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Manual of Design of Continuous Composite Beams

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Strength

February 2001

Composite Structures Design Manual

Published by

ABN 42 004 651 325

Produced by the

University of Western Sydney

Contributors

Prof. Russell Bridge

Dr. Mark Patrick

Centre for Construction Technology and Research

Reviewed by

Connell Wagner Pty Ltd

Copyright 2001 OneSteel Manufacturing Ltd and The University of Western Sydney.

All rights reserved.

First published:

Disclaimer

While every effort has been made and all reasonable care taken to

ensure the accuracy of the material contained herein, the

contributors, editors and publishers of this booklet shall not be held

liable or responsible in any way whatsoever, and expressly disclaim

any liability or responsibility for any loss or damage, cost or

expenses, howsoever incurred by any person whether the user of

the booklet or otherwise including without limitation, loss or damage,

costs or expenses incurred as a result of or in connection with the

reliance, whether whole or partial by any person as aforesaid upon

any part of the contents of this booklet. Should expert assistance be

required, the services of a competent person should be sought.

DB2.1-ii

Edition 1.0 February 2001

Design of Continuous Composite Beams with Rigid Connections for Strength

Composite Structures Design Manual

Foreword

OneSteel is a leading manufacturer of steel long products in Australia after its spin-off from BHP Pty

Ltd on the 1st November 2000. It manufactures a wide range of steel products, including structural,

rail, rod, bar, wire, pipe and tube products and markets welded beams.

OneSteel is committed to providing to design engineers, technical information and design tools to

assist with the use, design and specification of its products. This design booklet Design of Continuous

Composite Beams with Rigid Connections for Strength and associated computer software

COMPSECT are testament to that commitment. In May 1998, BHP Steel published the first two

design booklets of the Composite Structures Design Manual, on slabs and simply-supported beams,

followed in April 1999 by a third booklet on beams with large web penetrations. This is the fifth booklet

to be published for the Composite Structures Design Manual, which is now being completed and

maintained by OneSteel. It is also being released with an associated booklet on shear connection

design. In November 2000, OneSteel published the fourth booklet and a supplement on the web-sideplate steel connection, along with computer software WSP-STEEL.

The initial development work required to produce the design booklets was carried out at BHP

Melbourne Research Laboratories before its closure in May 1998. OneSteel Market Mills is funding the

University of Western Sydneys Centre for Construction Technology and Research in continuing the

research and development work to publish this and future booklets.

The Composite Structures Design Manual refers specifically to the range of long products that

are manufactured by OneSteel and plate products that continue to be manufactured by BHP. It

is strongly recommended that OneSteel sections and reinforcement, and BHP plate products

are specified for construction when any of the design models in the design booklets are used,

as the models and design formulae including product tolerances, mechanical properties and

chemical composition have been validated by detailed structural testing using only OneSteel

and BHP products.

To ensure that the Designers intent is met, it is recommended that a note to this effect be

included in the design documentation.

DB2.1Design of Continuous Composite Beams with Rigid Connections for Strength

iii

Composite Structures Design Manual

Contents

Preface ................................................................................................................ vi

1.

1

SCOPE AND GENERAL

1.1 Scope .............................................................................................................1

1.2 General...........................................................................................................3

2.

TERMINOLOGY

3.

DESIGN CONCEPTS

19

3.1 General Behaviour of Continuous Beams....................................................19

3.2 Section Behaviour of Members and Connections........................................23

3.3 Global Analysis and Behaviour ....................................................................31

4.

42

DESIGN MODELS

4.1 Ductile Shear Connection ............................................................................42

4.2 Moment-Shear Interaction............................................................................42

4.3 Member Cross-Sections in Negative Bending .............................................43

4.4 Partial-Depth End Plate Connections ..........................................................46

4.5 Flush End Plate Connections.......................................................................49

4.6 Lateral Distortional Buckling.........................................................................50

5.

DESIGN APPROACH

54

5.1 Design Data..................................................................................................54

5.2 Preliminary Design .......................................................................................54

5.3 Strength Design Construction Stage 3 (AS 2327.1) .................................55

5.4 Strength Design Construction Stages 4, 5 and 6 (AS 2327.1) .................56

5.5 Strength Design In-Service Condition (AS 2327.1) ..................................56

5.6 Serviceability Design....................................................................................57

6.

DESIGN RULES

58

6.1 Scope ...........................................................................................................58

6.2 Design Loads ...............................................................................................58

6.3 Construction .................................................................................................58

6.4 Properties of Cross-Sections .......................................................................58

6.5 Classification of Cross-Sections...................................................................59

6.6 Methods of Analysis .....................................................................................59

6.7 Positive Moment Capacity of Members .......................................................61

6.8 Negative Moment Capacity of Members......................................................61

6.9 Negative Moment Capacity of End Plate Connections ................................62

6.10 Lateral Distortional Buckling.....................................................................63

6.11 Potentially Critical Cross-Sections ...........................................................63

6.12 Distribution of Shear Connectors .............................................................63

6.13 Design of the Shear Connection ..............................................................64

6.14 Crack Control ...........................................................................................64

7.

WORKED EXAMPLES

66

7.1 General.........................................................................................................66

7.2 Secondary Beam in a Carpark .....................................................................66

7.3 Primary Beam in a Carpark..........................................................................78

7.4 Secondary Beam in an Office with Compactus Loads.................................95

8.

REFERENCES

DB2.1-iv

15

103

Edition 1.0 February 2001

Design of Continuous Composite Beams with Rigid Connections for Strength

Composite Structures Design Manual

APPENDIX A

104

REFERENCED AUSTRALIAN STANDARDS...............................................................104

105

APPENDIX B

NOTATION ..........................................................................................................105

113

APPENDIX C

ELASTIC PROPERTIES OF MEMBERS IN NEGATIVE BENDING ..................................113

C.1 Elastic Neutral Axis (ENA) .........................................................................113

C.2 Effective Cross-Section..............................................................................114

APPENDIX D

116

ELASTIC CONTRAFLEXURE ANALYSIS ...................................................................116

D.1 General Principles ......................................................................................116

D.2 Moment Area Theorems ............................................................................116

D.3 Symmetric Beams ......................................................................................116

D.4 Propped Cantilevers...................................................................................117

APPENDIX E

119

NEGATIVE MOMENT CAPACITY OF MEMBERS........................................................119

E.1 Effective Cross-Section..............................................................................119

E.2 Key Levels of Reinforcement .....................................................................119

E.4 Linear Approximation .................................................................................122

APPENDIX F

123

NEGATIVE MOMENT CAPACITY OF END PLATE CONNECTIONS ...............................123

F.1 Effective Cross-Section..............................................................................123

F.2 Key Levels of Reinforcement .....................................................................123

F.4 Linear Approximation .................................................................................124

125

APPENDIX G

O

DESIGN TABLES AND CHARTS FOR =0 (=90 ) ...................................................125

145

APPENDIX H

O

DESIGN TABLES AND CHARTS FOR =1 (=0 ) .....................................................145

DB2.1Design of Continuous Composite Beams with Rigid Connections for Strength

Composite Structures Design Manual

Preface

This design booklet forms part of a suite of booklets covering the design of simply-supported and

continuous composite beams, composite slabs, composite columns, steel and composite connections

and related topics. The booklets are part of the OneSteel Market Mills Composite Structures Design

Manual which has been produced to foster composite steel-frame building construction in Australia to

ensure cost-competitive building solutions for specifiers, builders and developers.

An Australian Standard for continuous composite beams is currently under development. The

information contained in this design booklet, the first in this Manual on this topic, should contribute

significantly to the achievement of this task. Those conversant with the design of simply-supported

composite beams in accordance with AS 2327.1-1996 will find they will be familiar with much of the

information presented, particularly with regard to cross-section analysis and design of the shear

connection, and design booklets DB1.1 and DB1.2 are considered essential pre-reading material.

Continuous composite beams can offer significant benefits over simply-supported beams, viz.:

Strength. In most composite structures, reinforcement is present over the supports to control

cracking, so, provided it is Class N steel, it might as well be used for increased strength. The issue

is not so much in achieving the extra strength, but in ensuring sufficient ductility of the connection

regions for it to be fully utilised. Typical strength gains are in the order of 15-40%.

Serviceability. The following aspects of serviceability are improved.

Deflections. This represents the most significant gain from continuity, with typical reductions in

the order of 60%. Significantly smaller steel sections can result.

Vibrations. The higher flexural stiffness due to continuity greatly improves vibration

performance.

Cracking. Continuity greatly reduces the beam end rotations, which in turn greatly improves

crack control of the concrete over the supports.

These improvements in structural performance allow continuous composite beams to achieve higher

span-to-depth ratios than equivalent simply-supported beams. The resulting shallower steel sections

can give rise to lower floor-to-floor heights and, importantly, reduced exterior cladding costs. However,

it is explained in the booklet that a mix of both simply-supported and continuous beams will normally

be required it is not just a matter of using one type over the other.

As well as continuous beams, the design of semi-continuous beams is covered. These members have

partial-strength as distinct from full-strength composite end connections. Beams incorporating the

flush end plate steel connection fall into this category, the behaviour of which has been researched

overseas. The design rules presented in the booklet for this and similar types of connections, is based

on the overseas findings. The connections must remain rigid under serviceability loads if the beams

are to be treated as continuous or semi-continuous, which may affect the minimum amount of

longitudinal reinforcement required over the connections.

Designers must also determine whether any of the construction stages defined in AS 2327.1 are

critical to the design of the steel elements. Connections such as the flush end plate connection lend

themselves to simply using a steel strap welded to the top flanges of adjacent steel beams to improve

the strength and stiffness of the bare steelwork. Examples illustrating its use are given in the booklet,

which can prove very beneficial, particularly when the in-service loads are relatively low. Another

novel approach presented in the booklet is the use of a bottom flange plate in negative moment

regions, which can overcome problems with buckling of the beam web and can considerably increase

the negative moment capacity and ductility of continuous composite beams.

For preliminary design work, a comprehensive set of design tables and charts in Appendices G and H,

based on plastic theory, can be used to quickly obtain a feasible solution, which can then be checked

in detail. Computer program COMPSECT has been written to assist in this regard. In due course, it

is expected that more powerful software will become available.

DB2.1-vi

Edition 1.0 February 2001

Design of Continuous Composite Beams with Rigid Connections for Strength

Composite Structures Design Manual

1.

1.1

Scope

1.1.1

Introduction

This booklet covers the design of continuous composite beams, which may be defined in the broadest

sense to refer to any composite member (beam or cantilever) subject to negative curvature at one or

more of its supports. The emphasis is on design at the strength limit state, but consideration is also

given to deflections and crack control. A thorough knowledge of the design of simply-supported beams

[1-3] is a prerequisite for understanding the material presented in this booklet.

Continuity in a composite beam may be achieved either with internal supports, or by the use of

suitable connections within a frame. This booklet is limited to braced frames, so that no positive

moments are generated in the connections supporting a composite member.

1.1.2

Three key attributes must be considered in the design of a composite member or connection at the

strength limit state.

1.

Strength. The strength usually refers to the design plastic moment capacity of the member

or connection. Members or connections that are unable to reach their full plastic moment

capacity, due to buckling or premature failure, are normally considered to have insufficient

ductility for use in continuous composite construction.

2.

Ductility. The member or connection must be sufficiently ductile for its strength to be

properly utilised. Using global plastic analysis, for example, any hinge that is not the last to

form must possess sufficient rotation capacity to maintain its strength until a complete plastic

collapse mechanism has developed.

3.

Stiffness. The relative stiffness of the member or connection determines the distribution of

action effects within the beam, and hence the requirements for strength and ductility at

specific cross-sections.

1.1.3

Classification of Connections

These three attributes form the basis of a useful classification system for connections in both the bare

steel and composite states, as shown in Fig. 1.1.1.

1.

Strength.

Partial-strength. The moment capacity of the connection is significant, but is less than

2.

Nominally pinned. The moment capacity of the connection is negligible and is ignored in

the global analysis.

Full-strength. The moment capacity of the connection is equal to or greater than the

moment capacity of the adjacent member. Unless the moment capacity of the

connection is at least 1.2 times that of the adjacent member, in which case the plastic

hinge is assumed to form in the member and not in the connection, the ductility of a fullstrength connection must be checked.

Ductility.

Non-ductile. The connection has insufficient rotation capacity to form a plastic hinge.

hinge.

DB2.1Design of Continuous Composite Beams with Rigid Connections for Strength

Composite Structures Design Manual

3.

Stiffness.

Nominally pinned. The rotational stiffness of the connection is negligible and is ignored

in the global analysis.

included in the global analysis. Semi-rigid connections are beyond the scope of this

booklet, but may be included in a future booklet.

Rigid. The rotational stiffness of the connection is sufficiently high that the member can

be treated as if it had fully fixed ends.

Connection moment, M

Non-ductile

Full strength

Mbv

Partial strength

Rigid

Ductile

Semi-rigid

Nominally pinned

Connection rotation,

1.1.4

Types of Framing

Three different types of framing can be defined by the requirements of global analysis [5] and the

corresponding connections that are applicable.

1.

Simple. Only equilibrium need be considered in the global analysis. Simple framing uses

only nominally pinned connections.

2.

Continuous. Both equilibrium and the structural properties of the member need to be

considered in the global analysis. Any connections that are not nominally pinned must fullstrength rigid connections, so that the connection properties do not affect the member

behaviour.

3.

in the global analysis. For the purposes of this design booklet, which excludes semi-rigid

connections, semi-continuous framing may use partial-strength rigid connections in addition

to those permitted for continuous framing.

DB2.1-2

Edition 1.0 February 2001

Design of Continuous Composite Beams with Rigid Connections for Strength

Composite Structures Design Manual

1.2

General

Details of the different types of components that may be used in the construction of continuous

composite beams designed in accordance with this booklet are described in this section.

1.2.1

Steel Beam

The alternative types of steel beams that are permitted are shown in Fig. 1.2.1. The cross-section of

the steel beam must be symmetrical about the vertical axis. Cold-rolled RHS, SHS and channel

sections may be used provided that the wall thickness satisfies the requirements of AS 2327.1

(Clauses 5.2.3.3(a) and 8.4.3.1).

The channel sections shown in Fig. 1.2.1(c) and (d), and the T-sections shown in Fig. 1.2.1(g) and (h),

may not be the most efficient steel sections for use in composite beams. However, these sections may

be encountered in design when hollow sections or I-sections are notched to allow the passage of

service ducts within the depth of the beam. Optional flange plates may be attached to the bottom

flange of some of the steel beam types (see Fig. 1.2.1(a)) to increase the moment capacity of the

cross-section.

Optional flange

plate

(c)

(g)

(a)

(h)

(b)

(e)

(d)

(f)

Note: Optional flange plates similar to that shown in (a) can also be used with (b), (e) and (f).

1.2.2

Concrete Slab

The concrete slab forms the top flange of the composite beam. It must be reinforced with deformed

bars or mesh to strengthen it against flexure, direct tension or compression, and vertical or longitudinal

shear. These action effects can arise due to direct loading, shrinkage, temperature effects, and fire.

The use of profiled steel sheeting as the bottom-face reinforcement in composite slabs can

significantly reduce the amount of steel reinforcement (see Section 1.2.5) required in the slab for

flexural, shrinkage, and temperature effects. The design of solid (reinforced-concrete) slabs must be in

accordance with AS 3600. Composite slabs can be designed using the information given in the design

booklets provided in Part 3 of this manual. Restrictions which apply to the geometry of the profiled

steel sheeting are given in Clause 1.2.4 of AS 2327.1, and, in association with other measures, were

necessary to ensure that the shear connection is both efficient and ductile.

The design of composite beams with a precast concrete slab is beyond the scope of AS 2327.1 and,

therefore, this booklet.

DB2.1Design of Continuous Composite Beams with Rigid Connections for Strength

Composite Structures Design Manual

1.2.3

The major types of profiled steel sheeting used in Australia, viz. BONDEK II, COMFORM and

CONDECK HP (see Products Manufactured From OneSteel and BHP Steel in this manual), all satisfy

the geometric requirements specified in Fig. 1.2.4 of AS 2327.1. In accordance with Fig. 1.2.4(a) of

AS 2327.1, the minimum cover slab thickness ( Dc hr ) is 65 mm. Therefore, the minimum overall

slab depth Dc of a composite slab is nominally 120 mm for BONDEK II and CONDECK HP, and

125 mm for COMFORM.

1.2.4

Shear Connectors

Headed studs (manually or automatically welded), channels or high-strength structural bolts shown in

Fig. 1.2.2 may be used as shear connectors. Automatically welded headed studs are the only type of

shear connector that may be attached through profiled steel sheeting. The reader is referred to design

booklet DB1.2 [3] for information about other types of shear connector and design of the shear

connection.

The geometry of the shear connectors must conform with Clause 8.2.2 of AS 2327.1. It should be

noted that the 100 TFC section is no longer produced, but the 300PLUS, 100 PFC section may be

used as a direct substitute.

(a)

Headed studs

(b)

Channels

(c)

High-strength

structural bolts

1.2.5

Steel Reinforcement

Reinforcement used in design at the strength limit state shall be 500PLUS Rebar (Class N).

Reinforcement used in design at the serviceability limit state may be either 500PLUS Rebar or

OneMesh500 (Class L). Both 500PLUS Rebar and OneMesh500 satisfy the requirements of

AS 4671 with a nominal yield stress of 500 MPa. The ductility of 500PLUS Rebar, as defined by

uniform elongation and tensile-to-yield-stress ratio, well exceeds the minimum requirements specified

in AS 4671 for Class N reinforcement. Therefore, other Class N products that might have inferior

ductility must not be used as substitutes.

DB2.1-4

Edition 1.0 February 2001

Design of Continuous Composite Beams with Rigid Connections for Strength

Composite Structures Design Manual

1.2.6

Since semi-rigid connections are beyond the scope of this booklet, only pinned and rigid connections

in either the bare steel or composite state are considered. The possible connection combinations and

locations in which they would typically be used are shown in Table 1.2.1. Example framing layouts

using these connections are given in the next section.

Connection

Steel state

Composite state

Typical location

P-P

Nominal pin

Nominal pin

P-RC

Nominal pin

Rigid composite

Interior beam-to-beam

RS-RS

Rigid steel

Rigid steel

Edge beam-to-column

RS-RC

Rigid steel

Rigid composite

Interior beam-to-column

A range of proposed rigid composite connections, together with some photographs giving examples of

their use in recently completed structures, are shown in Figures 1.2.3 to 1.2.13. In order to achieve

rigidity in the composite state, the connection must provide a rigid compressive load path with a

capacity equal to that of the tensile reinforcement over the support. Web-side-plate connections do not

meet this requirement and must be treated as nominally pinned (see Design Booklet DB5.1, Design of

the Web-Side-Plate Steel Connection [6]).

Sheeting ribs

Column stiffener *

Flange plate *

Column stiffener *

End plate

Web stiffener *

* if required

DB2.1Design of Continuous Composite Beams with Rigid Connections for Strength

Composite Structures Design Manual

Flange plate *

Erection bolt *

Partial-depth

end plate

Web stiffener *

* if required

DB2.1-6

Edition 1.0 February 2001

Design of Continuous Composite Beams with Rigid Connections for Strength

Composite Structures Design Manual

Web stiffener *

Flange plate *

Vertical web stiffeners

* if required

DB2.1Design of Continuous Composite Beams with Rigid Connections for Strength

Composite Structures Design Manual

Sheeting ribs

Web stiffener *

Flange plate *

* if required

Sheeting ribs

Flange plate *

Column stiffener *

Full strength

weld

Web stiffener *

* if required

DB2.1-8

Edition 1.0 February 2001

Design of Continuous Composite Beams with Rigid Connections for Strength

Composite Structures Design Manual

Sheeting ribs

connection

Flange plate *

Column stiffener *

Cantilever

Full strength

weld

Web stiffener *

* if required

connection

Flange plate *

Full strength

weld

Cantilever

Web stiffener *

* if required

DB2.1Design of Continuous Composite Beams with Rigid Connections for Strength

Composite Structures Design Manual

Column stiffener *

Sheeting ribs

Flange plate *

Column stiffener *

Web stiffener *

Extended

end plate

* if required

Figure 1.2.12 Extended End Plate Connection (Bare Steel Connection to Ref. 7)

Top strapping

plate

Flange plate *

Erection bolt *

Partial depth

end plate

Web stiffener *

* if required

DB2.1-10

Edition 1.0 February 2001

Design of Continuous Composite Beams with Rigid Connections for Strength

Composite Structures Design Manual

1.2.7

Framing Layouts

A framing layout for scheme 1C from the BHP Economical Car Parks Design Guide [8] is shown in

Fig. 1.2.14. All four of the connection types given in Table 1.2.1 are used as appropriate.

Rigid steel connections are best suited to beam-to-column connections in which there are opposing

beams on either side of the column. This applies to the beams B2, PB1, and to the interior supports

of beam PB2. The exterior support of PB2 beams can also be a rigid steel connection, provided that

the column is designed for the unbalanced moment and corresponding web shear. Due to the low

torsional rigidity of the supporting primary beams and the cope required in the top flange of the

attached secondary beams, beam-to-beam connections are normally considered to be nominally

pinned in the bare steel state.

Rigid composite connections require continuity of the reinforcement over the support and can normally

be used only at interior locations. This applies to the beams B1, PB1, and to the interior supports of

beam PB2. The B2 beams, being edge beams, may only have half the normal width of concrete

flange, which is not normally considered to be sufficient for the placement of adequate reinforcement.

P-RC

RS-RC

B1

B1

PB2

B1

B1

PB1

B1

B2

PB2

RS-RS

B2

P-P

STEEL DECKING

PB2

4500

PB1

PB2

7600

4500

DB2.1Design of Continuous Composite Beams with Rigid Connections for Strength

11

Composite Structures Design Manual

A recommended framing layout for a typical office floor is shown in Fig. 1.2.15. The interior columns

are located on a standard 8.4 m square grid, which is reduced to 7 m for the end spans in order to

maintain consistent beam sizes. The profiled steel sheeting spans 2.8 m between the secondary

beams. The choice of grid dimensions and the reduced end spans allow the secondary beam supports

to be offset from the column centrelines, which avoids potential problems caused by congestion of the

reinforcement in the vicinity of columns.

P-RC

RS-RS

RS-RC

B3

B4

STEEL DECKING

PB3

B2

B2

PB2

B2

B2

B2

PB1

B1

B1

B1

PB2

B1

B1

B1

PB1

B2

P-P

PB4

1.2.8

It is important that fabrication and erection details are considered in the early stages of a project using

composite connections, since fabrication and erection costs represent 50-65% of the total cost of a

steel frame [9]. Wherever possible, it is best to avoid the need for both welding and drilling of any one

item (either a beam or a column), as this doubles the amount of handling during fabrication. Similarly,

an erection procedure should be chosen that only requires one crane.

Welds should be designed and specified in accordance with AS 4100 and the procedures given for

bolted end plate connections in the AISC Design of Structural Connections Manual [7]. Weld details

for opposing flush end plate connections with column stiffeners are shown in Fig. 1.2.16. Partial-depth

end plate connections should use the same weld details as those for the web and bottom flange of

flush end plate connections. A pair of opposing fillet welds is generally more economical than the

equivalent strength butt weld. Fillet weld sizes on stiffeners should be 6 mm or 8 mm, so that only one

DB2.1-12

Edition 1.0 February 2001

Design of Continuous Composite Beams with Rigid Connections for Strength

Composite Structures Design Manual

pass is required. Tension and compression stiffeners need to be cropped to clear the column root

radius.

flange welds have sufficient capacity

to transmit the design force in the

tension stiffener.

or

or

No flange weld is required when the

compression stiffener is a bearing fit

between the column flanges.

or

or

The use of end plate connections requires close tolerances on the member length and provision must

be made for misfit. Since over-length beams present a major problem, it is recommended that beams

are specified under-length and packing plates used to make up the difference, as shown in Fig. 1.2.17.

Depending on the project, this may not be necessary for every beam and it may be sufficient to specify

an under-length beam every third or fourth bay to correct for any cumulative misfit. Packing plates may

be slotted either vertically (trouser packs) or horizontally (finger shims) to allow installation from

above or side-on respectively after the bolts have been inserted. Note that beam-to-beam connections

do not provide access for installation from above. If the erection procedure permits the packing plates

to be installed in conjunction with inserting the bolts, slotting is not required and drilled or punched

holes are sufficient. The minimum practical thickness for packing plates is 3 mm, so a beam might

typically be specified 12 mm under-length. Alternatively, if two packing thicknesses were available

(say 4 mm and 6 mm, with a specified under-length of 10 mm), fewer packing plates would be

required and the fitting error would be reduced to 2 mm rather than 3 mm.

Any opposing connections that share the same bolts, such as beam-to-beam and beam-to-columnweb connections, must make allowance for one beam to be held in position while the other is craned

into place. This can be achieved by extending the end plate downwards at the appropriate end of the

first beam to include an extra row of holes so that an erection bolt can be inserted that does not

interfere with the placement of the second beam (see Figs 1.2.5 and 1.2.13). Only one erection bolt is

required if the beam is assumed to be torsionally restrained by the bolts at its other end, but it is

recommended that two holes are provided to allow the steel rigger access from either side of the

beam and to avoid potential errors caused by left- and right-hand mirror images. If the end plate

cannot be extended downwards, it may be possible to extend it to one side. Either arrangement would

also allow the packing plates to be installed in conjunction with inserting the bolts.

DB2.1Design of Continuous Composite Beams with Rigid Connections for Strength

13

Composite Structures Design Manual

Trouser packs

Finger shims

Packing plates

1.2.9

Construction Method

preferred, because it provides simpler, faster construction and better serviceability performance. A

more complete discussion of the effects of propping is given in Section 3.3.5.

DB2.1-14

Edition 1.0 February 2001

Design of Continuous Composite Beams with Rigid Connections for Strength

Composite Structures Design Manual

2.

TERMINOLOGY

Some important terminology used in this booklet is summarised in this section. Reference should also

be made to Clause 1.4.3 of AS 2327.1 for additional terminology.

Compact Cross-Section

A cross-section that can reach the full plastic moment and undergo sufficient rotation to develop a

plastic hinge.

Complete Shear Connection (=1)

The moment capacity at a cross-section is not limited by the strength of the shear connection.

Composite Connection

A connection, in which reinforcement in the slab contributes to the moment capacity of the connection.

Continuous Framing

In continuous framing, both equilibrium and the structural properties of the member need to be

considered in the global analysis. Any connections used in continuous framing must be either

nominally pinned connections or full-strength rigid connections, so that the connection properties do

not affect the member behaviour.

Continuous Composite Beam

The steel beam is either continuous over internal supports or is joined by full-strength rigid

connections.

Cracked Second Moment of Area

The cracked second moment of area is based on the effective section in negative bending with the

concrete fully cracked.

Critical Cross-Section

The cross-section that has the highest ratio of design action effect to design capacity and therefore

governs the design.

Degree of Negative Moment Shear Connection,

The ratio of the strength of the shear connection within the anchored length of the reinforcement,

n f ds , to the yield capacity of the tensile reinforcement that is located within the effective width of the

slab, Ar f yr .

Degree of Positive Moment Shear Connection, +

The ratio of the compressive force in the concrete at the strength limit state, Fc , to the value

corresponding to complete shear connection in the absence of vertical shear force, Fcc (AS 2327.1).

Effective Cross-Section

That portion of the total cross-section that is unaffected by local buckling and able to contribute fully to

the strength of the cross-section.

Elastic Contraflexure Global Analysis

An elastic contraflexure global analysis uses the ratio of the transformed to the cracked second

moment of area, to determine the location of points of contraflexure, which then makes the beam

behaviour determinate.

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Elastic Cracked Global Analysis

An elastic cracked global analysis assumes that the cracked second moment of area may be applied

to a 15% length of the beam adjacent to the support and that the transformed second moment of area

should be applied elsewhere.

Elastic Cross-Section Analysis

Elastic theory assumes that all strains lie within the linear-elastic region of material behaviour. The

stress distribution is directly proportional to the strain distribution, leading to triangular stress blocks.

Elastic Global Analysis

Elastic global analysis is based on linear moment-curvature behaviour.

Elastic Neutral Axis (ENA)

The location of zero strain within a cross-section using elastic analysis. In cases when slip at the steelconcrete interface produces two such locations, the lower one is defined to be the elastic neutral axis.

Elastic-Plastic Global Analysis

Elastic-plastic global analysis is based on idealised elastic, perfectly-plastic moment-curvature

behaviour. The action effects may be determined from a superimposed series of elastic analyses: as

each plastic hinge forms, it is replaced by a pin and the next analysis commenced.

Elastic Uncracked Global Analysis

Elastic uncracked global analysis assumes that the transformed second moment of area may be

applied uniformly to the entire length of the beam.

Framing

The type of framing is classified according to the requirements of global analysis and the

corresponding connections as either simple, continuous, or semi-continuous.

Full Interaction

The condition of a composite beam assuming no slip occurs along the length of the beam at the steelconcrete interface.

Full-Strength Connection

The strength of the connection is equal to or greater than the strength of the adjacent member.

Member

In general, reference to the behaviour of members and member cross-sections is intended to exclude

the connections.

Moment Redistribution

Moment redistribution describes the load-carrying behaviour of an indeterminate structure as its most

highly loaded cross-sections approach their maximum capacity. Cross-sections that are highly loaded

shed moment to cross-sections that still have excess capacity for moments in the opposite sense.

Non-Compact Cross-Section

A cross-section in which the extreme compressive fibre can reach the yield stress, but is unable, due

to local buckling, to strain sufficiently for the cross-section to reach the full plastic moment.

Partial Shear Connection (<1)

The moment capacity at a cross-section is limited by the strength of the shear connection.

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Partial-Strength Connection

The strength of the connection is significant, but is less than the strength of the adjacent member.

Pinned Connection

Both the rotational stiffness and moment capacity of the connection are negligible and are ignored in

the global analysis.

Plastic Cross-Section Analysis

Plastic theory assumes that most strains greatly exceed the elastic limit of the material. For idealised

rigid-plastic behaviour, cross-sections may be analysed using rectangular stress blocks in either

tension or compression with magnitude equal to the yield stress.

Plastic Global Analysis

Plastic global analysis is based on idealised rigid-plastic moment-curvature behaviour.

Plastic Neutral Axis (PNA)

The location of zero strain within a cross-section using plastic analysis. In cases when slip at the steelconcrete interface produces two such locations, the lower one is defined to be the plastic neutral axis.

