. Bi v, cc nh cung cp dch v phi tn rt nhiu chi ph cho in cung
cp v chi ph bo tr, thay th nhng on cp ng h hng, xung cp do s ph
hy ca mi trng. Vi FTTH, chi ph ny c gim thiu v mng PON khng s
Chng 1: Tng quan mng FTTX (Fiber To The X)

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Sinh vin: Bi Th Phong

dng cc thit b tch cc v cp quang khng b nh hng bi mi trng, thi tit


nh cp ng, Ngoi ra, FTTH cn chim u th tuyt i trong qu trnh ngm ha
mng thng tin, xu th ny ang din ra nh l mt tt yu nc ta.
D kin FTTH s dn thay th ADSL trong tng lai gn mt khi bng thng
ADSL khng sc cung cp ng thi cc dch v trc tuyn trong cng mt thi
im. FTTH cung cp 1 IP tnh thch hp vi cc doanh nghip, t chc trin khai d
dng cc dch v trc tuyn nh IP Camera, HDTV, game online, truyn d liu tc
cao...

Chng 1: Tng quan mng FTTX (Fiber To The X)

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Sinh vin: Bi Th Phong

CHNG 2
TNG QUAN V MNG QUANG TH NG (PON)
2.1. Gii thiu mng quang th ng PON
2.1.1. M u
Mng vin thng thng c cu thnh bi 3 mng chnh: mng ng trc,
mng pha khch hng v mng truy nhp. Trong nhng nm gn y, mng ng
trc c nhng bc pht trin nhy vt do s xut hin ca cc cng ngh mi, nh
cng ngh ghp knh theo bc sng (WDM), tuy nhin mng truy nhp t c s thay
i. Cng trong khong thi gian ny, mng ni ht (LAN) cng c ci tin v
nng cp t tc 10Mb/s ln 100Mb/s, v n 1Gb/s. Thm ch, cc sn phm
Ethernet 10Gb/s cng bt u xut hin trn th trng. iu ny dn n mt
s chnh lch rt ln v bng thng gia mt bn l mng LAN tc cao v mng
ng trc v mt bn l mng truy nhp tc thp, dn n hin tng nt c chai
(bottleneck) trong mng vin thng. Vic bng n lu lng Internet trong thi gian
va qua cng lm trm trng thm cc vn ca mng truy nhp tc thp.
Theo hu ht cc bo co phn tch, lu lng ca d liu hin nay vt tri
hn rt nhiu so vi lu lng thoi. Cng ngy s cng c nhiu dch v v cc ng
dng mi c trin khai khi bng thng dnh cho ngi s dng tng ln. ng
trc tnh hnh , mt s cng ngh mi c a ra nhm p ng nhng i hi
v bng thng.
Hin ti, cc nh cung cp dch v trin khai cung cp dch v Internet
bng cng ngh ng dy thu bao s DSL. DSL s dng i dy ging nh dy
in thoi, v yu cu phi c mt modem DSL t ti thu bao v DSLAM t ti
tng i. Tc d liu ca DSL nm trong khong t 128Kb/s n 1.5Mb/s, nn
kh c th c coi l bng rng do khng cung cp c cc dch v video, thoi, d
liu cho cc thu bao xa. Khong cch t tng i n thu bao ch trong phm vi
5.5 km. Ta c th tng khong cch ny bng gii php trin khai thm nhiu DSLAM
n gn thu bao, nhng y l mt gii php khng hiu qu do chi ph qu cao.

Chng 2: Tng quan v mng quang th ng PON

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Sinh vin: Bi Th Phong

Mt gii php khc c a ra l s dng cp modem. Cc cng ty cp TV


cung cp cc dch v Internet bng cch trin khai cc dch v tch hp d liu trn
mng cp ng trc, m ban u c thit k truyn dn tn hiu video tng t.
V d, mng HFC s c si quang ni t cc u dn hay cc hub n cc nt
quang, v t cc nt quang s phn chia n cc thu bao thng qua cp ng trc, b
lp v cc b ghp/tch. Tuy nhin, m hnh kin trc ny c nhc im l thng
lng hiu dng ca cc nt quang khng qu 36Mb/s, v vy tc thng rt thp
vo nhng gi cao im.
Nh vy, chng ta thy rng c cng ngh DSL v cp modem u khng p
ng c nhng yu cu v bng thng cho mng truy nhp. Hu ht cc nh cng
ngh mng hin nay u ang tin ti mt cng ngh mi, tp trung ch yu vo
truyn ti d liu, c bit l d liu IP.
Trong bi cnh , cng ngh PON s l mt gii php ti u cho mng truy
nhp bng rng. Ngi ta trng i mng PON s gii quyt c cc vn tc
nghn bng thng ca mng truy nhp trong kin trc mng vin thng, gia mt bn
l cc nh cung cp dch v CO, cc im kt cui, cc im truy nhp v mt bn l
cc cng ty c cung cp dch v, hay mt khu vc tp trung cc thu bao.
2.1.2. Khi nim PON
Mng quang th ng PON (Passive Optical Network) c th nh ngha mt
cch ngn gn nh sau: Mng quang th ng PON l mt mng quang khng c cc
phn t in hay cc thit b quang in t.
Hu ht cc mng vin thng ngy nay u da trn cc thit b Active
components l cc thit b tch cc (nh b chuyn i O/E, E/O), c ngha l cc
thit b ny cn phi cung cp ngun cho mt s thnh phn, thng l b x l, cc
chip nh
Vi mng PON tt c cc thnh phn tch cc gia tng i CO v ngi s
dng s khng cn tn ti m thay vo , PON s ch bao gm: si quang, cc b
chia, b kt hp, connector, cc thit b ghp knh WDM th ng... iu ny gip
cho PON c mt s u im nh sau:
Khng cn ngun in cung cp nn khng b nh hng bi li ngun, v khng
mt chi ph cho vic cung cp, bo dng nng lng in cho cc thit b.
Chng 2: Tng quan v mng quang th ng PON

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Sinh vin: Bi Th Phong

Khng cn phi bo dng do tn hiu khng b suy hao nhiu nh i vi cc


phn t tch cc.
Gii quyt cc vn v bng thng, c tin cy cao.
Gim chi ph lp t thp do n tn dng c nhng si quang trong mng c
t trc.
PON cng d dng v thun tin trong vic ghp thm cc ONU theo yu cu ca
cc dch v, trong khi vic thit lp thm cc nt trong mng tch cc kh
phc tp do vic cp ngun ti mi nt mng, v trong mi nt mng u cn c
cc b pht li.
PON c th hot ng vi ch khng i xng. Chng hn, mt mng PON c
th truyn dn tc 622 Mbits/s ng xung v truy nhp tc 155
Mbits/s ng ln. Mt mng khng i xng nh vy s gip cho chi ph ca
cc ONU gim i rt nhiu, do ch phi s dng cc b thu pht gi thnh thp
hn..
PON cn c kh nng chng li cao, do cc nt ca mng PON nm bn ngoi
mng, nn tn hao nng lng trn cc nt ny khng gy nh hng g n cc
nt khc. Kh nng mt nt mt nng lng m khng lm ngt mng l rt quan
trng i vi mng truy nhp, do cc nh cung cp khng th m bo c nng
lng d phng cho tt c cc u cui xa.
V tr ca h thng PON trong mng truyn dn: Mng quang th ng PON l
mt dng ca mng truy nhp. Mng truy nhp h tr cc kt ni n khch hng, n
c t gn u cui khch hng v trin khai vi s lng ln. Mng truy nhp
tn ti nhiu dng khc nhau v PON l mt trong nhng dng . So vi mng truy
nhp cp ng truyn thng, si quang hu nh khng gii hn bng thng (hng
THz). Vic trin khai si quang n nh thu bao ang v s l mc tiu pht trin
trong tng lai.
2.2. Kin trc ca PON
2.2.1. Kin trc
M hnh mng quang th ng vi cc phn t ca n c biu din nh trong
hnh 2-1. Cc phn t th ng ca PON u nm trong mng phn phi quang ODN
bao gm cc phn t nh si quang, cc b tch/ghp quang th ng, cc u ni
Chng 2: Tng quan v mng quang th ng PON

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12

Sinh vin: Bi Th Phong

v cc ONU/ONT t pha ngi s dng. Gia chng l h thng phn phi mng
quang ODN bao gm cp quang, cc thit b ghp/tch th ng.

Hnh 2-1: M hnh mng quang th ng PON


OLT: Cung cp giao tip gia h thng mng truy cp quang th ng PON v
mng quang ng trc ca cc nh cung cp dch v thoi, d liu v video.
OLT cng kt ni n mng ng trc ca nh cung cp dch v thng qua h
thng qun l EMS.
ONU: Cung cp giao tip gia mng thoi, video v d liu ngi dng vi mng
PON. Chc nng c bn ca ONU l nhn d liu dng quang v chuyn sang
dng ph hp vi ngi dng nh Ethernet, POTS... ONT phc v cho mt thu
bao n l (nh ). ONT khng c tch hp cc chc nng bo mt cao. ONU
phc v cho nhiu thu bao (vn phng, ta nh ln). T ONU c th chia ra
nhiu ONT, v th gi thnh ca mt ONU t hn so vi ONT.
EMS: Qun l cc phn t khc nhau ca mng PON v cung cp giao din n
mng li ca cc nh cung cp dch v. EMS c chc nng qun l v cu hnh,
c tnh v bo mt.
B tch/ghp: Thu v nhn cc tn hiu quang uc nhn v pht bi OLT
truyn i trn si quang.

Chng 2: Tng quan v mng quang th ng PON

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Sinh vin: Bi Th Phong

PON thng c trin khai trn si quang n mode, vi cu hnh cy l ph


bin. PON cng c th c trin khai theo cu hnh vng ring cho cc khu thng
mi hoc theo cu hnh bus khi trin khai trong cc khu trng s...
PON c s dng nh mng truy nhp kt ni im - a im, vi mt CO
phc v cho nhiu thu bao. C mt s cu hnh kt ni im - a im ph hp cho
mng truy nhp nh cu hnh cy, cy v nhnh, vng ring, hoc bus nh trong hnh
2-2.

Hnh 2-2: Cc kiu kin trc ca PON


y l nhng cu hnh rt mm do, ph hp vi nhu cu pht trin ca thu
bao, cng nh nhng i hi ngy cng tng v bng thng.
2.2.2. Qu trnh truyn d liu trong PON
Ti hng xung, OLT pht qung b d liu ti tt c cc ONT/ONU. Tn
hiu hng xung bao gm d liu cho cc ONT/ONU, t u khai thc qun l v
bo dng OAM (Operation Administration and Maintenance) v cc tn hiu
ng b cho cc ONT/ONU gi d liu hng ln. Da vo cc thng tin v
khe thi gian (knh), a ch gi/t bo, bc sng, m cc ONU tch d liu
tng ng vi thu bao ca khch hng.
Trong hng ln, k thut c s dng trong PON l a truy nhp phn chia
theo thi gian TDMA, khi mi ONT/ONU c cp mt khe thi gian (knh)
gi d liu ca mnh ti OLT. Ngoi ra trong hng ln cn phi c khong thi gian
Chng 2: Tng quan v mng quang th ng PON

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Sinh vin: Bi Th Phong

bo v gia cc nhm gi d liu ca cc ONT/ONU, khong thi gian ny phi m


bo sao cho ti b thu OLT d liu khng b chng lp ln nhau.
Thng thng cc h thng TDMA PON gn trc mt t l phn chia c nh
bng thng hng ln cho cc ONT/ONU m khng quan tm c bao nhiu d liu
c gi i. Mt gii php cp pht bng thng cho cc ONT/ONU l s dng giao
thc cp pht bng thng ng DBA (Dynamic Bandwidth Allocation). DBA l giao
thc cho php cc ONT/ONU gi yu cu v bng thng ti OLT nhm s dng hiu
qu bng thng hng ln. OLT nh gi cc yu cu t cc ONT/ONU v gn bng
thng cho vic gi d liu hng ln ln k tip theo.
Thng thng cc h thng PON truyn d liu c hng xung v hng ln
trong cng mt si quang. Trn mi si mc d cc b ni nh hng cho php s
dng cng mt bc sng cho c 2 hng, tuy nhin i vi cc h thng truyn ti
tc cao m bo cht lng th thng thng mi hng s dng mt bc sng
ring. Trong cc mng PON cc bc sng c s dng l 1490nm hoc 1550nm
cho hng xung v 1310nm cho tn hiu ng ln.
2.3. c im chnh ca PON
S dng kt ni im - a im, c trng ca h thng PON l thit b quang th
ng, phn phi si quang n tng nh thu bao, s dng b chia splitter c th
ln n 1: 128.
PON h tr giao thc ATM, Ethernet.
PON h tr cc dch v voice, data, v video tc cao.
Kh nng cung cp bng thng cao, trong h thng PON, bng thng c chia
cho nhiu khch hng s dng, iu ny s gip gim chi ph cho khch hng.
Kh nng tn dng cng ngh WDM, ghp knh phn chia theo di tn v cung
cp bng thng ng gim thiu s lng cp quang cn thit kt ni gia
OLT v splitter.
PON thc hin truyn dn 2 chiu trn 2 si quang hay 2 chiu trn cng 1 si
quang.
PON c th h tr topo hnh cy, sao, bus, v ring.
2.4. Phn loi PON
Xt v k thut th mng PON c th chia lm 2 loi:
Chng 2: Tng quan v mng quang th ng PON

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Sinh vin: Bi Th Phong

Da vo k thut ghp knh phn chia theo thi gian (TDM) hng down v k
thut a truy nhp ghp knh phn chia theo thi gian (TDMA) hng up th ta
c APON/BPON (ATM PON/Broadband PON), GPON (Gigabit PON) v EPON
(Ethernet PON).
Da vo k thut ghp knh phn chia theo bc sng (WDM) th ta c WDM
PON.
2.4.1. APON/BPON
T nm 1995, 7 nh khai thc mng hng u th gii lp nn nhm FSAN
vi mc tiu l thng nht cc tiu ch cho mng truy nhp bng rng. Hin nay cc
thnh vin ca FSAN tng ln n trn 40 trong c nhiu hng sn xut v cung
cp thit b vin thng ln trn th gii.
Cc thnh vin ca FSAN pht trin mt tiu ch cho mng truy nhp PON
s dng cng ngh ATM v giao thc lp 2 ca n, y l chun mng PON u tin.
H thng ny c gi l APON (ATM PON). APON th ni r khung ATM c
dng truyn trong chun ITU-T G.983. Cell ATM c 53 byte trong 5 byte
header v 48 byte ti. Bi v kch c c nh, ATM c th m bo cht lng dch v
v d nh cp pht bng thng, m bo trATM c thit k h tr c thoi v
d liu v th m n ph hp cho ng dng FTTH.
Ci tn APON sau c thay th bng BPON (Broadband PON) vi din
t PON bng rng. H thng BPON c kh nng cung cp nhiu dch v bng rng
nh Ethernet, Video, ng ring o (VPL), knh thu ring Nm 1997 nhm
FSAN a cc xut ch tiu BPON ln ITU-T thng qua chnh thc. T , cc
tiu chun ITU G.983.x cho mng BPON ln lt c thng qua.
Trong h thng APON/BPON, cc kt ni gia ONT/ONU v OLT c thit
lp nh l mt mch o ATM. Mi mch o c ch nh bi s nhn dng ng o
VPI v nhn dng knh o VCI m n c ghi vo trong cell bao gm lung d liu
ca n. VPI/VCI l s liu cung cp cc cp khc nhau ca tn hiu ATM c ghp
hay chuyn mch. Nhiu mch o VC c th tn ti ng o ring. Mt kt ni ATM
c ch nh bi cp VPI/VCI. Cn c vo cc thng tin v m s VPI/VCI trong cu
trc ATM, cc ONT/ONU nhn bit v tch d liu ng xung ca mnh.