Potentially Critical Cross-Section

A cross-section that is likely to be critical.

Propped Construction

The steel beam and/or the slab formwork is supported until the concrete is able to resist stresses.

Rigid Connection

The rotational stiffness of the connection is sufficiently high that the member can be treated as if it had

fully fixed ends.

Simply-Supported Composite Beam

The composite beam uses only pinned connections.

Semi-Continuous Composite Beam

The composite beam is joined by partial-strength rigid connections. Semi-rigid connections are beyond

the scope of this booklet.

Semi-Continuous Framing

In semi-continuous framing, equilibrium and the structural properties of both the member and the

connections need to be considered in the global analysis. For the purposes of this design booklet,

which excludes semi-rigid connections, semi-continuous framing may use partial-strength rigid

connections in addition to pinned and full-strength rigid connections.

Semi-Rigid Connection

The rotational stiffness of the connection is significant and should be included in the global analysis.

Semi-rigid connections are beyond the scope of this booklet.

Shear Ratio,

The ratio at a member cross-section of the design vertical shear force, V * , to the design vertical shear

capacity, Vu .

Simple Framing

In simple framing, only equilibrium need be considered in the global analysis. Simple framing uses

only pinned connections.

Continuous Composite Beams

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Slender Cross-Section

A cross-section in which the extreme compressive fibre is unable, due to local buckling, to reach the

yield stress. (Slender cross-sections are beyond the scope of this design booklet.)

Transformed Second Moment of Area

The transformed second moment of area is based on the effective section in positive bending, ignoring

the tensile strength of the concrete (AS 2327.1 Paragraph B3.1).

Unpropped Construction

No temporary supports are provided to the steel beams or formwork to carry loads during construction.

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3.

DESIGN CONCEPTS

3.1

3.1.1

Action Effects

The free body diagram of a general continuous beam supporting a uniformly distributed load of

intensity, w , over a span, L , with unequal end moments, M A and M B , is shown in Fig. 3.1.1(a). The

free bending moment diagram (with a mid-span value of wL2 8 ) can be superimposed onto the

reactant bending moment diagram to produce the total bending moment diagram for the beam, as

shown in Fig. 3.1.1(b). Similarly, the free shear force diagram (with end values of wL 2 ) can be

superimposed onto the reactant shear force diagram to produce the total shear force diagram, as

shown in Fig. 3.1.1(c).

w

MA

MB

(a)

L

VA = wL/2 + (MAMB)/L

VB = wL/2 (MAMB)/L

C

MA

(b)

wL /8

MB

maximum

VA

(c)

wL/2

(MAMB)/L

wL/2

z = VA/w

VB

3.1.2

Any cross-section that causes a composite beam to fail at the strength limit state is called a critical

cross-section. Failure of a cross-section may be due to high moment, shear, or a combination of both

(moment-shear interaction). Since it is not possible, especially for non-prismatic beams, to predict the

exact location of these cross-sections at the beginning of the design process, a number of crosssections are identified as being potentially critical. The strength limit state requirements are deemed to

be satisfied for the entire beam, provided that they are satisfied at each potentially critical crosssection.

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Potentially critical cross-sections include locations at which there is a:

peak moment;

peak shear;

composite moment capacity exceeding 2.5 times the bare steel moment resistance, midway

between adjacent potentially critical cross-sections (see AS 2327.1 Clause 6.3).

For the general continuous beam shown in Fig. 3.1.1, assuming a uniform cross-section, there are

three potentially critical cross-sections: the two supports, which are locations of both peak negative

moment and peak shear; and, at z = V A w , in the vicinity of mid-span, which is the location of peak

positive moment.

3.1.3

Moments at potentially critical cross-sections are resisted by composite action between the various

cross-section elements: positive moments by tension in the steel and compression in the concrete;

negative moments by compression in the steel and tension in the reinforcement. Fig. 3.1.2(a) shows

the free body diagram for a segment between the support and mid-span of a general continuous

beam. In order to achieve this composite behaviour, horizontal shear forces need to be transferred

between the various cross-section elements, usually by means of shear connectors at the steelconcrete interface. The free body diagram of the concrete slab in Fig. 3.1.2(b) shows the number of

shear connectors, n , each carrying a shear force, f ds , that are required between the support and midspan.

The required rate of horizontal shear transfer is directly proportional to the rate of change of bending

moment along the beam, which is equal to the vertical shear force at any given cross-section.

Referring to Fig. 3.1.1(c), it is clear that a higher density of shear connectors is required near the

support than in the vicinity of mid-span.

For simplicity, rather than continuously varying the spacing, it is preferable for shear connectors to be

distributed using a limited number of discrete densities. It is therefore recommended that points of

contraflexure be treated as potentially critical cross-sections for the purpose of determining the shear

connector distribution. This is similar to the treatment of the free end of a cantilever, except that the

point of contraflexure varies according to the loading case. For each loading case, the number of

shear connectors in the positive and negative bending moment regions, n + and n , is determined as

shown in Fig. 3.1.2(c) from

n+

Fc

f ds

Fr

f ds

3.1(1)

3.1(2)

Based on the assumption of ductile shear connection (see Section 4.1), shear connectors may be

distributed uniformly between two adjacent critical cross-sections, or between the free end of a

cantilever and an adjacent critical cross-section.

+

Positive moment regions may use partial shear connection theory ( m 0.5 ), but tests have shown

that catastrophic failure can occur in negative moment regions that do not have complete shear

moment regions must extend at least a tensile development length , Lsy.t (AS 3600), beyond the

number of shear connectors required to develop its full strength.

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(a)

Maximum

positive moment

Fr

C

Fc

T

(b)

Fr

Fc

nfds

(c)

F=0

Fr

n fds

Fc

+

n fds

Point of

contraflexure

Figure 3.1.2 Shear Connection in Continuous Beams (adapted from Ref. 10)

3.1.4

In addition to shear transfer at the steel-concrete interface, there must also be a transfer of horizontal

shear within the concrete itself:

(a) in regions of positive moment, to develop compression in the concrete located at some

distance from the beam axis; and,

(b) in regions of negative moment, to develop tension in the reinforcement.

Due to the in-plane shear flexibility (shear lag) of a concrete slab, the width of flange (for either

concrete or reinforcement) effectively engaged in composite action varies along the length of the

beam, from zero at points of contraflexure to a maximum at critical cross-sections. For simplicity,

+

uniform values of effective width, bcf and bcf , based primarily on the effective spans, L+ and L ,

ef

ef

are adopted in positive and negative moment regions, as shown schematically in Fig. 3.1.3.

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Points of

contraflexure

Lef

bcf

Lef+

bcf

Lef

3.1.5

Any steel plate elements at a potentially critical cross-section that are in compression may be affected

by local buckling. The extent to which local buckling may limit the resistance of these elements

depends on the plate element slenderness, e , given by Equation 5.2.3.3(1) of AS 2327.1 as

e

b

t

3.1(3)

where

DB2.1-22

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fy

3.1(4)

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The appropriate slenderness limits, which depend on both the strength and ductility requirements of

the cross-section, can be represented by the following classes:

(a) compact, in which the cross-section can reach the full plastic moment and undergo

sufficient rotation to develop a plastic hinge;

(b) non-compact, in which the cross-section can reach the yield moment, but is unable to reach

the full plastic moment; and,

(c) slender, in which the cross-section is unable even to reach the yield moment. (Slender

cross-sections are beyond the scope of this design booklet.)

A non-compact cross-section may be re-classified as compact by reducing its effective cross-section

for plate elements in compression as follows:

(a) in the case of flanges, ignoring any width beyond the plasticity slenderness limit; and,

(b) in the case of webs, removing any portion that is more than 15t w from a lateral restraint.

Permissible lateral restraints include flanges, regions of the web in tension, and horizontal

stiffeners of suitable size.

3.2

3.2.1

Three key attributes must be considered in the design of a composite member or connection at the

strength limit state.

1.

Strength. The strength usually refers to the design plastic moment capacity of the member

or connection. Members or connections that are unable to reach their full plastic moment

capacity, due to buckling or premature failure, are normally considered to have insufficient

ductility for use in continuous composite construction.

2.

Ductility. The member or connection must be sufficiently ductile for its strength to be

properly utilised. Using global plastic analysis, for example, any hinge that is not the last to

form must possess sufficient rotation capacity to maintain its strength until a complete plastic

collapse mechanism has developed.

3.

Stiffness. The relative stiffness of the member or connection determines the distribution of

action effects within the beam, and hence the requirements for strength and ductility at

specific cross-sections. This booklet is limited to connections that are either nominally pinned

(approaching zero stiffness) or rigid (approaching infinite stiffness).

3.2.2

Either elastic or plastic theory may be used for the analysis of composite cross-sections, depending on

the section classification. In both cases, for cross-sections with complete shear connection, the effects

of longitudinal slip at the steel-concrete interface may be ignored, and the analysis may assume that

plane sections remain plane (a linear strain distribution). Critical negative moment cross-sections must

be designed for complete shear connection, but critical positive moment cross-sections may be

designed for partial shear connection in accordance with AS 2327.1.

Composite construction in buildings rarely involves cross-sections which require elastic section

analysis, so plastic section analysis is adopted as the standard in this booklet unless stated otherwise.

Elastic

Elastic section analysis may be used for any class of cross-section. It must be used for cross-sections

that are unable to attain the full plastic moment, due to either premature buckling or fracture, such as:

slender cross-sections, which are beyond the scope of this design booklet; and,

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Elastic theory assumes that all strains lie within the elastic region of material behaviour. The peak

steel strains are all less than or equal to the yield strain, y , and the stress distribution is directly

proportional to the strain distribution, leading to triangular stress blocks, as shown in Fig. 3.2.1.

Plastic

Plastic section analysis may only be used for cross-sections that are able to attain the full plastic

moment, without being affected by premature buckling or fracture, which includes:

compact cross-sections;

most bolted connections, provided that any reinforcement in the slab is ductile.

Plastic theory assumes that most strains greatly exceed the elastic limit of material behaviour, leading,

in the idealised case, to rectangular stress blocks in either tension or compression equal to the yield

stress, as shown in Fig. 3.2.1. The required peak strains are typically in the order of ten times the yield

strain, which is the reason for the more stringent slenderness requirements.

Elastic

bcf

Plastic

PNA

+

ENA

bcf

PNA

ENA

Figure 3.2.1 Elastic and Plastic Stress Distributions in Positive and Negative Bending of

Cross-Sections with Complete Shear Connection for 0.5

3.2.3

Strength

The moment capacity of a composite cross-section in positive bending is based on the typical stress

distributions shown in Fig. 3.2.2. When the plastic neutral axis (PNA) lies within the steel section, the

effective portion of the steel elements in compression may need to be reduced.

The force that can be developed in the concrete flange, and hence the moment capacity of the crosssection, depends on the degree of shear connection, , as shown in Fig. 3.2.3. As the degree of

shear connection is increased, the PNA moves higher up the cross-section, reducing the compression

region within the steel section. Therefore element slenderness needs to be considered more in

regions with a low degree of shear connection.

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Design of Continuous Composite Beams with Rigid Connections for Strength

Composite Structures Design Manual

0.85f 'c

fyf

PNA

fyw

fyf

0.85f 'c

fyf

fyw

PNA

fyw

fyf

Figure 3.2.2 Typical Plastic Stress Distributions in Positive Bending of Cross-Sections with

Complete Shear Connection for 0.5

Ductility

When the plastic hinge in the positive moment region is not the last to form, the cross-section must

have sufficient ductility for the full collapse mechanism to develop. Such cases are rare, especially for

semi-continuous construction.

Stiffness

In positive moment regions with complete shear connection at the peak moment cross-section

+

( m = 1), the flexural stiffness of the member is based on the transformed section properties of the

effective section, ignoring the tensile strength of the concrete (AS 2327.1 Paragraph B3). For positive

+

moment regions with partial shear connection at the peak moment cross-section ( m < 1 ), the stiffness

is reduced in accordance with AS 2327.1 Paragraph B3.4. In either case, the concrete flange makes a

significant contribution to the composite member stiffness, which is typically three to four times that of

the bare steel section.

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Composite Structures Design Manual

Mbc

Ms

0.0

0.5

1.0

PNA

PNA

PNA

3.2.4

0.5

Strength

The moment capacity of composite cross-sections in negative bending is based on the typical stress

distribution shown in Fig. 3.2.4. For any level of reinforcement, at least half the area of the steel

section is in compression and must be assessed for slenderness to determine its effective portion.

The moment capacity of the cross-section depends on the area of reinforcement, Ar , as shown in

Fig. 3.2.5. The maximum area of reinforcement, Arm , corresponds to the maximum force attained by

the steel section fully in compression. As the area of reinforcement is increased, the PNA moves

higher up the cross-section, increasing the compression region within the steel section. For this

reason, plate element slenderness is very significant in the design of composite members for negative

bending.

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fyr

fyf

PNA

fyw

fyw

fyf

0.5

Ms

hole in web

0.0

Arm /2

Arm

Area of reinforcement, Ar

PNA

PNA

PNA

0.5

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The moment capacity that can be achieved before the onset of local buckling is enhanced by the use

of either a longitudinal web stiffener, which reduces the web slenderness, or an additional bottom

flange plate, which lowers the PNA putting less of the web in compression. An example of these

benefits is shown in Fig. 3.2.6.

310 UB 46.2

Design moment capacity, Mbv (kNm)

600

Flange

plate

500

400

Web stiffener

300

200

0.5

=1

100

0

0

1000

2000

3000

4000

5000

Figure 3.2.6 Negative Moment Capacity with a Bottom Flange Plate as a Function of Ar

Ductility

The ductility of composite cross-sections in negative bending may be limited by local buckling of the

steel section or fracture of the reinforcement. Local buckling affects not only the strength of steel

elements but also their ability to undergo sufficient deformation for the cross-section to form a plastic

hinge. The use of either a longitudinal web stiffener or an additional bottom flange plate improves the

cross-section ductility as well as its strength.

Rib shear failure (Type 4 longitudinal shear failure in AS 2327.1) can significantly limit the rotation

capacity of a composite connection in negative bending [10], so it is reasonable to expect that it may

be important for composite members as well. Reinforcement, such as the proprietary DECKMESH

[11], should therefore be provided in regions of negative bending to enhance ductility.

Stiffness

For practical levels of reinforcement the PNA is always located within the steel section, so the entire

concrete flange is in tension and can be treated as fully cracked. Only the effective steel section and

the reinforcement contribute to the stiffness of the cross-section. Tension stiffening of the concrete is

ignored in the negative moment regions of continuous composite beams.

3.2.5

Web Crippling

At an internal support of a continuous beam, the support reaction applies a severe concentrated load

to the bottom flange of the steel section, which may cause the web to buckle in a manner known as

web crippling. In most cases, transverse stiffeners must be provided, which, together with an effective

portion of the web, form a cruciform column that can resist this load.

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3.2.6

Strength

The ultimate strength behaviour of composite connections is similar to that of composite members,

except that tension in the steel section of a composite member is replaced by tension in the welds or

bolts of a composite connection. Bolted connections can normally be designed using plastic section

analysis, but fully welded connections must be designed using elastic section analysis.

PNA in web

0.0

Arh /2

Arh

Area of reinforcement, Ar

PNA

PNA

Figure 3.2.7 Negative Moment Capacity of Partial-Depth End Plate Connections for

0.5

The moment capacity of a connection depends on the area of reinforcement, Ar , as shown for a

partial-depth end plate connection in Fig. 3.2.7. The tension bolts make a negligible contribution and

are conservatively ignored. Typically, the PNA for partial-strength connections is located within or

close to the bottom flange of the steel section, so local buckling of the web is rare. In fact, the

commencement of a hole in the web (at Ar = Arh ) is a reasonable upper limit for the PNA (and hence

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Ar ), since no more compressive force can be generated until the PNA enters the top flange of the

steel section, which would require very high curvatures.

Ductility

The ductility of composite connections in negative bending may be limited by local buckling of the

steel section, fracture of the bolts, fracture of the weld, or fracture of the reinforcement, as well as nonductile failures in the column. Premature bolt fracture should be prevented by choosing connection

details that promote deformation of the end plate rather than the bolts. Buckling of the column web

should be prevented by providing transverse stiffeners as an effective continuation of the bottom

flange of the steel beam. The ductility of the reinforcement is particularly important for partial-strength

composite connections, because the beam end rotations are concentrated at the connection and the

reinforcement has a high lever arm about the PNA.

Rib shear failure (Type 4 longitudinal shear failure in AS 2327.1) can significantly limit the rotation

capacity of a composite connection in negative bending [10]. Reinforcement, such as the proprietary

DECKMESH [11], should therefore be provided in regions of negative bending to enhance ductility.

Any composite connection that has insufficient rotation capacity to sustain the formation of a plastic

hinge, must be designed for 1.2 times the strength of the adjacent member, so that the plastic hinge

forms in the member and not in the connection.

Stiffness

The rotational stiffness of a composite connection with a rigid compressive load path is directly

determined by the area of reinforcement. For most composite beams, end plate connections with

minimum levels of reinforcement satisfy the requirements of rigid connections.

A rigid compressive load path is provided by details with abutting plates at the bottom flange of the

steel section, which includes all end plate connections but not web-side-plate connections, unless

contact plates are welded into place during construction. Web-side-plate connections, although

potentially semi-rigid, should be treated as nominally pinned connections [6].

DB2.1-30

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3.3

3.3.1

Elastic

Fig. 3.3.1(a). The key structural properties are stiffness and strength; ductility is irrelevant. The

distribution of action effects is determined by the relative stiffness of each component, and the loadcarrying capacity of the structure is reached when the action effects equal the strength at any location.

Elastic analysis correctly predicts the maximum load-carrying capacity of determinate structures,

because failure at just one location is sufficient to cause collapse. However, for indeterminate

structures, the formation of a collapse mechanism generally requires two or more points of failure, and

the structure may be able to support significant additional load beyond the development of plasticity at

the first location, provided that the response is ductile. To allow for this, the distribution of moments

within the structure may be rearranged, provided that equilibrium is still satisfied, so as to reduce the

moment at any cross-section that would exceed its capacity. The degree to which moments may be

redistributed from one cross-section to another is determined by the ductility of those cross-sections

that have reached their capacity.

Elastic analysis requires knowledge of the flexural stiffness at each cross-section, which presents

some difficulties in the case of continuous composite beams. The positive moment stiffness is equal to

that of a simply-supported beam with the same effective span, but the negative moment stiffness

depends on the level of reinforcement and its extent is determined by the points of contraflexure, both

of which are unknown in the initial stages of design.

Two simplified methods of elastic analysis may be used to overcome this:

Uncracked. An uncracked analysis (i.e. in negative moment regions) assumes that the

transformed second moment of area, I t , based on the effective section in positive bending,

may be applied uniformly to the entire length of the beam.

Cracked. A cracked analysis assumes that the cracked second moment of area, I cr , based

on the effective section in negative bending with the concrete fully cracked, may be applied

to a 15% length of the beam adjacent to the support and that the transformed second

moment of area should be applied elsewhere. The greater accuracy of a cracked analysis is

reflected in reduced levels of allowable moment redistribution.

3.3.2

positive and negative bending, typically I t and I cr as above, to determine the points of

contraflexure for a given loading configuration, by solving for compatibility as well as

equilibrium. Once the points of contraflexure are known, they can be replaced by internal

hinges, and the structure becomes determinate. The structure may be represented as a

simply-supported beam between the points of contraflexure, supported by cantilevers at the

continuous supports. This approach is particularly useful for estimating the deflections at the

serviceability limit state. Details of this technique are presented in Appendix D.

Plastic

shown in Fig. 3.3.1(b). The key structural properties are strength and ductility; stiffness is irrelevant.

The structure is analysed as the set of all potential collapse mechanisms composed of rigid links

connected by plastic hinges. The capacity of the structure is reached when sufficient plastic hinges

develop to form the weakest possible collapse mechanism. Any plastic hinge that is not the last to

form must possess sufficient ductility to maintain its moment capacity until the complete collapse

mechanism has developed. Plastic analysis involves few calculations and is easily done by hand,

provided that the collapse mechanism is known. Although difficult for complex structures, identifying

the critical collapse mechanism for continuous beams can normally be done by inspection.

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Plastic analysis overcomes the difficulties in elastic analysis associated with appropriate selection of

flexural stiffness and accurate prediction of the overall capacity. Namely, plastic analysis is based on

the strength of cross-sections, which can be determined more accurately than the stiffness, and on the

formation of collapse mechanisms, which more closely resemble behaviour at the strength limit state

than linear-elastic models. However, being based on the principles of virtual work, plastic analysis is

unable to predict the real displacements, so an elastic or elastic-plastic analysis must be used for

serviceability conditions.

The main difficulty with plastic analysis, which also applies to the use of moment redistribution in

elastic analysis, is ensuring the ductility of critical cross-sections. Both approaches give no indication

of the actual rotation at plastic hinge locations that is required to develop the complete collapse

mechanism. Ductility requirements are assumed to be satisfied by using cross-sections that lie within

specified classification boundaries.

3.3.3

Elastic-Plastic

Elastic-plastic global analysis is based on an idealised elastic, perfectly-plastic model of momentcurvature behaviour, as shown in Fig. 3.3.1(c). Stiffness, strength, and ductility are all important. The

action effects may be determined from a superimposed series of elastic analyses. The initial momentcurvature behaviour is linear everywhere, so the first analysis can proceed elastically up to the load at

which a plastic hinge starts to form. The cross-section at this plastic hinge now has zero flexural

stiffness, so it may be replaced by a nominal pin and the elastic analysis recommenced. This

procedure is applied iteratively until a complete plastic collapse mechanism has developed.

Moment, M

Moment, M

Moment, M

Although it may appear complicated, an elastic-plastic analysis is very simple for continuous beams.

Unlike elastic and plastic analyses, it enables calculation of the required rotation capacity at plastic

hinges, improving the rigour of ductility design for these cross-sections.

Curvature,

Curvature,

Curvature,

(a) Elastic

(b) Rigid-plastic

(c) Elastic-plastic

DB2.1-32

Edition 1.0 February 2001

Design of Continuous Composite Beams with Rigid Connections for Strength

Composite Structures Design Manual

3.3.4

Moment Redistribution

In the context of this booklet, moment redistribution describes the load-carrying behaviour of an

indeterminate structure as its most highly loaded cross-sections approach their maximum capacity. In

order to collapse, a structure must develop sufficient hinges to become a mechanism. If all these

hinges form simultaneously, for which the collapse of a determinate structure is the degenerate case

with only one hinge, then the behaviour of the structure up to the collapse load may be closely

approximated as linear and accurately modelled by an elastic analysis. If, however, the hinges form

progressively, the structure loses one degree of redundancy with the formation of each hinge until it

becomes a mechanism. Each of these intermediate structural states carries load in a different way,

which means that the final distribution of moments at collapse may be quite different from the

distribution predicted by an elastic analysis of the initial structure. For this progressive failure to occur,

any hinge that is not the last to form must be sufficiently ductile, often termed plastic, to maintain its

strength until the final collapse mechanism is reached. It should be noted that cantilevers, although

they give rise to negative bending over supports, are determinate, and moment distribution must not

be applied to either the cantilever or the adjacent end of the corresponding interior beam.

The effects of moment redistribution are best illustrated with reference to an example. Consider a fully

built-in composite beam of span, L , subjected to a central design point load, P , as shown in

Fig. 3.3.2. The relative values adopted in regions of positive and negative bending, although chosen

for ease of calculation, are nevertheless reasonably typical: for strength, the design positive moment

+

capacity, M bv , is taken to be three times the design negative moment capacity, M bv ; and, for

stiffness, the positive second moment of area, I t , is taken to be four times the negative second

moment of area, I cr .

L/2

EsIcr

Mbv

L/2

Mbv = 3 Mbv

EsIcr

EsIt = 4 EsIcr

Mbv

DB2.1Design of Continuous Composite Beams with Rigid Connections for Strength

33

Composite Structures Design Manual

The results of an elastic uncracked analysis with no moment redistribution are shown in Fig. 3.3.3(a).

The critical cross-sections are at the supports, for which the required design moment capacity is

M bv = PL 8 , but there is an enormous waste of capacity in the positive moment region, where the

strength is three times the action effects. Fig. 3.3.3(b) shows the results of the same analysis after

50% moment redistribution: a moment of PL 16 equal to 50% of the original PL 8 is redistributed

from the highly loaded negative moment region to the under-utilised positive moment region. Now, the

support cross-sections and the mid-span cross-section are all critical. The required design negative

moment capacity is M bv = PL 16 , half that required for the same analysis without moment

redistribution, and there is no longer wasted positive moment capacity.

L/2

L/2

EsIt

Mbv

PL/8

PL/8

Mbv = 3 Mbv

+

3PL/8

Mbv

Mbv = 3 Mbv

50%(PL/8) = PL/16

PL/16

3PL/16

DB2.1-34

Edition 1.0 February 2001

Design of Continuous Composite Beams with Rigid Connections for Strength

Composite Structures Design Manual

The results of an elastic cracked contraflexure analysis with no moment redistribution are shown in

Fig. 3.3.4(a). For a fully built-in beam with I t I cr = 4 subjected to a central point load, the points of

contraflexure are located at L 6 away from the supports (Fig. D.1), which is very similar to the value

of 0.15 L used in a simplified cracked analysis. The critical cross-sections are at the supports, for

which the required design moment capacity is M bv = PL 12 , but there is again considerable wasted

capacity in the positive moment region, where the strength is 1.5 times the action effects. Fig. 3.3.4(b)

shows the results of the same analysis, only this time after just 25% moment redistribution: a moment

of PL 48 equal to 25% of the original PL 12 is redistributed from the highly loaded negative moment

region to the under-utilised positive moment region. Now, the support cross-sections and the mid-span

cross-section are all critical. The required design negative moment capacity is M bv = PL 16 , threequarters of that required for the same analysis without moment redistribution, and there is again no

longer any wasted positive moment capacity. Note the much lower degree of moment redistribution

required for the cracked analysis to reach the same result as the uncracked analysis. In an attempt to

maintain consistency, design rules specify different limits for the allowable level of moment

redistribution depending on the type of analysis (see Table 6.6.1).

L/2

EsIcr

L/2

EsIcr

EsIt = 4 EsIcr

L/6

L/6

Mbv

PL/12

PL/6

Mbv+ = 3 Mbv

PL/4

Mbv

25%(PL/12) = PL/48

+

Mbv = 3 Mbv

PL/16

3PL/16

DB2.1Design of Continuous Composite Beams with Rigid Connections for Strength

35

Composite Structures Design Manual

Plastic Analysis

The collapse mechanism and virtual displacements for a plastic analysis are shown in Fig. 3.3.5. From

simple trigonometry for small angles,

L

=

2

3.3(1)

Using the principle of virtual work, the external and internal work must be equal, therefore

P

M bv + M bv 2 + M bv

3.3(2)

capacity of

M bv

PL

16

3.3(3)

which, as expected, is equal to the result for an elastic analysis with the required moment

redistribution.

L/2

Mbv

L/2

Mbv

Mbv = 3 Mbv

DB2.1-36

Edition 1.0 February 2001

Design of Continuous Composite Beams with Rigid Connections for Strength

Composite Structures Design Manual

The results of an elastic-plastic uncracked analysis are shown in Fig. 3.3.6. The first phase of the

analysis shown in Fig. 3.3.6(a) is elastic up to a load of P 2 , at which point plastic hinges form at the

support cross-sections and the structure effectively becomes a simply-supported beam. The second

phase of the analysis, shown in Fig. 3.3.6(b), ends after an additional load of P 2 , when a hinge

forms at the mid-span cross-section and the structure becomes a mechanism. The beam end rotations

during this second phase represent the ductility required by the connections. For a beam of uniform

flexural stiffness supporting a central point load, in this case P 2 , the required rotation capacity may

be calculated from the standard result as:

PL2

32 E s I t

3.3(4)

Fig. 3.3.6(c) shows the final superimposed bending moment diagram, which is identical to the earlier

elastic (with the required moment redistribution) and plastic analysis results.

P/2

PL/16

(a)

PL/16

P/2

(b)

PL/8

Mbv

+

Mbv = 3 Mbv

(c)

PL/16

3PL/16

(a) + (b)

DB2.1Design of Continuous Composite Beams with Rigid Connections for Strength

37

Composite Structures Design Manual

The results of an elastic-plastic cracked contraflexure analysis are shown in Fig. 3.3.7. The first phase

of the analysis shown in Fig. 3.3.7(a) is elastic up to a load of 3P 4 , at which point plastic hinges

form at the support cross-sections and the structure effectively becomes a simply-supported beam.

The second phase of the analysis, shown in Fig. 3.3.7(b), ends after an additional load of P 4 , when

a hinge forms at the mid-span cross-section and the structure becomes a mechanism. The beam end

rotations during this second phase represent the ductility required by the connections. For a beam of

this geometry supporting a central point load, in this case P 4 , the required rotation capacity may be

calculated using the moment area theorem of slopes (Appendix D) as:

PL2

48 E s I t

3.3(5)

which is two-thirds of the value resulting from an elastic-plastic uncracked analysis. Fig. 3.3.7(c)

shows the final superimposed bending moment diagram, which is identical to the relevant earlier

analyses.

3P/4

PL/16

(a)

PL/8

P/4

(b)

PL/16

Mbv

+

Mbv = 3 Mbv

(c)

PL/16

3PL/16

(a) + (b)

DB2.1-38

Edition 1.0 February 2001

Design of Continuous Composite Beams with Rigid Connections for Strength

Composite Structures Design Manual

3.3.5

Effect of Propping

Action Effects

Propping delays the application of dead loads imposed during construction until the beam has reached

its composite state, which may affect the distribution of bending moments along the beam, and

definitely affects the distribution of stresses within each cross-section.

For a determinate beam in its composite state, the bending moment diagram due to dead loads

depends solely on satisfying equilibrium and is independent of whether the beam was propped during

construction. However, for an indeterminate beam, the relative stiffnesses, both within the beam and

of the connections, must be considered, which can cause a significant difference. The difference is

most pronounced when the connection stiffness changes from the bare steel to the composite state,

as it does for semi-continuous beams with partial-depth end plate connections. Using unpropped

construction, the dead loads are supported in the bare steel state with pinned connections, leading to

a simply-supported bending moment diagram, whereas for propped construction, the dead loads are

supported in the composite state with rigid connections, leading to a fully built-in bending moment

diagram.

More significant than the distribution of bending moments, though, is the manner in which they are

resisted. Using unpropped construction, the dead loads are fully supported by the bare steel beam,

and in the composite state, before the application of any further loads, the stresses in the concrete

and reinforcement are zero, ignoring shrinkage, creep, and temperature effects. Using propped

construction, however, the dead loads are effectively applied to the composite state, causing

significant stresses in the concrete and reinforcement.

Serviceability

At the serviceability limit state, the concrete and reinforcement stresses for propped beams derive

from the full service load, but for unpropped beams only from the additional component above the

dead loads. Assuming a live load of equal magnitude to the dead loads, and a short-term serviceability

load factor, s = 0.7 , the concrete and reinforcement stresses for an unpropped beam are only 40%

of those for a propped beam. For this reason, unpropped beams provide much better crack control

and reduced incremental deflections. Furthermore, pre-cambering the steel beam can greatly reduce

the dead load deflections and hence also the total deflections.

The one positive aspect of propped construction is a decrease in the bottom fibre steel stress, which

can be calculated from

My

I

3.3(6)

In negative moment regions, however, the increase from I s to I cr is partly offset by an increase in y ,

so that, for equal magnitudes of dead and live loads, the decrease in the bottom fibre steel stress

under service loads is usually less than 10%.

Strength

The dead loads that are supported by the bare steel beam in unpropped construction effectively

become residual stresses (or strains) once the concrete has set. The magnitude of these residual

strains is often similar in order to the yield strain, y . For slender or non-compact sections that are

governed by yielding, these residual strains are very significant, but for compact cross-sections that

reach bottom fibre strains in the order of 10 y at their ultimate moment capacity, residual strains in

the order of y are insignificant. Therefore, the effect of propping can be ignored in the strength

calculations of this design booklet.

DB2.1Design of Continuous Composite Beams with Rigid Connections for Strength

39

Composite Structures Design Manual

3.3.6

Lateral distortional buckling of the steel section in continuous composite beams is similar to the better

known lateral torsional buckling of bare steel beams. The main difference is illustrated by the

contrasting buckling modes, which are shown in Fig. 3.3.8. For lateral torsional buckling, the steel

section must be able to translate and rotate as a rigid body, but this mode is prevented in composite

beams by the attachment of the top steel flange to the concrete slab. Any lateral displacements of the

bottom flange must be accompanied by distortion of the web.

Lateral torsional

Lateral distortional

Lateral distortional buckling requires the bottom flange of the steel section to be in compression, which

only occurs in the negative moment regions of continuous composite beams. (Note that pattern

loading of alternate spans can substantially increase the extent of negative moment regions in the

adjacent unloaded spans.) The behaviour of the bottom flange is similar to an axially loaded column

with a continuous lateral restraint provided by the resistance of the web to distortion. A typical pattern

of lateral displacements for the bottom flange is shown in Fig. 3.3.9.

Lateral distortional buckling frequently governs the design of bridge girders, which are typically large

welded steel sections with relatively slender webs (d w t w 70 ) , but is rarely significant for the more

stocky universal beams used in buildings (d w t w 45 ) . Furthermore, in buildings, the use of partial

strength connections (semi-continuous beams) reduces the peak negative moment and the extent of

negative moment regions, and for grid layouts, the secondary beams may provide some degree of

lateral restraint to the primary beams.

DB2.1-40

Edition 1.0 February 2001

Design of Continuous Composite Beams with Rigid Connections for Strength

Composite Structures Design Manual

Lateral restraint,

but free to warp

Figure 3.3.9 Lateral Displacements of the Bottom Flange due to Lateral Distortional Buckling

DB2.1Design of Continuous Composite Beams with Rigid Connections for Strength

41

Composite Structures Design Manual

4.

4.1

DESIGN MODELS

The design methods in this booklet rely on ductile shear connection, as shown in Fig. 4.1.1. It is

assumed that shear connectors designed in accordance with AS 2327.1 Section 8, and reinforced

locally in accordance with AS 2327.1 Section 9, are sufficiently ductile for this purpose [3].

In positive moment regions, tests have shown this to be a valid assumption even for beams with a low

degree of shear connection [1]. Nevertheless, in order to limit the ductility demand on the shear

connection, the degree of shear connection at the cross-section of maximum positive design bending

+

moment, m , must not be less than 0.5, in accordance with AS 2327.1 Clause 6.6.2(a).

In negative moment regions, tests have shown that partial shear connection can lead to catastrophic

failure [10]. Therefore, the degree of shear connection at the cross-section of maximum negative

Rigid-plastic behaviour

fvs

fds fvs

fds

Slip,

4.2

Moment-Shear Interaction

The moment-shear interaction model for negative bending in continuous composite design is identical

to that for positive bending in simply-supported beams. The graph shown in Fig. 4.2.1, which is

essentially a reprint of Fig. D3.2 from AS 2327.1, is based on the following.

(a) Unless it can be demonstrated that the concrete slab contributes to the vertical shear

capacity, the web of the steel beam is assumed to carry the entire shear force.

(b) When the shear ratio is in the range 0 0.5 , the nominal moment capacity, either

positive or negative, of a cross-section is not affected by shear force, and the entire web of

the effective portion of the steel beam is available to resist bending.

(c) When the shear ratio, , is equal to 1.0, the entire steel web is utilised carrying shear, and

the nominal moment capacity, either positive or negative, is calculated with the web removed

from the effective section.

(d) Linear interpolation is used when the shear ratio is in the range 0.5 < < 1.0 .

DB2.1-42

Edition 1.0 February 2001

Design of Continuous Composite Beams with Rigid Connections for Strength

Composite Structures Design Manual

Mb or Mc

Mbv or Mcv

Mbf or Mcf

Mb or Mc

Mbf or Mcf

0.0

0.5

1.0

4.3

4.3.1

Effective Section

At the strength limit state, the effective cross-section of a composite member in negative bending

comprises steel reinforcement of suitable ductility and that portion of the steel beam that is assumed

to be unaffected by local buckling and is not required to resist vertical shear. The concrete flange, fully

in tension, is ignored. This booklet is limited to effective cross-sections that are compact, so plastic

analysis is applicable. The plastic neutral axis (PNA) is located by equilibrium:

Ti C i

or

= 0

4.3(1)

Ait f yi Aic f yi

= 0

4.3(2)

No Moment-Shear Interaction (

0.5)

A composite cross-section in which the entire steel section is effective and there is no moment-shear

interaction is shown in Fig. 4.3.1. If the bottom flange in compression is non-compact, its width, b f2 , is

reduced to an effective width, b f2e , for which it is compact. If the portion of the web in compression,

d wc , is non-compact, the segment that is more than 15t w from a lateral restraint is removed,

creating what is termed a hole in the web, as shown in Fig. 4.3.2. The lateral restraints in this case

are the tension region of the web above the PNA and the bottom flange. Alternatively, the need for a

hole in the web can be overcome with suitable lateral stiffeners or by adding an additional bottom

flange plate, thus lowering the PNA and reducing the portion of the web in compression. A general

cross-section incorporating a horizontal web stiffener and an additional bottom flange plate is shown in

Fig. 4.3.3.

DB2.1Design of Continuous Composite Beams with Rigid Connections for Strength

43

Composite Structures Design Manual

bcf

Ar

yr

yf1

tension

dwt

ywt

yPNA

PNA

dwc

ywc

compression

yf2

bf2

bcf

tension

Ar

PNA

yr

yf1

yPNA

15tw

tw

compression

15tw

tf2

yf2

bf2e

bcf

Ar

yr

tension

yPNA

PNA

bwp

twp

ywp

tfp

yfp

compression

bfp

DB2.1-44

Edition 1.0 February 2001

Design of Continuous Composite Beams with Rigid Connections for Strength

Composite Structures Design Manual

Maximum Moment-Shear Interaction ( = 1.0)

When a cross-section is fully loaded in shear ( = 1 ), the web is totally utilised by shear and unable to

make any contribution to the moment resistance of the cross-section. The effective cross-section

therefore has the web removed, as shown in Fig. 4.3.4.

bcf

Ar

yr

tension

yPNA

PNA

bwp

twp

ywp

tfp

yfp

compression

bfp

4.3.2

Strength

Provided that there is no net resultant axial force, the nominal moment capacity of the effective crosssection can be calculated as the sum of the elemental moments about the top surface of the concrete,

which can be expressed as

M

Ti y i C i y i

4.3(3)

No Shear Interaction ( 0.5)

The design moment capacity of the effective cross-section shown in Fig. 4.3.3 is given by

M b

4.3(4)

The design moment capacity of the effective cross-section shown in Fig. 4.3.4 is given by

M bf

4.3(5)

Mbv - Ar - Relationship

Moment-shear interaction is then applied to obtain the general design moment capacity, M bv , as a

0.5 :

M bv

M b

M bv

(2 1)M bf

= 1:

M bv

M bf

4.3.3

4.3(6)

+ 2 (1 )M b

4.3(7)

4.3(8)

Ductility

Provided that the reinforcement is of suitable ductility (Class N) and that all the steel elements are

compact, the composite cross-section is assumed to be ductile and capable of undergoing the

DB2.1Design of Continuous Composite Beams with Rigid Connections for Strength

45

Composite Structures Design Manual

necessary deformation to form a plastic hinge. The ductility, as well as the strength, is improved by the

use of web stiffeners and additional bottom flange plates.

4.3.4

Stiffness

In calculating the flexural stiffness for regions of negative moment, the concrete flange is assumed to

be fully cracked, the beneficial contribution of tension stiffening is conservatively ignored, and the

influence of creep and shrinkage is assumed to be negligible. The stiffness, termed the cracked

flexural stiffness and denoted by E s I cr , is the product of the elastic modulus for steel and the second

moment of area for the effective cross-section in negative bending. Refer to Appendix C for the

calculation of I cr .

4.4

4.4.1

Effective Section

The effective section of a composite partial-depth end plate connection comprises steel reinforcement

of suitable ductility (see Section 1.2.5) and that portion of the steel beam in compression not affected

by local buckling. If necessary, web stiffeners and an additional bottom flange plate may be used to

improve the connection performance. The concrete flange, fully in tension, is ignored. The contribution

of any bolts in tension is generally insignificant and is conservatively ignored. The shear is carried by

the bolts closest to the bottom flange. This booklet is limited to effective cross-sections that are

compact, so plastic analysis is applicable.

A typical connection and its effective section are shown in Fig. 4.4.1. The plastic neutral axis (PNA) is

located by equilibrium:

Ti C i

4.4(1)

Ait f yi Aic f yi

or

= 0

= 0

4.4(2)

bcf

Ar

yr

tension

yPNA

PNA

compression

bf2e

4.4.2

Strength

Provided that there is no net resultant axial force, the design moment capacity of the connection can

be calculated as the sum of the elemental moments about the top surface of the concrete, which can

be expressed as

M

= Tr y r C i y i

4.4(3)

DB2.1-46

Edition 1.0 February 2001

Design of Continuous Composite Beams with Rigid Connections for Strength

Composite Structures Design Manual

No Shear Interaction ( 0.5)

The design moment capacity of the connection, including any contribution by the web if applicable

(see Fig. 3.2.7), is given by

M c

4.4(4)

The design moment capacity of the connection, excluding any contribution by the web, is given by

M cf

4. 4(5)

Mcv - Ar - Relationship

Moment-shear interaction is then applied to obtain the general design moment capacity, M cv , as a

0.5 :

M cv

M c

M cv

(2 1)M cf

= 1:

M cv

M cf

4.4.3

4.4(6)

+ 2 (1 )M c

4.4(7)

4.4(8)

Ductility

The major contribution to rotation capacity is made by the elongation of the reinforcement over the

connection, , as shown in Fig. 4.4.2. Given the uniform strain of the reinforcement, su , the major

factor is the length of reinforcement that is engaged by the connection under ultimate strength limit

state conditions, Lrcu , for which a simple model is

Lrcu

4.4(9)

where

Lrf

the distance from the centreline of the support to the first shear connector, which, to

improve connection ductility, should be at least 200 mm; and,

Lrd

25 bar diameters.

The factor of 0.5 applied to Lrd accounts for the stress gradient, which is assumed to be linear, from

f yr to zero along the development length of the bar, and 0.5 Lrd represents the equivalent length

subjected to a uniform stress of f yr .

The rotation capacity due to the reinforcement may then be calculated as

ru

su Lrcu

y PNA y r

4.4(10)

A lesser but not insignificant contribution to the rotation capacity of the connection is made by the

deformation of the concrete in the vicinity of the shear connectors, which manifests itself as slip at the

steel-concrete interface. Using the assumption of ductile shear connection, the tensile force in the

reinforcement, Fr , is resisted equally by each connector in the negative moment region.

The rotation capacity due to the shear connection may therefore be calculated as

su

Fr

n k s (y PNA Dc )

4.4(11)

DB2.1Design of Continuous Composite Beams with Rigid Connections for Strength

47

Composite Structures Design Manual

in which k s is the secant stiffness of one shear connector, which may be taken as 30 kN/mm for

welded studs [1,12]. The total rotation capacity may then be expressed as

u

ru + su

4.4(12)

yPNA yr

PNA

symmetric

4.4.4

Stiffness

A minimum area of reinforcement, Ar.st , is required to ensure that the assumption of rigid connection

behaviour is valid. From elastic bending theory and assuming symmetry about the beam centreline,

the moment attracted to a connection of stiffness, k , supporting a beam subjected to arbitrary loading

is

Mc

1

M

2EI F

1+

kL

4.4(13)

where M F is the fixed-end moment. The relationship between M c and k is illustrated in Fig. 4.4.3.

For an infinitely stiff connection, 2 EI kL 0 , and M c M F , as expected. If the limit required for

rigidity is within 10% of that, then the connection stiffness must satisfy

1

2 EI

1+

kL

> 0.90

4.4(14)

18 EI

L

4.4(15)

which reduces to

k

>

k

EAr

(y PNA y r )2

Lrce

4.4(16)

in which

=

Lrce

the length of reinforcement that is engaged by the connection under elastic conditions.

DB2.1-48

Edition 1.0 February 2001

Design of Continuous Composite Beams with Rigid Connections for Strength

Composite Structures Design Manual

The factor of 0.25 applied to Lrd is the product of two factors of 0.5: one to account for the linear

stress gradient, giving the equivalent length subjected to a uniform stress; and the other to account for

a maximum stress under elastic conditions for stiffness purposes of 0.5 f yr , which is assumed to

require a similarly reduced development length of 0.5 Lrd .

Combining these two equations, the minimum area of reinforcement required for stiffness reasons is

given by

Ar.st

18 ILrce

4.4(17)

L (y PNA y r )

Ia

I cr I t L

2 aI t + (L 2 a )I cr

4.4(18)

in which a is the location of the point of elastic contraflexure, I cr is the second moment of area in

negative bending regions, and I t is the second moment of area in positive bending regions.

1

0.9

0.8

assumed rigid

0.7

0.6

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0

0.001

0.01

0.1

10

100

1000

4.5

Experiments have shown that the contribution of tension bolts to the ultimate moment capacity of

composite flush end plate connections is less than 10% [13]. Furthermore, beyond the ultimate load,

their contribution diminishes [14] and the connection moment capacity approaches that for a partialdepth end plate connection at medium to high rotations. It is therefore recommended, especially for

ductility, that the tension bolts in flush end plate connections are ignored in the composite design

state. This means that flush end plate connections can be designed using the same procedures as

those for partial-depth end plate connections.

DB2.1Design of Continuous Composite Beams with Rigid Connections for Strength

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Composite Structures Design Manual

4.6

4.6.1

The susceptibility of the steel section of a continuous composite beam to lateral distortional buckling

can be represented by the non-dimensional slenderness [15]

d

Ms

4.6(1)

M od

where M s is the nominal negative moment capacity of the steel section, and M od is the elastic lateral

distortional buckling moment capacity of the steel section in a continuous composite beam.

The nominal moment capacity of the steel section, M sd , allowing for the interaction between plasticity

and elastic distortional buckling, may then be obtained from [16]

M sd

= 0.8 4 + 3 2 M s M s

d

d

4.6(2)

which is shown graphically in Fig. 4.6.1 and is similar to the interaction equation for lateral torsional

buckling of beams in Clause 5.6 of AS 4100. For slenderness values below d = 0.76 , the steel

section (and hence the composite beam) is unaffected by lateral distortional buckling and able to

reach its full moment capacity.

1.4

Elastic distortional buckling

1.2

1

0.8

0.6

Interaction curve

0.4

d = 0.76

0.2

0

0

0.5

1.5

2.5

Slenderness, d

Figure 4.6.1 Moment Capacity of the Steel Section, Msd , allowing for the Interaction between

Plasticity and Elastic Distortional Buckling (after Ref. 17)

DB2.1-50

Edition 1.0 February 2001

Design of Continuous Composite Beams with Rigid Connections for Strength

Composite Structures Design Manual

4.6.2

Non-Dimensional Slenderness, d

A widely used method to obtain d is to calculate M od using an inverted U-frame [17], based on the

design approach for continuous bridge girders [18]. The bottom flange of the steel section is modelled

by a laterally restrained pin-ended strut, as shown in Fig. 4.6.2. The lateral restraint per unit length,

y , is provided by the resistance of the inverted U-frame to distortion. This method assumes that the

compressive force is uniform along the whole length of the strut, which can be very conservative

because there is usually a steep moment gradient adjacent to the internal supports of continuous

beams. For this reason, the inverted U-frame model is not recommended in this booklet.

F=1

F=1

Ncr

Ncr

x

Lcr

Empirical Method

Alternatively, and more accurately, d can be calculated directly from the design approximation [15]

L

= 0.018 b

ry

dw

t

w

0.40

4.6(3)

where Lb is the length of the beam between the supports, r y is the minor axis radius of gyration of the

compression flange, and d w and t w are the depth and thickness of the web respectively. Note that

for a rectangular bottom flange

ry

b f2

4.6(4)

2 3

This approximation is independent of M s , because it represents the best fit for f y in the range 250

400 MPa, based on a finite element study by Weston, Nethercot and Crisfield [19] that included both

geometric and material non-linearities. The approximation shows d is also independent of the

moment gradient, which was confirmed by Bradford [16] using an inelastic finite element analysis.

Equation 4.6(3) can be rearranged as

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2

Lb

tw

+ 0.40

= d

0.018 r y d

4.6(5)

Substituting d = 0.76 from above (Fig. 4.6.1), the value of Lb below which lateral distortional

buckling need not be considered, Ld , is given by

Ld

t

4140 r y w

d

w

4.6(6)

The length, Ld , and the ratio, Ld D s , are given for all OneSteel Universal Beams in Table 4.6.1. The

tabulated values are also valid for beams with additional bottom flange plates, provided that the width

of the additional flange plate, b fp , is equal to or greater than the width of the bottom flange of the steel

section, b f2 . If this is not the case, Ld must be calculated using the value of r y for the combined

bottom flange and additional plate.

Section

Ld (m)

Ld D s

Section

Ld (m)

Ld D s

610 UB 125.0

20.7

33.8

310 UB 40.4

15.3

50.2

610 UB 113.0

19.8

32.6

310 UB 32.0

12.9

43.3

610 UB 101.0

19.1

31.7

250 UB 37.3

15.8

61.9

530 UB 92.4

18.6

34.9

250 UB 31.4

15.3

60.8

530 UB 82.0

17.9

33.9

250 UB 25.7

11.5

46.3

460 UB 82.1

18.5

40.3

200 UB 29.8

16.7

80.5

460 UB 74.6

17.4

38.1

200 UB 25.4

15.7

77.2

460 UB 67.1

16.6

36.7

200 UB 22.3

14.2

70.1

410 UB 59.7

15.9

39.3

200 UB 18.2

10.0

50.4

410 UB 53.7

15.6

38.8

180 UB 22.2

12.1

67.6

360 UB 56.7

17.1

47.7

180 UB 18.1

10.7

61.2

360 UB 50.7

16.0

45.0

180 UB 16.1

10.0

57.8

360 UB 44.7

15.4

43.8

150 UB 18.0

11.2

72.2

310 UB 46.2

16.3

53.2

150 UB 14.0

9.9

66.1

Table 4.6.1 Lengths Below Which Lateral Distortional Buckling Need Not Be Considered

4.6.3

The nominal moment capacity of the steel section, M sd , can be used to determine the strain in the

extreme fibre of the bottom flange to cause lateral distortional buckling, fd . This limiting strain can

then be applied in a composite cross-section analysis to calculate the nominal moment capacity of the

composite beam allowing for lateral distortional buckling, M bd . Full interaction can be assumed at

critical negative moment cross-sections, so there is no slip at the steel-concrete interface and the

strain distribution is linear.

Elastic Behaviour

Since M sd < M s , the behaviour of the steel section will often be elastic, in which case

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fd

M sd

(y B y s )

E sI s

4.6(7)

where y B and y s are the coordinates of the extreme bottom fibre and elastic centroid of the steel

section respectively. Provided that the behaviour of the composite cross-section is also elastic,

M bd

E s I cr

fd

y B y ENA

M bd

yB y s

y B y ENA

4.6(8)

I cr

I

s

M sd

4.6(9)

where y ENA is the coordinate of the elastic centroid of the composite cross-section (see Appendix C).

Plastic Behaviour

In cases where either the steel or the reinforcement yields before the onset of lateral distortional

buckling, an elastic-plastic section analysis should be used. Alternatively, as a simplification, the

nominal moment capacity of the composite beam may be approximated as

M bd

M

= sd

M

s

M bv

4.6(10)

where M bv is the nominal moment capacity of the peak negative moment cross-section in a

composite beam that is fully restrained against lateral distortional buckling.

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5.

5.1

Design Data

5.1.1

DESIGN APPROACH

Geometry

It is assumed that, due to either architectural considerations or a prior conceptual design, the general

layout is known, including details of the:

5.1.2

Loads

It is assumed that all loads, together with their stage of application, are known. The one exception is

the beam self-weight, which can typically be approximated by a uniformly distributed load in the range

0.5 1 kN/m.

5.2

Preliminary Design

5.2.1

The supports in the composite state must be either pinned or rigid, since semi-rigid connections are

beyond the scope of this design booklet. Rigid composite supports rely on symmetry for properly

anchored negative moment reinforcement, and can only be used at internal supports. The possible

beams are:

Propped cantilever, with one pinned support and one rigid support; and,

and continuous framing respectively. Semi-continuous framing relies on high levels of moment

redistribution and requires a 0.85 positive moment reduction factor to minimise the rotation demand at

the supports [4].

5.2.2

Partial shear connection is permitted for critical cross-sections in positive moment regions, so the

designer may choose the desired degree of shear connection at the peak positive moment cross+

section, m , such that

+

0.5 m 1

5.2.3

The designer may choose the desired level of reinforcement, within certain limits. One of the

requirements for crack control (Section 6.14) equates to pr = 0.75% for N12 reinforcing bars [20],

which represents a suitable minimum, and 1.5% has been chosen as a convenient maximum for the

purposes of preliminary design. Therefore,

0.75% p r 1.5%

If a beam is relatively short and heavily loaded, levels of negative reinforcement towards the higher

end of this range will be required to satisfy the stiffness requirements for a rigid connection.

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5.2.4

Semi-continuous and continuous beams are more likely to be governed by strength than deflection,

which means that the strength charts in Appendices G and H can provide accurate member sizing.

The charts are based on fully built-in beams with complete shear connection at the peak positive

moment cross-section. In other cases, approximate solutions can be obtained by making the following

adjustments before using the charts:

+

For partial shear connection ( m = 0.5 ), increase the loads by 10%.

5.2.5

Shear Ratio

Continuous beams are often governed by the shear capacity of the web, so the shear ratio, , should

be checked before proceeding with the detailed design.

5.3

5.3.1

Construction Sequence

The designer must identify the intended use of props during concreting. Unpropped construction is

generally preferable due to its simplicity and better serviceability under in-service conditions, but may

not be possible if the capacity of the bare steelwork and/or profiled steel sheeting is insufficient to

support the construction loads.

5.3.2

The design action effects should be determined using either an elastic or a plastic analysis. Provided

that the steel beam is compact, the design free bending moment, M f* , can be used for a simple

plastic analysis.

5.3.3

Strength

Semi-Continuous Beams

The required design moment capacity of a bare steel connection in a fully built-in semi-continuous

beam, for example, is given by

M sc

+

M f * M s

5.3(1)

Possible connections include:

bolted, combined with a top tie strap (see Fig. 1.2.13); or,

welded.

Note that if the connection can be classified as full-strength, then the beam may be treated as fully

continuous.

Continuous Beams

+

The required strength for a uniform continuous beam ( M s = M s ) is given by

M s

5.3.4

0.5 M f *

5.3(2)

Ductility

Any partial-strength connection must be shown to have sufficient ductility for a plastic collapse

mechanism to form.

Continuous Composite Beams

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5.4

Detailed coverage of the strength design for Construction Stages 4, 5 and 6 is beyond the scope of

this booklet. In positive moment regions, the strength design should be in accordance with AS 2327.1.

In negative moment regions, the general principles given in this booklet for the in-service condition

may be applied, provided that allowance is made for the reduced strength of the concrete during

Stage 5.

5.5

5.5.1

Elastic Properties

+

The second moments of area should be calculated based on the chosen values of m and Ar .

COMPSECT, COMPBEAM, or AS 2327.1 can be used for the positive moment value, I + , and

either COMPSECT or Appendix C for the negative moment value, I .

5.5.2

The design action effects should be determined using either an elastic-plastic or a plastic analysis. For

compact beams and connections, the design free bending moment, M f * , can be used for a simple

plastic analysis.

5.5.3

Strength

+

The moment capacity of the PCCs is required. The design positive moment capacity, M bv , can be

+

obtained from COMPSECT, COMPBEAM, or AS 2327.1 for the chosen value of m . For

continuous beams, the design negative moment capacity of the member, M bv , can be obtained for

the chosen value of Ar using COMPSECT or calculated using Appendix E. For semi-continuous

beams, the design negative moment capacity of the connection, M cv , can be calculated for the

for continuous beams,

+

M bv + M bv

M f*

5.5(1)

M f*

5.5(2)

+

M cv + 0.85 M bv

Alternatively, in many cases, the strength charts in Appendices G and H can be used to obtain directly

the design free bending moment capacity, M f , given by

for continuous beams,

M f

+

M bv + M bv

5.5(3)

+

M cv + 0.85 M bv

5.5(4)

M f

5.5.4

Ductility

Design Rotation

The design rotation at the connection, * , should be calculated using an elastic-plastic contraflexure

analysis (see Appendix D).

Rotation Capacity

The design rotation capacity of the connection, u , should be calculated for partial-depth end plate

connections using the model presented in Section 4.4.3. This model may also be applied to flush and

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extended end plate connections, provided that the moment capacity of the composite connection is

calculated ignoring the contribution of bolts in tension.

5.5.5

Stiffness

Calculate the minimum area of reinforcement, Ar.st , in accordance with the model presented in

Section 4.4.4, that is required to ensure that the connection may be treated as rigid.

5.5.6

Shear

Check that both the steel web and the bolts of any end plate connection can resist the design shear

force in accordance with Section 6.8.1 and Section 6.9.5 respectively. In the case of bolted

connections, note that for end plate and supporting component thicknesses greater than or equal to

6 mm, the shear capacity of the bolt normally governs.

5.5.7

Lateral distortional buckling need only be considered if the length of the beam between supports, Lb ,

is greater than the appropriate value given in Table 4.6.1.

5.6

Serviceability Design

5.6.1

Crack Control

Of the three requirements for crack control specified in Section 6.14, only the check for yielding of the

reinforcement under serviceability overload conditions is independent of the reinforcing bar diameter.

That check should therefore be undertaken first, as given by the following procedure.

Elastic cracked section properties. These should be calculated for either the member

(continuous framing) or the connection (semi-continuous framing) as appropriate. The elastic

properties for the member have already been calculated in Section 5.5.1. The elastic

properties for the connection should be calculated assuming elastic cracked behaviour. The

contributing components are therefore the reinforcement in tension and any part of the steel

beam in compression. This calculation requires the solution of a quadratic equation to

establish the location of the elastic neutral axis.

Yield check. The stress in the reinforcement under the load condition, G + Q , should not

exceed 0.8 f yr .

flange, a suitable distribution of reinforcement should be chosen. If the area of reinforcement

has substantially increased, the elastic cracked properties should be recalculated.

Service check. The stress in the reinforcement under service loads, G + sQ , should not

exceed ( 760 173 log e d b ), the maximum stress permitted in reinforcement with a diameter,

db .

5.6.2

Minimum reinforcement. The final area of reinforcement must satisfy the minimum

requirements, as given by Equation 6.14(1).

Deflections

An elastic cracked contraflexure analysis can be used to represent a fully built-in beam as a simplysupported beam of length, L+ , supported by two cantilevers of length, a . The deflections can be

calculated as the sum of the deflections of these subcomponents. The deflections of the effective

simply-supported beam can be obtained from either AS 2327.1 or COMPBEAM. The deflections of

the cantilevers can be calculated from the cracked second moment of area, I cr . Since the concrete is

assumed to be fully cracked, the effects of creep and shrinkage can be ignored in calculating the

cantilever

deflections.

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6.

6.1

DESIGN RULES

Scope

These rules cover the design of continuous and semi-continuous composite beams in braced frames.

The connections must be either pinned or rigid; semi-rigid connections are beyond the scope of this

booklet. Rigid connections may be either full strength (continuous framing) or partial strength (semicontinuous framing). Rigid composite connections must be approximately symmetric about the support

to ensure that the negative moment reinforcement is properly anchored, and are therefore restricted to

either internal supports or external supports with a cantilever. Composite cross-sections must be

either compact or non-compact, and steel sections must be symmetric about the vertical axis.

6.2

Design Loads

The design loads shall be calculated in accordance with AS 2327.1 and AS 1170.1.

6.3

Construction

The design of the structural steel member for the construction stages is not explicitly covered by this

booklet and shall be undertaken in accordance with AS 2327.1 and AS 4100. In particular, moment

resisting steel connections shall be designed in accordance with AS 4100. Further guidance on the

design of steel connections is given in Ref. 7.

The method of construction may be either propped or unpropped. The method of construction may be

ignored in the design of members with compact critical cross-sections for the strength limit state, but

must be considered in the design of all members for the serviceability limit state.

6.4

Properties of Cross-Sections

6.4.1

The effective width of the concrete flange, for both positive and negative bending, is affected by the inplane shear flexibility of the concrete slab and shall be calculated in accordance with AS 2327.1

Clause 5.2.2, based on the effective span of the beam. The effective span is the approximate distance

between points of zero bending moment. For simply-supported beams, it is calculated in accordance

with Appendix H of AS 2327.1. For typical continuous beams, the values given in Fig. 6.4.1 may be

used.