Chng 2: Tng quan v mng quang th ng PON

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Sinh vin: Bi Th Phong

G.983.1 l khuyn ngh cho APON/BPON ra i nm 1998 vi tc 155.2


Mbps v 622.08 Mbps. Phin bn mi hn ra i nm 2005 thm vo tc truyn
dn 1244.16 Mbps. Nh cung cp dch v APON/BPON c th la chn thc thi tc
truyn dn down v up i xng hay bt i xng.
2.4.2. GPON
Da trn cc khuyn ngh ca FSAN, t nm 2003-2004, ITU-T chun ha
mt lot cc tiu chun cho mng PON Gigabit (GPON) bao gm G.984.1, G.984.2 v
G.984.3.
GPON c xy dng trn tri nghim ca APON/BPON v EPON. Mc d
GPON h tr truyn ti tin ATM, nhng n cng a vo mt c ch thch nghi ti tin
mi m c ti u ha cho truyn ti cc khung Ethernet c gi l phng thc
ng gi GPON (GEM GPON Encapsulation Method). GEM l phng thc da
trn th tc ng khung chung trong khuyn ngh G.701, cho php sp xp cc d liu
Ethernet vo ti tin GEM v h tr sp xp TDM.
GPON s dng cu trc khung GTC cho c hai hng xung v hng
ln. Khung hng xung bt u vi mt t mo u PLOAM, tip sau l trng
ti tin GEM v/hoc cc t bo ATM. PLOAM gm c thng tin cu trc khung v
sp t bng thng cho ONU gi d liu trong khung hng ln tip theo. Khung
hng ln bao gm cc nhm khung gi t cc ONU. Mi mt nhm c bt u
vi t mo u lp vt l PLOu, bao hm tng hp cc yu cu bng thng ca cc
ONU. Ngoi ra, cc trng PLOAM v cc yu cu bng thng chi tit hn c gi
i km vi cc nhm hng ln khi c yu cu t OLT. OLT gn cc thi gian cho
vic gi d liu hng ln t cho mi ONU.
Cc u im ca GPON:
Cung cp dch v nh: h tr b ba (Triple play) dch v bao gm thoi, video,
internet tc cao.
Hiu sut v tc ng truyn cao: GPON h tr tc bt cao, vi tc
hng xung/ hng ln tng ng 2.488 Gbit/s/1.244 Gbit/s.
GPON cung cp rng bng ln v l cng ngh ti u cho cc ng dng ca
FTTH v FTTB.

Chng 2: Tng quan v mng quang th ng PON

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Sinh vin: Bi Th Phong

Tuy nhin, GPON cng c nhc im chnh l: thiu tnh hi t IP; c mt


kt ni duy nht gia OLT v b chia, nu kt ni ny mt th ton b ONT/ONU
khng c cung cp dch v.
2.4.3. EPON
Ethernet PON (EPON) l mng trn c s PON mang lu lng d liu gi
trong cc khung Ethernet c chun ha theo IEEE 802.3. EPON s dng giao thc
iu khin a im (MPCP-Multipoint control protocol) v hot ng tc chun
ca Ethernet.
Trong EPON d liu hng xung c ng khung theo khun dng Ethernet.
Trong hng ln, cc ONU pht cc khung Ethernet trong cc khe thi gian c
cp pht.
ONU s dng giao thc iu khin a im MPCPDU gi cc bn tin
Report yu cu bng thng, trong khi OLT gi bn tin Gate cp pht bng
thng cho cc ONU. Cc bn tin Gate bao gm thng tin v thi gian bt u v
khong thi gian cho php truyn d liu i vi ONU. OLT cng nh k gi
cc bn tin Gate ti cc ONU hi xem chng c yu cu bng thng hay khng. Cc
ONU cng c th gi Report cng vi d liu c pht trong hng ln. Ngoi ra,
giao thc DBA cng c th c s dng trong EPON thc hin c ch iu khin
cp pht bng thng.
Do khng c cu trc khung thng nht i vi hng xung v hng ln,
do vy trong cu trc ca EPON, cc khe thi gian v giao thc xc nh c ly l khc
so vi BPON v GPON.
2.4.3. WDMPON
Cng ngh mng quang th ng s dng ghp knh phn chia theo bc sng
Wavelength Division Multiplexing Passive Optical Network (WDM PON).
hng xung, mng PON l mng im-a im. OLT chim ton b bng
thng hng xung. Trong hng ln, mng PON l mng a im-im: nhiu ONU
truyn tt c d liu ca n n mt OLT. c tnh hng ca cc b tch ghp th
ng l vic truyn thng ca mt ONU s khng c nhn bit bi cc ONU khc.
Tuy nhin cc lung d liu t cc ONU khc nhau c truyn cng mt lc cng c
th b xung t. V vy trong hng ln, PON s s dng mt vi c ch ring bit
Chng 2: Tng quan v mng quang th ng PON

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trong knh trnh xung t d liu v chia s cng bng ti nguyn v dung lng
trung k.
Mt phng php chia s knh hng ln ca ONU l s dng ghp knh
phn chia theo bc sng WDM, vi phng php ny th mi ONU s hot ng
mt bc sng khc nhau. Gii php WDM yu cu mt b thu iu khin c hoc
l mt mng b thu OLT nhn cc knh khc nhau. Thm ch nhiu vn kh
khn cho cc nh khai thc mng l kim k tng bc sng ca ONU: thay v ch c
mt loi ONU, th c nhiu loi ONU da trn cc bc sng laser ca n. Mi ONU
s s dng mt laser hp v rng ph iu khin c cho nn rt t tin. Mc
khc, nu mt bc sng b sai lch s gy ra nhiu cho cc ONU khc trong mng
PON. Vic s dng laser iu khin c c th khc phc c vn ny nhng
qu t cho cng ngh hin ti. Vi nhng kh khn nh vy th WDM khng phi l
gii php tt cho mi trng hin nay.
2.4.4. Nhn xt
Cng ngh APON/BPON c p dng truyn ti d liu v ting ni.
Tuy nhin hin nay mng APON/BPON khng c quan tm pht trin do ch h tr
dch v ATM v tc truy nhp thp hn nhiu so vi cc cng ngh hin hu khc
nh GPON hay EPON.
Cc nghin cu hin nay ang tp trung vo GPON v EPON/GEPON v y l
cc cng ngh mi ha hn s c trin khai rng ri trong mng truy nhp bng
rng do cc c im vt tri ca chng so vi cc cng ngh khc.
Trong khi GEPON ch cung cp tc truyn l 1.25 Gbit/s th GPON li cho
php t ti tc 2.448 Gbit/s. V thm ch, khi cng ngy cc nh cung cp dch v
cng c tit kim chi ph bng vic tn dng ti a bng thng th c v nh GEPON
ang dn tr thnh mt s la chn khng c nh gi cao. Vi hiu sut t 50%
70%, bng thng ca GEPON b gii hn trong khong 600Mbps n 900Mbps, trong
khi GPON vi vic tn dng bng thng ti a n c th cho php cc nh cung
cp dch v phn phi vi bng thng ln n 2300 Mbps.
c chun ho theo ITU-T G.984, GPON cho php cung cp ng truyn
vi cc nh dng gc nh IP v TDM, y thc s l mt gii php cng ngh PON
t hiu qu kinh t c th s dng cho c cc dch v gia nh cng nh l cho cc
Chng 2: Tng quan v mng quang th ng PON

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doanh nghip. Vi nhng c tnh h tr cao nht v rng bng tiu dng c
nng t 10 MHz ln 100 MHz cho truyn d liu Internet, p ng c cc yu cu
cho nhiu dng IPTV, v c th h tr truyn thng c SDTV v HDTV, GPON
thc s c nh gi l kinh t hn EPON.
Mt khc trong khi tiu chun IEEE 803.2ah ch h tr 2 lp ODN: lp a v lp
B th ITU-GT.984.2 GPON GPM h tr c lp C, lp cp cao hn. Lp C cho php
mng PON m rng c ly ti 60 km, cung cp cho s lng ln ngi dng cui, t
ti 64 thm ch 128 ONU/ONT.
Trong khi EPON ch h tr duy nht mt tc truyn dn i xng 1.25/1.25
Gbps th ITU-T G.984.2 GPON linh hot v bin i c nhiu hn, cho php cc
tc hng xung 1.25 Gbps v 2.5 Gbps, hng ln cho php 155 Mbps, 622
Mbps hay 1.25 Gbps v 2.5 Gbps. C hai cng ngh u nhm ti th trng truy
nhp, bao gm cc ng dng FTTH v FTTB/FTTC vi c trng l tc truy
nhp khng i xng gia hng ln v hng xung. Thm ch vi s pht trin ca
cc ng dng d liu th cng khng c nhu cu n 1.25 Gbps trong hng ln.
T nhng so snh trn c th thy rng GPON thch hp hn so vi EPON
trong vic lp t cc h thng mng cung cp cc kh nng d phng cn thit,
kh nng tng thch cng nh l bo mt. y l nhng iu kin cn thit iu
hnh mt mng kch c ln.
S khc nhau ca cc mng PON c m t trong bng 2-1 bn di.

Chng 2: Tng quan v mng quang th ng PON

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20

c tnh

GPON
FSANv ITU-T SG15
(G.984 series)

EPON

C ly ti a OLT-ONU
Chuyn mch bo v

A/BPON
FSAN
v ITU-T SG15
(G.983 series)
155.52Mbit/s hng
ln. 155.52, 622.08, hoc
1244.16Mbps
Mbit/s hng xung,
1:64
NRZ
1 hoc 2
1310nm c 2 hng
hoc 1490nm xung &
1310nm ln
20 km
C h tr

Khun dng d liu

ATM

H tr TDM

Qua ATM

H tr thoi
QoS
Sa li hng ti trc
FEC (Forward Error
Correction)
M ha bo mt

Qua ATM
C (DBA)

Trc tip (qua GEM hoc


ATM) hoc CES
Qua TDM hoc VoIP
C (DBA)

Khng

RS(255, 239)

RS(255, 239)

AES 128

OAM

PLOAM v ATM

AES - 128, 192, 256


GTC v ATM/GEM
OAM

Khng
802.3ah Ethernet
OAM

T chc chun ha
Tc d liu
T l chia (ONUs/PON)
M ng truyn
S lng si quang
Bc song

Ln ti 2.488 Gbit/s c 2
hng
1:128
NRZ
1 hoc 2
1310nm c 2 hng hoc
1490nm xung &
1310nm ln
(10 20) km
C h tr
GEM v/hoc ATM

IEEE 802.3 (802.3ah)


1 Gbit/s c 2 hng
1:64
8B/10B
1
1490nm xung &
1310nm ln
(10 20) km
Khng h tr
Khng (s dng trc
tip cc khung
Ethernet)
CES
VoIP
C (u tin 802.1Q)

Bng 2-1: M t s khc nhau gia APON/BPON, EPON, GPON

Chng 2: Tng quan v mng quang th ng PON

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CHNG 3
CNG NGH MNG QUANG TH NG GPON
3.1. Kin trc mng GPON
GPON vit tt ca t Gigabit Passive Optical Network. GPON l s pht trin
ca APON/BPON n hot ng tc ln ti hng Gbps v c chun ha
thnh ITU-T G.984.
H thng GPON thng thng gm mt thit b kt cui ng dy OLT v
thit b kt cui mng ONU hay ONT c ni vi nhau qua mng phn phi quang
ODN. Quan h gia OLT v ONU l quan h im a im, mt OLT s kt ni vi
nhiu ONU. Hnh 3-1 ch ra kin trc ca GPON.

Hnh 3-1: Cu trc mng GPON


Trong kin trc ny, OLT kt ni n ONU qua splitter 1:N. N y c th ln
n 128. Khong cch truyn dn ti a l 60 km. Lu lng up ln t ONU c
truyn bc sng 1310 nm v down t OLT l bc sng 1490 nm v bc sng
1550 nm c dng down video. D liu down xung s truyn tt c cc gi d
liu n tt c ONU v n s nhn gi m ng a ch ca n cn hng up ln th
cc gi t cc ONU s truyn ln lt cc gi n OLT thng qua s iu khin ca
OLT. OLT s qui nh khe thi gian m ONU no c truyn ti thi im c
th trnh c s ng .

Chng 3: Cng ngh mng quang th ng GPON

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3.1.1. Thit b kt cui ng dy OLT (Optical Network Terminal)


Thit b kt cui ng dy OLT lp t ti pha nh cung cp dch v (CO)
thng c t ti cc i trm. OLT kt ni mng dch v v phn mng PON. Giao
din t mt OLT n mng dch v c gi l giao din mng dch v SNI (Service
Network Interface). Cc khi chc nng chnh ca OLT c m t trong hnh 3-2.

Hnh 3-2: S khi OLT


OLT gm cc chc nng chnh sau:
Chuyn i nh dng bn tin t giao din mng dch v sang giao din khung
bn trong mng phn mng GPON (khung GTC).
Qun l ONU, bao gm ng k ONU, iu chnh mc cng sut v cc thng s
khc.
iu khin truy nhp mi trng, bao gm tnh ton thi gian tr truyn dn, cp
pht bng thng
iu khin khung ng ln v xung.
3.1.1.1. Khi li PON (PON core shell)
Khi ny gm hai phn:
Phn giao din ODN: chc nng kt ni cc ONU vi OLT.
PON TC: chc nng ca PON TC bao gm to khung, iu khin truy cp
phng tin (Media Access Control Flow), OAM, DBA, qun l ONU v la
Chng 3: Cng ngh mng quang th ng GPON

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chn ch hot ng (ATM/GEM). Mi PON TC c th la chn hot ng


theo mt ch ATM, GEM hay Dual.
3.1.1.2. Khi kt ni cho (cross - connect shell)
Khi ny cung cp chc nng kt ni v chuyn mch gia PON core shell v
Service shell. Cng ngh kt ni cho ph thuc vo dch v, cc kin trc bn
trong OLT. OLT cung cp chc nng kt ni cho ty thuc vo phng thc truyn
dn la chn (ATM/GEM).
3.1.1.3. Khi dch v (service shell)
Phn ny h tr chuyn i gia giao din dch v v giao din khung bn
trong phn mng PON.
3.1.2. Khi mng quang ONU (Optical Network Unit)

Hnh 3-3: S khi ONU


Khi mng quang ONU c t pha trng thu bao cho kt cui truyn
dn, cung cp giao din pha ngi dng v c kt ni vi mng ODN. Giao din
gia ONU vi thit b mng c gi l giao din mng-ngi dng UNI (User
Network Interface). Cu hnh in hnh ca mt ONU c m t trn hnh 3-3.
ONU gm cc chc nng sau:
Chuyn i nh dng bn tin t giao din mng-ngi dng sang giao din
khung bn trong phn mng GPON (Khung GTC).

Chng 3: Cng ngh mng quang th ng GPON

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Sinh vin: Bi Th Phong

iu khin khung ng ln v xung trong phn mng GPON.


Cc khi chc nng ca GPON ONU hu ht u ging nh ca OLT. V ONU
hot ng ch vi mt giao din PON n, nn chc nng kt ni cho c th b b i.
Tuy nhin, thay cho chc nng ny, chc nng dch v MUX v DEMUX c h tr
chuyn i nhng chc nng PON core shell sang service shell.
3.1.3. Mng phn phi quang ODN (Optical Distribution Network)
Mng phn phi quang ODN cung cp mi trng truyn dn quang cho cc
kt ni vt l t ONU n OLT. ODN bao gm: mng cp quang thu bao v thit b
tch/ghp quang th ng, cc connector v cc mi ni.
3.1.3.1. Mng cp quang thu bao

Hnh 3-4: Cu trc c bn mng cp quang thu bao


Mng cp thu bao quang c xc nh trong phm vi ranh gii t giao tip si
quang gia thit b OLT n thit ONU/ONT.
Mng cp quang thu bao c cu thnh bi cc thnh phn chnh nh sau:
Cp quang gc (Feeder Cable): xut pht t pha nh cung cp dch v (hay cn
gi Chung l Central Office) ti im phn phi c gi l DP (Distribution
Point).
im phn phi si quang (DP): l im kt thc ca on cp gc. Trn thc t
trin khai, im phn phi si quang thng l mng xng quang, hoc cc t cp
quang phi, u tin dng mng xng quang.
Cp quang phi (Distribution Optical Cable): xut pht t im phi quang (DP)
ti cc im truy nhp mng (AP Access Point) hay t cc t quang phi ti cc
tp im quang.

Chng 3: Cng ngh mng quang th ng GPON

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Sinh vin: Bi Th Phong

Cp quang thu bao (Drop Cable): xut pht t cc im truy nhp mng (AP)
hay l t cc tp im quang n thu bao.
H thng qun l mng quang (FMS Fiber Management System) c s
dng bo dng v x l s c.
im qun l quang (FMP - Fiber Management Point): d dng cho x l s c
v pht hin t ng.
3.1.3.2. B tch/ghp quang

Hnh 3-5: Cu trc c bn cc loi coupler


Mt mng quang th ng s dng mt thit b th ng tch mt tn hiu
quang t mt si quang sang mt vi si quang v ngc li. Thit b ny l Coupler
quang, thng c t ti cc im phn phi quang (DP) v cc im truy nhp
quang (AP). Dng n gin nht l Coupler quang gm hai si ni vi nhau. T s
tch ca b tch c th c iu khin bng chiu di ca tng ni v v th n l
hng s.
Hnh 2-5a c chc nng tch tia vo thnh 2 tia u ra, y l Coupler Y.
Hnh 2-5b l Coupler ghp cc tn hiu quang ti hai u vo thnh mt tn hiu ti
u ra. Hnh 2-5c va ghp va tch quang v gi l Coupler X hoc Coupler phn
hng 2x2. Coupler c nhiu hn hai cng vo v nhiu hn hai cng ra gi l
Coupler hnh sao. Coupler NxN c to ra t nhiu Couper 2x2 (Hnh 3-6).
Coupler c c trng bi cc thng s sau:

Chng 3: Cng ngh mng quang th ng GPON

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Sinh vin: Bi Th Phong

26

Splitting loss (tn hao tch): Mc nng lng u ra ca Coupler so vi nng


lng u vo (dB). i vi Coupler 2x2 l tng, gi tr ny l 3dB. Hnh 2-6
minh ha hai m hnh 8x8 Coupler da trn 2x2 Coupler. Trong m hnh 4 ngn
(Hnh 2-6a), ch 1/16 nng lng u vo c chia mi u ra. Hnh 2-6b a
ra m hnh hiu qu hn gi l mng lin kt mng a ngn. Trong m hnh ny
mi u ra nhn c 1/8 nng lng u vo.
Insertion loss (tn hao chn): Nng lng tn hao do s cha hon ho ca qu
trnh x l. Gi tr ny nm trong khong 0,1dB n 1dB.
Directivity (nh hng): Lng nng lng u vo b r r t mt cng u vo
n cc cng u vo khc. Coupler l thit b nh hng cao vi thng s nh
hng trong khong 40-50dB.

Hnh 3-6: Coupler 8x8 c to ra t nhiu coupler 2x2


a) Coupler 4 ngn 8x8

b) Coupler 3 ngn 8x8

Thng thng, cc Coupler c ch to ch c mt cng vo hoc mt


Combiner (b kt hp). i khi cc Coupler 2x2 c ch to c tnh khng i xng
cao (vi t s tch l 5/95 hoc 10/90). Cc Coupler loi ny c s dng tch
mt phn nng lng tn hiu, v d vi mc ch nh lng. Cc thit b nh th ny
c gi l tap coupler hay b ghp r.
3.2. Cc thng s k thut c bn ca GPON
3.2.1. Tc bit
GPON nh ngha 7 dng tc bit nh sau:
ng ln 155 Mbit/s, ng xung 1.2 Gbit/s.
ng ln 622 Mbit/s, ng xung 1.2 Gbit/s.
ng ln 1.2 Gbit/s, ng xung 1.2 Gbit/s.
ng ln 155 Mbit/s, ng xung 2.4 Gbit/s.
ng ln 622 Mbit/s, ng xung 2.4 Gbit/s.
Chng 3: Cng ngh mng quang th ng GPON

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Sinh vin: Bi Th Phong

ng ln 1.2 Gbit/s, ng xung 2.4 Gbit/s.


ng ln 2.4 Gbit/s, ng xung 2.4 Gbit/s.
3.2.2. Khong cch logic
Khong cch logic l khong cch ln nht gia ONU/ONT v OLT ngoi tr
khong vt l. Trong mng GPON, khong cch logic ln nht l 60 km.
3.2.3. Khong cch vt l
Khong cch vt l l khong cch vt l ln nht gia ONU/ONT v OLT.
Trong mng GPON, c hai ty chn cho khong cch vt l l 10 km v 20 km. i
vi vn tc truyn ln nht l 1.25 Gbit/s th khong cch vt l l 10 km.
3.2.4. Khong cch si quang chnh lch
Trong mng GPON khong cch si quang chnh lch l 20 km. Thng s ny
c nh hng n kch thc trng ph mng v cn tng thch vi tiu chun ITUT Rec. G.983.1.
3.2.5. T l chia
i vi nh khai thc mng th t l chia cng ln cng tt. Tuy nhin t l chia
ln th i hi cng sut quang pht cao hn h tr khong cch vt l ln hn. T
l chia 1:64 l t l l tng cho lp vt l vi cng ngh hin nay. Tuy nhin trong
cc bc pht trin tip theo th t l 1:128 c th c s dng.
3.3. K thut truy nhp v phng thc ghp knh
3.3.1. K thut truy nhp
Cng ngh truyn dn a truy nhp l cc k thut chia s ti nguyn hu hn
cho mt lng khch hng. Trong h thng GPON, ti nguyn chia s chnh l bng
thng truyn dn. Tuy khng cn l mt lnh vc mi m trong ngnh vin thng trn
th gii nhng cc k thut truy nhp cng l mt trong nhng cng ngh i hi
nhng yu cu ngy cng cao h thng tho mn c cc yu cu v n nh
cao, thi gian x l thng tin v tr thp, tnh bo mt v an ton d liu cao.
K thut truy nhp c s dng ph bin trong cc h thng GPON hin nay
l a truy nhp phn chia theo thi gian (TDMA). TDMA l k thut phn chia bng
thng truyn dn thnh nhng khe thi gian k tip nhau. Nhng khe thi gian ny c
th c n nh trc cho mi khch hng hoc c th phn theo yu cu tu thuc
vo phng thc chuyn giao ang s dng.
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Sinh vin: Bi Th Phong

Hnh 3-7 l mt v d v vic s dng TDMA trn GPON hnh cy. Mi thu
bao c php gi s liu ng ln trong khe thi gian ring bit. B tch knh sp
xp s liu n theo v tr khe thi gian ca n hoc thng tin c gi trong bn thn
khe thi gian. S liu ng xung cng c gi trong nhng khe thi gian xc nh.

Hnh 3-7: TDMA GPON


GPON s dng k thut TDMA c u im rt ln l cc ONU c th hot
ng trn cng mt bc sng, v OLT hon ton c kh nng phn bit c lu
lng ca tng ONU. OLT cng ch cn mt b thu, iu ny s d dng cho vic
trin khai thit b, gim c chi ph cho cc qu trnh thit k, sn xut, hot ng v
bo dng v c th lp t d dng thm cc ONU nu c nhu cu nng cp mng.
Mt c tnh quan trng ca GPON s dng TDMA l yu cu bt buc v
ng b ca lu lng ng ln trnh xung t s liu. Xung t ny s xy ra
nu hai hay nhiu gi d liu t nhng thu bao khc nhau n b ghp cng mt thi
im. Tn hiu ny ln tn hiu kia v to thnh tn hiu ghp. Pha u xa khng
th nhn dng c chnh xc tn hiu ti, kt qu l sinh ra mt lot li bit v suy
gim thng tin ng ln, nh hng n cht lng ca mng. Tuy nhin cc vn
trn u c khc phc vi c ch nh c (ranging) v cp pht bng thng ng
ca GPON m chng ta s cp phn sau.
3.3.2. Phng thc ghp knh
Phng thc ghp knh c dng trong PON l phng thc ghp knh phn
chia theo thi gian TDM. TDM l s phn nh dung lng tng cng ca knh tng
theo khe thi gian cho cc ngi s dng (ONT/ONU) khc nhau trn c s t u

Chng 3: Cng ngh mng quang th ng GPON

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cui ti u cui. Ngha l mi mt ngi s dng s c n nh mt TS (Time


Slot) c nh d liu truyn i t OLT n ONT/ONU ring bit, bo m an
ton v nguyn vn d liu.
3.4. M hnh OSI v chng giao thc GPON
So snh vi m hnh OSI, chng giao thc ca GPON cng gm 7 lp, tng
ng vi lp vt l v lp lin kt d liu trong m hnh OSI, chng giao thc GPON
cng gm lp ph thuc phng tin vt l PMD (Physical Media Dependent Layer)
v lp hi t truyn dn GPON (GTC layer), vi nhng chc nng tng t nh 2 lp
tng ng trong m hnh OSI.

Hnh 3-8: S tng ng m hnh OSI v chng giao thc GPON


Lp ph thuc phng tin vt l PMD l tin cy cho s truyn dn vt l lin
quan n cc chc nng nh iu khin tn hiu, phng tin, mc cng sut, khong
cch logic ln nht
Lp GTC thc thi s iu khin phng tin (MAC) v vic ng k ONU. N
khng ch c chc nng ging nh lp lin kt d liu trong m hnh OSI m cn iu
khin ng k ONU. Trong lp GTC, phng thc ng gi GEM c dng mang
d liu ngi dng qua phn mng GPON (lu lng Ethernet). Nhng thng tin a
ch lin quan s c thm vo trong phn tiu trong sut qu trnh truyn trong
phn mng GPON bo m d liu n ng ch.

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Pha trn lp GTC l cc lp mng, vn ti, phin dch, trnh din v lp ng


dng. Cc lp ny cng c ng gi trong khung GEM.
3.5. Cu trc phn lp ca mng quang GPON

Hnh 3-9: Cu trc phn lp mng GPON


Cu trc phn lp ca GPON nh hnh 3-9: gm lp truyn dn hi t GTC
(GPON Tranmission Convergence Layer) v lp ph thuc phng tin vt l GPM
(GPON Physical Media Dependent Layer).
3.5.1. Lp truyn dn hi t GPON (GTC)
3.5.1.1. Cu trc
Lp truyn dn hi t GPON (GTC- GPON Transmission Convergence) bao
gm 2 phn lp: Phn lp tng thch hi t truyn dn (TC Adaption Sub-Layer) v
phn lp ng khung GTC (GTC framing Sub-Layer).
Phn lp ng khung GTC c nhim v nhn ra khung v m t d liu trong
khung. Trong phn lp ny, phn dnh ring cho ATM, GEM, OAM v PLOAM
c phn bit theo v tr trong khung tn hiu GTC. Ch c phn OAM (Operation
Administrater Maintenance) c gn trc tip vo tiu ca khung GTC.
Phn lp tng thch hi t truyn dn (GTC) c nhim v lc d liu c
truyn theo VPI/VCI hay Port-ID. Trong phn lp ny, cc gi tin dch v SDU
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(Service Data Unit) trong phn ATM v GEM c chuyn thnh/t gi tin giao thc
PDU (Protocol Data Unit) ca phn ATM v GEM ti mi phn lp thch ng hi t
tng ng. Ngoi ra cc PDU cn bao gm d liu knh giao din iu khin v qun
l ONU, OMCI (ONU Management and Control Interface).
Khi iu khin cp pht bng thng ng (DBA control) l khi chc nng
chung, cp pht bng thng ng cho ton b cc ONU.
Trong lp hi t GTC, OLT v ONU khng cn thit phi c c 2 ch h tr
giao thc, ATM hay GEM. ONU thng bo ch lm vic ATM hay GEM thng
qua bng tin serial_number. Nu OLT c th giao tip vi mt trong s cc ch m
ONU a ra th n s tin hnh thit lp knh giao din iu khin v qun l ONU
(OMCI) v thit b ONU s xut hin trong mng. Nu OLT khng h tr ch hot
ng m ONU a ra th ONU s c xp vo hng i v s c thng bo khng
tng thch vi h thng ang hot ng.
mt phng din khc, lp GTC gm hai mt phng C/M Plane v U Plane.
3.5.1.1.1. Mt phng iu khin/qun l (C/M Plane)
Mt phng iu khin v qun l trong phn lp GTC c chc nng iu khin
v qun l lung lu lung ngi dng: bo mt, iu khin phng tin, ng k
ONU... Gm 3 phn: OAM, PLOAM v OMCI. phn lp ng khung GTC, nhng
phn khc nhau ca khung c phn knh v c x l. Nu c cc gi OAM
(Operation Administrater Maintenance) th chng s c x l ngay. Nhng gi ny
c dng cho thng tin iu khin khn cp nh chc nng cp pht bng thng,
chc nng chuyn mch chnh, chc nng bo co cp pht bng thng ng (DBA),
thng tin OAM c gn trc tip vo tiu ca khung GTC.
Bn tin PLOAM mang thng tin vn hnh, qun l, bo dng lp vt l cho
phn mng PON, c x l ti khi PLOAM trong trng thng tin c ginh ring
ch trong khung GTC. Knh ny cung cp cc chc nng qun l mng PON, khng
c truyn bi bn tin OAM, nh nh c (ranging), kch hot ONU, thit lp knh
qun l OMCC (ONU Management and Control Channel, knh truyn bn tin
OMCI), v truyn ti cnh bo.
Mi ONU c mt giao din vn hnh, iu khin qun l c gi l OMCI
(ONU Management and Control Interface). OMCI c nhim v gim st, iu khin,
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cu hnh tt c cc ONT/ONU bao gm qun l cu hnh (port, giao din mng), qun
l li (truyn cnh bo thng qua bn tin OMCI), qun l thc thi (GEM/ATM), qun
l bo mt.