Lef =

Lef =

0.25(L1+L2)

0.8L1

0.25(L2+L3)

0.7L2

0.8L30.3L4

but > 0.7L3

L1

L2

L3

L4

Figure 6.4.1 Equivalent Spans for Effective Width of Concrete Flange (after Ref. 5)

For simplified global analysis, the effective width may be taken as constant over the entire span. This

shall be the value at mid-span for a beam supported at both ends, and the value at the support for a

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cantilever. For the analysis of cross-sections, the appropriate value in positive or negative bending

shall be used.

6.4.2

Reinforcement

Reinforcement must be properly anchored and lie within the effective width of the concrete flange for

negative bending. The shear connection between the concrete slab and the steel beam must be able

to develop the full force in the reinforcement; partial shear connection at critical cross-sections in

regions of negative bending is not permitted.

Where either plastic global analysis or plastic analysis of cross-sections is used, only reinforcement of

high ductility (Class N) shall be included in the effective cross-section. The presence of Class L

welded mesh shall be excluded from consideration at the strength limit state.

6.4.3

Steel Sheeting

6.4.4

The effective portion of the steel beam shall be calculated in accordance with the principles of

AS 2327.1 Clause 5.2.3.

(a) If the flange and the web are compact, the entire steel section shall be assumed to be

effective.

(b) If a flange in compression is non-compact, the effective flange width shall be the maximum

width for which the flange is compact.

(c) If the web is non-compact, any portion that is more than 15t w from a lateral restraint shall be

removed, creating a hole in the web. Permissible lateral restraints include flanges, regions of

the web in tension, and horizontal stiffeners of suitable size.

6.4.5

At mid-span, the transformed second moment of area, I t , shall be calculated ignoring the tensile

strength of the concrete, in accordance with AS 2327.1 Paragraph B3.

At the supports, the cracked second moment of area, I cr , shall be calculated neglecting concrete in

tension but including reinforcement, in accordance with Appendix C.

6.5

Classification of Cross-Sections

A cross-section shall be classified according to the most severe classification of its steel elements in

compression. A semi-compact cross-section may be re-classified as compact by reducing its effective

cross-section as specified in Section 6.4.4. Only compact cross-sections can form and maintain a

plastic hinge with sufficient rotation capacity for global plastic analysis.

6.6

Methods of Analysis

6.6.1

Assumptions

The assumptions used for any analysis must be consistent with the anticipated behaviour of the

connections in both the bare steel and composite states. The assessment of a connection must

consider its strength, ductility and stiffness. The effects of slip and uplift may be neglected when shear

connection is provided in accordance with Sections 8 and 9 of AS 2327.1.

6.6.2

Elastic Analysis

Elastic analysis may be used for all composite beams provided that any connections are either rigid or

nominally pinned. Concrete in tension and reinforcement in compression may be neglected. The

arrangement of loads shall consider pattern loading as specified in AS 4100 Clause 4.3.3.

Three types of elastic analysis are permitted:

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(a) an uncracked analysis, in which the transformed section properties are used over the full

length of the beam;

(b) a cracked analysis, in which the transformed section properties shall be replaced by the

cracked section properties for 15% of the span on each side of an internal support; and,

(c) a cracked contraflexure analysis, in which the point of contraflexure is determined in

accordance with Appendix D.

The resulting negative moments from any of these analyses may be redistributed to positive moment

regions provided that equilibrium is satisfied and that the necessary rotation capacity is available. The

rotation capacity is governed by the section classification and the following table gives the maximum

percentages of negative moments that may be redistributed depending on the type of analysis.

Section classification

Uncracked analysis

Cracked analysis

Compact

40%

25%

Non-compact

20%

10%

The degree of moment redistribution is affected by the method of construction. This effect may be

ignored for compact cross-sections, but for non-compact sections used in unpropped construction,

only the moments applied during the composite state shall be redistributed.

6.6.3

Plastic Analysis

Plastic analysis may be used to obtain the design action effects provided that both the beam and the

connections have sufficient rotation capacity for the necessary plastic hinges to form without

premature failure due to fracture or buckling.

For plastic hinge locations within cross-sections of the beam, this requirement may be assumed to be

satisfied when:

(a) the conditions of AS 4100 Clause 4.5.2 are met;

(b) at plastic hinge locations, both the compression flange and the web are compact;

(c) at all other locations, the compression flange is compact and the web is either compact or

non-compact;

(d) the steel compression flange at a plastic hinge location is laterally restrained;

(e) adjacent spans do not differ by more than 50% of the shorter span;

(f)

end spans do not exceed 115% of the length of adjacent spans; and,

(g) at any positive moment hinge that is not the last to form, the cross-section has sufficient

rotation capacity for the complete collapse mechanism to develop.

The connections must be shown either to have sufficient rotation capacity to form a plastic hinge, or to

have a design moment capacity greater than 1.2 times the design moment capacity of the adjacent

member cross-section so that the plastic hinge will form within the member and not at the connection.

When a plastic hinge forms at a connection, the following conditions also apply:

(a) the connection moment capacity must not be governed by a brittle failure mode;

(b) the connection must have a design moment capacity greater than 30% of the design positive

moment capacity of the member [4]; and,

(c) the design positive moment must not exceed 85% of the design moment capacity at the

critical positive moment cross-section [4].

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6.6.4

Elastic-Plastic Analysis

Elastic-plastic analysis may be used to obtain the design rotation, * , at plastic hinges, provided that

either:

(a) the conditions for plastic analysis given in Section 6.6.3 are met; or,

(b) the implied level of moment redistribution based on an elastic analysis, is within the limits of

Table 6.6.1.

6.7

The design positive moment capacity of a composite cross-section shall be determined in accordance

with AS 2327.1. To ensure ductility, any positive moment hinge that is not the last to form must have

sufficient rotation capacity for the complete collapse mechanism to develop.

6.8

6.8.1

Unless it can be demonstrated that the concrete slab makes a contribution, the design vertical shear

capacity of a composite beam, Vu , shall be calculated in accordance with AS 4100, assuming that

only the steel beam is effective.

6.8.2

Shear Ratio,

The shear ratio, , is given by

6.8.3

V*

Vu

6.8(1)

Moment-Shear Interaction

The design moment capacity of a composite member in negative bending, M bv , shall be calculated

as a function of the shear ratio, , in accordance with the moment-shear interaction given in Fig. 4.2.1

6.8.4

The cross-sections of maximum negative moment must have complete shear connection ( m = 1), in

which case

Fr

Ar f yr n f ds

6.8(2)

At intermediate negative moment cross-sections, the tensile force that can be developed in the

reinforcement may be calculated as

Fr

= Ar f yr

6.8(3)

where

n i f ds

1

Ar f yr

6.8(4)

and n i is the number of shear connectors that contribute to the strength of the particular crosssection.

6.8.5

including the web of the steel beam.

M b

0.5

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6.8.6

The design negative moment capacity, M bf , shall be calculated in accordance with Appendix E

excluding the web of the steel beam.

6.8.7

Design Negative Moment Capacity, Mbv , for 0.5 < < 1.0

M bv

(2 1)M bf

+ 2 (1 )M b

6.9

6.9.1

6.8(5)

Moment-Shear Interaction

The design negative moment capacity of a composite end plate connection, M cv , shall be calculated

as a function of the shear ratio, , in accordance with the moment-shear interaction given in Fig. 4.2.1

6.9.2

The design negative moment capacity of a composite end plate connection, M c ,shall be calculated

in accordance with Appendix E including the web of the steel beam. The contribution of tension bolts

to the moment capacity may be ignored, even for flush or extended end plate connections.

6.9.3

The design negative moment capacity of a composite end plate connection, M cf ,shall be calculated

in accordance with Appendix E excluding the web of the steel beam. The contribution of tension bolts

to the moment capacity may be ignored, even for flush or extended end plate connections.

6.9.4

Design Negative Moment Capacity, Mcv , for 0.5 < < 1.0

M cv

6.9.5

(2 1)M cf

+ 2 (1 )M c

6.9(1)

The design rotation capacity, u , of a composite end plate connection shall be calculated in

accordance with Section 4.4.3 and must be not less than the design rotation, as given by

*

6.9(2)

6.9.6

Connection Stiffness

The minimum area of reinforcement required to ensure that a composite end plate connection may be

treated as rigid, Ar.st , shall be calculated in accordance with Section 4.4.4. Any connection that is

assumed to behave in a rigid manner must satisfy

Ar

6.9.7

Ar.st

6.9(3)

The design vertical shear capacity of end plate connections shall be determined in accordance with

AS 4100 and Ref. 7. Only bolts that are located in one or more rows closest to the compression flange

of the steel beam may be considered to contribute to the shear capacity of end plate connections. The

design vertical shear capacity of a bolted end plate connection is given by

V fb

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where n cw is the number of bolts located at the compression flange or along the web, and Vdf is the

design shear capacity of a single bolt.

For bolted end plate connections,

Vdf

6.9(5)

where

V fn , V fx

the design shear capacity of the bolt with the threads either included or excluded from

the shear plane, which may be obtained from Appendix A of Ref. 7,

Vbi

0.9 3.2d f t i f ui ,

0.9 3.2d f t c f uc ,

df

diameter of bolt,

t i ,t c

fui ,f uc

Vbc

6.10

The design moment capacity of a composite beam allowing for lateral distortional buckling, M bd ,

shall be calculated in accordance with Section 4.6.

6.11

Potentially critical cross-sections shall be identified in accordance with AS 2327.1 Clause 6.3. In

addition, points of contraflexure shall be treated as potentially critical cross-sections for the purpose of

determining the shear connector distribution. The strength limit state requirements are deemed to be

satisfied for the entire beam, provided that they are satisfied at each potentially critical cross-section.

6.12

Sufficient shear connectors shall be provided to resist the required horizontal shear forces at the steelconcrete interface between any two adjacent potentially critical cross-sections. In particular, the

minimum number of shear connectors in the positive and negative bending moment regions, n + and

n , shall be determined from

n+

Fc

f ds

Fr

f ds

6.12(1)

6.12(2)

Based on the assumption of ductile shear connection given in Section 4.1, shear connectors may be

distributed uniformly between two adjacent critical cross-sections, or between the free end of a

cantilever and an adjacent critical cross-section.

The maximum moment cross-section of positive moment regions may have partial shear connection

+

( 0.5 m 1), but in negative moment regions the maximum moment cross-section must have

complete shear connection ( m = 1). Reinforcement in negative moment regions shall extend at least

a tensile development length, Lsy.t , beyond the number of shear connectors required to develop its full

tensile capacity. The spacing requirements for shear connectors given in AS 2327.1 Section 8 should

be observed.

Continuous Composite Beams

DB2.1Design of Continuous Composite Beams with Rigid Connections for Strength

63

Composite Structures Design Manual

6.13

Design of the shear connection in positive moment regions should be in accordance with Sections 8

and 9 of AS 2327.1. Reference should also be made to Design Booklet DB1.2 [3]. In negative moment

regions, the shear connectors should be designed and detailed in accordance with Section 8 of

AS 2327.1. Rules for the transfer of longitudinal shear in the concrete are under development. In the

interim, the provisions given in Section 9 of AS 2327.1 may be used with care. It is recommended that

DECKMESH is used to prevent rib shearing failure (Type 4) in continuous composite edge beams

with the sheeting ribs deemed perpendicular to the steel beam, as shown in Figure 6.13.1.

6.14

Crack Control

The concrete slab in negative moment regions of composite beams shall be designed for crack control

in accordance with the appropriate provisions of AS 3600 and Ref. 20.

6.14.1

Minimum Reinforcement

Arcr.min

3 k s Acf

fr

6.14(1)

where

ks

Acf

bcf [(Dc hr ) + hr ]

fr

6.14.2

Service Check

In order to control crack widths at service loads, which shall be taken as G + sQ , the stress in the

6.14.3

Yield Check

In order to avoid yielding of the reinforcement under service loads, the stress in the reinforcement for

the load condition G + Q shall not exceed 0.8 f yr .

DB2.1-64

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Design of Continuous Composite Beams with Rigid Connections for Strength

Composite Structures Design Manual

6.14.4

Method Of Construction

The direct loads to be considered for crack control must be determined taking into account the method

of construction. In all cases, it is assumed that the stress in the reinforcement is due only to those

loads applied once the member has attained its composite state. For unpropped construction, it is

assumed that the construction dead loads are carried by the member in the bare steel state and do

not contribute to the stress in the reinforcement. For propped construction, it is assumed that the

removal of a prop is equivalent to applying to the member in its composite state a point load of equal

magnitude, but opposite in sense, to the propping force.

For imposed or restrained deformation, a separate analysis would be required to determine the

appropriate design action effects.

DB2.1Design of Continuous Composite Beams with Rigid Connections for Strength

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Composite Structures Design Manual

7.

7.1

WORKED EXAMPLES

General

These examples follow the design steps given in Chapter 5 and clearly demonstrate the benefits of

using continuity in composite construction.

7.2

Consider the secondary beam B1 from scheme 1C of the BHP Design Guide for Economical

Carparks [8], as shown in Fig. 7.2.1.

7.2.1

7.2.2

Simply-supported

460 UB 74.6

8 N12

7.2.3

7512 tie

360 UB 50.7

Semi-continuous

11 N12

7.2.4

Semi-continuous

360 UB 50.7

25% less incremental deflection

Prop

DB2.1-66

Edition 1.0 February 2001

Design of Continuous Composite Beams with Rigid Connections for Strength

Composite Structures Design Manual

7.2.1

Design Data

Geometry

L

13300 mm

b1 = b2

2800 mm

Dc

120 mm

0 ( = 90 )

Indirect Loads

G

G sup

0.1 kPa

1 kPa (construction)

3 kPa (in-service)

G

G sup

Q

DB2.1Design of Continuous Composite Beams with Rigid Connections for Strength

67

Composite Structures Design Manual

7.2.2

G sw

0.75 kN/m

Construction Stage 3

Construction Sequence

Unpropped.

Design Action Effects

Note that due to the tributary area, Q has been reduced by 25%.

w

M*

Strength

M s

OK

In-Service Condition

Design Action Effects

Note that there is no live load reduction for carparks.

w

1.25G + 1.5Q = 1.25 (0.75 + 8.4 + 0.28 ) + 1.5 (8.4 ) = 24.4 kN/m

M*

Strength

From COMPSECT or COMPBEAM,

M b.5

n+

OK

17

Serviceability

Deflections

Using COMPBEAM leads to the following deflections:

max

(mm)

(mm)

max

57.1

66.5 ( L 200 )

0.86

Incremental

26.5

26.6 ( L 500 )

1.00

Total

34.0

53.2 ( L 250 )

0.64

Description

The simply-supported beam design is governed by the incremental deflection. Note that the dead load

deflection can be cambered out.

DB2.1-68

Edition 1.0 February 2001

Design of Continuous Composite Beams with Rigid Connections for Strength

Composite Structures Design Manual

7.2.3

Preliminary Design

Composite State Supports

Rigid, partial strength.

Shear Connection

+

Choose m = 1 .

Reinforcement Level

Choose pr = 0.75% .

Initial Member

From the simply-supported beam design, w = 24.4 kN/m . Using Chart G2.1, choose a 360 UB 50.7,

which has a self-weight of G sw = 0.5 kN/m .

Construction Stage 3

Construction Sequence

Unpropped.

Design Action Effects

Note that due to the tributary area, Q has been reduced by 25%.

w

M f*

Strength

M s

NG

This can be overcome either by providing a bare steel connection of suitable strength, or by propping,

which effectively delays supporting the loads until the member and its connections have reached the

composite state, at which time they will have greater moment capacity. Propping changes some

aspects of the design and is covered as the next example (Section 7.2.4).

Being a beam-to-beam junction with a partial-depth end plate connection, it is difficult to achieve the

necessary strength from bolting. Using a welded top strap is therefore the recommended approach.

Assuming plastic analysis, the design moment capacity required of the bare steel connection is equal

to

M sc

M f * M s = 75 kNm

Assume that the tie strap force, Ft , is less than the compressive force capacity of the bottom flange,

Ff2e . In that case the lever arm can be taken as D s = 356 mm . Therefore

Ft

M sc

= 234 kN < Ff2e (590 kN ) as assumed.

Ds

At

780 mm 2

which is satisfied by a 65 mm 12 mm Merchant bar flat 300PLUS. The length of a 6 mm fillet weld on

each side of the tie strap is

DB2.1Design of Continuous Composite Beams with Rigid Connections for Strength

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Composite Structures Design Manual

Lw

Ft

= 100 mm

2 0.6 f uw t t

Ductility

Using elastic-plastic analysis, the load supported by the connection while it acts as a plastic hinge is

w pl

M F* M sc

wL2 12 75

=

w = 9.2 kN/m

M F*

wL2 12

w pl L3

24 EI

= 32.4 mrad

D s = 11.5 mm

The tie strap has a free length equal to the cope length of 120 mm, so

OK

In-Service Condition

The composite connection may conservatively be designed ignoring the presence of the tie strap.

Elastic Properties

L+

ef

0.7 L = 9310 mm

ef

I+

I t = 480 10 6 mm 4

L

ef

0.5 L = 6650 mm

bcf

1663 mm

Acf

Ar

I

I cr = 190 10 6 mm 4

Note that there is no live load reduction for carparks.

w

1.25G + 1.5Q = 1.25 (0.5 + 8.4 + 0.28 ) + 1.5 (8.4 ) = 24.1 kN/m

V*

M f*

Strength

+

From COMPSECT or COMPBEAM using L+ with m = 1 ,

ef

DB2.1-70

Edition 1.0 February 2001

Design of Continuous Composite Beams with Rigid Connections for Strength

Composite Structures Design Manual

+

M bc

486 kNm

n+

23

Ignore the presence of the tie strap in the calculation of the connection strength.

Following the procedures of Appendix F,

b f2e

b f2 = 171 mm

t f2

11.5 mm

f yf2

300 MPa

Ff2e

f yr

Arj2

Ff2e

= 1180 mm 2

f yr

Arj2 Ar

1180 810

= 0.314

1180

Dc

120 mm

t f1

11.5 mm

dw

333 mm

y PNA

Ff2c

y f2c

y PNA +

yr

40 mm

M cv

Fr

Ar f yr = 405 kN

f ds

83.1 kN (for n = 5 )

Fr f ds = 4.9 = 5

Arj2

(1 r )t f2

2

= 468 +

2

M f

+

M cv + 0.85 M bv = 158 + 0.85 486 = 571 kNm > M f *

OK

Ductility

Design Rotation

Calculate the design rotation from an elastic-plastic contraflexure analysis.

From the elastic properties,

DB2.1Design of Continuous Composite Beams with Rigid Connections for Strength

71

Composite Structures Design Manual

2.53

a L

0.162

2150 mm

L+

L 2a = 9000 mm

M +*

wL+

8

M *

24.1 9 2

= 244 kNm

8

rM

M * M cv

M *

289 159

100 % = 45%

289

w pl

In the absence of a more sophisticated calculation, a simplified uniform value of I can be taken as

that derived for stiffness calculations,

Ia

I cr I t L

190 480 13300

=

10 6 = 321 10 6 mm 4

2 aI t + (L 2 a )I cr

2 2150 480 + 9000 190

The design rotation can then be calculated from the standard result

*

wL3

10.9 13300 3

=

= 17 mrad

24 EI 24 2 10 5 321 10 6

The result from a more sophisticated calculation is 13 mrad, so the approximation is conservative.

Rotation Capacity

Using the model of Section 4.4.3,

Lrf

200 mm

Lrd

25 d b = 300 mm

Lrcu

su

ru

su Lrcu

0.05 350

=

= 41 mrad

468 40

y PNA y r

su

Fr

n k s (y PNA Dc )

405 10 3

= 8 mrad

5 30 (468 120 )

( ru + su ) = 39 mrad > *

OK

Stiffness

Using the model of Section 4.4.4,

Lrce

DB2.1-72

Edition 1.0 February 2001

Design of Continuous Composite Beams with Rigid Connections for Strength

Composite Structures Design Manual

Ia

Ar.st

18 I a Lrce

L (y PNA y r )

18 321 10 6 275

13300 (468 40 )

= 646 mm 2 < Ar

Shear

The required number of M20 8.8/S bolts is

n wc

Serviceability

Crack Control

The design for crack control ignores the presence of the tie strap.

Elastic Cracked Section Properties for the Connection

For Ar = 810 mm 2 ,

y ENA

359 mm

I cr

110 10 6 mm 4

Yield Check

Stress limit, 0.8 f yr = 400 MPa .

Since the construction is unpropped, the load applied during the composite state is equal to the load

applied during the in-service condition.

w

M f*

L+

9000 mm

M +*

wL+

8

M *

8.7 9 2

= 88 kNm

8

fr

= 302 MPa < 0.8 f yr

=

I cr

110 10 6

OK

Distribution of Reinforcement

Elastic Cracked Section Properties for the Connection

For Ar = 880 mm 2 , these properties conservatively remain unchanged.

DB2.1Design of Continuous Composite Beams with Rigid Connections for Strength

73

Composite Structures Design Manual

Service Check

For d b = 12 mm ,

Stress limit, 760 173 log e d b = 330 MPa

Since the construction is unpropped, the load applied during the composite state is equal to the load

applied during the in-service condition.

w

Since the behaviour is elastic, the stress in the reinforcement can be calculated from the earlier result

by using linear interpolation

fr

6.2

302 = 215 MPa < 330 MPa

8.7

Minimum Reinforcement

OK

fr

Arcr.min

3 k s Acf

3 0.8 108 10 3

=

= 786 mm 2 < Ar

fr

330

OK

Deflections

Using the cracked contraflexure elastic-plastic analysis method for deflections described in

Appendix D, combined with COMPBEAM results for the effective internal simply-supported span,

leads to the following deflections:

max

(mm)

(mm)

max

7.2.2

71.0

66.5 ( L 200 )

1.07

1.24

Incremental

17.2

26.6 ( L 500 )

0.65

0.62

Total

20.5

53.2 ( L 250 )

0.39

0.56

Description

Note that the high dead load deflection can be reduced by increasing the strength of the strapped

partial-depth end plate connection. For example, increasing the strap from a width of 65 mm to 75 mm

is sufficient to reduce the total dead load deflection to the allowable limit of 66.5 mm.

Precamber can be used to eliminate most of the dead load deflection.

Summary

460 UB 74.6 simply-supported beam can be replaced by

360 UB 50.7 semi-continuous beam with strapped (75 x 12 300PLUS) partial-depth end plate

connections.

The semi-continuous composite beam design not only uses a beam two serial sizes lower, but it also

reduces the incremental deflection by approximately 40% compared to the simply-supported beam

design.

DB2.1-74

Edition 1.0 February 2001

Design of Continuous Composite Beams with Rigid Connections for Strength

Composite Structures Design Manual

7.2.4

Preliminary Design

The preliminary design remains unchanged as a 360 UB 50.7

Construction Stage 3

Construction Sequence

Propped (beam only).

Design Action Effects

w

14.3 kN/m

For a central prop, the vertical reaction at the prop to satisfy compatibility is

Vprop

5wL 8 = 119 kN

The bending moment over the prop is

=

wL2 32 = 79 kNm

M prop

Strength

M s

OK

In-Service Condition

Using compact cross-sections and plastic section analysis, the in-service design remains unchanged

from the unpropped case.

Serviceability

Crack Control

Elastic Cracked Section Properties for the Connection

For Ar = 810 mm 2 ,

y ENA

359 mm

I cr

110 10 6 mm 4

Yield Check

Stress limit, 0.8 f yr = 400 MPa .

Since the construction is propped, the load applied to the composite beam is equal to the propping

force due to the construction dead loads, and the loads applied during the in-service condition. As an

approximation, these two cases can be treated separately and then superimposed.

Propping force:

The uniformly distributed load due to construction dead loads is

w

P

M f*

DB2.1Design of Continuous Composite Beams with Rigid Connections for Strength

75

Composite Structures Design Manual

For a contraflexure analysis, from Fig. D.1 using = 2.53 ,

a L

0.193

2570 mm

L+

L 2a = 8160 mm

M +*

PL+ 74 8.16

=

= 151 kNm

4

4

M *

In-service condition:

w

M f*

L+

9000 mm

M *

wL+

8

M *

8.7 9 2

= 88 kNm

8

Superimposed:

M *

fr

=

= 577 MPa > 0.8 f yr

I cr

110 10 6

NG

Ar

577

810 = 1154 mm 2

400

Note that the moment capacity is monotonically increasing (Fig. 3.2.7), so increasing the

reinforcement has no detrimental consequences at the strength limit state.

Distribution of Reinforcement

Recalculate the Elastic Cracked Section Properties for the Connection

For Ar = 1210 mm 2 ,

y ENA

326 mm

I cr

149 10 6 mm 4

Service Check

For d b = 12 mm ,

Stress limit, 760 173 log e d b = 330 MPa

DB2.1-76

Edition 1.0 February 2001

Design of Continuous Composite Beams with Rigid Connections for Strength

Composite Structures Design Manual

Since the construction is propped, the load applied to the composite state is equal to the propping

force due to the construction dead loads, and the loads applied during the in-service condition. As an

approximation, these two cases can be treated separately and then superimposed.

Propping force:

The bending moment remains unchanged from the yield check

M *

95 kNm

In-service:

w

Since the behaviour is elastic, the bending moment can be calculated using linear interpolation as

M *

6.2

104 = 74 kNm

8.7

Superimposed:

M *

95 + 74 = 169 kNm

fr

= 324 MPa < 330 MPa

=

I cr

149 10 6

Minimum Reinforcement

OK

fr

Arcr.min

3 k s Acf

3 0.8 108 10 3

=

= 786 mm 2 < Ar

fr

330

OK

Deflections

Using the cracked contraflexure elastic-plastic analysis method for deflections described in

Appendix D, combined with COMPBEAM results for the effective internal simply-supported span,

leads to the following deflections:

max

(mm)

(mm)

max

7.2.2

16.1

66.5 ( L 200 )

0.24

0.28

Incremental

20.5

26.6 ( L 500 )

0.77

0.74

Total

40.1

53.2 ( L 250 )

0.75

1.10

Description

Note that the dead load deflection cannot be cambered out in propped construction, which leads to

much higher total deflection. However, they are still well within the specified limit.

Summary

460 UB 74.6 simply-supported beam can be replaced by

360 UB 50.7 semi-continuous beam with partial-depth end plate connections (and mid-span propping)

The semi-continuous composite beam design not only uses a beam two serial sizes lower, but it also

reduces the incremental deflection (which was critical) by approximately 25% compared to the simplysupported beam design.

DB2.1Design of Continuous Composite Beams with Rigid Connections for Strength

77

Composite Structures Design Manual

7.3

Consider the primary beam PB1 from scheme 1C of the BHP Design Guide for Economical Carparks

[8], as shown in Fig. 7.3.1.

P

7.3.1

P

L=2.8 m

P

L=2.8 m

7.3.2

Simply-supported

530 UB 92.4

8 N16

7.3.3

Semi-continuous

460 UB 74.6

50% less total deflection

8 N12

7.3.4

Continuous

410 UB 53.7

25% less total deflection

DB2.1-78

Edition 1.0 February 2001

Design of Continuous Composite Beams with Rigid Connections for Strength

Composite Structures Design Manual

7.3.1

Design Data

Geometry

L

7600 mm

b1 = b2

13300 mm

Dc

120 mm

1 ( = 0 )

Indirect Loads

G

G sw

G sup

0.1 kPa

1 kPa (construction)

3 kPa (in-service)

G

G sw

G sup

Q

DB2.1Design of Continuous Composite Beams with Rigid Connections for Strength

79

Composite Structures Design Manual

7.3.2

G sw

0.92 kN/m

Construction Stage 3

Construction Sequence

Unpropped.

Design Action Effects

Note that due to the tributary area, Q may be reduced by 40%.

At each beam support,

P

=

V*

M*

(29

w

Combined,

Strength

M s

OK

In-Service Condition

Design Action Effects

Note that there is no live load reduction for carparks.

At each beam support,

P

=

V*

M*

(29

w

Combined,

Strength

+

From COMPSECT or COMPBEAM, m = 0.5 is sufficient, since

M b.5

OK

+

The maximum value at PCCs of M * / M bv = 0.96 .

n+

DB2.1-80

21

Edition 1.0 February 2001

Design of Continuous Composite Beams with Rigid Connections for Strength

Composite Structures Design Manual

Serviceability

Deflections

Using COMPBEAM leads to the following deflections:

Incremental

Total

max

(mm)

Description

(mm)

max

18.5

38.0 ( L 200 )

0.49

8.9

15.2 ( L 500 )

0.59

29.6

30.4 ( L 250 )

0.97

The simply-supported beam design is governed by the composite strength and the total deflection.

DB2.1Design of Continuous Composite Beams with Rigid Connections for Strength

81

Composite Structures Design Manual

7.3.3

Preliminary Design

Composite State Supports

Rigid, partial strength.

Shear Connection

+

Choose m = 1 .

Reinforcement Level

Since this beam is relatively short (for the simply-supported beam design, L D s = 7600 530 = 14 ), a

higher level of reinforcement will be necessary to satisfy the connection stiffness requirements.

Therefore, choose pr = 0.75% 1.5% .

Initial Member

From the simply-supported beam design,

M f*

949 kNm

M f*

875 kNm

M f*

1075 kNm

Therefore, using interpolation, choose a 460 UB 74.6 with pr = 1.1% , which has a self-weight of

G sw = 0.75 kN/m .

Construction Stage 3

Construction Sequence

Unpropped.

Design Action Effects

From the simply-supported beam design,

M f*

547 kNm

Strength

M s

NG

This can be overcome either by providing a bare steel connection of suitable strength, or by propping,

which effectively delays supporting the loads until the member and its connections have reached the

composite state, at which time they will have greater moment capacity.

Being a beam-to-column junction with a flush end plate connection, the necessary strength can be

achieved from bolting. Assuming plastic analysis, the moment capacity required of the bare steel

connection is equal to

M sc

M f * M s = 98kNm

Following the general principles of Ref. 21, a bare steel flush endplate connection for a 460 UB 74.6

with 2 rows of M20 8.8/S bolts has an approximate design moment capacity of

M sc

DB2.1-82

125 kNm

Edition 1.0 February 2001

Design of Continuous Composite Beams with Rigid Connections for Strength

Composite Structures Design Manual

Ductility

For an elastic analysis with uniform EI ,

M *

343 kNm

rM

M * M sc

M *

343 125

100% = 64%

343

*

13 mrad

In-Service Condition

The composite connection is designed ignoring the presence of the top bolts.