Hnh 3-11: User v C/M Plane


3.5.1.1.2. Mt phng ngi dng U Plane
Mt phng ngi s dng (U Plane) mang lu lng ngi dng trong h thng
GPON. Lung lu lng ngi dng (ATM/GEM) c chuyn n ATM
client/GEM client.
hng ng xung, cc gi GEM hay cell ATM c mang i s dng
phn ATM payload partition hay GEM payload partition n tt c cc ONU, sau
phn lp ng khung ONU s m gi GEM hay trch ly cc cell ATM , v a n
cc b thch ng GEM TC Adapter hay ATM TC Adapter tng ng lc loi lu
lng da trn Port-ID v PTI nu lu lng l GEM v da trn VPI/VCI nu lu
lng l ATM. Sau , OLT gi lu lng n ONU ATM client/GEM client.
hng ng ln, OLT cp pht bng thng cho cc ONU, bng cch cp
pht cc T-CONT, mi T-CONT s c cp mt Alloc-ID. Lu lng GEM v
ATM c mang i trong mt hay nhiu T-CONT . Cc lu lng l gi GEM hay

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cell ATM s c chuyn n b tng thch GEM TC Adapter hay ATM TC


Adapter sau chuyn n OLT GEM client hay OLT ATM client tng ng.
Port ID gm 12 bit c dng xc nh lu lng ng xung ngi dng
trong trng hp lu lng l GEM. VPI c s dng trong trng hp lu lng l
ATM. lc lu lng lung n, Alloc-ID c s dng, l nhng s duy nht nh
ngha cho mi T-CONT, c cp pht bi OLT v c gn trong mi khung d
liu. Ch nhng khung no c Alloc-ID hp l mi c x l.
3.5.1.2. Chc nng chnh ca lp truyn dn GTC
3.5.1.2.1. Khi nim container truyn dn T-CONT (Transmission Container)
T-CONT l khi truyn dn (Transmission Container) bao gm nhiu lung
lu lng, c xc nh bi s nhn dng Alloc-ID, Alloc-ID c n nh bi OLT.

Hnh 3-12: Mt T-CONT i din cho mt lin kt logic gia OLT v mt ONU
Mt ONU ring l c th c n nh vi mt hoc nhiu T-CONT (Hnh 312).
T-CONT c s dng qun l cp pht bng thng ng ln trong phn
mng PON ca lp hi t truyn dn. T-CONT thng c s dng ti u
vic s dng bng thng ng ln trong mng PON v iu khin QoS bng
cch cp pht bng thng vi s khe thi gian khc nhau.
Mi T-CONT i din cho mt lin kt logic gia ONU v OLT. Mt ONU c
th c cp pht mt hoc nhiu T-CONT.
Mi T-CONT mang knh ATM hoc/v cng GEM v bo co trng thi b m
ti OLT. Lu lng ATM v GEM khng c cng s nh dng Alloc ID.

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Sinh vin: Bi Th Phong

Mt T-CONT c th cung cp cho mt hoc nhiu hng i vt l v tng hp


chng vo mt b m logic duy nht. Mi bo co trng thi, DBA T-CONT
tng kt trng thi ca b m logic ca T-CONT .
Tiu chun GPON nh ngha hai ch hot ng khc nhau, ATM v GEM
(GPON Encapsulation Mode). Ch ng gi GEM cng tng t nh th tc ng
khung chung GFP (Generic Framing Procedure l phng thc to khung v ng gi
p dng cho loi d liu bt k, c ITU-T chun ha). Mt T-CONT c th da
trn ATM hoc da trn GEM. T-CONT da trn ATM ghp cc ng dn o hoc
knh o li, c nh ngha bi VPI v VCI, trong khi , T-CONT da trn ch
ng khung GEM li cha nhng kt ni c xc nh bi cc port 12 bit, c
minh ha nh hnh 3-13.

Hnh 3-13: T-CONT da trn ATM v ATM d trn GEM


3.5.1.2.2. Chc nng chnh ca lp truyn dn hi t
Lp GTC c dng iu khin truy nhp mi trng Media Access
Control Flow (MAC), c minh ha trong hnh 3-14.
Hot ng ca qu trnh iu khin truy nhp mi trng nh sau: OLT gn
cc con tr (pointer) vo khi iu khin vt l ng xung PCBd ch ra thi
im ONU (hay T-CONT) bt u v kt thc vic truyn d liu. Bng cch ny, ti
mt thi im ch c mt ONU c th truy nhp mng v khng c xung t trong qu
trnh truyn. Cc con tr c cho di dng n v l byte, cho php OLT iu khin
phng tin hiu qu theo cc mc bng thng c nh 64 Kbit/s. Tuy nhin, mt s
OLT c th la chn cch thit lp cc gi tr cho con tr tc ln hn.
Ngoi ra, lp GTC cn c cc chc nng khc nh:
Thch nghi vi giao thc tn hiu lp con.
Cc chc nng hot ng, qun l v bo dng lp vt l PLOAM.
Giao din cp pht bng thng ng.

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Sp xp v ng k ONU.
Sa li (mc nh).
Mt m lung d liu down xung (mc nh).
Knh thng tin cho OMCI.

Hnh 3-14: Chc nng iu khin truy nhp mi trng


3.5.2. Chc nng ca cc phn lp trong lp truyn dn GTC
3.5.2.1. Phn lp ng khung GTC (GTC framing sub-layer)
Phn lp ng khung GTC thc hin 3 chc nng sau:
Ghp knh v phn knh
Cc thnh phn PLOAM, ATM, GEM c ghp knh vo khung TC ng
xung ty theo thng tin v ranh gii trong tiu ca khung. Mi thnh phn
c trch ra t mt ng ln ty theo ch th trong tiu .
To tiu v gii m
Tiu khung TC c to v nh dng trong khung ng xung. Tiu
trong khung ng ln c gii m.
Chc nng nh tuyn ni b da trn Alloc-ID
nh tuyn da trn Alloc-ID c thc hin vi d liu n hoc t b thch
ng hi t truyn dn ATM v GEM.
3.5.2.2. Phn lp thch ng GTC (GTC Adaption sub-layer)
Phn lp thch ng bao gm 3 b thch ng hi t: b thch ng hi t truyn
dn ATM (ATM TC Adapter), b thch ng hi t truyn dn GEM (GEM TC
Chng 3: Cng ngh mng quang th ng GPON

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Adapter) v b thch ng giao din iu khin qun l ONU (OMCI Adapter). Phn
lp ny c nhim v lc d liu c truyn theo VPI/VCI hoc theo Port-ID. Ngoi
ra i vi giao din OMCI, phn lp ny tip thu s khc nhau gia ATM v GEM
da trn OMCI cung cp giao din chung cho thc th OMCI.
Cc b thch ng cung cp cc giao din sau cho cc thc th lp trn:
Cc n v d liu dch v SDU (Service Data Unit) trong phn ATM, GEM
c chuyn thnh/t n v d liu giao thc PDU (Protocol Data Unit) ca phn
ATM, GEM ti mi lp thch ng hi t tng ng.
ATM TC Adapter: Phn lp ng khung GTC v b thch ng hi t truyn dn
ATM lin kt vi n cung cp cc giao din ATM chun (theo chun ITUT Rec.
I.4321.1) cho cc dch v ATM.
GEM TC Adapter: B thch ng hi t truyn dn GEM c th c cu hnh
tng thch cc khung GEM vo nhiu loi giao din truyn khc nhau.
Cc b thch ng ny nhn dng knh OMCI theo VPI/VCI i vi ATM v theo
Port-ID i vi GEM.
OMCI Adapter: C th trao i d liu knh OMCI cho cc b thch ng ATM
TC Adapter v GEM TC Adapter. OMCI Adapter nhn d liu t cc b thch
ng TC ny v truyn n ti thc th OMCI v chuyn d liu t thc th OMCI
ti cc b thch ng TC ny. Chng hn, pha ONU, OMCI c nhim v ng
gi cc giao thc d liu (PDU) i vi lung upstream, cn i vi lung
downstream th lc v m gi d liu ty theo d liu l cc cell ATM hay GEM.
Chc nng OMCI pha OLT th ngc li i vi upstream v downstream.
3.5.3. Lp ph thuc phng tin vt l GMD (GPON Physical Media
Dependent Layer)
Lp ny l giao din vi cp si quang, c c trung bi khi giao din ODN
(c trnh by mc 2.2.3). lp ny, vic bin i t tn hiu in sang tn hiu
quang v ngc li c thc hin. Quy nh nhng la chn tm ra nhng iu
kin tt nht cho mng.
Cc tc tn hiu c quy nh trong GPON bi ITU-T c trnh by trong
mc 3.2.1.

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Thng tin c truyn i bi sng mang quang hoc laser. Laser ny hot ng
mt bc sng no . Nhng quy nh v vic s dng bc sng cho upstream v
downstream c cho trong bng 3-1.

Bng 3-1: Di bc sng c dng trong GPON


Bng 3-1 quy nh 2 loi cu hnh si quang c dng, cu hnh mt si v cu
hnh hai si quang. Khi cng ngh truyn dn mt si quang c s dng, th s c
nhiu bc sng cng c dng trn mt si. ghp cc bc sng trn mt si, k
thut ghp knh theo bc sng WDM c s dng. Cn i vi cng ngh truyn
dn s dng hai si quang, mi hng truyn dn s c mt si ring v mt bc
sng n. K thut iu ch c s dng m ha d liu vo trong sng mang
c gi l m NRZ, quy nh s dng mc logic quang l pht mc cao cho bit 1,
pht mc thp cho bit 0.
Khong cch logic ln nht gia OLT v ONU l 60 km. y l khong cch l
thuyt c gii hn bi quy nh v s thc thi v phn cng. Khong cch t OLT
n ONU ny khc vi khong cch t OLT n ONU kia. y c gi l khong
cch chnh lch logic, c quy nh khng qu 20 km.
T l chia tch chun l 1:64, lp TC h tr 1:128 cho tng lai. T l ny ph
thuc qu cng sut li ra ca b pht OLT v suy hao trn ng truyn. Tng qu
cng sut c chia cho tt c cc ONU kt ni vo mng. Pha trn lp vt l, cc gi
d liu c m ha v gii m. Lp thc hin nhng nhim v ny l lp truyn dn
hi t GTC.
Di suy hao c quy nh gm 3 mc di suy hao c s dng cho mng
quang th ng GPON: loi A: 5-20 dB, loi B: 10-25 dB, loi C: 15-30 dB. Cc
thng s mc suy hao c tnh ton vi cc gi tr thu c trong trng hp xu
nht bao gm suy hao do u ni, hn, hoc dung cc thit b th ng khc.
3.6. Khung truyn dn GTC

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Khung GTC c nhng cu trc khc nhau ty theo khung up hay down. Phng
thc truyn dn cng khc nhau:
hng down, mi ONU s nhn ton b khung cha nhng bn tin cho tt c
cc ONU t pha OLT. ONU s m phn tin thuc v n da trn Port-ID hay VPI/VCI.
hng up, tt c cc ONU chia s mt khung nhng trong cc khe thi gian
khc nhau, c cp pht bi OLT trong bn tin ng xung. Vic cp pht bng
thng cho ng ln c nh ngha bi Alloc-ID, ngha l OLT cp pht bng thng
theo Alloc-ID.
Mt OLT c th h tr nhiu ONU, ONU-ID c dng nh ngha cho ONU.
ONU-ID c dng cho vic qun l ONU trong bn tin PLOAM. Mi ONU phi c
mt ONU-ID v mt hay nhiu Alloc-ID tng ng vi lu lng lung up, Port-ID
tng ng vi lu lng lung down.
3.6.1. Khung ng xung
3.6.1.1. Truyn dn ng xung

Hnh 3-15: Truyn dn ng xung


Khi c nhng gi tin cn c truyn t pha mng dch v n mng ngi dng
thng qua phn mng GPON th s truyn dn ng xung xy ra nh trong hnh 315.
Truyn dn ng xung lu lng Ethernet gm cc bc sau:
OLT nhn lu lung Ethernet t mng dch v v kim tra a ch ch n.
OLT kim tra trong bng tra cu nhn Port-ID lin quan n a ch .
OLT thc hin ng khung lu lng thnh khung GEM bng cch thm tiu
GEM c cha Port-ID, bn tin OMCI v cc trng cn thit khc.
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OLT tp hp cc khung GEM li vi nhau.


OLT gn nhng khung GEM ny vi trng PCBd, trng ny c lin quan n
bn tin mt phng iu khin (C/M Plane), b nh cp pht bng thng lung ln,
v cc trng iu khin khung khc. Tt c nhng thng tin ny to thnh khung
GTC.
OLT qung b khung GTC ny n cc ONU, v ONU nhn khung t OLT.
ONU phn tch trng PCBd kim tra tnh nguyn vn d liu, c thng tin
PLOAM v b nh cp pht bng thng ng lung ln. Nhng vic qun l h
thng s c thc hin pha ONU theo thng tin PLOAM.
ONU nhn khung GEM bng cch vt i trng PCBd. N tm thy cc khung
thuc v n bng cch kim tra trng Port-ID trong tiu GEM. Cng lc ,
bn tin OMCI c ng gi trong tiu khung GEM c th c c bi
ONU.
Cui cng ONU nhn ti GEM l lu lng Ethernet. N s gi lu lng
Ethernet n mng ngi dng mong i.
3.6.1.2. Cu trc khung ng xung

Hnh 3-16: Cu trc khung ng xung


Mi khung ng xung GTC cha khi iu khin vt l (PCBd- downstream
Physical Control Block) v phn ti (ATM partition v GEM partition) c m t
hnh 3-16.
Mi khung ng xung GTC di 125 s cho c tc d liu 1.24416 Gbit/s
v 2.48832 Gbit/s, do khung c chiu di 19440 byte trong h thng tc 1.24416
Gbit/s v 38880 byte trong h thng tc 2.48832 Gbit/s.

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OLT pht qung b khung ng xung n ONU, sau khi nhn khung, ONU
s m khi PCBd nhn cc thng tin lin quan, nh thng tin PLOAMd hay thng
tin cp pht bng thng lung ln. Cn i vi phn ti tin, ONU m phn ti tin
thuc v n da trn Port-ID hay VPI/VCI.
Chi tit cc trng c m t hnh 3-17.

Hnh 3-17: M t chi tit cu trc khung ng xung


3.6.1.2.1. Trng Psync

Hnh 3-18: C ch trng thi ng b ONU

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41

Trng ng b vt l Psync (Physical Synchrnous) c c nh l 4 byte v


n bt u mi khi PCBd. ONU s dng phn ny tm v tr bt u ca khung
truyn xung. M ca trng Psync 0xB6AB31E0. ONU thc hin c ch ng b
nh hnh 3-18.
ONU bt u trng thi tm kim. ONU tm ra Psync trong hng i. Mi ln
n tm ra Psync th n s chuyn thnh pre-sync v thit lp b m ci gi tr l 1.
Sau ONU s tm Psync khc sau chu k 125 s. C mi Psync ng, b m s
tng thm 1. Nu Psync khng ng, ONU s truyn ngc li trng thi tm kim.
Trong trng thi pre-sync, nu b m truyn ng ti M1 th ONU s truyn n
trng thi ng b sync. Mi ln ONU n trng thi sync, ONU biu th n tm ra
cu trc khung down v bt u x l thng tin PCBd. Nu ONU pht hin trng
Psync M2 k tip khng ng, n s biu th l mt khung v tr v trng thi tm
kim.
3.6.1.2.2. Trng ID (Ident)
Trng ID c 4 byte trong 1 bit dng thng bo cho ONU nu d liu
c mt m FEC (Forward Error Corection) hng ng xung, 1 bit d tr
v 30 bit cn li m s khung (Superframe Counter). 30 bit ca trng ID dng
m khung v mi ID ca khung s ln hn khung trc . Bt c khi no b m
tng ti gi tr ti a (230 khung) th n s quay v 0 cho khung tip theo.
3.6.1.2.3.

Trng

PLOAMd

(Physical

Layer

Operation

Aministrative

Managemant)
Trng PLOAM c 13 byte trong PCBd, n c dng gi bn tin OAM
lp vt l (PLOAM message) n cc ONU, PLOAM c nhim v iu khin, qun
l, nh c (ranging), cnh bo tranh chp, kch hot ONU.
Vic ranging c dng cc ONU truyn khung thi gian chnh xc, tnh
ton tr truyn gia ONU v OLT, trnh xung t d liu.
Khi c mt ONU mi c ch th trong h thng GPON, s kch hot ONU l
cn thit. Nhng thng tin lin quan c truyn i bao gm ONU-ID, serial-number,
Port-ID, thng tin li m u v trng ranh gii.
PLOAMd bao gm cc trng:

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1 byte ONU-ID, nh a ch cho mi ONU ring. Trong lc sp xp, ONU s


c gn mt s gi l ONU-ID. S ny c gi tr t 0 n 253??. Lc cha c
sp xp trng ny c gi tr l 0xFF qung b cho tt c ONU.
1 byte Message ID ch th loi bn tin s c ng gi trong phn ti tin.
10 byte Data c dng cho phn bn tin thc s ca bn tin PLOAM.
1 byte CRC dng bo v bn tin PLOAM t li truyn dn.
3.6.1.2.4. Trng BIP (Bit Interleaved Parity)
Trng BIP c 8 bit cha s bit chn l c chn vo ca tt c byte truyn
i, u thu cng tnh s bit c chn vo l chn hay l sau so snh vi kt qu
ca BIP c truyn o s li trn ng link.
3.6.1.2.5. Trng chiu di ti hng xung Plend (Payload Length
downstream)
Trng chiu di ti hng xung c 4 byte ch nh chiu di b nh bng
thng US BW v chiu di phn dnh ring cho ATM trong container truyn dn (TCONT). Trng ny c gi 2 ln:
12 bit u biu din chiu di b nh bng thng. iu ny gii hn s ID cp
pht (Alloc-ID) c th c gn gii hn n 4095 (212-1).
Chiu di phn dnh ring cho ATM c biu din 12 bit tip theo. iu ny
cho php up ln 4095 cell ATM trong mt khung v tc ln ti 10 Gbps. V
vy, chiu di phn ti ATM trong khung l bi s ca 53.
8 bit cui kim tra CRC, c nhim v pht hin li truyn dn. N c tnh ton
bi a thc g(x)=x8+x2+x+1.
3.6.1.2.6. Trng b nh bng thng ng ln US BW (Upstream BW Map)
Trng BW Map cha nhng trng m t nhng khe truy cp cho ONU. Mi
trng truy cp nh vy gm 8 byte, c gi l T-CONT, biu th s cp pht bng
thng lung ng ln. Mi khi cha Alloc-ID ca mt T-CONT v mt trng c
12 bit. Ton b s trng trong b nh c biu din chiu di ti Plend. Khun
dng mi trng c m t hnh 3-17.
Trng Alloc-ID cha 12 bit ch th T-CONT v ONU ring m n c gn thi
gian bt u v kt thc trong hng up ln ca mng PON.

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Trng c cha 12 bit ch th s cp pht dng (Hnh 3-17 biu din cc chc
nng ca 12 bit c).

Bit 11 gi PLSu (Power Levelling Sequence Upstream): nu bit ny c


ci t (1), ONU s gi thng tin PLSu trong lc cp pht. Nu khng
c ci t (0) th ONU s khng gi thng tin PLSu trong lc cp pht.

Bit 10 gi PLOAMu: nu bit ny c ci t (1), ONU s gi thng tin


PLOAMu trong lc cp pht. Nu khng c ci t (0) th ONU s
khng gi thng tin PLOAMu trong lc cp pht.

Bit 9 s dng sa li FEC (Forward Error Correction): nu bit ny c ci


t (1) ONU s tnh ton v chn FEC trong lc cp pht.

Bit 7 v 8 gi DBRu (Dynamic Bandwidth Report upstream): ph thuc vo


ni dung 2 bit ONU s gi DBRu ph hp vi v tr ID hay khng.
00: khng gi DBRu
01: gi DBRu mode 0 (2 byte)
10: gi DBRu mode 1 (3 byte)
11: gi DBRu mode 2 (5 byte).

Bit 0-6: d tr.

Trng StartTime cha 16 bit ch th thi gian bt u cp pht. Thi gian ny


tnh bng byte, bt u khung l zero. Trng ny 16 bit nn gii hn kch thc
ca khung up ln l 65,536 byte (216) nh a ch cho tc up ln ti 2.488
Gbps.
Trng StopTime cha 16 bit ch th thi gian kt thc cp pht. Thi gian ny
c tnh bng byte, bt u khung l zero. Thi gian kt trc tr n byte d liu
cui cng c kt hp vi vic cp pht ny.
Trng CRC: kim tra v sa li, bo m tnh ton vn d liu trong truyn dn.
3.6.1.2.7. Trng ti (Payload)
Trng ti 2 phn: phn dnh ring cho ATM v phn dnh ring cho GEM.
Phn dnh ring cho ATM: cha 53 cell ATM. Kch thc phn ny c a
vo trng Plend dnh cho ATM. Do trng ny cng c kch thc l bi s
53 byte. Cc cell truyn xung th c lc ONU da vo VPI cha mi cell.

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Phn dnh ring cho GEM: cha mt s khung GEM phc ha thnh a khung.
Kch thc ca phn dnh ring GEM th bng ton b chiu di khung tr i
khi iu khin PCBd v phn ATM. Khung down c lc ONU da vo12bit Port-ID cha trong mi phn on khung.
3.6.2. Khung ng ln
3.6.2.1. Truyn dn ng ln
Khi c nhng gi tin c truyn t pha mng ngi dng ln mng dch v
thng qua phn mng GPON th s truyn dn ng ln xy ra nh trong hnh 3-19.

Hnh 3-19: Truyn dn ng ln


Truyn dn ng ln gm cc bc sau:
ONU nhn lu lng Ethernet t pha mng ngi dng.
ONU kim tra b nh cp pht bng thng c cha trong trng PCBd t
lung xung trc . Theo mi T-CONT v b nh cp pht, ONU bit c
bao nhiu bng thng c cp pht n n v cc khe thi gian lin quan.
ONU gi lu lng Ethernet vo trong ti GEM v thm tiu GEM cn thit.
Nu bn tin OMCI cn c truyn t ONU n OLT, n s c ng gi trong
tiu GEM.
ONU nh km cc trng PLOu, PLOAMu, PLSu, DBRu theo nhng i hi
khc nhau bao gm gi p ng PLOAM, thng tin lin quan n mc cng sut,
v thng tin bo co bng thng ng.
ONU gi cc khung c ng gi n splitter. Tt c cc khung ONU s
c gi vo trong khung ng ln v gi n OLT.

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Khi OLT nhn c khung, n s chia khung thnh nhiu n v theo ONU-ID
trong trng PLOu. OLT s kim tra cc trng PLOAMu, PLSu, DBRu v gi
p ng nu cn thit.
OLT nhn cc khung GEM, kim tra bn tin OMCI trong tiu GEM v cp
nht nhng thc th qun l lin quan nu cn thit.
OLT kim tra bng tra cu v nhn a ch ch lin quan theo Alloc-ID.
Cui cng OLT nhn cc ti GEM l nhng khung Ethernet t mng ngi dng.
Khung Ethernet s c truyn n mng dch v theo a ch ch.
3.6.2.2. Cu trc khung ng ln
Mi khung ng ln cha cc truyn dn t mt hoc nhiu ONU. Chiu di
khung l 125 s. Cu trc khung up c biu din hnh 3-20.

Hnh 3-20: Cu trc khung ng ln

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Hnh 3-21: M t chi tit cu trc khung ng ln


Cu trc khung up gm bn overhead v phn payload: Overhead lp vt l
(PLOu- Physical Layer Overhead Upstream), cc hot ng, qun l v bo dng lp
vt l (PLOAMu-Physical Layer Operations, Administration and Management
Upstream), san bng cng sut (PLSu- Power Levelling Sequence Upstream), v bo
co bng thng ng (DBRu-Dynamic Bandwidth Report Upstream).
3.6.2.2.1. Trng overhead lp vt l up ln (PLOu)
Trng overhead lp vt l up ln gm trng m u (Preamable), trng
ranh gii (Delimiter) v 3 trng d liu tng ng vi ONU (BIP, ONU-ID, Ind).
Trng PLOu bt u vi trng m u gip cho b thu OLT ng b
vi b pht ONU. Trng ranh gii tip theo sau bo hiu bt u ca mt lung
ng ln.
Trng Ind trong PLOu cung cp nhng bo co trng thi thi gian thc
ONU n OLT, hnh 3-21 biu din bn tin trng thi c m ha.
Nh c trnh by phn trc, mt ONU c th c cu hnh vi nhiu TCONT. Nu mt ONU c cp pht nhiu khe thi gian lin tc cho nhiu T-CONT

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vi nhng Alloc-ID khc nhau, th PLOu ch cn c truyn mt ln, c m t


hnh 3-20 cho ONT A.
Trng BIP c 8 bit cha s bit chn l c chn vo ca tt c byte truyn i
cho n BIP cui cng ca ONU, ngoi tr cc byte li m u v ranh gii. u thu
ca OLT s tnh s bit c chn vo l chn hay l cho mi burst ONU sau so
snh vi kt qu ca BIP nhn c tnh ra s li trn ng link.
Trng ONU-ID c 8 bit cha s nhn dng duy nht ONU ang gi d liu.
Trc khi ONU-ID c gn, ONU t gi tr khng xc nh l 255 trong trng
ny. OLT c th kim tra trng ny xc nhn a ch phn b v truyn ng n
ONU.
Ch rng khi ONU ch ra mt PLOAM khn cp ang i, OLT s cp mt
v tr up ln cho php ONU gi bn tin PLOAM. Thi gian p li s t hn 5 ms.
3.6.2.2.2. Trng PLOAMu
Cc hot ng, qun l v bo dng lp vt l PLOAMu c 13 byte cha cc
bn tin PLOAM c m t phn PLOAMd.
3.6.2.2.3. Trng PLSu (Chui nh mc cng sut)
Trng PLSu c kch thc 120 byte, ONU s dng cho vic o v iu khin
mc cng sut ca laser. N c s dng trong sut qu trnh kch hot ONU. Khi
c yu cu bi OLT, PLSu s c truyn bt c lc no. Chc nng gip iu
chnh mc cng sut ONU. Trng ny c gi khi c ch th c. C ch iu khin
cng sut th c li trong 2 trng hp l khi to cng sut ban u ca b pht ONU
(ch xy ra lc kch hot ONU) v thay i cng sut ca b pht ONU (xy ra lc
hot ng cng nh lc kch hot). PLSu c th c yu cu bt k thi im no.
nhiu trng hp trong lc kch hot, OLT c th ci t bit PLSu qung b cho
php ONU thit lp b pht. Nu ONU khng s dng trng PLSu th ONU s
khng kch hot b pht. iu ny lm gim s ng .
3.6.2.2.4. Trng bo co bng thng ng DBRu
Trng DBRu c lin kt vi mt T-CONT cho vic bo co trng thi lu
lng lung ln ca T-CONT c cp pht. Trng DBRu cha bo co bng thng
ng DBA, bo co ny c s dng thng bo n OLT v s lng d liu
ang xp trong hng i T-CONT mi ONU.
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Bo co DBA c 3 mode (mode 0, mode 1,v mode 2) tng ng vi chiu di


trng bo co bng thng ng DBA l 1, 2, v 4 bytes (hay tng ng vi 2, 3, 5
byte ca trng DBRu). Vic cha bo co DBA trong DBRu cho php ONU cp
nht mt cch lin tc lu lng ca T-CONT c th. Bn bo co DBA cha cc t
bo ATM hay khi GEM (c chiu di 48 byte), ang trng thi ch trong b m
lung ln.
Trng CRC: cu trc DBRu c bo v s dng CRC-8. u thu ca DBRu
s thc hin pht hin v sa li CRC-8. Nu CRC ch th rng li khng th sa c
th thng tin trong DBRu s b loi b.
3.6.2.2.5. Phn ti
Phn ti up ln c th l cell ATM, khung GEM, hay bo co DBA.
Cc cell ATM c nh dng khung c quy nh bi ITU-T I.361. Phn ti
ATM up ln c 53 byte. OLT sp xp cc con tr phn ti ATM lun l 53 byte.
Nu ti vn cn tha ch trng th th n s n thm cho 53 byte.

Hnh 3-22: ATM upload


Phn ti up ln GEM cha mt s khung GEM gm tiu GEM v phn ti
tin, c biu din trong hnh 3-24.
Phn ti up ln DBA cha bo co cp pht bng thng ng t ONU. Bo co
bng thng ng u tin c xp hng cc byte u tin ti v tr bt u cp pht.
Tt c bo co th lin tip. Nu chiu di cp pht khng khp vi ton b chiu di
bo co th ONU s b bt phn cui ca bo co hay m thm cc bit zero phn
cui nu khng . Ch rng ONU phi phn hi vic phn b ti DBA thm ch
nu mode ny ca DBA khng h tr th n vn duy tr phn ti ny, nh hnh 3-23.

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Hnh 3-23: DBA payload


3.7. Phng thc ng gi d liu GEM
Phng thc ng gi d liu GPON (GPON Encapsulation Method GEM)
s dng ng gi d liu qua mng GPON. GEM h tr vic phn mnh hoc chia
nh cc khung ln thnh cc phn mnh nh v ghp li u thu nhm gim tr cc
lu lng thi gian thc.