Elastic Properties

L+

ef

0.7 L = 5320 mm

ef

I+

I t = 913 10 6 mm 4

L

ef

0.5 L = 3800 mm

bcf

950 mm

Acf

Ar

I

I cr = 440 10 6 mm 4

V*

491 kN

M f*

949 kNm

Strength

+

From COMPSECT or COMPBEAM using L+ with m = 1 ,

ef

+

M bc

776 kNm

n+

34

Following the procedures of Appendix F (for full details see example in Section 7.2.3),

y PNA

556 mm

M cv

300 kNm

Fr

625 kN

DB2.1Design of Continuous Composite Beams with Rigid Connections for Strength

83

Composite Structures Design Manual

f ds

84.4 kN (for n = 8 )

Fr f ds = 7.4 = 8

M f

+

M cv + 0.85 M bv = 300 + 0.85 776 = 959 kNm > M f *

OK

Ductility

Design Rotation

Calculate the design rotation from an elastic-plastic contraflexure analysis.

From the elastic properties,

2.08

w

a L

0.172

1300 mm

L+

L 2a = 5000 mm

M +*

wL+

8

M *

131 5 2

= 409 kNm

8

rM

M * M cv

M *

540 300

100 % = 44%

540

w pl

In the absence of a more sophisticated calculation, a simplified uniform value of I can be taken as

that derived for stiffness calculations,

Ia

I cr I t L

440 913 7600

=

10 6 = 668 10 6 mm 4

2 aI t + (L 2 a )I cr

2 1300 913 + 5000 440

The design rotation can then be calculated from the standard result

*

58 7600 3

wL3

= 8 mrad

=

24 EI 24 2 10 5 668 10 6

The result from a more sophisticated calculation is 6 mrad, so the approximation is conservative.

Rotation Capacity

Using the model of Section 4.4.3,

Lrf

200 mm

Lrd

25 d b = 300 mm

Lrcu

DB2.1-84

Edition 1.0 February 2001

Design of Continuous Composite Beams with Rigid Connections for Strength

Composite Structures Design Manual

For Class N reinforcement,

su

ru

su Lrcu

0.05 350

=

= 33 mrad

y PNA y r

566 40

su

Fr

n k s (y PNA Dc )

625 10 3

= 6 mrad

8 30 (566 120 )

( ru + su ) = 31 mrad > *

OK

Stiffness

Using the model of Section 4.4.4,

Lrce

Ia

Ar.st

18 I a Lrce

L (y PNA y r )

18 668 10 6 275

7600 (566 40 )

= 1570 mm 2 > Ar

Shear

The required number of M20 8.8/S bolts is

n wc

For a 460 UB 74.6, n wc = 6 may be impractical. Therefore consider M24 8.8/S bolts, for which the

required number is

n wc

Serviceability

Crack Control

The contribution of the tensions bolts is conservatively ignored.

Elastic Cracked Section Properties for the Connection

Conservatively use the values for Ar = 1250 mm 2 ,

y ENA

426 mm

I cr

251 10 6 mm 4

Yield Check

Stress limit, 0.8 f yr = 400 MPa .

Since the construction is unpropped, the load applied during the composite state is equal to the load

applied during the in-service condition.

P

M f*

(29

Continuous Composite Beams

DB2.1Design of Continuous Composite Beams with Rigid Connections for Strength

85

Composite Structures Design Manual

L+

5000 mm

M +*

PL+ 115 5

=

= 144 kNm

4

4

M *

fr

=

= 292 MPa < 0.8 f yr

I cr

251 10 6

OK

Distribution of Reinforcement

Note that increasing d b to 16 mm will also increase Lrd , which is conservative.

Elastic Cracked Section Properties for the Connection

For Ar = 1600 mm 2 , these conservatively remain unchanged.

Service Check

For d b = 16 mm ,

Stress limit, 760 173 log e d b = 280 MPa

Since the construction is unpropped, the load applied during the composite state is equal to the load

applied during the in-service condition.

P

Since the behaviour is elastic, the stress in the reinforcement can be calculated from the earlier result

by using linear interpolation

fr

82

292 = 208 MPa < 280 MPa

115

Minimum Reinforcement

OK

fr

Arcr.min

3 k s Acf

3 0.8 114 10 3

=

= 977 mm 2 < Ar

fr

280

OK

Deflections

Using the cracked contraflexure elastic-plastic analysis method for deflections described in

Appendix D, combined with COMPBEAM results for the effective internal simply-supported span,

leads to the following deflections:

DB2.1-86

Edition 1.0 February 2001

Design of Continuous Composite Beams with Rigid Connections for Strength

Composite Structures Design Manual

max

(mm)

Description

(mm)

max

7.3.2

7.9

38.0 ( L 200 )

0.21

0.43

Incremental

4.6

15.2 ( L 500 )

0.30

0.52

13.7

30.4 ( L 250 )

0.45

0.46

Total

Summary

530 UB 92.4 simply-supported beam can be replaced by a

460 UB 74.6 semi-continuous beam with flush end plate connections

The semi-continuous composite beam design not only uses a beam one serial sizes lower, but it also

reduces the total deflection (which was critical) by more than 50% compared to the simply-supported

beam design.

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Composite Structures Design Manual

7.3.4

Preliminary Design

Composite State Supports

Rigid, full strength.

Shear Connection

+

Choose m = 1 .

Reinforcement Level

Choose pr = 0.75% .

Initial Member

From the simply-supported beam design, M f* = 949 kNm . Using Chart H1.3, choose a 360 UB 56.7.

Shear Ratio

However, the shear ratio is = 0.99 , so the initial beam is changed to a 410 UB 53.7, which has a

self-weight of G sw = 0.54 kN/m .

Construction Stage 3

Construction Sequence

Unpropped.

Design Action Effects

From the simply-supported beam design,

M f*

547 kNm

323 kNm

Strength

M s

so, using plastic global analysis, the capacity of the continuous beam is

M f

OK

Ductility

The beam is compact, so it has sufficient ductility for plastic analysis.

In-Service Condition

Elastic Properties

L+

ef

0.7 L = 5320 mm

ef

I+

I t = 575 10 6 mm 4

L

ef

0.5 L = 3800 mm

bcf

950 mm

Acf

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Composite Structures Design Manual

Ar

I

I cr = 250 10 6 mm 4

V*

491 kN

M f*

949 kNm

Strength

+

From COMPSECT or COMPBEAM using L+ with m = 1 ,

ef

+

M bc

533 kNm

n+

26

M bv

+

M f * M bv = 949 553 = 396 kNm

The simplest design of the negative moment region is to assume that the shear ratio approaches

= 1 , which is often the case for continuous beams, and that the compressive capacity of the

additional bottom flange plate is equal to or greater than the tensile yield force of the reinforcement.

Therefore, the lever arm for this couple of forces is

t fp

y fp y r =

Dc + D s +

M bf

M sf + Fr y fp y r

M sf

242 kNm

Fr

Ar

M bv M sf

y fp y r

(396 242 ) 10 6

0.9 489

= 350 kN

Fr

350 10 3

=

= 700 mm 2

f yr

500

Ffp

Afp

Fr = 350 kN

Ffp

f yfp

350 10 3

= 1170 mm 2

300

Afp

100 mm 12 mm = 1200 mm 2

M bf

487 kNm

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Composite Structures Design Manual

Fr

428 kN

f ds

83.1 kN (for n = 5 )

Fr f ds = 5.2 = 6

+

M bv + M bv = 487 + 553 = 1040 kNm > M f *

Therefore,

M f

OK

Ductility

Design Rotation

Calculate the design rotation from an elastic-plastic contraflexure analysis.

From the elastic properties,

2.3

w

a L

0.166

1250 mm

L+

L 2a = 5100 mm

M +*

wL+

8

M *

131 5.12

= 426 kNm

8

rM

M * M bv

M *

523 487

100% = 7%

523

w pl

rMw = 7% w = 9 kN/m

In the absence of a more sophisticated calculation, a simplified uniform value of I can be taken as

that derived for stiffness calculations,

Ia

I cr I t L

250 575 7600

=

10 6 = 403 10 6 mm 4

2 aI t + (L 2 a )I cr

2 1250 575 + 5100 250

The design rotation can then be calculated from the standard result

*

9 7600 3

wL3

= 2 mrad

=

24 EI 24 2 10 5 403 10 6

The result from a more sophisticated calculation is 1 mrad, so the approximation is conservative.

Rotation Capacity

Such levels of redistribution and plastic rotation are negligible.

Shear

= 0.93 , so check web crippling in accordance with AS 4100.

DB2.1-90

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Design of Continuous Composite Beams with Rigid Connections for Strength

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Serviceability

Crack Control

Elastic Cracked Section Properties for the Member

For Ar = 855 mm 2 ,

y ENA

290 mm

I cr

250 10 6 mm 4

Yield Check

Stress limit, 0.8 f yr = 400 MPa .

Since the construction is unpropped, the load applied during the composite state is equal to the load

applied during the in-service condition.

P

M f*

(29

L+

5100 mm

M +*

=

= 147 kNm

4

4

M *

fr

=

= 187 MPa < 0.8 f yr

I cr

250 10 6

OK

Distribution of Reinforcement

Elastic Cracked Section Properties for the Member

For Ar = 880 mm 2 , these conservatively remain unchanged.

Service Check

For d b = 12 mm ,

Stress limit, 760 173 log e d b = 330 MPa

Since the construction is unpropped, the load applied during the composite state is equal to the load

applied during the in-service condition.

P

Since the behaviour is elastic, the stress in the reinforcement can be calculated from the earlier result

by using linear interpolation

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Composite Structures Design Manual

fr

82

187 = 133 MPa < 330 MPa

115

Minimum Reinforcement

OK

fr

Arcr.min

3 k s Acf

3 0.8 114 10 3

=

= 829 mm 2 < Ar

fr

330

OK

Deflections

For the continuous beam, using COMPSECT or COMPBEAM,

Is

184 10 6 mm 4

I ti

575 10 6 mm 4

+

I ti + 0.6 m (I s I ti ) = [575 + 0.6 0.5(184 575 ) ] 10 6 = 458 10 6 mm 4

Therefore

I eti

The deflections can be calculated approximately by extrapolating from the results for the semicontinuous design (Section 7.3.3) using the linear factor

(I eti )sc

(I eti )c

745

= 1.63

458

Incremental

Total

max

(mm)

Description

(mm)

max

7.3.2

12.9

38.0 ( L 200 )

0.34

0.70

7.5

15.2 ( L 500 )

0.49

0.84

22.3

30.4 ( L 250 )

0.73

0.75

Summary

530 UB 92.4 simply-supported beam can be replaced by a

410 UB 53.7 continuous beam with an extra bottom flange plate.

The continuous composite beam design not only uses a beam two serial sizes lower, but it also

reduces the total deflection (which was critical) by 25% compared to the simply-supported beam

design.

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Composite Structures Design Manual

7.3.5

Removing the bottom flange plate greatly reduces the strength and ductility of the negative moment

regions, while at the same time requiring extremely high levels of moment redistribution.

410 UB 59.6

+

From COMPSECT or COMPBEAM using L+ with m = 1 ,

ef

+

M bc

588 kNm

M *

+

M f* M bv = 949 588 = 361 kNm

Without an extra flange plate, again assuming full moment-shear interaction ( = 1 ), the maximum

possible area of reinforcement is

Arm

3418 mm 2

M bv

NG

460 UB 67.1

+

From COMPSECT or COMPBEAM using L+ with m = 1 ,

ef

+

M bc

707 kNm

M *

+

M f* M bv = 949 707 = 242 kNm

Without an extra flange plate, again assuming complete moment-shear interaction ( = 1 ), the

maximum possible area of reinforcement is

Arm

4133 mm 2

M bv

The behaviour for = 1 is very close to linear, so the required area of reinforcement can be calculated

using interpolation as

Ar

242

4133 = 2180 mm 2

459

which is more than twice the reinforcement required for the design with a bottom flange plate.

From the earlier contraflexure analysis,

M *

rM

M * M bv

M *

523 487

100% = 7%

523

rM

M * M bv

M *

523 242

100 % = 54%

523

DB2.1Design of Continuous Composite Beams with Rigid Connections for Strength

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Composite Structures Design Manual

which is excessive for a continuous composite beam based on a cracked analysis and would require

the beam to meet the more stringent requirements for a full plastic global analysis.

Summary

410 UB 53.7 continuous beam with an extra bottom flange plate would need to be increased to a

460 UB 74.6 continuous beam without an extra bottom flange plate.

The continuous design without an extra bottom flange plate not only requires a beam one serial size

higher, but it also requires twice the amount of reinforcement and unacceptably higher levels of

moment redistribution. Therefore, the extra bottom flange plate is highly recommended, if not

essential,

in

achieving

an

efficient

continuous

beam

design.

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7.4

7.4.1

7.4.2

Simply-supported

410 UB 59.7

9 N12

7.4.3

Semi-continuous

310 UB 46.2

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Composite Structures Design Manual

7.4.1

Design Data

Geometry

L

8400 mm

b1 = b2

2800 mm

Dc

120 mm

0 ( = 90 )

Indirect Loads

G

G sup

1 kPa (construction)

G

G sw

G sup

2

Q

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Composite Structures Design Manual

7.4.2

Construction Stage 3

Construction Sequence

Unpropped.

Design Action Effects

w

M*

Strength

M s

OK

In-Service Condition

Design Action Effects

w

1.25G + 1.5Q = 1.25 (0.75 + 8.4 + 1.4 ) + 1.5 (28 ) = 55.2 kN/m

V*

M*

Strength

From COMPSECT or COMPBEAM,

M b.5

n+

OK

14

Serviceability

Deflections

Using COMPBEAM leads to the following deflections:

max

(mm)

(mm)

max

14.8

42.0 ( L 200 )

0.35

Incremental

17.6

16.8 ( L 500 )

1.05

Total

34.8

33.6 ( L 250 )

1.04

Description

The simply-supported beam design is governed by the incremental and total deflections.

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Composite Structures Design Manual

7.4.3

Preliminary Design

Composite State Supports

Rigid, partial strength.

Shear Connection

+

Choose m = 1 .

Reinforcement Level

Since this beam is relatively short (for the simply-supported beam design, L D s = 8400 410 = 20 ), a

higher level of reinforcement will be necessary to satisfy the connection stiffness requirements.

Therefore, choose pr = 0.75% 1.5% .

Initial Member

From the simply-supported beam design,

w

55.2 kN/m

w max

47.5 kN/m

w max

57.5 kN/m

Therefore, using interpolation, choose a 310 UB 46.2 with pr = 1.35% , which has a self-weight of

G sw = 0.5 kN/m .

Construction Stage 3

Construction Sequence

Unpropped.

Design Action Effects

From the simply-supported beam design,

w

15.6 kN/m

M f*

136 kNm

Strength

M s

OK

In-Service Condition

Elastic Properties

L+

ef

0.7 L = 5880 mm

ef

I+

I t = 337 10 6 mm 4

L

ef

0.5 L = 4200 mm

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bcf

1050 mm

Acf

Ar

I

I cr = 140 10 6 mm 4

From the simply-supported beam design,

w

55.2 kN/m

V*

232 kN

M f*

487 kNm

Strength

+

From COMPSECT or COMPBEAM using L+ with m = 1 ,

ef

+

M bc

393 kNm

n+

21

Following the procedures of Appendix F (for full details see example in Section 7.2.3),

y PNA

418 mm

M cv

159 kNm

Fr

461 kN

f ds

83.7 kN (for n = 6 )

Fr f ds = 5.5 = 6

M f

+

M cv + 0.85 M bv = 159 + 0.85 393 = 493 kNm > M f*

OK

Design Rotation

Calculate the design rotation from an elastic-plastic contraflexure analysis.

From the elastic properties,

2.41

a L

0.164

1380 mm

L+

L 2a = 5640 mm

wL+

8

M *

55.2 5.64 2

= 220 kNm

8

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M *

rM

M * M cv

M *

267 159

100 % = 40%

267

w pl

that derived for stiffness calculations,

Ia

I cr I t L

140 337 8400

=

10 6 = 230 10 6 mm 4

2 aI t + (L 2 a )I cr

2 1380 337 + 5640 140

The design rotation can then be calculated from the standard result

*

wL3

22.1 8400 3

=

= 12 mrad

24 EI 24 2 10 5 230 10 6

The result from a more sophisticated calculation is 10 mrad, so the approximation is conservative.

Rotation Capacity

Using the model of Section 4.4.3,

Lrf

200 mm

Lrd

25 d b = 300 mm

Lrcu

su

ru

su Lrcu

0.05 350

=

= 46 mrad

418 40

y PNA y r

su

Fr

n k s (y PNA Dc )

461 10 3

= 9 mrad

6 30 (418 120 )

( ru + su ) = 50 mrad > *

OK

Stiffness

Using the model of Section 4.4.4,

Lrce

Ia

Ar.st

18 I a Lrce

L (y PNA y r )

18 230 10 6 275

8400 (418 40 )

= 939 mm 2 > Ar

NG

Shear

The required number of M20 8.8/S bolts is

n wc

DB2.1-100

Edition 1.0 February 2001

Design of Continuous Composite Beams with Rigid Connections for Strength

Composite Structures Design Manual

Therefore n wc = 4 M20 8.8/S bolts is satisfactory. Alternatively, use M24 8.8/S bolts, for which the

required number is

n wc

Serviceability

Crack Control

Elastic Cracked Section Properties for the Connection

Conservatively use the values for Ar = 921 mm 2 ,

y ENA

312 mm

I cr

94 10 6 mm 4

Yield Check

Stress limit, 0.8 f yr = 400 MPa .

Since the construction is unpropped, the load applied during the composite state is equal to the load

applied during the in-service condition.

w

M f*

L+

5640 mm

M +*

wL+

8

M *

29.4 5.64 2

= 117 kNm

8

fr

= 411 MPa > 0.8 f yr

=

I cr

94 10 6

NG

Ar

411

921 = 946 mm 2

400

Distribution of Reinforcement

Elastic Cracked Section Properties for the Connection

For Ar = 990 mm 2 , these conservatively remain unchanged.

Service Check

For d b = 12 mm ,

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Composite Structures Design Manual

Stress limit, 760 173 log e d b = 330 MPa

Since the construction is unpropped, the load applied during the composite state is equal to the load

applied during the in-service condition.

w

Since the behaviour is elastic, the stress in the reinforcement can be calculated from the earlier result

by using linear interpolation

fr

21.0

400 = 286 MPa < 330 MPa

29.4

Minimum Reinforcement

OK

fr

Arcr.min

3 k s Acf

3 0.8 68.3 10 3

=

= 496 mm 2 < Ar

fr

330

OK

Using the cracked contraflexure elastic-plastic analysis method for deflections described in

Appendix D, combined with COMPBEAM results for the effective internal simply-supported span,

leads to the following deflections:

max

(mm)

(mm)

max

7.4.2

8.6

42.0 ( L 200 )

0.20

0.58

Incremental

11.2

16.8 ( L 500 )

0.67

0.64

Total

21.3

33.6 ( L 250 )

0.63

0.61

Description

Summary

410 UB 59.7 simply-supported beam can be replaced by

310 UB 46.2 semi-continuous beam with partial-depth end plate connections.

The semi-continuous composite beam design not only uses a beam two serial sizes lower, but it also

reduces the incremental and total deflections by more than 35% compared to the simply-supported

beam design.

DB2.1-102

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Composite Structures Design Manual

8.

1.

2.

REFERENCES

Patrick, M., Dayawansa, P.H., Eadie, I., Watson, K.B. and van der Kreek, N., Australian

Composite Structures Standard AS 2327, Part 1: Simply-Supported Beams, Journal of the

Australian Institute of Steel Construction, Vol. 29, No. 4, December, 1995.

OneSteel Market Mills, Composite Structures Design Manual Design Booklet DB1.1, Design of

nd

Simply-Supported Composite Beams for Strength, 2 Ed., February, 2001.

3.

OneSteel Market Mills, Composite Structures Design Manual Design Booklet DB1.2, Design of

the Shear Connection of Simply-Supported Composite Beams (To Australian Standard

st

AS 2327.11996), 1 Ed., February, 2001.

4.

The Steel Construction Institute and The British Constructional Steelwork Association, Joints in

Steel Construction: Composite Connections, SCI Publication 213, The Steel Construction

Institute, Ascot, United Kingdom, 1998.

European Committee for Standardization (CEN), Eurocode 4: Design of Composite Steel and

Concrete Structures, Part 1.1: General Rules and Rules for Buildings, ENV 1994-1-1, 1992.

5.

6.

OneSteel Market Mills, Composite Structures Design Manual Design Booklet DB5.1, Design of

st

the Web-Side-Plate Steel Connection, 1 Ed., November, 2000.

7.

Institute of Steel Construction, Sydney, 1994.

BHP Integrated Steel, Economical Car Parks A Design Guide, 1998.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

13.

14.

th

CIMsteel, Eureka Project 130, Design for Manufacture Guidelines, SCI Publication 150, The

Steel Construction Institute, Ascot, United Kingdom, 1995.

Patrick, M., Dayawansa, P.H., Design of Continuous Composite Beams for Bending Strength,

Australasian Structural Engineering Conference, Auckland, 1998.

OneSteel Reinforcing, DECKMESH, September, 2000.

Ahmed, B. and Nethercot, D.A., Prediction of Initial Stiffness and Available Rotation Capacity of

Major Axis Composite Flush Endplate Connections, Journal of Constructional Steel Research,

Vol. 41, No. 1, pp. 3160, 1997.

Xiao, Y., Choo, B.S. and Nethercot, D.A., Composite Connections in Steel and Concrete.

I. Experimental Behaviour of Composite Beam-Column Connections, Journal of Constructional

Steel Research, Vol. 31, pp. 330, 1994.

Anderson, D. and Najafi, A.A., Performance of Composite Connections: Major Axis End Plate

Joints, Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Vol. 31, pp. 3157, 1994.

15.

Oehlers, D.J. and Bradford, M.A., Elementary Behaviour of Composite Steel and Concrete

Structural Members, Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford, 1999.

16.

Engineering, ASCE, Vol. 115, No. 5, pp. 12721276, 1989.

Oehlers, D.J. and Bradford, M.A., Composite Steel and Concrete Structural Members:

Fundamental Behaviour, Pergamon, Oxford, 1995.

17.

18.

19.

Johnson, R.P. and Buckby, R.J., Composite Structures of Steel and Concrete, Vol. 2: Bridges,

nd

2 Ed., Collins Professional and Technical Books, London, 1986.

Weston, G., Nethercot, D.A. and Crisfield, M., Lateral Buckling in Continuous Composite Bridge

Girders, The Structural Engineer, Vol. 69, No. 5, pp. 7987, 1991.

20.

nd

Crack Control of Beams, Part 1: AS 3600 Design, 2 Ed., August, 2000.

21.

Couchman, G.H., Design of Semi-Continuous Braced Frames, SCI Publication 183, The Steel

Construction Institute, Ascot, United Kingdom, 1997.

Johnson, R.P. and Anderson, D., Designers Handbook to Eurocode 4, Part 1.1: Design of

Composite Steel and Concrete Structures, Thomas Telford, London, 1993.

22.

DB2.1Design of Continuous Composite Beams with Rigid Connections for Strength

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Composite Structures Design Manual

APPENDIX A

REFERENCED AUSTRALIAN STANDARDS

Reference No.

Title

AS 1170.11989

Minimum design loads on structures, Part 1: Dead and live loads and load

combinations.

AS 2327.11996

AS 36001994

Concrete Structures.

AS 3600/Amdt 1/1996

DR 99193 CP

Amendment 2 to AS 36001994 Concrete Structures, Issued 1 May, 1999.

AS 36002001

AS 41001998

Steel Structures.

AS/NZS 46712001

DB2.1-104

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APPENDIX B

NOTATION

Wherever possible, the notation in this booklet is the same as that used in AS 2327.11996.

Parameters affected by the direction of the applied moment are denoted by a minus sign ( ) or plus

sign (+) superscript to indicate negative moment or positive moment regions respectively.

Latin letters

Acf

Af1

Af2

Afp

cross-sectional area of the additional bottom flange plate of the steel beam

Ai

Aic

Ait

Arcr.min

Ar

Arh

area of steel reinforcement such that the depth of the web in compression is equal to its

maximum effective depth, d we , before the development of a hole due to local buckling

Arj1

area of steel reinforcement such that the plastic neutral axis is located at the junction

between flange 1 (top) and the web of the steel beam

Arj2

area of steel reinforcement such that the plastic neutral axis is located at the junction

between the web and flange 2 (bottom) of the steel beam

Arjp

area of steel reinforcement such that the plastic neutral axis is located at the junction

between flange 2 (bottom) and the additional bottom flange plate of the steel beam

Arm

maximum area of steel reinforcement that can contribute to the negative moment

capacity at a cross-section of the composite member

Ar.st

the minimum area of steel reinforcement required for the rotational stiffness of a

connection to be considered rigid

At

Aw

b1 , b2

edge of slab outstand

bcf

b f1

b f1e

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b f2

b f2e

b fp

b fpe

effective width in compression of the additional bottom flange plate of the steel beam

b wp

Ci

Dc

Ds

overall depth of a steel beam, but excluding an additional bottom flange plate if present

db

df

dw

d wc

d we

d wt

elastic modulus

Es

Fc

compressive force in the concrete slab at a cross-section at the strength limit state

Fcc

compressive force in the concrete slab at a cross-section with complete shear connection

where 0.5 at the strength limit state

Ff1

Ff1c

Ff1e

compressive capacity of the effective portion of flange 1 (top) of the steel beam

Ff1t

Ff2

Ff2c

Ff2e

compressive capacity of the effective portion of flange 2 (bottom) of the steel beam

Ff2t

Ffp

tensile capacity of the additional bottom flange plate of the steel beam

Ffpc

compressive force in the additional bottom flange plate of the steel beam

Ffpe

compressive capacity of the effective portion of the additional bottom flange plate of the

steel beam

Fr

Frm

maximum tensile force in the steel reinforcement that can contribute to the negative

moment capacity at a cross-section of the composite member

DB2.1-106

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Ft

Fw

Fwc

Fwe

Fwt

f c

f ds

design shear capacity of a shear connector in both positive and negative moment regions

fr

the maximum stress permitted in reinforcement with a bar diameter, d b , for crack control

f uc

f ui

fuw

f vs

nominal shear capacity of a shear connector in both positive and negative moment

regions

fy

f yf

f yf1

f yf2

f yfp

yield strength of the additional bottom flange plate of the steel beam

f yi

f yr

f yw

G sup

G sw

hr

Ia

I cr

cracked second moment of area, based on the effective section in negative bending with

the concrete fully cracked

Is

It

second moment of area transformed with respect to the steel, based on the effective

section in positive bending ignoring the concrete in tension

stiffness

ks

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Composite Structures Design Manual

L

Lb

length of the beam between supports for assessing lateral distortional buckling

Ld

the value of Lb below which lateral distortional buckling need not be considered

Lef

Lrce

conditions

Lrcu

state conditions

Lrd

Lrf

Lsy.t

Lw

M*

MA

MB

Mb

M b.5

M bc

value of M b corresponding to = 1

M bd

nominal moment capacity of a composite beam allowing for lateral distortional buckling

M bf

contribution of the steel beam web

M bv

Mc

M cf

contribution of the steel beam web

M cv

MF

Mf

M od

nominal elastic lateral distortional buckling moment capacity of the steel section in a

composite beam

M prop

Ms

M sc

M sd

nominal moment capacity of the steel section, allowing for the interaction between

plasticity and elastic lateral distortional buckling

DB2.1-108

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M sf

nominal moment capacity of steel beam section ignoring any contribution by the web

n cw

number of bolts located at the compression flange or along the web in an end plate

connection

ni

point load

Pmax

maximum design central point load that can be supported by a composite beam

pr

ratio

re

rM

ry

Ti

Tr

tc

t f1

t f2

t fp

ti

tt

tw

t wp

V*

VA

VB

Vbc

Vbi

Vdf

nominal capacity of a single bolt in shear for the strength limit state

V fb

V fn

nominal shear capacity of a single bolt with the threads included in the shear plane

V fx

nominal shear capacity of a single bolt with the threads excluded from the shear plane

Vprop

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Vu

nominal shear capacity of the web of the steel beam at a member cross-section

w max

maximum design uniformly distributed load that can be supported by a composite beam

w pl

the uniformly distributed load carried after the formation of the first plastic hinge

vertical coordinate within a cross-section measured from the top surface of the concrete

yB

y ENA

y f1

y f1c

y f1t

y f2

y f2c

y f2t

y fp

coordinate to the centroid of the additional bottom flange plate of the steel beam

y fpc

yi

y PNA

yr

ys

yw

y wc

y wp

coordinate to the centroid of the web stiffening plate of the steel beam

y wt

zA

DB2.1-110

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Design of Continuous Composite Beams with Rigid Connections for Strength

Composite Structures Design Manual

Greek letters

AB

max

strain

yield stress factor ( =

250 f y )

f1

f2

fd

strain in the extreme fibre of the bottom flange of the steel section to cause lateral

distortional buckling

fp

yield stress factor for the additional bottom flange plate of the steel beam

su

yield strain

capacity factor

factor accounting for the inclination of profiled steel sheeting ribs with respect to the

longitudinal axis of the steel beam

ey

ep

stress

acute angle between the steel ribs of a composite slab and the longitudinal axis of the

steel beam

ru

contribution of the elongation of the steel reinforcement to the ultimate rotation capacity

of a composite connection

DB2.1Design of Continuous Composite Beams with Rigid Connections for Strength

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su

contribution of the slip at the shear studs to the ultimate rotation capacity of a composite

connection

short-term live load factor used in assessing the design load for the serviceability limit

state

DB2.1-112

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Design of Continuous Composite Beams with Rigid Connections for Strength

Composite Structures Design Manual

APPENDIX C

ELASTIC PROPERTIES OF MEMBERS IN NEGATIVE BENDING

C.1

A general composite cross-section subject to negative bending, including a web stiffener and an

additional bottom flange plate, is shown in Fig. 4.3.3. Steel members with slender plate elements are

outside the scope of this booklet, in which case the entire steel section can be assumed to be effective

under elastic conditions. This initial assumption must be checked once the ENA has been calculated.

The area of each component and the coordinate from the top surface to its centroid are given in

Table C.1.