Hnh 3-24: Cc khung GEM trong phn ti lung ln


hng xung, cc khung GEM c mang i trong GEM partition ca phn
ti ca lung xung (Hnh 3-15). hng ln, cc khung GEM c mang i trong
GEM partition ca phn ti lung ln (Hnh 3-24).
Vic ng gi d liu khung GEM cung cp 2 chc nng:
Thc hin ghp knh cc cng GEM li.
Phn mnh d liu ti tin.
Cc gi d liu bao gm c cc khung Ethernet (hay d liu TDM) cng c
sp xp s dng th tc ng gi GEM. GEM cng h tr vic phn mnh hoc chia
nh cc khung ln thnh cc phn mnh nh v ghp li u thu nhm gim tr cho
cc lu lng thi gian thc. Cu trc gi GEM c m t trong hnh 3-25.

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Hnh 3-25: Cu trc gi GEM


12 bit ch th chiu di ti tin PLI (Payload Length Indicator), xc nh chiu di
ti GEM, ng b v pht hin ra khung tip theo. Trng ny cho php chiu
di ti tin l 4095 bytes. Bt k ti tin ngi s dng no c kch thc di hn
4095 bytes th phi c phn mnh d liu.
12 bit Port ID ch th Port-ID cho ch n ca ti tin .
3 bit ch th loi ti tin PTI (Payload Type Indicator) xc nh ni dung ca ti tin
nh trong bng 3-2. V xc nh xem khung d liu ngi dng trong phn ti tin
c phi l phn on EOF (End Of Fragment) cui cng hay khng.

Bng 3-2: Cc m PTI trong tiu GEM


Trng iu khin li tiu HEC (Header Error Control) s dng m BCH nh
phn bo v tnh ton vn cho tn hiu tiu .Trng ny cng dng khin
ng b khung GEM, cung cp chc nng pht hin v sa li.
Qu trnh phn mnh d liu trong ng gi GEM c ch ra trong hnh 3-26.
S phn mnh ca khung d liu ngi dng phi c truyn mt cch lin tc. Bi
v cc khung d liu ngi dng c chiu di ngu nhin, giao thc GEM phi h tr
phn on khung d liu ca user cho php chn header GEM ti v tr u tin ca
mi phn dnh ring v phn ti. Ch rng vic phn on c th xy ra hng
down v up. Mi khung d liu ca ngi dng c chia lm mt s phn on. Mt

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on tng ng mt header v trng PTI ch th khung cha phn kt thc khung d


liu ca user.

Hnh 3-26: Qu trnh phn mnh d liu trong gi GEM


Tin trnh m t trong GPON yu cu s c mt ca header GEM ti ni bt
u mi khung down dnh ring cho GEM v mi phn ti GEM up ln. Pha thu th
chc chn tm thy header u tin v c th tm thy header k tip bng vic s dng
PLI nh l con tr. Ni cch khc pha thu s chuyn tip lp tc n trng thi sync
ti ni bt u phn ti. Tuy nhin, trong trng hp li khng th sa c trong
header, th tin trnh m t s mt ng b vi lung d liu. Sau pha thu s th
yu cu li vic ng b bng vic thc hin c ch trng thi biu din hnh 3-27.

Hnh 3-27: C ch trng thi m t GEM


Trong trng thi tm kim, u thu tm kim HEC header GEM trong hng i
(bit hay byte). Khi n tm thy HEC, n s chuyn tip n trng thi pre-sync ni m
n tm thy HEC ti v tr c ch th trong header c tm thy trc. Nu HEC
khp th sau n s chuyn tip n trng thi sync. Nu khng khp th n s quay
v trng thi tm kim.

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Trong trng hp khng c d liu c gi, khung GEM ri c s dng,


phn ti tin ca khung ri cha ton zero gi cho b thu v pht ng b nhau. Nu
khng c khung ngi dng c gi, qu trnh truyn c th pht ra cc khung nhn
ri ny lm y cc khe thi gian trng. Pha thu s s dng cc khung ny duy
tr ng b v tt nhin l khng c d liu trong GEM.
3.8. Giao thc ranging (sp xp) GPON
3.8.1. Mc ch
V nhiu ONU kt ni vi giao din OLT trong h thng mng PON, nn
i hi phi c mt phng php ghp knh cc tn hiu t mi ONU. Mt trong
nhng phng php l TDMA, TDMA chia tn hiu vo cc khe thi gian khc
nhau sao cho chng khng xung t nhau.
Vic sp xp trong k thut TDMA nh sau: Trc ht, OLT o tr kh hi
RTD n ONU, nh thi truyn dn ca ONU c xc nh theo RTD tn hiu t
nhng ONU ring l n v khng chng lp ln nhau. Phng php TDMA ghp cc
tn hiu t nhng ONU khc nhau vo trong cc khe thi gian khng chng lp.
Mi khi c s xung t d liu trn ng truyn th d liu cn c truyn
li, v giao thc sp xp trong GPON s tnh ton thi gian truyn li, sao cho hiu
qu nht, gim thiu tr truyn, v s dng bng thng c hiu qu.
3.8.2. Th tc sp xp
V khong cch gia cc ONU v OLT khc nhau, nn nu mi tr kh hi RTD
(Round Trip Delay) cha c xc nh th nh thi truyn dn vn cha c thc
hin. V vy, nu c mt ONU mi kt ni vo mng th trc ht cn phi o RTD.
Bng lnh ca h thng vn hnh, OLT t ng to ra ca s sp xp ph hp o
tr v xc nh ONU truyn tn hiu cho vic o tr. Chiu di ca ca s sp xp
c thit lp ty theo khong cch gia ONU v OLT. V d, nu ONU c t
v tr khong t 5-10 km th ca s sp xp s t gi tr l (105 km) * 2/(300,000
km/sec/1.5) = 50 msec, theo thi gian m nh sng di chuyn qua v t OLT n
ONU, y, 1.5 l ch s khc x nh sng.
C hai cch xc nh ONU cho qu trnh sp xp: Mt phng php xc nh ch
mt ONU duy nht ng k v phng php khc xc nh tt c cc ONU cha
ng k. Trong phng php th nht, mt ONU vi s ID ring c xc nh trong
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h thng vn hnh. Trong phng php th hai OLT khng bit s ID ring ca mi
ONU, khi s c vi ONU c th truyn tn hiu cho qu trnh o tr din ra lin tc.
Mt bin php gim xung t trong qu trnh sp xp l truyn tn hiu cho qu trnh
o tr vi mt khong thi gian tr ngu nhin, tng t nh phng php c s
dng trong Ethernet (CSMA/CD). Thm ch nu c xy ra xung t ngay bc u
tin th vn c th tin hnh o tr bng cch lp li qu trnh truyn dn hai hay ba
ln
V d liu ngi dng khng c truyn trc khi qu trnh sp xp kt thc
nn s khng lm tng tr truyn dn d liu. Ngoi ra, thi gian ch ngu nhin c
s dng chng xung t khng c bao gm trong tr kh hi RTD
3.8.3. Giao thc ranging GPON
ITU-T Rec. G.983.2 B-PON v ITU-T Rec. G.984.3 GPON s dng th tc sp
xp tng t nhau. Th tc sp xp GPON c chia lm 2 giai on.

Hnh 3-28: Sp xp GPON trong giai on 1


Giai on u, ng k s serial cho ONU cha ng k v cp ONU-ID cho
ONU c thc thi. S serial l s nhn dng ca mi ONU ring v l s duy
nht. Ni cch khc s nhn dng ONU c dng iu khin, gim st v kim tra
ONU, v th n l s duy nht trn trong mi mng PON. Trong giai on u, n
gm cc bc sau (hnh 3-28):
1) OLT ch nh tt c ONU tm dng vic truyn dn hng up ln (ONU halt).
2) OLT ch nh ONU cha c s nhn dng ONU-ID truyn serial-number
(bng bn tin serial_number request).
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3) Lc nhn c yu cu truyn serial_number, ONU ny s truyn s serial (SNtransmission) sau khi i thi gian ngu nhin (ti a l 50 ms, thi gian lng
nghe trn ng truyn c b nghn hay k)
4) OLT ch nh mt ONU-ID cho ONU cha c ng k (bn tin assign ONU-ID
message).
Trong giai on k tip, tr kh hi RTD c o mi ONU ng k mi.
Hn na, giai on ny cng ng dng cho cc ONU m b mt tn hiu trong lc
truyn. Cc bc chi tit c m t nh sau (hnh 3-29):

Hnh 3-29: Sp xp GPON trong giai on 2


5) OLT ch nh tt c ONU tm dng vic truyn dn hng up ln (ONU halt).
6) S dng s serial ng k, OLT ch nh ch c mt ONU c truyn tn hiu
o tr (Ranging request).
7) ONU c s serial khp vi s serial c ch nh s truyn tn hiu o tr
(Ranging transmission) n bao gm s nhn dng ONU-ID c gn giai on
u.
8) OLT s o tr kh hi RTD ty thuc vo thi gian m tn hiu o tr thu
c. Hn na, sau khi xc nhn s serial v s nhn dng ONU khp vi nhau
th n thng bo tr cn bng (=Teqd - RTD) ti ONU (thng qua bn tin
Ranging_time). y Teqd l hng s v RTD l gi tr tr RTD ti a ci t
trong mng PON. V d trong trng hp tr RTD ti a ca 20 km th Teqd
l 200 ms.
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9) ONU ghi nh tr cn bng m n tip nhn v lm chm li chui thi gian


truyn up ln thng qua gi tr tr cn bng (Delay equalization).
Thng qua cc tin trnh ny, tt c ONU c sp xp tr nn tng ng
vi mt tr RTD (= tr round-trip gc + tr cn bng).
3.9. Cp pht bng thng ng DBA trong GPON
3.9.1. Khi nim cp pht bng thng
Ti hng ln bng thng c s dng bi cc ONU khng ch ph thuc vo
bi cnh lu lng ti cc ONU c lin quan m ng thi lin quan n lu lng ti
cc ONU khc trong mng. V s dng mi trng chia s bng thng nn lu lng
truyn bi mi ONU c kh nng b xung t v qu trnh truyn li lm gim hiu
sut.
Bng thng c cp pht cho cc lin kt logic theo hai phng thc tnh hoc
ng:
Cp pht bng thng tnh SBA (Static Bandwidth Allocation) l phng php
cp pht bng thng ng ln bng nhau gia cc ONU. Phng php ny th khng
hiu qu, c bit l lu lng gi bi nhu cu bng thng ca cc ONU th him khi
bng nhau ti mi thi im, v bng thng vn c dng ngay c khi khng c lu
lng ng ln.
Ngc li, cp pht bng thng ng DBA (Dynamic Bandwidth Allocation) l
phng php cp pht bng thng cho ONU theo i hi v nhu cu lu lng ng
ln. y l qu trnh ONU (v cc T-CONT lin kt vi chng) yu cu bng thng
ng v phng thc kim sot gi tin ri ti OLT hay bo co trng thi b m t
cc ONU gi ti OLT, OLT cp pht li bng thng ng ln cho cc ONU ty theo
bo co . Bo co mu lu lng gi ti OLT bi mt ONU bao gm mu ca mi
loi T-CONT v ch s cp pht t pha OLT. OLT s da vo loi T-CONT ra
quyt nh cp pht bng thng hng ln.
Mc d DBA c nh gi l hiu qu hn nhng nu c thit k khng
ph hp vi nhng c im k thut dch v th n c th lm tng tr v gim hiu
qu s dng bng thng.
3.9.2. Cp pht bng thng ng DBA
3.9.2.1. Cc chc nng DBA
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Cc chc nng DBA c thc hin i vi mi loi T-CONT gm:


Pht hin trng thi tt nghn bi OLT v/hoc ONU.
Bo co trng thi tt nghn n OLT.
Cp nht bng thng c cp pht bi OLT theo cc tham s c cung cp.
OLT thc hin cp pht theo bng thng c cp nht v loi T-CONT.
Thc hin qun l cc hot ng DBA, tt c cc tham s ca DBA phi c
cung cp v dn xp bi GPON OMCI.
3.9.2.2. Hot ng DBA
Hot ng DBA bao gm 2 ch : DBA bo co trng thi (SR DBA) v
DBA khng bo co trng thi (NSR DBA) trong mi T-CONT.
SR DBA (Status Reporting DBA):
OLT thc hin cp pht bng thng theo bo co t pha ONU. Bo co ny
cha d liu ang i trong T-CONT trong khe thi gian c ch nh. OLT nhn
bo co trng thi DBA, tnh ton li b nh bng thng (US BW Map) thng qua
thut ton DBA v gi b nh bng thng mi n tt c cc ONU vi lu lng
ng xung. ONU nhn b nh bng thng t OLT v gi d liu trong khe thi
gian c ch nh. Khi mt ONU khng c thng tin gi, trong lc nhn c
s cp pht t OLT, n s gi mt cell ri thng bo rng b m ca n ang
trng. Lc , s cp pht cho T-CONT c th c dng cp pht cho cc TCONT khc. Nu mt ONU c mt hng i di trong b m ca n th OLT cp
pht nhiu T-CONT cho ONU .
Trong ch ny, vic truyn trng tin DBA trong DBRu l bt buc nu
OLT yu cu, v nu thiu trng DBA th khung dng d liu ng ln khng
nhn ra.
NSR DBA (Non Status Reporting DBA):
OLT nhn dng trng thi tt nghn ca tng T-CONT bng cch gim st
dng lu lng lung n m khng cn bo co trng thi t ONU. Trong ch
ny, OLT cp pht mt cch c nh mt s lng bng thng n mi ONU. Nu
ONU khng c lu lng gi th n s truyn mt khung ri. Nu OLT quan st
thy mt ONU khng ang gi khung ri th n s tng gi tr bng thng cp pht

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n ONU . Khi ONU bt u gi khung ri th OLT s gim bt bng thng cp


pht sao cho ph hp.
NSR DBA c im tin li ch, cc ONU khng cn bit n DBA. Tuy
nhin, bt li ch, khng c cch OLT bit c lm th no cp pht bng
thng n cc ONU c hiu qu nht.
Trong ch ny, trng DBA trong DBRu khng c gi i do OLT khng
yu cu.

Hnh 3-30: Cc bc hot ng ca DBA


Cc bc hot ng ca DBA nh hnh 3-30.
1) ONU lu d liu cho lu lng hng ln c nhn t ngi dng vo b m.
2) Khi d liu cha trong b m c bo ti OLT nh mt yu cu c quy
nh bi OLT.
3) OLT ch nh thi gian bt u truyn dn v khong thi gian truyn cho php
(ca s truyn dn) ti ONU nh mt s cp php.
4) ONU ch i thi gian c cp v truyn khi d liu n OLT.
3.9.3. Cc loi T-CONT v tham s hot ng
Cc khung truyn dn T-CONT hng ln chia thnh 5 loi, s dng qun l
vic cp pht bng thng hng ln. C s nhn dng l Alloc-ID. Mi T-CONT c
m t bng cc tham s hot ng ring. Tuy nhin, n v ca tham s hot ng
c ch ra nh sau: i vi ATM, n v hot ng l s lng t bo. Cn i vi
GEM, n v hot ng l s lng khi c chiu di c nh (48 byte), c quy nh
bi OMCI.
T-CONT loi 1
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C bng thng c nh v c s dng chnh cho cc dch v nhy vi tr v


c u tin cao nh VOIP.
T-CONT loi 2 v T-CONT loi 3
C bng thng cung cp c bo m, ngha l bng thng trung bnh c
cp pht c nh trong nhng khong cc khong thi gian xc nh. Bng thng ny
khc vi bng thng c nh trong T-CONT loi 1 c iu khin cho mt di tr
nh. T-CONT loi 1 bo m tr truyn v s thay i tr v tc truyn cn TCONT loi 2, 3 ch m bo tc truyn. Loi T-CONT ny c s dng chnh cho
cc dch v video v d liu c u tin cao hn.
T-CONT loi 4
C n lc cho bng thng tt nht (best effort), c s dng cho cc dch v
d liu nh internet v nhng dch v c u tin thp v khng i hi bng thng
cao.
T-CONT loi 5
Cc tham s m t cho lu lng T-CONT loi 5 l bng thng c nh (t
trc), bng thng m bo (t trc), bng thng khng m bo (cp pht ng),
bng thng n lc tt nht best effort (cp pht ng), bng thng ti a (t trc),
c s dng cho tt c cc loi bng thng v hiu lc vi tt c cc dch v.
Trong trng hp truyn dn l ATM, vic cp pht ti nguyn c thc hin
s dng VPI. VPI c nh dng bi thng s m t lu lng v c truyn trong
cc T-CONT ty theo yu cu QoS. C ch nh x gia m bo QoS v loi TCONT do nh iu hnh qun l.
Trong trng hp truyn dn l gi GEM th cc kt ni GEM c xc nh
bng Port-ID c th c nh dng lu lng bi cc thng s m t lu lng v
c truyn trong cc T-CONT.
3.10. Bo mt
Trong h thng PON th hng down d liu c truyn broadcast n tt c
ONU. Mi ONU ch c th truy cp d liu ca mnh, nhng nu user no c nh
ph hoi th c th gi ONU ca user khc truy cp d liu, h thng bo mt
GPON th ngn chng vic nghe ln ny.

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Ging nh cc mng khc, GPON s dng th tc mt m ngn nga vic


nghe trm cc tn hiu khng mong mun. Khng ging nh truy cp wireless hay
modem, trong mng PON bt k ONU no cng khng th thy c lu lng up ln
ca ONU khc. iu ny cho php lm n gin ha th tc mt m. u tin l ch
cn mt m hng down d liu. Th 2 l d liu up ln c th truyn key mt m.
GPON s dng chun mt m nng cao AES (Advanced Encryption Standard).
i vi qu trnh m ha d liu, key v gi tr b m c s dng. Key ny c
bit n bi OLT v ONU. cp nht key, OLT s gi bn tin key request message
bi vic s dng knh PLOAM. p li bn tin ny, ONU s pht ra key mi v
gi n OLT.
Gi tr b m c dng cho qu trnh mt m c pht ra bi mt b m
ng b. C OLT v ONU c b m nh nhau, v phi ng b d liu c m
ha OLT c th c gii m ONU.
B m l mt trng 46 bit, trong , c 16 bit LSB (Least Significant Bits)
c gi l intraframe counter. B m ny c reset bt u khung down, vi
byte u tin nm trong trng PCBd. C sau mi 4 byte th b m tng gi tr. 30
bit MSB (Most Signficant Bits) cn li i din cho b m interframe counter. B
m ny cng ging nh superframe trong trng Ident trong PCBd, gi tr b m
tng ln sau mi khung.
Gi tr b m 46 bit ny c s dng nh li vo ca thut ton AES.
pht ra key li vo 128 bit th 16 bit ny c lp li 3 ln. Kt qu to ra mt chui
gm 138 bit, trong rt bt 10 bit MSB, t to ra key 128 bit cho li vo ca
thut ton AES (Hnh 3-31).

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Hnh 3-31: Thut ton AES-CTR


Khi d liu ngi dng cha cc t bo ATM th ch c 48 byte payload trong
cell ATM c mt m. 48 byte (3 khi 128 bit), 3 khi ny s c XOR vi 128 bit
li vo ca thut ton to ra d liu c mt m OLT. ONU d liu c mt
m ny th XOR vi chui gi ngu nhin 16 byte tng t nh OLT to li d
liu ban u. Vi GEM ch c phn ti GEM c mt m.
OLT khi to vic trao i key bng vic gi bn tin n ONU thng qua knh
PLOAM. Sau ONU s chu trch nhim to ra key v pht ngc tr v OLT.
3.11. Sa li FEC (Forward Error Corection)
Sa li FEC c s dng bi lp vn ti trong h thng, hot ng bng
cch chn thm cc bit kim tra vo lung d liu gip pha thu pht hin v sa
c nhiu li. Do , vic s dng FEC ny lm gim bng thng ti ca tn hiu
nhng lm tng hiu sut bng thng bng vic gim vic truyn li cc gi d liu do
li truyn dn.
M FEC l m RS (Reed Solomon) hay cn gi l m RS (255, 239). y l m
khi c 239 byte d liu v 16 byte kim tra li to thnh khi d liu c 255 byte. M
RS (255, 239) cho php pht hin v sa nhiu li, kt qu l lm tng li ln 3-4

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dB.

Hnh 3-32: Downstream FEC


Hnh 3-32: Downstream FEC, m t vic chia khung down thnh cc khi 255
byte. T m trong 255 byte u tin bao gm khi PCBd. T m tip theo s bt u
sau byte th 255 v s c lp li sau mi 255 byte. Khi FEC c s dng th bng
thng dnh cho ngi dng b gim i. Bi v cc khung down khng c chia thnh
cc khi 255 byte sn nn khi cui cng s t hn 255 byte.
V d nh ti tc 2.488 Gbps chiu di khung l 38,880 byte th ta c 152
khi c 255 byte v khi cui cng c 120 byte bao gm 104 byte d liu v 16 byte
kim tra li do m thm 135 byte d liu 0 vo. Cc byte 0 ny th khng c
truyn nhng n c chn vo b thu khi n thc hin tnh ton kim tra li khi
ny.
hng up, m t hnh 3-33 tng t nh khung down ngoi tr t m u
tin khng bao gm overhead lp vt l. T m u tin bt u vi trng BIP khng
cha trng m u v trng ranh gii. Mi burst c phn thnh khi ti 239 byte
v c nh x thnh cc khi t m 255 byte. Ging nh khung down t m cui
cng cha t hn 239 byte th s m thm vo cc byte 0. Cc byte 0 ny th khng
c truyn i nhng n c chn vo b thu khi n thc hin tnh ton kim li
khi ny. Sau , cc byte 0 ny c xa v truyn t m i. Khi nhn, OLT s li
chn thm cc byte 0 ny vo trc khi gii m n. Sau khi qu trnh gi m xong, th
cc byte 0 ny li c xa i, nhn li d liu ban u.

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Hnh 3-33: Upstream FEC


3.12. Chuyn mch bo v trong phn mng GPON
Kin trc bo v mng GPON rt cn thit cho vic tng cng tin cy cho
mng truy nhp. Tuy nhin, vic trin khai mng bo v c xem nh mt c ch ty
chn v vic ny ph thuc vo iu kin kinh t ca tng nh khai thc mng. Sau
y l mt s cu hnh mng bo v kp c th s dng trong GPON.
3.12.1. Chuyn mch bo v
Mng GPON cn thit phi c ch bo v gia giao din ODN trong OLT v
giao din ODN trong ONU qua mng phn phi quang ODN.
C hai loi chuyn mch bo v trong mng GPON l: chuyn mch t ng v
chuyn mch bt buc.
Chuyn mch t ng c kch thch khi pht hin ra cc li nh mt tn hiu,
mt khung, suy gim tn hiu
Chuyn mch bt buc c kch hot trong qu trnh qun tr mng nh nh
tuyn li tuyn quang, thay th si quang
C hai loi chuyn mch ny u c th thc hin trong mng GPON nu c
yu cu mc d y l cc chc nng ty chn. C ch chuyn mch bo v c thc
hin bi trng OAM, do trng thng tin OAM phi c d tr trong khung
OAM.
3.12.2. Cc kiu cu hnh ca mng GPON kp v yu cu ca chuyn mch bo
v
3.12.2.1. Cc kiu cu hnh mng GPON kp

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Hu ht mng APON/BPON, GPON v EPON u theo cu trc hnh cy cung


cp cc kt ni im n a im. Splitter c trin khai chia tn hiu quang nhn
c n tt c si quang c phn b. Hnh 3-34, 3-35, 3-36, 3-37 ch ra 4 loi kin
trc bo v vi cc cp bo v khc nhau. V c bn th chng lm ging ht
ng link si quang gc v cc thit b chnh.
Loi A, h thng quang kp

Hnh 3-34: H thng quang kp


Hnh 3-34, y l cu hnh chuyn mch kp i vi si quang, c 2 si quang
gc gia OLT v splitter, trong c mt si d phng, cu hnh ny ch c si
quang gc c bo v. Hai si quang ny c s phi hp vi nhau do m khi si
quang chnh b t th n chuyn sang si d phng. Trong sut qu trnh chuyn
mch th suy hao tn hiu thm ch l suy hao cc cell truyn l tt yu, do tt c kt
ni gia cc node dch v v thit b u cui s c gi li trong lc chuyn mch
si quang. OLT khng c thit b d phng do nu OLT b li th mng s ngng
hot ng. Tt c ONT/ONU v si quang d phng u tr nn v dng khi OLT b
li. Trong loi bo v ny ngi ta s dng splitter 1:N.
Loi B, h thng OLT kp

Hnh 3-35: H thng OLT kp


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Hnh 3-35, y l cu hnh kp i vi OLT v si quang gia OLT v b chia


quang (mch d phng nm v pha OLT), b chia quang c hai cng u ra/u vo
pha OLT c 2 b thu pht quang ti OLT v 2 si quang gc gia OLT v ONU.
Cu hnh ny yu cu mch d phng trong OLT v khng c d phng trong ONU.
Nu OLT li hay si quang gia OLT v splitter b t th n chuyn mch sang b
d phng thng qua b iu khin t OLT. Suy hao tn hiu v suy hao cc cell l
tt yu trong qu trnh chuyn mch. Trong loi bo v ny ngi ta s dng splitter
2:N.
Loi C, h thng kp ton b

Hnh 3-36: H thng kp ton b


Hnh 3-36, y l cu hnh kp c v OLT, ONU, si quang v c b chia
quang, khng ch c 2 b thu pht OLT m cn c 2 b thu pht ONU v 2 b
splitter. y l mt kin trc bo v y ca FTTH. Trong cu hnh ny, li bt k
im no cng c th c khi phc bng vic chuyn mch n thit b d phng.
Do chi ph cho cu hnh ny l rt cao v n khng kinh t khi mch d phng ch
c dng khi mng chnh c li.
Loi D, h thng kp mt phn
y l cu hnh cho php nhn i mt phn v pha ONU (khng phi tt c
cc ONU u c nhn i), Hnh 3-37.

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Hnh 3-37: H thng kp mt phn


3.12.2.2. Cc yu cu i vi chuyn mch bo v
Chc nng chuyn mch bo v nn l chc nng ty chn.
C chuyn mch t ng v chuyn mch bt buc u c th trong mng GPON
nu c yu cu, cho d chng l nhng chc nng ty chn.
C ch chuyn mch nhn chung c nhn ra bi chc nng ca trng OAM,
do trng thng tin OAM phi c lu tr trong khung OAM.
Tt c nhng kt ni c h tr gia node dch v v thit b u cui phi c
gi li sau khi chuyn mch.
3.13. Kt lun
Qua cc nghin cu trn, chng ta c th rt ra mt s c im c bn ca
cng ngh GPON nh sau:
Cng ngh GPON c ITU chun ho trong cc tiu chun ITU G984.x,
pht trin t cng ngh BPON v h tr tc cao hn, tng cng bo mt, la
chn lp 2 giao thc ATM, GEM v Ethernet vi hiu sut bng thng cao.
GPON l cng ngh truy nhp quang ca b ba dch v (triple play) nh video,
thoi, v internet tc cao, vi cc dch v i hi bng thng rng nh: HD TV
(truyn hnh nt cao), IPTV (truyn hnh tng tc), VoD (xem phim theo yu
cu), Video Conferrence (hi ngh truyn hnh), IP Camera
K thut truy nhp s dng trong GPON l TDMA.
H tr nhiu loi tc truy nhp ng ln t 155 Mbit/s n 2.5 Gbit/s, h
tr hai tc truy nhp ng xung 1.25 Gbit/s v 2.5 Gbit/s.

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Vn tc nghn lu lng v nhng vn lin quan ca mng truy nhp quang


tc cao c gii quyt bng cc th tc nh c (ranging) v cp pht bng thng
ng.
Cc th tc iu khin v bo hiu trong GPON n gin nhng vn m bo
gii quyt cc vn c bn v k thut ca mng truy nhp bng rng tc cao,
p ng cc yu cu k thut ca dch v, iu khin cho GPON l cng ngh s
dng bng thng hiu qu nht trong cc loi cng ngh PON hin c.
Tuy nhin, GPON cng c nhc im chnh l: thiu tnh hi t IP, c mt
kt ni duy nht gia OLT v b chia, nu kt ni ny mt th ton b ONT/ONU
khng c cung cp dch v.