Component

Area

Coordinate

Reinforcement

Ar

yr

Flange 1

Af1 = b f1t f1

y f1 = Dc + t f1 2

Web

Aw = d w t w

y w = Dc + t f1 + d w 2

Flange 2

Af2 = b f2 t f2

y f2 = Dc + t f1 + d w + t f2 2

Flange plate

Afp = b fp t fp

y fp = Dc + t f1 + d w + t f2 + t fp 2

The elastic neutral axis (ENA) is calculated as

y ENA

Ai y i

Ai

C.1(1)

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C.2

Effective Cross-Section

Each component that is in compression must satisfy e ey to ensure that it is not slender. The

appropriate checks and the conditions under which they should be made are given in Table C.2.

Component

Condition

ey

Flange 1

y ENA < Dc + t f1

b f1 t w

2t f1 f1

16 (SR, HR)

15 (LW, CF)

14 (HW)

y ENA < Dc + t f1 + d w

Web

dw

tww

re =

Dc + t f1 + d w y ENA

1

dw

r e 0.5 :

r e < 0.5 :

Flange 2

y ENA < Dc + t f1 + d w + t f2

b f2 t w

2 t f2 f2

322

3.6 r e + 1

57.5

re

16 (SR, HR)

15 (LW, CF)

14 (HW)

Flange plate

b fp

45 (SR, HR)

t fp fp

all y ENA

40 (LW, CF)

35 (HW)

Table C.2 Elastic Slenderness of Steel Components (after Table 5.1 of AS 2327.1)

C.3

The second moment of area for a member subject to negative bending may be calculated on the basis

that:

I

Ar (y r y ENA ) +

2

3

b f1t f1

t d3

2

+ Af1 (y f1 y ENA ) + w w

12

12

+ A w (y w y ENA ) +

2

3

b fp t fp

12

3

b f2 t f2

2

+ A f2 (y f2 y ENA )

12

+ A fp y fp y ENA

)2

C.3(1)

The second moment of area for universal beams in negative bending is given for a range of

reinforcement levels in Fig. C.1.

DB2.1-114

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Composite Structures Design Manual

1500

610 UB 125

113

101

530 UB 92.4

82.0

460 UB 82.1

74.6

67.1

410 UB 59.7

53.7

360 UB 56.7

50.7

44.7

310 UB 46.2

40.4

32.0

250 UB 37.3

31.4

25.7

200 UB 29.8

1000

800

600

500

400

300

250

200

150

25.4

22.3

18.2

180 UB 22.2

100

18.1

16.1

150 UB 18.0

14.0

80

60

50

40

30

20

yr = 40 mm

15

Dc = 120 mm

10

0

500

1000

1500

2000

2500

3000

Figure C.1 Cracked Second Moment of Area for Universal Beams

DB2.1Design of Continuous Composite Beams with Rigid Connections for Strength

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APPENDIX D

ELASTIC CONTRAFLEXURE ANALYSIS

D.1

General Principles

The elastic analysis of an indeterminate structure must satisfy equilibrium and compatibility. Satisfying

equilibrium is straightforward, but satisfying compatibility is more difficult. The bending moment

distribution depends on the variation of beam stiffness, and vice versa. In positive moment regions the

stiffness can be taken as I + = I t , while in negative moment regions it is I = I cr . Adopting this

distribution requires knowledge of the point of contraflexure. Much of the literature refers to the need

for iteration [15,17], but it is possible to obtain direct solutions by applying the moment area theorems.

D.2

D.2.1

Theorem of Slopes

The change in slope from point A to point B along a beam is equal to minus the area under the M EI

diagram between A and B:

B A

D.2.2

M

dz

EI

D.2(1)

Theorem of Deflections

The distance measured from point A to the tangent from point B is equal to the first moment of the

area under the M EI diagram between A and B about point A:

AB

D.3

M

z A dz

EI

D.2(2)

Symmetric Beams

For beams that are symmetric in all respects about their mid-span, the theorem of slopes can be

applied using point A as the support ( z = 0 ) and point B as mid-span ( z = L 2 ). From symmetry, the

slope at mid-span is zero, so the theorem of slopes can be reduced to

z=0

L 2

M

dz

EI

D.3(1)

Since the scope of this booklet is limited to either continuous beams or semi-continuous beams with

rigid connections, the slope at the support under elastic conditions must be zero, so the theorem of

slopes can be further reduced to

0

L 2

M

dz

EI

D.3(2)

Assuming that the point of contraflexure occurs at z = a and assigning the appropriate values of I ,

this integral can be expressed as

0

EI

L 2

EI +

dz +

dz

D.3(3)

0

D.3.1

L 2

M dz +

M dz

D.3(4)

For a central point load, the moment can be expressed over the domain z [0, L 2 ] as

M

DB2.1-116

= MA +

P

z

2

D.3(5)

Edition 1.0 February 2001

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Composite Structures Design Manual

If z = a is the point of contraflexure, then

MA

P

a

2

D.3(6)

and

P

(z a )

2

The compatibility integral reduces to the quadratic

M

D.3(7)

a

a

4 ( 1) + 4 1

L

L

D.3(8)

a

L

D.3.2

D.3(9)

2 ( 1)

For a uniformly distributed load, the moment can be expressed over the domain z [0, L 2 ] as

M

= MA +

wL

w

z z2

2

2

D.3(10)

MA

w 2 wL

a

a

2

2

w

2

D.3(11)

M

2

2

L

L

a z

2

2

D.3(12)

3

a

a

a

= 8 ( 1) 6 ( 2 ) 6 + 1

L

L

L

D.3(13)

To avoid having to solve the cubic, the solution is shown in graphical form in Fig. D.1.

D.4

Propped Cantilevers

For propped cantilevers, the theorem of deflections can be applied using point A as the pinned support

and point B as the fixed support. Since the scope of this booklet is limited to either continuous beams

or semi-continuous beams with rigid connections, the slope at point B under elastic conditions must be

zero, and hence the tangent at point B is horizontal. Assuming that point A does not undergo any

settlement, the distance from point A to the tangent from point B, AB , is zero, so the theorem of

deflections can be reduced to

0

D.4.1

M

z A dz

EI

D.4(1)

A similar solution procedure to that for symmetric beams leads to a cubic equation, for which the

graphical solution is shown in Fig. D.2.

D.4.2

A similar solution procedure to that for symmetric beams leads to a quartic equation, for which the

graphical solution is shown in Fig. D.2.

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Composite Structures Design Manual

0.25

EI

0.2

EI +

EI

0.15

w

EI

0.1

EI

EI

0.05

1

5

+

P

EI

0.25

EI +

0.2

0.15

w

EI

EI

0.1

a

DB2.1-118

Edition 1.0 February 2001

Design of Continuous Composite Beams with Rigid Connections for Strength

Composite Structures Design Manual

APPENDIX E

NEGATIVE MOMENT CAPACITY OF MEMBERS

E.1

Effective Cross-Section

A general composite cross-section subjected to negative bending, including a web stiffener and an

additional bottom flange plate, is shown in Fig. 4.3.3. The effective width or depth of each component

and its corresponding capacity in tension and compression are given in Table E.1. The direct

contribution of the web stiffener to the moment capacity of the member is conservatively ignored. The

coordinate from the top surface to the centroid of each component is the same as that given in

Table C.2.

Component

Tension

Compression

1

Width/depth

Force

Width/depth

Force

Flange 1

b f1

b f1e = 2 ep t f1 f1 + t w b f1

Web ( 0.5 )

d w = D s t f1 t f2

Fw = d w t w f yw

d we = 30 t w w d w

Fwe = d we t w f yw

Fw = 0

Web ( = 1 )

Fwe = 0

Flange 2

b f2

b f2e = 2 ep t f2 f2 + t w b f2

Flange plate

b fp

Ffp = b fp t fp f yfp

b fpe = ep t fp fp b fp

ep

is the appropriate value of plasticity slenderness limit taken from Table 5.1 of AS 2327.1.

E.2

The first step in calculating the negative moment capacity of a composite member is to determine the

location of the plastic neutral axis (PNA). Since the location of PNA depends on the effective crosssection and vice versa, it would appear that an iterative process is necessary and that is the approach

adopted in the literature [22]. However, a direct solution technique is possible, based on the

calculation of key levels of reinforcement that define the transition between different effective crosssections. A negative result for a particular transition point indicates that it will not occur for the given

steel section regardless of the level of reinforcement.

E.2.1

The area of reinforcement that can contribute to the negative moment capacity of a composite

member is ultimately limited by the maximum compressive capacity of the steel member. In this case,

the PNA is located between the top of the steel member and the bottom of the reinforcement, which

for equilibrium demands that

Frm

Arm

E.2(1)

and hence

E.2.2

f yr

E.2(2)

When the PNA is located at the junction of flange 1 and the web of the steel member, flange 1 is in

tension, but the remainder of the steel section is in compression, in which case equilibrium demands

that

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Composite Structures Design Manual

Arj1

E.2.3

f yr

E.2(3)

Area of Reinforcement for PNA such that a Hole just forms in the Web, Arh

The maximum effective depth of the web in compression is d we , as given in Table E.1. If the depth of

the web exposed to compression exceeds this value, then a hole will develop in the web of the

effective cross-section. Locating the PNA such that the depth of the web in compression is equal to

d we leads to a compressive force in the web below the PNA of

Fwc

= Fwe

E.2(4)

Fwt

= Fw Fwe

E.2(5)

Arh

Arh

f yr

E.2(6)

Ff1 Fw + 2 Fwe + Ff2e + Ffpe

f yr

E.2(7)

E.2.4

When the PNA is located at the junction of the web and flange 2 of the steel member, flange 1 and the

web are in tension, but the remainder of the steel section is in compression, in which case equilibrium

demands that

Arj2

E.2.5

f yr

E.2(8)

When the PNA is located at the junction of flange 2 and the extra flange plate of the steel member,

only the flange plate is in compression and the remainder of the steel section is in tension, in which

case equilibrium demands that

Arjp

E.3

f yr

E.2(9)

Having calculated the key levels of reinforcement, the nominal negative moment capacity, M , can be

calculated according to the different cases so defined.

E.3.1

Arm Ar

In this case the entire steel section is in compression and any reinforcement in excess of Arm makes

no contribution to the negative moment capacity. Taking moments about the top surface of the

concrete

M

DB2.1-120

Ffpe y fp

E.3(1)

Edition 1.0 February 2001

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Composite Structures Design Manual

E.3.2

In this case the PNA is located in flange 1, and can be determined from equilibrium. To avoid a

discontinuity at junction 1, the width of flange 1 is assumed to be its full width, b f1 , for the portion that

is in tension (above the PNA), and its effective width, b f1e , for the portion that is in compression. The

PNA therefore varies linearly over this range and can be calculated as

y PNA

= Dc + r t f1

E.3(2)

r

Arm Ar

Arm Arj1

E.3(3)

Ff1t

r Ff1

y f1t

= Dc +

Ff1c

y f1c

E.3(4)

r t f1

2

E.3(5)

(1 r )Ff1e

E.3(6)

y f1t +

t f1

2

E.3(7)

M

E.3.3

Ff2e y f2 Ffpe y fp

E.3(8)

In this case the PNA is located in web, such that a hole forms in the compressive region of the web

below the PNA. The PNA varies linearly over this range and can be calculated as

y PNA

= Dc + t f1 + r (d w d we )

E.3(9)

r

Arj1 Ar

E.3(10)

Arj1 Arh

The forces within the web and their coordinates are given by

r (Fw Fwe )

Fwt

y wt

= Dc + t f1 +

Fwc

= Fwe

y wc

y wt +

r (d w d we )

2

E.3(11)

E.3(12)

E.3(13)

dw

2

E.3(14)

M

E.3.4

Ff2e y f2 Ffpe y fp

E.3(15)

In this case the PNA is located in the web, but below the point at which a hole forms in the

compressive region. The PNA varies linearly over this range and can be calculated as

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Composite Structures Design Manual

y PNA

= Dc + t f1 + (d w d we ) + rd we

E.3(16)

r

Arh Ar

Arh Arj2

E.3(17)

The forces within the web and their coordinates are given by

Fwt

E.3(18)

y wt

= Dc + t f1 +

Fwc

(1 r )Fwe

E.3(20)

y wc

y wt +

dw

2

E.3(21)

(d w d we ) + rd we

2

E.3(19)

M

E.3.5

Ff2e y f2 Ffpe y fp

E.3(22)

In this case the PNA is located in flange 2, and can be determined from equilibrium. To avoid a

discontinuity at junction p, the width of flange 2 is assumed to be its full width, b f2 , for the portion that

is in tension (above the PNA), and its effective width, b f2e , for the portion that is in compression. The

PNA therefore varies linearly over this range and can be calculated as

y PNA

= Dc + t f1 + d w + r t f2

E.3(23)

r

Arj2 Ar

E.3(24)

Arj2 Arjp

Ff2t

r Ff2

E.3(25)

y f2t

= Dc + t f1 + d w +

Ff2c

(1 r )Ff2e

y f2c

y f2t +

r t f2

2

t f2

2

E.3(26)

E.3(27)

E.3(28)

M

E.3.6

Ff2c y f2c Ffpe y fp

E.3(29)

Ar < Arjp

This case should never occur if the steel section is sensibly proportioned.

E.4

Linear Approximation

As an alternative to the above procedure, it is permissible to calculate the nominal negative moment

capacity for each key level of reinforcement and to use linear interpolation between these points.

DB2.1-122

Edition 1.0 February 2001

Design of Continuous Composite Beams with Rigid Connections for Strength

Composite Structures Design Manual

APPENDIX F

NEGATIVE MOMENT CAPACITY OF END PLATE CONNECTIONS

F.1

Effective Cross-Section

A general composite end plate connection subject to negative bending, including a web stiffener and

an additional bottom flange plate, is shown in Fig 4.4.1. The contribution of the tension bolts to the

negative moment capacity in the composite state is minor, even for flush or extended end plate

connections, and is conservatively ignored. The analysis is very similar to that for cross sections within

members, except that in the immediate vicinity of connections the steel plate elements are unable to

transmit any tensile forces and only the portion of the steel member that lies below the PNA is

effective. Given the very high strain gradient that would be required, it is unrealistic for the PNA to be

any higher than the junction between flange 1 and the web of the steel member. For plastic analysis,

this is equivalent to locating the PNA at the height at which a hole just forms in the web, since this is

the maximum compressive force that is available from the web. The effective width or depth of each

component and its corresponding capacity in compression is the same as that given in Table E.1. The

direct contribution of the web stiffener to the moment capacity of the member is conservatively

ignored. The coordinate from the top surface to the centroid of each component is the same as that

given in Table C.2.

F.2

F.2.1

Area of Reinforcement for PNA such that a Hole just forms in the Web, Arh

The maximum effective depth of the web in compression is d we , as given in Table E.1. If the depth of

the web exposed to compression exceeds this value, then a hole will develop in the web of the

effective cross-section. Locating the PNA such that the depth of the web in compression is equal to

d we leads to a compressive force in the web below the PNA of

Fwc

= Fwe

Arh

F.2(1)

and hence

F.2.2

f yr

F.2(2)

When the PNA is located at the junction of the web and flange 2 of the steel member, equilibrium

demands that

Arj2

F.2.3

Ff2e + Ffpe

f yr

F.2(3)

When the PNA is located at the junction of flange 2 and the extra flange plate of the steel member,

equilibrium demands that

Arjp

F.3

Ffpe

f yr

F.2(4)

Having calculated the key levels of reinforcement, the nominal negative moment capacity, M , can be

calculated according to the different cases so defined.

F.3.1

In this case the PNA is located in the web, but below the point at which a hole forms in the

compressive region. The PNA varies linearly over this range and can be calculated as

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Composite Structures Design Manual

y PNA

where r is given by

= Dc + t f1 + (d w d we ) + rd we

=

Arh Ar

Arh Arj2

F.3(1)

F.3(2)

The compressive force within the web and its coordinate are given by

Fwc

(1 r )Fwe

y wc

y PNA +

F.3(3)

(1 r )d we

2

F.3(4)

M

F.3.2

F.3(5)

In this case the PNA is located in flange 2, and can be determined from equilibrium. The PNA varies

linearly over this range and can be calculated as

y PNA

where r is given by

= Dc + t f1 + d w + r t f2

=

Arj2 Ar

F.3(6)

F.3(7)

Arj2 Arjp

The compressive force within flange 2 and its coordinate are given by

Ff2c

(1 r )Ff2e

y f2c

y PNA +

F.3(8)

(1 r )t f2

2

F.3(9)

M

F.3.3

F.3(10)

Ar < Arjp

In this case the PNA is located in the flange plate, and can be determined from equilibrium. The PNA

varies linearly over this range and can be calculated as

y PNA

where r is given by

= Dc + t f1 + d w + t f2 + r t fp

=

Arjp Ar

F.3(11)

F.3(12)

Arjp

The compressive force within the flange plate and its coordinate are given by

Ffpc

(1 r )Ffpe

y fpc

y PNA +

F.3(13)

(1 r )t fp

2

F.3(14)

M

F.4

Ar f yr y r Ffpc y fpc

F.3(15)

Linear Approximation

As an alternative to the above procedure, it is permissible to calculate the nominal negative moment

capacity for each key level of reinforcement and to use linear interpolation between these points.

DB2.1-124

Edition 1.0 February 2001

Design of Continuous Composite Beams with Rigid Connections for Strength

Composite Structures Design Manual

APPENDIX G

DESIGN TABLES AND CHARTS FOR =0 (=90O)

The design tables and charts given in this appendix are based on strength criteria for the idealised

case of a symmetric composite beam with fully fixed ends. An approximate solution for propped

cantilevers, which are commonly encountered in end spans, can be obtained by increasing the span,

L, to a hypothetical span, 1.15L, for the purpose of using the design charts or tables. This increase is

intended to model the propped cantilever as an equivalent beam with fully fixed ends. Apart from

satisfying the minimum reinforcement requirement for crack control given in Equation 6.14(1), which

equates to pr = 0.75% for N12 reinforcing bars, no other aspects of the design are incorporated in the

given values. The design tables and charts are intended to provide accurate preliminary sizing of

members and not to replace detailed design calculations. In particular, the designer must ensure that

the chosen member and connections have sufficient stiffness and ductility at the strength limit state,

and that all serviceability requirements are met.

The design tables and charts are presented for three alternative loading cases, as shown in Table G:

1.

General moment. This case covers any general loading arrangement that can be

represented by a design free bending moment, M f * , which must be less than the design free

bending moment capacity, M f . No particular design shear force is implied for this loading

case, so these tables do not include any allowance for moment-shear interaction, and are

only valid for 0.5.

2.

Uniformly distributed load. In his case, the design free bending moment capacity is based

on a uniformly distributed loading pattern, so the corresponding shear force can be

determined. Values given for the design load-carrying capacity, wmax, are valid for any 1.

3.

Central point load. As for the uniformly distributed loading case, the corresponding design

shear force can be determined and the values given for the design load-carrying capacity,

Pmax, are valid for any 1.

Semi-Continuous

Loading Case

Continuous

+

M cv + 0.85 M bv

+

M bv + M bv

pr = 0.75%

pr = 1.50%

pr = 0.75%

pr = 1.50%

Mf

( 0.5)

G1.1

G1.2

G1.3

G1.4

wmax

( 1.0)

G2.1

G2.2

G2.3

G2.4

Pmax

( 1.0)

G3.1

G3.2

G3.3

G3.4

Efficient designs for continuous beams generally require the use of an additional bottom flange plate,

in order to avoid high levels of moment redistribution, which may lead to serviceability problems or

premature failure due to local buckling of the bottom flange or the web of the steel section. The charts

and tables for continuous beams are all based on the use of an additional bottom flange plate with

equal or greater compressive capacity than the tensile yield strength of the reinforcement in the slab.

This and other design parameters are indicated on the design charts.

DB2.1Design of Continuous Composite Beams with Rigid Connections for Strength

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Composite Structures Design Manual

Table G1.1

Semi-Continuous Beams

Steel section

610 UB 125

113

101

530 UB 92.4

82.0

460 UB 82.1

74.6

67.1

410 UB 59.7

53.7

360 UB 56.7

50.7

44.7

310 UB 46.2

40.4

32.0

250 UB 37.3

31.4

25.7

200 UB 29.8

25.4

22.3

18.2

180 UB 22.2

18.1

16.1

150 UB 18.0

14.0

Table G1.2

4

1110

1020

977

819

742

660

613

565

471

447

408

375

351

314

295

249

247

222

196

191

174

162

136

149

128

117

121

100

6

1231

1136

1092

914

833

737

685

634

534

509

468

434

409

369

349

294

299

264

224

228

200

184

155

170

146

134

138

114

8

1327

1225

1180

988

903

803

750

698

595

569

526

491

459

417

389

321

329

289

246

249

220

202

172

187

162

149

152

126

Semi-Continuous Beams

Steel section

610 UB 125

113

101

530 UB 92.4

82.0

460 UB 82.1

74.6

67.1

410 UB 59.7

53.7

360 UB 56.7

50.7

44.7

310 UB 46.2

40.4

32.0

250 UB 37.3

31.4

25.7

200 UB 29.8

25.4

22.3

18.2

180 UB 22.2

18.1

16.1

150 UB 18.0

14.0

DB2.1-126

4

1186

1095

1051

885

809

719

671

624

524

500

456

423

398

356

336

290

283

258

231

222

205

192

166

177

155

144

146

123

6

1344

1248

1203

1015

932

825

772

721

613

588

540

505

479

432

412

355

353

318

276

274

245

226

192

210

181

160

169

130

8

1477

1374

1329

1121

1035

920

867

814

700

674

621

585

553

500

472

397

401

358

308

309

274

237

194

226

183

161

171

131

Mf (kNm)

Beam span, L (m)

10

12

14

1404

1480

1523

1300

1374

1416

1255

1328

1370

1058

1126

1162

972

1039

1074

868

932

962

814

877

906

761

810

839

650

685

711

617

651

677

573

605

628

526

556

579

491

520

543

446

472

493

416

442

462

345

368

387

352

374

392

311

332

349

266

285

300

268

286

301

238

254

267

219

233

241

186

196

196

203

216

227

175

185

185

161

163

163

164

173

173

132

133

133

Mf (kNm)

Beam span, L (m)

10

12

14

1592

1705

1784

1487

1597

1676

1440

1550

1628

1224

1325

1394

1136

1236

1304

1014

1106

1165

959

1050

1108

905

982

1037

781

841

888

747

805

849

691

745

786

643

692

729

605

648

680

549

591

622

518

556

575

424

427

427

440

470

474

389

394

394

314

315

315

334

337

337

278

280

280

240

241

241

195

196

196

228

229

229

184

185

185

162

163

163

173

173

173

132

133

133

=0

16

1560

1454

1407

1196

1107

991

935

868

738

703

652

603

566

513

483

403

410

365

312

315

278

241

196

229

185

163

173

133

=0

16

1859

1750

1701

1459

1366

1222

1162

1087

930

887

823

760

683

630

575

427

474

394

315

337

280

241

196

229

185

163

173

133

pr=0.75%

18

1583

1476

1429

1213

1124

1004

948

881

748

713

660

611

575

520

490

408

415

369

314

318

280

241

196

229

185

163

173

133

20

1583

1476

1429

1213

1124

1004

948

881

748

713

660

611

575

520

490

408

415

369

314

318

280

241

196

229

185

163

173

133

pr=1.50%

18

1903

1794

1744

1493

1396

1246

1184

1107

945

901

835

761

683

630

575

427

474

394

315

337

280

241

196

229

185

163

173

133

20

1903

1794

1744

1493

1396

1246

1184

1107

945

901

835

761

683

630

575

427

474

394

315

337

280

241

196

229

185

163

173

133

Edition 1.0 February 2001

Design of Continuous Composite Beams with Rigid Connections for Strength

Composite Structures Design Manual

Table G1.3

Mf (kNm)

Continuous Beams

Steel section

610 UB 125

113

101

530 UB 92.4

82.0

460 UB 82.1

74.6

67.1

410 UB 59.7

53.7

360 UB 56.7

50.7

44.7

310 UB 46.2

40.4

32.0

250 UB 37.3

31.4

25.7

200 UB 29.8

25.4

22.3

18.2

180 UB 22.2

18.1

16.1

150 UB 18.0

14.0

Table G1.4

4

2228

2022

1922

1592

1420

1264

1161

1055

869

816

746

675

619

557

518

412

422

367

313

309

272

247

204

226

190

172

176

142

6

2364

2152

2051

1700

1521

1350

1241

1132

938

884

812

741

684

620

579

461

481

414

343

350

301

271

225

249

210

190

194

158

8

2470

2250

2149

1781

1598

1423

1313

1203

1006

951

877

804

739

672

622

490

513

440

366

373

321

290

243

267

226

206

210

172

Mf (kNm)

Continuous Beams

610 UB 125

113

101

530 UB 92.4

82.0

460 UB 82.1

74.6

67.1

410 UB 59.7

53.7

360 UB 56.7

50.7

44.7

310 UB 46.2

40.4

32.0

250 UB 37.3

31.4

25.7

200 UB 29.8

25.4

22.3

18.2

180 UB 22.2

18.1

16.1

150 UB 18.0

14.0

4

2305

2098

1997

1661

1487

1324

1220

1115

923

870

795

724

667

600

560

454

460

404

349

341

304

278

235

255

219

200

202

167

6

2479

2266

2165

1802

1622

1440

1330

1221

1019

965

886

813

756

684

643

524

537

469

398

398

348

318

268

292

250

221

232

177

10

12

14

2556

2639

2683

2333

2415

2458

2231

2311

2355

1858

1933

1971

1673

1747

1784

1495

1566

1597

1384

1453

1483

1272

1325

1355

1067

1104

1131

1003

1039

1066

928

962

986

841

873

897

773

803

827

703

731

752

651

678

699

516

540

561

538

561

580

464

485

503

388

408

426

393

412

428

340

358

374

308

326

337

260

273

273

284

300

314

242

255

255

221

225

225

225

237

237

180

180

180

8

2624

2403

2301

1917

1733

1544

1433

1321

1114

1058

975

901

835

758

707

574

588

514

439

437

384

333

271

314

253

223

235

179

10

12

14

2748

2870

2953

2524

2643

2726

2420

2538

2619

2028

2138

2209

1842

1949

2020

1646

1746

1807

1533

1632

1692

1420

1503

1562

1202

1266

1320

1137

1200

1254

1050

1109

1158

962

1018

1067

893

947

995

811

860

903

758

806

835

613

616

616

632

674

679

556

563

563

447

449

449

471

474

474

390

392

392

336

337

337

272

273

273

316

317

317

254

255

255

224

225

225

236

237

237

180

180

180

=0

16

2722

2497

2392

2005

1818

1627

1513

1385

1158

1093

1011

921

851

774

721

582

599

522

444

444

389

337

273

317

255

225

237

180

=0

16

3030

2802

2695

2277

2087

1867

1752

1622

1374

1307

1206

1115

1001

917

835

616

679

563

449

474

392

337

273

317

255

225

237

180

pr=0.75%

18

2745

2519

2415

2022

1835

1640

1526

1398

1169

1103

1020

930

860

781

728

587

604

527

447

447

392

337

273

317

255

225

237

180

20

2745

2519

2415

2022

1835

1640

1526

1398

1169

1103

1020

930

860

781

728

587

604

527

447

447

392

337

273

317

255

225

237

180

pr=1.50%

18

3076

2847

2740

2312

2122

1894

1778

1648

1396

1328

1224

1117

1001

917

835

616

679

563

449

474

392

337

273

317

255

225

237

180

20

3076

2847

2740

2312

2122

1894

1778

1648

1396

1328

1224

1117

1001

917

835

616

679

563

449

474

392

337

273

317

255

225

237

180

DB2.1Design of Continuous Composite Beams with Rigid Connections for Strength

127

Composite Structures Design Manual

Chart G1.1

=0

Mf (kNm)

Semi-Continuous Beams

pr=0.75%

2500

610 UB 125

113

101

530 UB 92.4

82.0

460 UB 82.1

74.6

67.1

410 UB 59.7

53.7

360 UB 56.7

50.7

44.7

310 UB 46.2

40.4

32.0

250 UB 37.3

31.4

25.7

200 UB 29.8

25.4

22.3

18.2

180 UB 22.2

2000

1800

1600

+

Design free bending moment capacity, Mf = Mc + 0.85 Mb (kNm)

1400

1200

1000

900

800

700

600

500

450

18.1

16.1

150 UB 18.0

14.0

400

350

300

250

0.5

+

m

200

= 1

yr = 40 mm

f = 25 MPa

c

150

b1 2150 mm

b2 2150 mm

Dc = 120 mm

hr = 55 mm

100

6

10

12

14

16

18

20

Span, L (m)

DB2.1-128

Edition 1.0 February 2001

Design of Continuous Composite Beams with Rigid Connections for Strength

Composite Structures Design Manual

Chart G1.2

=0

Mf (kNm)

Semi-Continuous Beams

pr=1.50%

2500

610 UB 125

113

101

530 UB 92.4

82.0

460 UB 82.1

74.6

67.1

410 UB 59.7

53.7

360 UB 56.7

50.7

44.7

310 UB 46.2

40.4

32.0

250 UB 37.3

31.4

25.7

200 UB 29.8

25.4

22.3

18.2

180 UB 22.2

2000

1800

1600

+

Design free bending moment capacity, Mf = Mc + 0.85 Mb (kNm)

1400

1200

1000

900

800

700

600

500

450

18.1

16.1

150 UB 18.0

14.0

400

350

300

250

0.5

+

m

200

= 1

yr = 40 mm

f = 25 MPa

c

150

b1 2150 mm

b2 2150 mm

Dc = 120 mm

hr = 55 mm

100

6

10

12

14

16

18

20

Span, L (m)

DB2.1Design of Continuous Composite Beams with Rigid Connections for Strength

129

Composite Structures Design Manual

Chart G1.3

=0

Mf (kNm)

Continuous Beams

pr=0.75%

4000

610 UB 125

113

101

530 UB 92.4

82.0

460 UB 82.1

74.6

67.1

410 UB 59.7

53.7

360 UB 56.7

50.7

44.7

310 UB 46.2

40.4

32.0

250 UB 37.3

31.4

25.7

200 UB 29.8

25.4

22.3

18.2

180 UB 22.2

3500

3000

2500

2000

+

Design free bending moment capacity, Mf = Mb + Mb (kNm)