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CHNG 4
NG DNG CNG NGH GPON CUNG CP DCH
V FTTH TI VNPT THA THIN HU
4.1. Gii thiu mng MANE
4.1.1. Gii thiu chung v mng MANE
MANE l mng s dng cng ngh Ethernet, kt ni cc mng cc b ca cc
t chc v c nhn vi mt mng din rng WAN hay vi Internet. Vic p dng cng
ngh Ethernet vo mng cung cp dch v mang li nhiu li ch cho c nh cung cp
dch v ln khch hng. Bn thn cng ngh Ethernet tr nn quen thuc trong
nhng mng LAN ca doanh nghip trong nhiu nm quam, gi thnh cc b chuyn
mch Ethernet tr nn rt thp, bng thng cho php m rng vi nhng bc nhy
ty l nhng u th tuyt i ca Ethernet so vi cc cng ngh khc. Vi nhng
tiu chun v ang c thm vo, Ethernet s mang li mt gii php mng c
tin cy, kh nng m rng v hiu qu cao v chi ph u t.
4.1.2. nh gi v cng ngh mng Metro Ethernet
Tnh d s dng
Dch v Ethernet da trn giao din Ethernet chun, dng rng ri trong cc h
thng mng cc b. Hu nh tt c cc thit b v my ch trong LAN u kt ni
dng Ethernet, v vy m rng vic s dng Ethernet kt ni cc mng cung cp
dch v vi nhau s n gin ha qu trnh hot ng v cc chc nng qun tr, qun
l v cung cp (OAM &P).
Hiu qu v chi ph
Dch v Ethernet lm gim chi ph u t v chi ph vn hnh. S ph bin ca
Ethernet trong hu ht tt c cc sn phm mng nn giao din Ethernet c chi ph
khng t. Gi thnh thit b thp, chi ph qun tr v vn hnh thp hn, t tn km
hn nhng dch v cnh tranh khc. Nhiu nh cung cp dch v Ethernet cho php
nhng thu bao tng thm bng thng mt cch kh mm do, cho php thu bao
thm bng thng khi cn thit v h ch tr cho nhng g h cn.
Tnh linh hot
Dch v Ethernet cho php nhng thu bao thit lp mng ca h theo nhng
cch hoc l phc tp hn hoc l khng th thc hin vi cc dch v truyn thng
Chng 4: ng dng cng ngh GPON cung cp dch v FTTH ti VNPT Tha Thin Hu

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khc. V d: mt cng ty thu mt giao tip Ethernet n c th kt ni nhiu mng


v tr khc nhau thnh lp mt Intranet VPN ca h, kt ni nhng i tc kinh
doanh thnh Extranet VPN hoc kt ni Internet tc cao n ISP. Vi dch v
Ethenet, cc thu bao cng c th thm vo hoc thay i bng thng trong vi pht
thay v trong vi ngy hoc thm ch vi tun khi s dng nhng dch v mng truy
nhp khc (Frame relay, ATM). Ngoi ra, nhng thay i ny khng i hi thu
bao phi mua thit b mi hay ISP c cn b k thut n kim tra, h tr ti ch.
Tnh chun ha
MEF ang tip tc nh ngha v chun ha cc loi dch v v cc thuc tnh
ny, cho php cc nh cung cp dch v c kh nng trao i gii php ca h mt
cch r rng, cc thu bao c th hiu v so snh cc dch v mt cch tt hn.
4.1.3. ng dng ca mng MANE
H tr nhiu loi ng dng v dch v thuc th h mng k tip. Di y l
mt s ng dng tiu biu: kt ni gia cc LAN, truyn ti a ng dng, mng ring
o Metro, kt ni im - im tc cao, mng lu tr, LAN Video/Video Training,
cc ng dng sao lu d phng, truyn s liu Y t, hnh nh, Streaming Media,
Server Backup, cc ng dng lu tr (iSCSI).
4.1.4. Kin trc mng MANE

Hnh 4-1: M hnh mng MANE theo cc lp


Theo nh ngha ca Metro Ethernet Forum ti MEF4 Metro Ethernet
Architecture Framework part 1, mng Metro Ethernet s c xy dng theo 3 lp:
Chng 4: ng dng cng ngh GPON cung cp dch v FTTH ti VNPT Tha Thin Hu

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Lp dch v Ethernet h tr nhng tnh nng c bn ca lp, mt hoc nhiu lp


truyn ti dch v, c th bao gm lp dch v ng dng h tr cho cc ng dng trn
nn lp 2. M hnh mng theo cc lp da trn quan h client/server. Bn cnh ,
mi lp mng ny c th c thit k theo cc mt phng iu khin, d liu, qun tr
trong tng lp. M hnh c m t nh hnh 4-1.
Lp dch v Ethernet (ETH layer)
Lp dch v Ethernet c chc nng truyn ti cc dch v hng kt ni chuyn
mch da trn a ch MAC. Cc bn tin Ethernet s c truyn qua h thng thng
qua cc giao din hng ni b, hng bn ngoi c quy nh r rng, gn vi cc
im tham chiu. Lp ETH cng phi cung cp c cc kh nng v OAM, kh nng
pht trin dch v trong vic qun l cc dch v Ethernet hng kt ni. Ti cc giao
din hng bn ngoi ca lp ETH, cc bn tin bao gm: Ethernet unicast, multicast
hoc broadcast, tun theo chun IEEE 802.3 2002.
Lp truyn ti dch v
Lp truyn ti dch v h tr kt ni gia cc phn t ca lp ETH. C th s
dng nhiu cng ngh khc nhau dng thc hin vic h tr kt ni. Mt s v d:
IEEE 802.1, SONET/SDH, ATM VC, PDH DS1/E1, MPLS Cc cng ngh truyn
ti trn, n lt mnh li c th do nhiu cng ngh khc h tr, c tip tc nh vy
cho n lp vt l nh cp quang, cp ng, khng dy.
Lp dch v ng dng
Lp dch v ng dng h tr cc dch v s dng truyn ti trn nn mng
Ethernet ca mng MEN. C nhiu dch v trong bao gm c cc vic s dng lp
ETH nh mt lp TRAN cho cc lp khc nh: IP, MPLS, PDH DS1/E1
Cc im tham chiu
Cc im tham chiu trong MEN nh ngha cc im ti phn tch bin
qun l khi kt ni i qua cc giao din trong MEN. Hnh di y m t mi quan h
gia cc thnh phn trong kin trc MEN. Cc thnh phn bn ngoi bao gm: Kt ni
t thu bao ti MEN, kt ni vi MEN khc, kt ni vi mng khc khng phi
Ethernet. Thu bao kt ni ti MEN qua giao din UNI User - Network Interface.
Cc thnh phn bn trong MEN kt ni vi nhau qua giao din NNI trong ( Interal
Network-to-Network Interface). Hai mng MEN c th kt ni vi nhau qua giao din

Chng 4: ng dng cng ngh GPON cung cp dch v FTTH ti VNPT Tha Thin Hu

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NNI ngoi (External Network to Network Interface. Di y l m hnh cc im


tham chiu:

Hnh 4-2: M hnh cc im tham chiu


4.2. M hnh MANE Tha Thin Hu

Hnh 4-3: M hnh mng MANE Tha Thin Hu


Hin nay mng MANE ca VNPT Tha Thin Hu s dng thit b ca Cisco,
v chn gii php MPLS do Cisco xut. Nguyn l hot ng ch yu trong cng
Chng 4: ng dng cng ngh GPON cung cp dch v FTTH ti VNPT Tha Thin Hu

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ngh MPLS l thc hin gn nhn cho cc loi gi tin cn chuyn i ti cc b nh


tuyn nhn bin LSR (Label Switch Router), sau cc gi tin ny s c trung
chuyn qua cc b nh tuyn chuyn mch nhn ung LSR. Cc ng chuyn
mch nhn LSP c thit lp bi ngi iu khin, qun l mng trn c s m bo
mt s yu cu k thut nht nh nh l mc chim dng ng thng, kh nng
tc nghn, chc nng kin to ng hm Nh vy, s hot ng chuyn mch ca
cc LSR cho php MPLS c kh nng to ra cc kt ni u cui ti u cui.
u im MPLS
Cng ngh MPLS ph hp vi hu ht cu trc topo mng (ring, mesh).
Cng ngh MPLS cho php truyn ti a dch v vi hiu sut truyn ti cao.
H tr truyn ti cc dch v c yu cu QoS.
Cung cp cc dch v VPN Layer 3.
Nhc im
Gi thnh kh cao.

Qun l v vn hnh kh phc tp.


Theo Cisco, kin trc MEN c chia thnh 5 lp: Access, Aggregation, Edge,

Core, Service Application.


Trong VNPT Tha Thin Hu ch qun l 2 lp l Access v lp
Aggregation. 3 lp Edge, Core, Service Application do cng ty VTN qun l.
4.2.1. Lp truy nhp (Access)
Hin ti VNPT Tha Thin Hu s dng 20 router Cisco 7606 lm chc nng
truy nhp. Lp ny cung cp truy cp bng rng cho cc dch v doanh nghip v dn
c trong m hnh retail v wholesale, da trn xDSL (ADSL, ADSL 2+, VDSL,
SHDSL), cc nt truy cp Ethernet ghp lu lng thu bao trong 802.1q v 802.1ad.
Thit b vi chc nng U-PE: im phn tch gia khch hng v mng nh
cung cp dch v. Thng thng n l thit b lp 2 t ti lp Access t ti CP
nhng c qun l bi nh cung cp dch v. Chc nng ca U-PE ban u l:
Tng hp nhiu ng khch hng ti lp truy nhp.
nh ngha cc dch v Ethernet bng cch cung cp c im UNI ph hp, v
d 802.1Q tunneling (Q-in-Q) v 802.1Q trunking.

Chng 4: ng dng cng ngh GPON cung cp dch v FTTH ti VNPT Tha Thin Hu

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C lp lu lng khch hng bng cch gn gi tr VLAN IDs duy nht ca nh


cung cp mi dch v.
m bo bng thng ph hp SLA bng cch phn loi lu lng, p t chnh
sch, nh du v xp hng.
4.2.2. Lp thu gom (Aggregation)
Bao gm 3 router Cisco 7609 lm chc nng thu gom. Cung cp dch v vn
chuyn gia lp mng truy cp v lp mng bin, bao gm c cc nt phn phi v
tng hp kt ni trong topo vt l khc nhau. Cng ngh Carrier Ethernet mng tng
hp da trn MPLS/IP v cho php cc ty chn vn chuyn L2 v L3 ( im im
v MP) da trn cc yu cu dch v c bit thit b cho Aggregation - PE-AGG:
tng hp lu lng, qun l tc nghn, L2 Wholesale Handoff, ghp dch v, chuyn
mch cc b cho cc dch v Ethernet.
4.3. Thit b GPON F61 ca hng ECI
4.3.1. c im k thut
Thit b Hi-FOCuS F61 h tr truy nhp cp quang v cp ng vi cc dch v
ng thi nh d liu, thoi v video.
Hi-FOCuS c th lp t ngoi tri hoc trong nh.
H tr tc hng xung 2.5Gbps v tc hng ln 1.25Gbps.
H tr 384 thu bao ADSL2+/POTS hoc 288 thu bao VDSL2.
H tr 3000 thu bao GPON.
H tr VoIP.
H tr cc tiu chun dnh cho thu bao bng rng: ITU-T
G.992.3/G992.4(ADSL2), ITU-T G992.5(ADSL2+), ITU-T G993.2(VDSL2),
ITU-T G984(GPON), G992.1 (DTM Full Rate), G992.2 (G.lite), ANSI T1.413.
H tr cc giao thc mng: PPPoE, IPoEoA traffic transport, IEEE 802.1q, .1p,
.1d, .3x v .1ad, RFC 2684, Port/PVC mapping to VLANs, IGMP, Cu hnh 1:1
v 1:N VLAN, IPoA-routed mode, DHCP relay agent.
4.3.2. Li ch
Ti u ha u t h tng mng v chi ph vn hnh thng qua gii php trin
khai FTTx.
Thit b c thit k c bit c th hot ng trong mi trng khc nghit,
khong khng hp;
H tr dch v im a im, bo mt v cht lng dch v cho php nh
cung cp dch v c th a ra nhiu dch v gia tng.
Chng 4: ng dng cng ngh GPON cung cp dch v FTTH ti VNPT Tha Thin Hu

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Bng thng rng cho php h tr ti 128 kt ni GPON.


H tr qun l tp trung cc thit b.
Tun th chun GPON.
4.3.3. Cu trc phn cng
Thit b Hi-FOCuS F61 c thit k trong 1 shelf bao gm 8 khe.

Hnh 4-4: Cu trc phn cng


Khe PFF bao gm cc kt ni vi h thng ngun, u ni ti h thng cnh
bo ngoi, xung ng b, iu khin h thng qut v dng cho vic cu hnh.
Khe 217 l dng cho giao tip mng hng ln IPNI, h tr 3 giao tip 1Gbps
v 1 giao tip 10Gbps.
Khe 201 n 206 dng cho card thu bao dch v GPON, ADSL2+, VDSL2,
VoIP.
Card GPLT4 cung cp giao din GPON tun th ITU-T G984, c kt ni ti
card giao tip mng IPNI cho php iu khin c tn hiu GPON hng xung
v hng ln pha khch hng. Mi card GPLT4 h tr 4 port GPON, mi port
GPON h tr ti a 128 thu bao.
Card V2U-C48 h tr cung cp dch v cho 48 thu bao VDSL2 vi hng ln
l GPON.
Card ATU-C64 h tr cung cp dch v cho 64 thu bao ADSL2+.
Card PTU-C64 h tr 64 port VoIP.
4.3.4. M hnh cung cp dch v Triple play: bao gm dch v FTTH, dch v
LiveTV v VoD

Chng 4: ng dng cng ngh GPON cung cp dch v FTTH ti VNPT Tha Thin Hu

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Hnh 4-5: M hnh cung cp dch v triple play

Chng 4: ng dng cng ngh GPON cung cp dch v FTTH ti VNPT Tha Thin Hu

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KT LUN
Sau thi gian tm hiu v nghin cu v n Nghin cu cng ngh GPON
v ng dng trin khai trn mng VNPT Tha Thin Hu, em nm bt c cc
vn sau:
Hiu mt cch tng qut v mng FTTx.
Cc loi mng quang th ng PON.
Cc k thut, giao thc, cu trc khung truyn dn, cp pht bng thng ng, k
thut ng khung GEM... trong cng ngh mng quang th ng GPON.
V cui cng tm hiu v cu trc cng nh m hnh ng dng cng ngh GPON
vo mng vin thng Tha Thin Hu nh mng MANE, FTTH.
Do thi gian c hn v khi lng cng vic kh ln cng hn ch bi kh nng
ca bn thn nn trong n ny em vn cn nhiu sai st. Hi vng trong thi gian
ti em c th tip tc hng pht trin ny cng mt s tng ng dng khc tip
tc kt qu ca n ny.
Em xin chn thnh cm n cc Thy C gio trng i Hc Khoa Hc Hu,
K s Nguyn Hong Vn ang cng tc VNPT tnh Tha Thin Hu, cng ton
th cc bn lp TVT K30 gip em hon thnh ni dung n ny.
Hu, 06/2011
Sinh vin
BI TH PHONG

Kt lun

n tt nghip

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Sinh vin: Bi Th Phong

TI LIU THAM KHO


Ting Vit
[1]. B thng tin v truyn thng, hc vin Cng Ngh Bu Chnh Vin Thng,
Vin Khoa Hc K Thut Bu in H Ni, Chuyn Mng Truy nhp quang ti
thu bao GPON (2007).
[2]. Ths. ng Ngc Khoa, Mng ton quang-xu hng ca tng lai.
[3]. Hng ng Ngc n, n tt nghip i hc, Thit k FTTH da trn cng
ngh mng quang th ng (2009), Hc vin cng ngh bu chnh vin thng thnh
ph H Ch Minh.
Ting Anh
[1]. DBA (Dynamic Bandwidth Allocation), EFM Internrim (2001).
[2]. Joanna Ozimkiewicz, Sarah Ruepp, Lars Dittmann, Henri Wessing, Dynamic
Bandwidth Allocation in GPON Network, Technical University of Denmark.
[3]. Paola Garfias Hernndez, New Dynamic Bandwidth Allocation Algorithm
Analysis, Ddspon For Ethernet Passive Optical Networks, Master Project,
Universitat Politecnica De Catalunya.
[4]. Jia Li (2009), 10G GPON Management System Study and Implementation,
Institutionen for systemteknik Department of Electrical Engineering, Stockholm.
[5]. Christiaan Boomsma (2006), Ethernet over Passive OpticalNetworks, Master
thesis, Chair for Telecommunication Engineering, Department of Electrical
Engineering, University of Twente.
[6]. Gigabit-capable Passive Optical Networks (GPON): General characteristics,
Series G: Transmission Systems And Media, Digital Systems And Networks.

Ti liu tham kho