1800

1600

1400

1200

1000

900

800

700

18.1

16.1

150 UB 18.0

14.0

600

500

450

Ffp Fr

400

0.5

350

+

m

= 1

300

yr = 40 mm

f = 25 MPa

c

250

b1 2150 mm

b2 2150 mm

200

Dc = 120 mm

hr = 55 mm

150

6

10

12

14

16

18

20

Span, L (m)

DB2.1-130

Edition 1.0 February 2001

Design of Continuous Composite Beams with Rigid Connections for Strength

Composite Structures Design Manual

Chart G1.4

=0

Mf (kNm)

Continuous Beams

pr=1.50%

4000

610 UB 125

113

101

530 UB 92.4

82.0

460 UB 82.1

74.6

67.1

410 UB 59.7

53.7

360 UB 56.7

50.7

44.7

310 UB 46.2

40.4

32.0

250 UB 37.3

31.4

25.7

200 UB 29.8

25.4

22.3

18.2

180 UB 22.2

3500

3000

2500

2000

+

Design free bending moment capacity, Mf = Mb + Mb (kNm)

1800

1600

1400

1200

1000

900

800

700

18.1

16.1

150 UB 18.0

14.0

600

500

450

Ffp Fr

400

0.5

350

+

m

= 1

300

yr = 40 mm

f = 25 MPa

c

250

b1 2150 mm

b2 2150 mm

200

Dc = 120 mm

hr = 55 mm

150

6

10

12

14

16

18

20

Span, L (m)

DB2.1Design of Continuous Composite Beams with Rigid Connections for Strength

131

Composite Structures Design Manual

Table G2.1

Semi-Continuous Beams

610 UB 125

113

101

530 UB 92.4

82.0

460 UB 82.1

74.6

67.1

410 UB 59.7

53.7

360 UB 56.7

50.7

44.7

310 UB 46.2

40.4

32.0

250 UB 37.3

31.4

25.7

200 UB 29.8

25.4

22.3

18.2

180 UB 22.2

18.1

16.1

150 UB 18.0

14.0

Table G2.2

4

555

510

488

409

371

330

306

283

236

224

204

188

176

157

147

125

123

111

98

95

87

81

68

75

64

59

60

50

6

274

252

243

203

185

164

152

141

119

113

104

96

91

82

78

65

66

59

50

51

44

41

35

38

32

30

31

25

8

166

153

148

123

113

100

94

87

74

71

66

61

57

52

49

40

41

36

31

31

27

25

21

23

20

18

19

16

Semi-Continuous Beams

610 UB 125

113

101

530 UB 92.4

82.0

460 UB 82.1

74.6

67.1

410 UB 59.7

53.7

360 UB 56.7

50.7

44.7

310 UB 46.2

40.4

32.0

250 UB 37.3

31.4

25.7

200 UB 29.8

25.4

22.3

18.2

180 UB 22.2

18.1

16.1

150 UB 18.0

14.0

DB2.1-132

4

590

548

526

443

404

359

336

312

262

250

228

211

199

178

160

142

142

129

107

111

102

87

77

89

76

67

72

56

6

299

277

267

225

207

183

172

160

136

131

120

112

107

96

92

78

78

71

59

61

53

47

39

45

38

33

36

28

8

185

172

166

140

129

115

108

102

87

84

78

73

69

62

59

48

50

44

37

38

33

28

23

28

22

20

21

16

=0

wmax (kN/m)

Beam span, L (m)

10

12

112

82

104

76

100

74

85

63

78

58

69

52

65

49

61

45

52

38

49

36

46

34

42

31

39

29

36

26

33

25

28

20

28

21

25

18

21

16

21

16

19

14

18

13

15

11

16

12

14

10

13

9

13

10

11

7

14

62

58

56

47

44

39

37

34

29

28

26

24

22

20

19

16

16

14

12

12

11

10

8

9

8

7

7

5

16

49

45

44

37

35

31

29

27

23

22

20

19

18

16

15

13

13

11

10

10

9

8

6

7

6

5

5

4

=0

wmax (kN/m)

Beam span, L (m)

10

12

127

95

119

89

115

86

98

74

91

69

81

61

77

58

72

55

62

47

60

45

55

41

51

38

48

36

44

33

41

30

33

24

35

26

31

22

25

18

26

19

22

16

19

13

16

11

18

13

15

10

13

9

14

10

11

7

pr=0.75%

14

73

68

66

57

53

48

45

42

36

35

32

30

28

25

23

17

19

16

13

14

11

10

8

9

8

7

7

5

18

39

36

35

30

28

25

23

22

18

18

16

15

14

13

12

10

10

9

8

8

7

6

5

6

5

4

4

3

20

32

30

29

24

22

20

19

18

15

14

13

12

11

10

10

8

8

7

6

6

6

5

4

5

4

3

3

3

pr=1.50%

16

58

55

53

46

43

38

36

34

29

28

26

24

21

20

18

13

15

12

10

11

9

8

6

7

6

5

5

4

18

47

44

43

37

34

31

29

27

23

22

21

19

17

16

14

11

12

10

8

8

7

6

5

6

5

4

4

3

20

38

36

35

30

28

25

24

22

19

18

17

15

14

13

12

9

9

8

6

7

6

5

4

5

4

3

3

3

Edition 1.0 February 2001

Design of Continuous Composite Beams with Rigid Connections for Strength

Composite Structures Design Manual

Table G2.3

Steel section

4

590

551

551

470

438

393

359

333

274

265

248

225

210

178

160

142

142

133

107

113

102

87

77

93

76

67

80

65

610 UB 125

113

101

530 UB 92.4

82.0

460 UB 82.1

74.6

67.1

410 UB 59.7

53.7

360 UB 56.7

50.7

44.7

310 UB 46.2

40.4

32.0

250 UB 37.3

31.4

25.7

200 UB 29.8

25.4

22.3

18.2

180 UB 22.2

18.1

16.1

150 UB 18.0

14.0

Table G2.4

6

393

367

368

313

292

262

240

222

182

176

165

150

139

118

107

94

94

87

71

74

64

57

48

53

45

41

42

34

8

279

255

244

205

185

167

154

141

118

112

104

95

87

80

74

58

62

53

44

45

39

35

29

33

28

25

26

21

610 UB 125

113

101

530 UB 92.4

82.0

460 UB 82.1

74.6

67.1

410 UB 59.7

53.7

360 UB 56.7

50.7

44.7

310 UB 46.2

40.4

32.0

250 UB 37.3

31.4

25.7

200 UB 29.8

25.4

22.3

18.2

180 UB 22.2

18.1

16.1

150 UB 18.0

14.0

6

393

367

368

313

292

262

240

222

182

176

165

150

140

118

107

94

94

89

71

75

68

58

50

59

48

42

46

35

10

12

191

140

175

129

168

124

141

104

128

94

115

85

106

79

98

72

82

60

77

57

72

52

65

48

60

44

55

40

50

37

40

29

42

31

36

27

30

22

31

23

27

20

24

18

20

15

22

17

19

14

17

12

18

13

14

10

14

107

98

94

79

72

64

60

55

46

43

40

36

33

30

28

23

24

20

17

17

15

14

11

13

10

9

10

7

8

295

271

260

220

199

179

166

153

130

124

115

106

98

89

80

63

70

59

48

51

43

37

31

36

29

26

28

21

10

12

204

152

188

140

181

135

153

114

139

104

125

94

117

88

108

81

92

68

87

64

81

59

74

54

67

49

62

45

57

42

44

32

48

35

41

30

33

24

35

25

29

21

25

18

21

15

24

17

19

14

17

12

18

13

14

10

pr=0.75%

16

84

77

74

62

57

51

47

43

36

34

32

29

27

24

22

18

19

16

14

14

12

11

9

10

8

7

7

6

=0

wmax (kN/m)

Continuous Beams

4

590

551

551

470

438

393

359

333

274

265

248

225

210

178

160

142

142

133

107

113

102

87

77

93

76

67

80

65

=0

wmax (kN/m)

Continuous Beams

14

116

108

104

88

80

72

67

62

52

49

46

42

38

35

32

24

26

22

18

19

16

14

11

13

10

9

10

7

18

68

62

60

50

45

41

38

35

29

27

25

23

21

19

18

15

15

13

11

11

10

8

7

8

6

6

6

4

pr=1.50%

16

93

86

83

70

64

58

54

49

42

39

37

34

30

28

25

19

21

17

14

15

12

11

9

10

8

7

7

6

18

75

69

67

57

52

46

43

40

34

32

30

27

24

22

20

15

17

14

11

12

10

8

7

8

6

6

6

4

DB2.1Design of Continuous Composite Beams with Rigid Connections for Strength

20

55

50

48

40

37

33

31

28

23

22

20

19

17

16

15

12

12

11

9

9

8

7

5

6

5

4

5

4

20

61

57

55

46

42

38

36

33

28

27

24

22

20

18

17

12

14

11

9

9

8

7

5

6

5

4

5

4

133

Composite Structures Design Manual

Chart G2.1

=0

wmax (kN/m)

Semi-Continuous Beams

pr=0.75%

300

610 UB 125

113

101

530 UB 92.4

82.0

460 UB 82.1

74.6

67.1

410 UB 59.7

53.7

360 UB 56.7

50.7

44.7

310 UB 46.2

40.4

32.0

250 UB 37.3

31.4

25.7

200 UB 29.8

25.4

22.3

18.2

180 UB 22.2

250

200

180

+

Design load-carrying capacity, wmax = (Mcv + 0.85 Mbv ) 8L2 (kN/m)

160

140

120

100

90

80

70

60

18.1

16.1

150 UB 18.0

14.0

50

45

40

35

1

+

m

30

= 1

yr = 40 mm

25

f = 25 MPa

c

b1 2150 mm

20

b2 2150 mm

Dc = 120 mm

hr = 55 mm

15

6

10

12

14

16

18

20

Span, L (m)

DB2.1-134

Edition 1.0 February 2001

Design of Continuous Composite Beams with Rigid Connections for Strength

Composite Structures Design Manual

Chart G2.2

=0

wmax (kN/m)

Semi-Continuous Beams

pr=1.50%

300

610 UB 125

113

101

530 UB 92.4

82.0

460 UB 82.1

74.6

67.1

410 UB 59.7

53.7

360 UB 56.7

50.7

44.7

310 UB 46.2

40.4

32.0

250 UB 37.3

31.4

25.7

200 UB 29.8

25.4

22.3

18.2

180 UB 22.2

250

200

180

+

Design load-carrying capacity, wmax = (Mcv + 0.85 Mbv ) 8L2 (kN/m)

160

140

120

100

90

80

70

60

18.1

16.1

150 UB 18.0

14.0

50

45

40

35

1

+

m

30

= 1

yr = 40 mm

25

f = 25 MPa

c

b1 2150 mm

20

b2 2150 mm

Dc = 120 mm

hr = 55 mm

15

6

10

12

14

16

18

20

Span, L (m)

DB2.1Design of Continuous Composite Beams with Rigid Connections for Strength

135

Composite Structures Design Manual

Chart G2.3

=0

wmax (kN/m)

Continuous Beams

pr=0.75%

350

610 UB 125

113

101

530 UB 92.4

82.0

460 UB 82.1

74.6

67.1

410 UB 59.7

53.7

360 UB 56.7

50.7

44.7

310 UB 46.2

40.4

32.0

250 UB 37.3

31.4

25.7

200 UB 29.8

25.4

22.3

18.2

180 UB 22.2

300

250

200

+

Design load-carrying capacity, wmax = (Mbv + Mbv ) 8L2 (kN/m)

180

160

140

120

100

90

80

70

18.1

16.1

150 UB 18.0

14.0

60

50

Ffp Fr

45

1

+

m

40

= 1

35

yr = 40 mm

f = 25 MPa

c

30

b1 2150 mm

b2 2150 mm

25

Dc = 120 mm

hr = 55 mm

20

6

10

12

14

16

18

20

Span, L (m)

DB2.1-136

Edition 1.0 February 2001

Design of Continuous Composite Beams with Rigid Connections for Strength

Composite Structures Design Manual

Chart G2.4

=0

wmax (kN/m)

Continuous Beams

pr=1.50%

350

610 UB 125

113

101

530 UB 92.4

82.0

460 UB 82.1

74.6

67.1

410 UB 59.7

53.7

360 UB 56.7

50.7

44.7

310 UB 46.2

40.4

32.0

250 UB 37.3

31.4

25.7

200 UB 29.8

25.4

22.3

18.2

180 UB 22.2

300

250

200

+

Design load-carrying capacity, wmax = (Mbv + Mbv ) 8L2 (kN/m)

180

160

140

120

100

90

80

70

18.1

16.1

150 UB 18.0

14.0

60

50

Ffp Fr

45

1

+

m

40

= 1

35

yr = 40 mm

f = 25 MPa

c

30

b1 2150 mm

b2 2150 mm

25

Dc = 120 mm

hr = 55 mm

20

6

10

12

14

16

18

20

Span, L (m)

DB2.1Design of Continuous Composite Beams with Rigid Connections for Strength

137

Composite Structures Design Manual

Table G3.1

Semi-Continuous Beams

610 UB 125

113

101

530 UB 92.4

82.0

460 UB 82.1

74.6

67.1

410 UB 59.7

53.7

360 UB 56.7

50.7

44.7

310 UB 46.2

40.4

32.0

250 UB 37.3

31.4

25.7

200 UB 29.8

25.4

22.3

18.2

180 UB 22.2

18.1

16.1

150 UB 18.0

14.0

Table G3.2

4

1110

1020

977

819

742

660

613

565

471

447

408

375

351

314

295

249

247

222

196

191

174

162

136

149

128

117

121

100

6

821

757

728

610

555

491

457

423

356

339

312

289

273

246

233

196

199

176

149

152

133

123

104

113

97

89

92

76

8

663

612

590

494

452

402

375

349

297

285

263

246

230

208

194

161

164

145

123

125

110

101

86

94

81

74

76

63

Semi-Continuous Beams

610 UB 125

113

101

530 UB 92.4

82.0

460 UB 82.1

74.6

67.1

410 UB 59.7

53.7

360 UB 56.7

50.7

44.7

310 UB 46.2

40.4

32.0

250 UB 37.3

31.4

25.7

200 UB 29.8

25.4

22.3

18.2

180 UB 22.2

18.1

16.1

150 UB 18.0

14.0

DB2.1-138

4

1184

1095

1051

885

809

719

671

624

524

500

456

423

398

356

334

289

283

258

228

222

204

189

163

177

155

142

146

123

6

896

832

802

676

621

550

515

481

409

392

360

337

320

288

275

237

235

212

184

183

163

151

128

140

120

106

113

87

8

739

687

664

561

518

460

433

407

350

337

311

293

276

250

236

198

200

179

154

155

137

119

97

113

91

81

86

66

=0

Pmax (kN)

Beam span, L (m)

10

12

562

493

520

458

502

443

423

375

389

346

347

311

326

292

304

270

260

228

247

217

229

202

210

185

196

173

178

157

167

147

138

123

141

125

124

111

107

95

107

95

95

85

88

78

75

65

81

72

70

62

64

54

66

58

53

44

14

435

405

391

332

307

275

259

240

203

193

179

165

155

141

132

110

112

100

86

86

76

69

56

65

53

47

50

38

=0

Pmax (kN)

Beam span, L (m)

10

12

637

568

595

532

576

517

490

442

454

412

406

369

384

350

362

327

312

280

299

268

276

248

257

231

242

216

220

197

207

185

170

142

176

157

156

131

125

105

134

112

111

93

96

80

78

65

91

76

74

62

65

54

69

58

53

44

16

390

363

352

299

277

248

234

217

184

176

163

151

142

128

121

101

102

91

78

79

69

60

49

57

46

41

43

33

14

510

479

465

398

372

333

316

296

254

242

225

208

194

178

164

122

135

113

90

96

80

69

56

65

53

47

50

38

16

465

438

425

365

341

306

290

272

233

222

206

190

171

158

144

107

118

99

79

84

70

60

49

57

46

41

43

33

pr=0.75%

18

352

328

317

269

250

223

211

196

166

159

147

136

128

116

109

91

92

82

70

71

62

53

44

51

41

36

39

29

20

317

295

286

243

225

201

190

176

150

143

132

122

115

104

98

82

83

74

63

64

56

48

39

46

37

33

35

27

pr=1.50%

18

423

399

388

332

310

277

263

246

210

200

186

169

152

140

128

95

105

88

70

75

62

53

44

51

41

36

39

29

20

381

359

349

299

279

249

237

221

189

180

167

152

137

126

115

85

95

79

63

67

56

48

39

46

37

33

35

27

Edition 1.0 February 2001

Design of Continuous Composite Beams with Rigid Connections for Strength

Composite Structures Design Manual

Table G3.3

Steel section

610 UB 125

113

101

530 UB 92.4

82.0

460 UB 82.1

74.6

67.1

410 UB 59.7

53.7

360 UB 56.7

50.7

44.7

310 UB 46.2

40.4

32.0

250 UB 37.3

31.4

25.7

200 UB 29.8

25.4

22.3

18.2

180 UB 22.2

18.1

16.1

150 UB 18.0

14.0

Table G3.4

4

1830

1669

1606

1358

1222

1107

1014

925

769

726

675

611

561

506

468

375

392

342

286

292

256

228

191

217

181

163

173

139

6

1455

1332

1285

1078

974

871

800

732

607

575

532

484

447

401

372

302

313

274

226

232

200

179

150

166

140

127

130

105

8

1221

1119

1075

891

799

712

657

601

503

476

438

402

370

336

311

245

256

220

183

187

161

145

121

134

113

103

105

86

610 UB 125

113

101

530 UB 92.4

82.0

460 UB 82.1

74.6

67.1

410 UB 59.7

53.7

360 UB 56.7

50.7

44.7

310 UB 46.2

40.4

32.0

250 UB 37.3

31.4

25.7

200 UB 29.8

25.4

22.3

18.2

180 UB 22.2

18.1

16.1

150 UB 18.0

14.0

6

1509

1385

1338

1127

1022

916

844

776

648

615

570

521

484

435

405

332

343

303

253

258

226

202

172

193

163

144

155

118

10

12

1022

880

933

805

892

770

743

644

669

582

598

522

554

484

509

442

427

368

401

346

371

321

336

291

309

268

281

244

261

226

206

180

215

187

185

162

155

136

157

137

136

119

123

109

104

91

114

100

97

85

89

75

90

79

72

60

14

767

702

673

563

510

456

424

387

323

305

282

256

236

215

200

160

166

144

122

122

107

96

78

90

73

64

68

52

8

1279

1176

1138

954

867

772

716

661

555

529

487

450

418

375

347

286

292

257

218

219

192

167

135

157

126

111

117

89

10

12

1099

957

1010

881

968

846

811

713

737

650

658

582

613

544

568

501

481

422

455

400

420

370

385

339

357

316

324

287

303

269

245

205

253

225

222

188

179

150

188

158

156

131

134

112

109

91

126

106

102

85

90

75

95

79

72

60

16

680

624

598

501

454

407

378

346

290

273

253

230

213

193

180

145

150

130

111

111

97

84

68

79

64

56

59

45

=0

Pmax (kN)

Continuous Beams

4

1878

1716

1653

1401

1265

1148

1054

964

806

763

710

645

595

539

499

405

421

370

312

317

280

251

213

239

202

181

193

156

=0

Pmax (kN)

Continuous Beams

14

844

779

748

631

577

516

483

446

377

358

331

305

284

258

239

176

194

161

128

135

112

96

78

91

73

64

68

52

16

757

700

674

569

522

467

438

405

344

327

302

279

250

229

209

154

170

141

112

118

98

84

68

79

64

56

59

45

pr=0.75%

18

610

560

537

449

408

365

339

311

260

245

227

207

191

174

162

131

134

117

99

99

87

75

61

71

57

50

53

40

pr=1.50%

18

683

633

609

514

472

421

395

366

310

295

272

248

222

204

186

137

151

125

100

105

87

75

61

71

57

50

53

40

DB2.1Design of Continuous Composite Beams with Rigid Connections for Strength

20

549

504

483

404

367

328

305

280

234

221

204

186

172

156

146

117

121

105

89

89

78

67

55

63

51

45

47

36

20

615

569

548

462

424

379

356

330

279

266

245

223

200

183

167

123

136

113

90

95

78

67

55

63

51

45

47

36

139

Composite Structures Design Manual

Chart G3.1

=0

Pmax (kN)

Semi-Continuous Beams

pr=0.75%

1000

610 UB 125

113

101

530 UB 92.4

82.0

460 UB 82.1

74.6

67.1

410 UB 59.7

53.7

360 UB 56.7

50.7

44.7

310 UB 46.2

40.4

32.0

250 UB 37.3

31.4

25.7

200 UB 29.8

25.4

22.3

18.2

180 UB 22.2

900

800

700

+

Design load-carrying capacity, Pmax = (Mcv + 0.85 Mbv ) 4L (kN)

600

500

450

400

350

300

250

18.1

16.1

150 UB 18.0

14.0

200

180

160

140

1

120

+

m

= 1

yr = 40 mm

100

f = 25 MPa

c

b1 2150 mm

80

b2 2150 mm

Dc = 120 mm

hr = 55 mm

6

10

12

14

16

18

20

Span, L (m)

DB2.1-140

Edition 1.0 February 2001

Design of Continuous Composite Beams with Rigid Connections for Strength

Composite Structures Design Manual

Chart G3.2

=0

Pmax (kN)

Semi-Continuous Beams

pr=1.50%

1000

610 UB 125

113

101

530 UB 92.4

82.0

460 UB 82.1

74.6

67.1

410 UB 59.7

53.7

360 UB 56.7

50.7

44.7

310 UB 46.2

40.4

32.0

250 UB 37.3

31.4

25.7

200 UB 29.8

25.4

22.3

18.2

180 UB 22.2

900

800

700

+

Design load-carrying capacity, Pmax = (Mcv + 0.85 Mbv ) 4L (kN)

600

500

450

400

350

300

250

18.1

16.1

150 UB 18.0

14.0

200

180

160

140

1

120

+

m

= 1

yr = 40 mm

100

f = 25 MPa

c

b1 2150 mm

80

b2 2150 mm

Dc = 120 mm

hr = 55 mm

6

10

12

14

16

18

20

Span, L (m)

DB2.1Design of Continuous Composite Beams with Rigid Connections for Strength

141

Composite Structures Design Manual

Chart G3.3

=0

Pmax (kN)

Continuous Beams

pr=0.75%

1600

610 UB 125

113

101

530 UB 92.4

82.0

460 UB 82.1

74.6

67.1

410 UB 59.7

53.7

360 UB 56.7

50.7

44.7

310 UB 46.2

40.4

32.0

250 UB 37.3

31.4

25.7

200 UB 29.8

25.4

22.3

18.2

180 UB 22.2

1400

1200

1000

900

+

Design load-carrying capacity, Pmax = (Mbv + Mbv ) 4L (kN)

800

700

600

500

450

400

350

300

18.1

16.1

150 UB 18.0

14.0

250

200

Ffp Fr

1

180

+

m

160

= 1

140

yr = 40 mm

f = 25 MPa

c

120

b1 2150 mm

b2 2150 mm

100

Dc = 120 mm

hr = 55 mm

80

6

10

12

14

16

18

20

Span, L (m)

DB2.1-142

Edition 1.0 February 2001

Design of Continuous Composite Beams with Rigid Connections for Strength

Composite Structures Design Manual

Chart G3.4

=0

Pmax (kN)

Continuous Beams

pr=1.50%

1600

610 UB 125

113

101

530 UB 92.4

82.0

460 UB 82.1

74.6

67.1

410 UB 59.7

53.7

360 UB 56.7

50.7

44.7

310 UB 46.2

40.4

32.0

250 UB 37.3

31.4

25.7

200 UB 29.8

25.4

22.3

18.2

180 UB 22.2

1400

1200

1000

900

+

Design load-carrying capacity, Pmax = (Mbv + Mbv ) 4L (kN)

800

700

600

500

450

400

350

300

18.1

16.1

150 UB 18.0

14.0

250

200

Ffp Fr

1

180

+

m

160

= 1

140

yr = 40 mm

f = 25 MPa

c

120

b1 2150 mm

b2 2150 mm

100

Dc = 120 mm

hr = 55 mm

80

6

10

12

14

16

18

20

Span, L (m)

DB2.1Design of Continuous Composite Beams with Rigid Connections for Strength

143

Composite Structures Design Manual

APPENDIX H

DESIGN TABLES AND CHARTS FOR =1 (=0O)

The reader is referred to Appendix G for a general explanation that is applicable to all the design

charts and tables. This appendix covers composite beams with a solid slab. In cases when the ribs of

the profiled steel sheeting are parallel to the member (e.g. most primary beams), the slab may be

treated as solid, provided that the profiled steel sheeting satisfies the requirements of AS 2327.1.

For typical slab and rib depths, the effective area of the concrete flange may be 60-80% greater in this

case than for = 0 ( = 90). Due to the minimum crack control requirement of pr = 0.75% for N12

reinforcing bars, the area of slab reinforcement increases in proportion to the slab depth, and,

combined with the potential for increased design positive moment capacity, can lead to substantially

greater load-carrying capacity.

Appendix H may also be used in conjunction with Appendix G to obtain approximate solutions for a

wide range of slab depths. For example, ignoring changes to the lever arm between the tensile and

compressive forces, a composite beam with a concrete slab depth of 175 mm (with hr =55 mm) and

the profiled steel sheeting aligned perpendicular to the member axis ( = 0), is equivalent to a solid

slab (or = 1) with a depth of 120 mm. For intermediate depth values, linear interpolation may be

used, provided that the result is treated as a preliminary member sizing and not as a final design.

An index to the design charts and tables in this appendix is given in Table H.

Semi-Continuous

Loading Case

Continuous

+

M cv + 0.85 M bv

+

M bv + M bv

pr = 0.75%

pr = 1.50%

pr = 0.75%

pr = 1.50%

Mf

0.5)

H1.1

H1.2

H1.3

H1.4

wmax

1.0)

H2.1

H2.2

H2.3

H2.4

Pmax

1.0)

H3.1

H3.2

H3.3

H3.4

As for Appendix G, the design charts and tables for continuous composite beams are all based on the

use of an additional bottom flange plate with equal or greater compressive capacity than the tensile

yield strength of the reinforcement in the slab Ffp Fr .

DB2.1Design of Continuous Composite Beams with Rigid Connections for Strength

145

Composite Structures Design Manual

Table H1.1

Semi-Continuous Beams

610 UB 125

113

101

530 UB 92.4

82.0

460 UB 82.1

74.6

67.1

410 UB 59.7

53.7

360 UB 56.7

50.7

44.7

310 UB 46.2

40.4

32.0

250 UB 37.3

31.4

25.7

200 UB 29.8

25.4

22.3

18.2

180 UB 22.2

18.1

16.1

150 UB 18.0

14.0

Table H1.2

4

1262

1163

1118

928

844

745

693

641

539

513

471

436

411

369

348

294

294

263

228

226

202

187

161

173

151

140

142

119

6

1389

1284

1238

1038

951

846

792

738

627

599

553

512

482

435

409

346

347

310

269

267

239

221

189

204

177

160

166

130

8

1507

1399

1352

1143

1052

940

881

821

699

667

617

572

538

487

459

387

389

349

301

301

267

237

194

226

183

161

171

131

Semi-Continuous Beams

610 UB 125

113

101

530 UB 92.4

82.0

460 UB 82.1

74.6

67.1

410 UB 59.7

53.7

360 UB 56.7

50.7

44.7

310 UB 46.2

40.4

32.0

250 UB 37.3

31.4

25.7

200 UB 29.8

25.4

22.3

18.2

180 UB 22.2

18.1

16.1

150 UB 18.0

14.0

DB2.1-146

4

1401

1301

1255

1052

966

854

800

748

636

610

559

523

497

446

425

366

361

328

288

282

254

227

187

216

176

156

165

127

6

1597

1490

1443

1222

1134

1008

952

897

772

742

683

640

604

548

519

413

440

381

307

325

271

234

192

223

181

160

169

130

8

1783

1673

1624

1387

1294

1154

1093

1027

882

844

781

725

670

617

564

420

464

388

311

331

275

237

194

226

183

161

171

131

Mf (kNm)

Beam span, L (m)

10

12

14

1620

1725

1798

1509

1607

1678

1459

1554

1625

1238

1321

1383

1139

1217

1279

1020

1091

1145

956

1024

1077

891

956

1008

761

818

864

727

782

826

673

724

765

625

673

710

589

631

664

533

575

606

504

542

569

419

427

427

428

459

474

380

394

394

314

315

315

328

337

337

278

280

280

240

241

241

195

196

196

228

229

229

184

185

185

162

163

163

173

173

173

132

133

133

Mf (kNm)

Beam span, L (m)

10

12

14

1964

2134

2263

1850

2007

2124

1796

1945

2056

1539

1666

1758

1428

1539

1619

1280

1383

1455

1207

1299

1328

1129

1196

1197

965

983

983

909

917

917

846

854

854

755

761

761

678

683

683

625

630

630

571

575

575

424

427

427

470

474

474

392

394

394

314

315

315

334

337

337

278

280

280

240

241

241

195

196

196

228

229

229

184

185

185

162

163

163

173

173

173

132

133

133

=1

16

1866

1746

1693

1444

1338

1198

1129

1057

905

864

801

742

683

630

575

427

474

394

315

337

280

241

196

229

185

163

173

133

=1

16

2375

2224

2151

1834

1626

1461

1328

1197

983

917

854

761

683

630

575

427

474

394

315

337

280

241

196

229

185

163

173

133

pr=0.75%

18

1907

1787

1733

1475

1368

1222

1151

1077

920

878

813

752

683

630

575

427

474

394

315

337

280

241

196

229

185

163

173

133

20

1907

1787

1733

1475

1368

1222

1151

1077

920

878

813

752

683

630

575

427

474

394

315

337

280

241

196

229

185

163

173

133

pr=1.50%

18

2435

2277

2201

1834

1626

1461

1328

1197

983

917

854

761

683

630

575

427

474

394

315

337

280

241

196

229

185

163

173

133

20

2435

2277

2201

1834

1626

1461

1328

1197

983

917

854

761

683

630

575

427

474

394

315

337

280

241

196

229

185

163

173

133

Edition 1.0 February 2001

Design of Continuous Composite Beams with Rigid Connections for Strength

Composite Structures Design Manual

Table H1.3

Mf (kNm)

Continuous Beams

610 UB 125

113

101

530 UB 92.4

82.0

460 UB 82.1

74.6

67.1

410 UB 59.7

53.7

360 UB 56.7

50.7

44.7

310 UB 46.2

40.4

32.0

250 UB 37.3

31.4

25.7

200 UB 29.8

25.4

22.3

18.2

180 UB 22.2

18.1

16.1

150 UB 18.0

14.0

Table H1.4

4

2396

2179

2078

1713

1530

1357

1247

1137

941

887

813

741

683

617

575

460

473

411

345

346

301

273

231

251

214

196

198

163

6

2534

2311

2208

1833

1647

1467

1355

1243

1038

980

902

823

760

689

641

514

530

461

389

390

340

310

264

285

246

221

228

177

8

2663

2436

2331

1947

1756

1570

1452

1332

1115

1053

972

887

820

745

694

561

576

503

428

427

375

333

271

314

253

223

235

179

Mf (kNm)

Continuous Beams

610 UB 125

113

101

530 UB 92.4

82.0

460 UB 82.1

74.6

67.1

410 UB 59.7

53.7

360 UB 56.7

50.7

44.7

310 UB 46.2

40.4

32.0

250 UB 37.3

31.4

25.7

200 UB 29.8

25.4

22.3

18.2

180 UB 22.2

18.1

16.1

150 UB 18.0

14.0

4

2539

2320

2218

1839

1655

1468

1357

1246

1041

986

903

830

771

697

654

537

542

479

413

405

359

321

263

302

245

217

227

174

6

2747

2522

2417

2021

1834

1634

1520

1407

1187

1128

1038

957

892

808

760

600

634

547

439

460

382

329

268

310

250

221

232

177

10

12

14

2785

2898

2974

2554

2659

2734

2446

2548

2621

2049

2137

2202

1849

1932

1996

1656

1732

1788

1532

1604

1660

1407

1476

1531

1181

1242

1291

1117

1175

1225

1031

1086

1131

944

996

1041

874

925

969

794

840

880

742

786

826

604

616

616

618

656

679

542

563

563

447

449

449

461

474

474

390

392

392

336

337

337

272

273

273

316

317

317

254

255

255

224

225

225

236

237

237

180

180

180

8

2947

2718

2610

2198

2005

1792

1672

1551

1314

1251

1152

1066

984

901

822

608

668

555

444

467

387

333

271

314

253

223

235

179

10

12

14

3140

3324

3471

2907

3082

3227

2796

2967

3110

2363

2515

2642

2161

2306

2432

1933

2065

2176

1808

1935

1984

1681

1783

1783

1430

1456

1456

1346

1355

1355

1246

1255

1255

1109

1117

1117

994

1001

1001

910

917

917

830

835

835

613

616

616

675

679

679

560

563

563

447

449

449

471

474

474

390

392

392

336

337

337

272

273

273

316

317

317

254

255

255

224

225

225

236

237

237

180

180

180

=1

16

3045

2804

2691

2265

2058

1843

1715

1585

1341

1274

1176

1085

1001

917

835

616

679

563

449

474

392

337

273

317

255

225

237

180

=1

16

3613

3367

3250

2766

2444

2186

1984

1783

1456

1355

1255

1117

1001

917

835

616

679

563

449

474

392

337

273

317

255

225

237

180

pr=0.75%

18

3087

2846

2732

2297

2090

1868

1739

1609

1361

1294

1193

1102

1001

917

835

616

679

563

449

474

392

337

273

317

255

225

237

180

20

3087

2846

2732

2297

2090

1868

1739

1609

1361

1294

1193

1102

1001

917

835

616

679

563

449

474

392

337

273

317

255

225

237

180

pr=1.50%

18

3698

3451

3332

2766

2444

2186

1984

1783

1456

1355

1255

1117

1001

917

835

616

679

563

449

474

392

337

273

317

255

225

237

180

20

3698

3451

3332

2766

2444

2186

1984

1783

1456

1355

1255

1117

1001

917

835

616

679

563

449

474

392

337

273

317

255

225

237

180

DB2.1Design of Continuous Composite Beams with Rigid Connections for Strength

147

Composite Structures Design Manual

Chart H1.1

=1

Mf (kNm)

Semi-Continuous Beams

pr=0.75%

2500

610 UB 125

113

101

530 UB 92.4

82.0

460 UB 82.1

74.6

67.1

410 UB 59.7

53.7

360 UB 56.7

50.7

44.7

310 UB 46.2

40.4

32.0

250 UB 37.3

31.4

25.7

200 UB 29.8

25.4

22.3

18.2

180 UB 22.2

2000

1800

1600

+

Design free bending moment capacity, Mf = Mc + 0.85 Mb (kNm)

1400

1200

1000

900

800

700

600

500

450

18.1

16.1

150 UB 18.0

14.0

400

350

300

250

0.5

+

m

200

= 1

yr = 40 mm

f = 25 MPa

c

150

b1 2150 mm

b2 2150 mm

Dc = 120 mm

100

6

10

12

14

16

18

20

Span, L (m)

DB2.1-148

Edition 1.0 February 2001

Design of Continuous Composite Beams with Rigid Connections for Strength

Composite Structures Design Manual

Chart H1.2

=1

Mf (kNm)

Semi-Continuous Beams

pr=1.50%

610 UB 125

113

101

530 UB 92.4

82.0

460 UB 82.1

74.6

67.1

410 UB 59.7

53.7

360 UB 56.7

50.7

44.7

310 UB 46.2

40.4

32.0

250 UB 37.3

31.4

25.7

200 UB 29.8

25.4

22.3

18.2

180 UB 22.2

2000

1800

1600

+

Design free bending moment capacity, Mf = Mc + 0.85 Mb (kNm)

1400

1200

1000

900

800

700

600

500

450

18.1

16.1

150 UB 18.0

14.0

400

350

300

250

0.5

+

m

200

= 1

yr = 40 mm

f = 25 MPa

c

150

b1 2150 mm

b2 2150 mm

Dc = 120 mm

100

6

10

12

14

16

18

20

Span, L (m)

DB2.1Design of Continuous Composite Beams with Rigid Connections for Strength

149

Composite Structures Design Manual

Chart H1.3

=1

Mf (kNm)

Continuous Beams

pr=0.75%

4000

610 UB 125

113

101

530 UB 92.4

82.0

460 UB 82.1

74.6

67.1

410 UB 59.7

53.7

360 UB 56.7

50.7

44.7

310 UB 46.2

40.4

32.0

250 UB 37.3

31.4

25.7

200 UB 29.8

25.4

22.3

18.2

180 UB 22.2

3500

3000

2500

2000

+

Design free bending moment capacity, Mf = Mb + Mb (kNm)

1800

1600

1400

1200

1000

900

800

700

18.1

16.1

150 UB 18.0

14.0

600

500

450

Ffp Fr

400

0.5

350

+

m

= 1

300

yr = 40 mm

f = 25 MPa

c

250

b1 2150 mm

b2 2150 mm

200

Dc = 120 mm

150

6

10

12

14

16

18

20

Span, L (m)

DB2.1-150

Edition 1.0 February 2001

Design of Continuous Composite Beams with Rigid Connections for Strength

Composite Structures Design Manual

Chart H1.4

=1

Mf (kNm)

Continuous Beams

pr=1.50%

610 UB 125

113

101

530 UB 92.4

82.0

460 UB 82.1

74.6

67.1

410 UB 59.7

53.7

360 UB 56.7

50.7

44.7

310 UB 46.2

40.4

32.0

250 UB 37.3

31.4

25.7

200 UB 29.8

25.4

22.3

18.2

180 UB 22.2

3500

3000

2500

2000

+

Design free bending moment capacity, Mf = Mb + Mb (kNm)

1800

1600

1400

1200

1000

900

800

700

18.1

16.1

150 UB 18.0

14.0

600

500

450

Ffp Fr

400

0.5

350

+

m

= 1

300

yr = 40 mm

f = 25 MPa

c

250

b1 2150 mm

b2 2150 mm

200

Dc = 120 mm

150

6

10

12

14

16

18

20

Span, L (m)

DB2.1Design of Continuous Composite Beams with Rigid Connections for Strength

151

Composite Structures Design Manual

Table H2.1

Semi-Continuous Beams

610 UB 125

113

101

530 UB 92.4

82.0

460 UB 82.1

74.6

67.1

410 UB 59.7

53.7

360 UB 56.7

50.7

44.7

310 UB 46.2

40.4

32.0

250 UB 37.3

31.4

25.7

200 UB 29.8

25.4

22.3

18.2

180 UB 22.2

18.1

16.1

150 UB 18.0

14.0

Table H2.2

4

590

551

551

464

422

373

346

321

269

257

236

218

205

178

160

142

142

132

107

113

101

87

77

86

76

67

71

56

6

309

285

275

231

211

188

176

164

139

133

123

114

107

97

91

77

77

69

59

59

53

47

39

44

37

33

36

28

8

188

175

169

143

132

118

110

103

87

83

77

71

67

61

57

47

49

43

36

37

32

28

23

28

22

20

21

16

Semi-Continuous Beams

610 UB 125

113

101

530 UB 92.4

82.0

460 UB 82.1

74.6

67.1

410 UB 59.7

53.7

360 UB 56.7

50.7

44.7

310 UB 46.2

40.4

32.0

250 UB 37.3

31.4

25.7

200 UB 29.8

25.4

22.3

18.2

180 UB 22.2

18.1

16.1

150 UB 18.0

14.0

DB2.1-152

4

590

551

551

470

438

393

359

333

274

265

248

225

210

178

160

142

142

133

107

113

102

87

77

93

76

67

73

57

6

355

331

321

272

252

224

212

199

172

161

151

137

124

116

106

81

89

76

61

66

55

48

39

46

38

33

36

28

8

223

209

203

173

160

144

134

124

105

99

93

84

77

71

65

49

54

46

37

39

33

28

23

28

22

20

21

16

=1

wmax (kN/m)

Beam span, L (m)

10

12

130

96

121

89

117

86

99

73

91

68

82

61

76

57

71

53

61

45

58

43

54

40

50

37

47

35

43

32

40

30

33

24

34

25

30

22

25

18

26

19

22

16

19

13

16

11

18

13

15

10

13

9

14

10

11

7

14

73

68

66

56

52

47

44

41

35

34

31

29

27

25

23

17

19

16

13

14

11

10

8

9

8

7

7

5

16

58

55

53

45

42

37

35

33

28

27

25

23

21

20

18

13

15

12

10

11

9

8

6

7

6

5

5

4

=1

wmax (kN/m)

Beam span, L (m)

10

12

157

118

148

110

142

106

121

91

111

84

100

75

94

70

86

65

73

53

69

50

65

47

58

42

52

38

48

34

44

31

33

24

36

26

31

22

25

18

26

19

22

16

19

13

16

11

18

13

15

10

13

9

14

10

11

7

pr=0.75%

14

92

86

83

71

65

59

54

49

40

37

35

31

28

26

23

17

19

16

13

14

11

10

8

9

8

7

7

5

18

47

44

43

36

34

30

28

27

23

22

20

19

17

16

14

11

12

10

8

8

7

6

5

6

5

4

4

3

20

38

36

35

30

27

24

23

22

18

18

16

15

14

13

12

9

9

8

6

7

6

5

4

5

4

3

3

3

pr=1.50%

16

74

69

67

57

51

46

42

37

31

29

27

24

21

20

18

13

15

12

10

11

9

8

6

7

6

5

5

4

18

60

56

54

45

40

36

33

30

24

23

21

19

17

16

14

11

12

10

8

8

7

6

5

6

5

4

4

3

20

49

46

44

37

33

29

27

24

20

18

17

15

14

13

12

9

9

8

6

7

6

5

4

5

4

3

3

3

Edition 1.0 February 2001

Design of Continuous Composite Beams with Rigid Connections for Strength

Composite Structures Design Manual

Table H2.3

Steel section

4

590

551

551

470

438

393

359

333

274

265

248

225

210

178

160

142

142

133

107

113

102

87

77

93

76

67

80

65

610 UB 125

113

101

530 UB 92.4

82.0

460 UB 82.1

74.6

67.1

410 UB 59.7

53.7

360 UB 56.7

50.7

44.7

310 UB 46.2

40.4

32.0

250 UB 37.3

31.4

25.7

200 UB 29.8

25.4

22.3

18.2

180 UB 22.2

18.1

16.1

150 UB 18.0

14.0

Table H2.4

6

393

367

368

313

292

262

240

222

182

176

165

150

140

118

107

94

94

89

71

75

68

58

50

59

48

42

46

35

8

295

274

263

223

201

182

168

154

130

123

115

105

96

88

80

63

69

59

48

51

43

37

31

36

29

26

28

21

610 UB 125

113

101

530 UB 92.4

82.0

460 UB 82.1

74.6

67.1

410 UB 59.7

53.7

360 UB 56.7

50.7

44.7

310 UB 46.2

40.4

32.0

250 UB 37.3

31.4

25.7

200 UB 29.8

25.4

22.3

18.2

180 UB 22.2

18.1

16.1

150 UB 18.0

14.0

6

393

367

368

313

292

262

240

222

182

176

165

150

140

118

107

94

94

89

71

75

68

58

50

59

48

42

46

35

10

12

207

153

190

140

183

135

154

114

140

103

126

93

117

86

107

79

90

67

85

63

79

59

73

53

66

49

61

45

57

41

44

32

47

35

40

30

33

24

35

25

29

21

25

18

21

15

24

17

19

14

17

12

18

13

14

10

14

117

108

104

88

80

72

66

61

51

48

45

41

38

34

32

24

26

22

18

19

16

14

11

13

10

9

10

7

8

295

275

276

235

219

197

180

167

137

131

124

111

100

89

80

64

71

60

48

52

43

37

31

36

29

26

28

21

10

12

231

171

213

156

202

149

171

126

153

114

140

104

128

95

116

87

97

72

91

67

86

63

77

56

69

51

64

46

58

42

44

32

48

35

41

30

33

24

35

25

29

21

25

18

21

15

24

17

19

14

17

12

18

13

14

10

pr=0.75%

16

93

86

83

70

63

57

53

49

41

39

36

33

30

28

25

19

21

17

14

15

12

11

9

10

8

7

7

6

=1

wmax (kN/m)

Continuous Beams

590

551

551

470

438

393

359

333

274

265

248

225

210

178

160

142

142

133

107

113

102

87

77

93

76

67

80

65

=1

wmax (kN/m)

Continuous Beams

14

131

120

116

98

89

81

73

66

55

51

48

43

38

35

32

24

26

22

18

19

16

14

11

13

10

9

10

7

16

105

97

93

79

71

64

58

53

43

40

38

34

30

28

25

19

21

17

14

15

12

11

9

10

8

7

7

6

18

75

69

67

56

51

46

43

39

33

32

29

27

24

22

20

15

17

14

11

12

10

8

7

8

6

6

6

4

pr=1.50%

18

86

80

77

65

58

52

47

43

35

33

30

27

24

22

20

15

17

14

11

12

10

8

7

8

6

6

6

4

DB2.1Design of Continuous Composite Beams with Rigid Connections for Strength

20

62

57

55

46

42

37

35

32

27

26

24

22

20

18

17

12

14

11

9

9

8

7

5

6

5

4

5

4

20

71

66

64

54

48

43

39

35

29

27

25

22

20

18

17

12

14

11

9

9

8

7

5

6

5

4

5

4

153

Composite Structures Design Manual

Chart H2.1

=1

wmax (kN/m)

Semi-Continuous Beams

pr=0.75%

300

610 UB 125

113

101

530 UB 92.4

82.0

460 UB 82.1

74.6

67.1

410 UB 59.7

53.7

360 UB 56.7

50.7

44.7

310 UB 46.2

40.4

32.0

250 UB 37.3

31.4

25.7

200 UB 29.8

25.4

22.3

18.2

180 UB 22.2

250

200

180

+

Design load-carrying capacity, wmax = (Mcv + 0.85 Mbv ) 8L2 (kN/m)

160

140

120

100

90

80

70

60

18.1

16.1

150 UB 18.0

14.0

50

45

40

35

1

+

m

30

= 1

yr = 40 mm

25

f = 25 MPa

c

b1 2150 mm

20

b2 2150 mm

Dc = 120 mm

15

6

10

12

14

16

18

20

Span, L (m)

DB2.1-154

Edition 1.0 February 2001

Design of Continuous Composite Beams with Rigid Connections for Strength

Composite Structures Design Manual

Chart H2.2

=1

wmax (kN/m)

Semi-Continuous Beams

pr=1.50%

610 UB 125

113

101

530 UB 92.4

82.0

460 UB 82.1

74.6

67.1

410 UB 59.7

53.7

360 UB 56.7

50.7

44.7

310 UB 46.2

40.4

32.0

250 UB 37.3

31.4

25.7

200 UB 29.8

25.4

22.3

18.2

180 UB 22.2

250

200

180

+

Design load-carrying capacity, wmax = (Mcv + 0.85 Mbv ) 8L2 (kN/m)

160

140

120

100

90

80

70

60

18.1

16.1

150 UB 18.0

14.0

50

45

40

35

1

+

m

30

= 1

yr = 40 mm

25

f = 25 MPa

c

b1 2150 mm

20

b2 2150 mm

Dc = 120 mm

15

6

10

12

14

16

18

20

Span, L (m)

DB2.1Design of Continuous Composite Beams with Rigid Connections for Strength

155

Composite Structures Design Manual

Chart H2.3

=1

wmax (kN/m)

Continuous Beams

pr=0.75%

350

610 UB 125

113

101

530 UB 92.4

82.0

460 UB 82.1

74.6

67.1

410 UB 59.7

53.7

360 UB 56.7

50.7

44.7

310 UB 46.2

40.4

32.0

250 UB 37.3

31.4

25.7

200 UB 29.8

25.4

22.3

18.2

180 UB 22.2

300

250

200

+

Design load-carrying capacity, wmax = (Mbv + Mbv ) 8L2 (kN/m)

180

160

140

120

100

90

80

70

18.1

16.1

150 UB 18.0

14.0

60

50

Ffp Fr

45

1

+

m

40

= 1

35

yr = 40 mm

f = 25 MPa

c

30

b1 2150 mm

b2 2150 mm

25

Dc = 120 mm

20

6

10

12

14

16

18

20

Span, L (m)

DB2.1-156

Edition 1.0 February 2001

Design of Continuous Composite Beams with Rigid Connections for Strength

Composite Structures Design Manual

Chart H2.4

=1

wmax (kN/m)

Continuous Beams

pr=1.50%

610 UB 125

113

101

530 UB 92.4

82.0

460 UB 82.1

74.6

67.1

410 UB 59.7

53.7

360 UB 56.7

50.7

44.7

310 UB 46.2

40.4

32.0

250 UB 37.3

31.4

25.7

200 UB 29.8

25.4

22.3

18.2

180 UB 22.2

300

250

200

+

Design load-carrying capacity, wmax = (Mbv + Mbv ) 8L2 (kN/m)

180

160

140

120

100

90

80

70

18.1

16.1

150 UB 18.0

14.0

60

50

Ffp Fr

45

1

+

m

40

= 1

35

yr = 40 mm

f = 25 MPa

c

30

b1 2150 mm

b2 2150 mm

25

Dc = 120 mm

20

6

10

12

14

16

18

20

Span, L (m)

DB2.1Design of Continuous Composite Beams with Rigid Connections for Strength

157

Composite Structures Design Manual

Table H3.1

Semi-Continuous Beams

610 UB 125

113

101

530 UB 92.4

82.0

460 UB 82.1

74.6

67.1

410 UB 59.7

53.7

360 UB 56.7

50.7

44.7

310 UB 46.2

40.4

32.0

250 UB 37.3

31.4

25.7

200 UB 29.8

25.4

22.3

18.2

180 UB 22.2

18.1

16.1

150 UB 18.0

14.0

Table H3.2

4

1239

1145

1114

928

844

745

693

641

539

513

471

436

411

367

343

292

292

263

225

226

202

185

160

173

151

139

142

119

6

926

856

825

692

634

564

528

492

418

399

368

341

321

290

273

230

231

207

179

178

159

147

126

136

118

106

111

87

8

753

700

676

572

526

470

440

410

349

333

308

286

269

244

229

193

195

174

150

150

134

119

97

113

91

81

86

66

Semi-Continuous Beams

610 UB 125

113

101

530 UB 92.4

82.0

460 UB 82.1

74.6

67.1

410 UB 59.7

53.7

360 UB 56.7

50.7

44.7

310 UB 46.2

40.4

32.0

250 UB 37.3

31.4

25.7

200 UB 29.8

25.4

22.3

18.2

180 UB 22.2

18.1

16.1

150 UB 18.0

14.0

DB2.1-158

4

1340

1245

1212

1023

943

838

782

729

617

592

546

508

481

429

405

343

347

314

266

271

241

212

178

208

169

150

164

127

6

1064

993

962

815

756

672

635

598

515

495

455

427

403

363

341

275

291

254

205

216

181

156

128

148

120

106

113

87

8

891

837

812

694

647

577

546

514

441

422

390

363

335

308

282

210

232

194

156

165

138

119

97

113

91

81

86

66

=1

Pmax (kN)

Beam span, L (m)

10

12

648

575

603

536

584

518

495

440

456

406

408

364

382

341

357

319

304

273

291

261

269

241

250

224

235

210

213

192

201

181

167

142

171

153

152

131

125

105

131

112

111

93

96

80

78

65

91

76

74

62

65

54

69

58

53

44

14

514

479

464

395

365

327

308

288

247

236

218

203

190

173

163

122

135

113

90

96

80

69

56

65

53

47

50

38

=1

Pmax (kN)

Beam span, L (m)

10

12

785

711

740

669

718

648

615

555

571

513

512

461

483

433

452

399

386

328

364

306

338

285

302

254

271

228

250

210

228

192

170

142

188

158

157

131

125

105

134

112

111

93

96

80

78

65

91

76

74

62

65

54

69

58

53

44

16

467

437

423

361

335

300

282

264

226

216

200

185

171

158

144

107

118

99

79

84

70

60

49

57

46

41

43

33

14

647

607

587

502

463

416

380

342

281

262

244

217

195

180

164

122

135

113

90

96

80

69

56

65

53

47

50

38

16

594

556

538

459

407

365

332

299

246

229

213

190

171

158

144

107

118

99

79

84

70

60

49

57

46

41

43

33

pr=0.75%

18

424

397

385

328

304

271

256

239

204

195

181

167

152

140

128

95

105

88

70

75

62

53

44

51

41

36

39

29

20

381

357

347

295

274

244

230

215

184

176

163

150

137

126

115

85

95

79

63

67

56

48

39

46

37

33

35

27

pr=1.50%

18

541

506

489

408

361

325

295

266

218

204

190

169

152

140

128

95

105

88

70

75

62

53

44

51

41

36

39

29

20

487

455

440

367

325

292

266

239

197

183

171

152

137

126

115

85

95

79

63

67

56

48

39

46

37

33

35

27

Edition 1.0 February 2001

Design of Continuous Composite Beams with Rigid Connections for Strength

Composite Structures Design Manual

Table H3.3

Steel section

610 UB 125

113

101

530 UB 92.4

82.0

460 UB 82.1

74.6

67.1

410 UB 59.7

53.7

360 UB 56.7

50.7

44.7

310 UB 46.2

40.4

32.0

250 UB 37.3

31.4

25.7

200 UB 29.8

25.4

22.3

18.2

180 UB 22.2

18.1

16.1

150 UB 18.0

14.0

Table H3.4

4

1906

1741

1681

1422

1283

1164

1067

975

815

770

720

653

600

546

504

405

425

372

309

318

277

247

210

236

199

179

190

154

6

1529

1401

1354

1139

1032

928

854

784

654

620

577

524

485

436

403

328

339

298

249

254

222

199

170

189

161

144

152

118

8

1292

1187

1149

965

878

785

724

666

555

526

486

444

410

369

342

280

287

251

214

214

187

167

135

157

126

111

117

89

610 UB 125

113

101

530 UB 92.4

82.0

460 UB 82.1

74.6

67.1

410 UB 59.7

53.7

360 UB 56.7

50.7

44.7

310 UB 46.2

40.4

32.0

250 UB 37.3

31.4

25.7

200 UB 29.8

25.4

22.3

18.2

180 UB 22.2

18.1

16.1

150 UB 18.0

14.0

6

1626

1497

1449

1228

1119

1009

934

863

728

690

645

587

541

492

454

360

385

334

268

284

240

207

172

201

163

144

155

118

10

12

1114

966

1022

886

979

849

819

712

740

644

662

577

613

535

563

492

472

414

447

392

413

362

377

332

350

308

318

280

297

262

242

205

247

219

217

188

179

150

184

158

156

131

134

112

109

91

126

106

102

85

90

75

95

79

72

60

14

850

781

749

629

570

511

474

437

369

350

323

297

277

251

236

176

194

161

128

135

112

96

78

91

73

64

68

52

8

1396

1290

1251

1060

969

871

808

746

628

598

556

509

470

424

386

298

321

274

220

232

194

167

135

157

126

111

117

89

10

12

1239

1108

1148

1027

1114

989

944

838

864

769

773

688

722

645

671

594

565

485

536

452

498

418

444

372

398

334

362

306

329

278

245

205

270

226

224

188

179

150

188

158

156

131

134

112

109

91

126

106

102

85

90

75

95

79

72

60

16

761

701

673

566

515

461

429

396

335

319

294

271

250

229

209

154

170

141

112

118

98

84

68

79

64

56

59

45

=1

Pmax (kN)

Continuous Beams

4

1991

1825

1763

1500

1360

1237

1139

1046

882

837

784

715

661

603

560

444

477

414

341

359

308

268

224

264

213

189

206

160

=1

Pmax (kN)

Continuous Beams

14

992

922

889

755

695

622

567

509

416

387

359

319

286

262

239

176

194

161

128

135

112

96

78

91

73

64

68

52

16

903

842

812

692

611

547

496

446

364

339

314

279

250

229

209

154

170

141

112

118

98

84

68

79

64

56

59

45

pr=0.75%

18

686

632

607

511

465

415

387

358

302

287

265

245

222

204

186

137

151

125

100

105

87

75

61

71

57

50

53

40

pr=1.50%

18

822

767

740

615

543

486

441

396

323

301

279

248

222

204

186

137

151

125

100

105

87

75

61

71

57

50

53

40

DB2.1Design of Continuous Composite Beams with Rigid Connections for Strength

20

617

569

546

459

418

374

348

322

272

259

239

220

200

183

167

123

136

113

90

95

78

67

55

63

51

45

47

36

20

740

690

666

553

489

437

397

357

291

271

251

223

200

183

167

123

136

113

90

95

78

67

55

63

51

45

47

36

159

Composite Structures Design Manual

Chart H3.1

=1

Pmax (kN)

Semi-Continuous Beams

pr=0.75%

1000

610 UB 125

113

101

530 UB 92.4

82.0

460 UB 82.1

74.6

67.1

410 UB 59.7

53.7

360 UB 56.7

50.7

44.7

310 UB 46.2

40.4

32.0

250 UB 37.3

31.4

25.7

200 UB 29.8

25.4

22.3

18.2

180 UB 22.2

900

800

700

+

Design load-carrying capacity, Pmax = (Mcv + 0.85 Mbv ) 4L (kN)

600

500

450

400

350

300

250

18.1

16.1

150 UB 18.0

14.0

200

180

160

140

1

120

+

m

= 1

yr = 40 mm

100

f = 25 MPa

c

b1 2150 mm

80

b2 2150 mm

Dc = 120 mm

10

12

14

16

18

20

Span, L (m)

DB2.1-160

Edition 1.0 February 2001

Design of Continuous Composite Beams with Rigid Connections for Strength

Composite Structures Design Manual

Chart H3.2

=1

Pmax (kN)

Semi-Continuous Beams

pr=1.50%

610 UB 125

113

101

530 UB 92.4

82.0

460 UB 82.1

74.6

67.1

410 UB 59.7

53.7

360 UB 56.7

50.7

44.7

310 UB 46.2

40.4

32.0

250 UB 37.3

31.4

25.7

200 UB 29.8

25.4

22.3

18.2

180 UB 22.2

900

800

700

+

Design load-carrying capacity, Pmax = (Mcv + 0.85 Mbv ) 4L (kN)

600

500

450

400

350

300

250

18.1

16.1

150 UB 18.0

14.0

200

180

160

140

1

120

+

m

= 1

yr = 40 mm

100

f = 25 MPa

c

b1 2150 mm

80

b2 2150 mm

Dc = 120 mm

10

12

14

16

18

20

Span, L (m)

DB2.1Design of Continuous Composite Beams with Rigid Connections for Strength

161

Composite Structures Design Manual

Chart H3.3

=1

Pmax (kN)

Continuous Beams

pr=0.75%

1600

610 UB 125

113

101

530 UB 92.4

82.0

460 UB 82.1

74.6

67.1

410 UB 59.7

53.7

360 UB 56.7

50.7

44.7

310 UB 46.2

40.4

32.0

250 UB 37.3

31.4

25.7

200 UB 29.8

25.4

22.3

18.2

180 UB 22.2

1400

1200

1000

900

+

Design load-carrying capacity, Pmax = (Mbv + Mbv ) 4L (kN)

800

700

600

500

450

400

350

300

18.1

16.1

150 UB 18.0

14.0

250

200

Ffp Fr

1

180

+

m

160

= 1

140

yr = 40 mm

f = 25 MPa

c

120

b1 2150 mm

b2 2150 mm

100

Dc = 120 mm

80

6

10

12

14

16

18

20

Span, L (m)

DB2.1-162

Edition 1.0 February 2001

Design of Continuous Composite Beams with Rigid Connections for Strength

Composite Structures Design Manual

Chart H3.4

=1

Pmax (kN)

Continuous Beams

pr=1.50%

610 UB 125

113

101

530 UB 92.4

82.0

460 UB 82.1

74.6

67.1

410 UB 59.7

53.7

360 UB 56.7

50.7

44.7

310 UB 46.2

40.4

32.0

250 UB 37.3

31.4

25.7

200 UB 29.8

25.4

22.3

18.2

180 UB 22.2

1400

1200

1000

900

+

Design load-carrying capacity, Pmax = (Mbv + Mbv ) 4L (kN)

800

700

600

500

450

400

350

300

18.1

16.1

150 UB 18.0

14.0

250

200

Ffp Fr

1

180

+

m

160

= 1

140

yr = 40 mm

f = 25 MPa

c

120

b1 2150 mm

b2 2150 mm

100

Dc = 120 mm

80

6

10

12

14

16

18

20

Span, L (m)

DB2.1Design of Continuous Composite Beams with Rigid Connections for Strength

163

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