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Design of Continuous Composite

Beams with Rigid Connections for


Strength

Design Booklet DB2.1

OneSteel Market Mills

Composite Structures Design Manual


February 2001

OneSteel Market Mills


Composite Structures Design Manual

Published by

OneSteel Manufacturing Limited


ABN 42 004 651 325
Produced by the

Centre for Construction Technology and Research


University of Western Sydney
Contributors

Dr. Paul Berry


Prof. Russell Bridge
Dr. Mark Patrick
Centre for Construction Technology and Research
Reviewed by

Mr. Mark Sheldon


Connell Wagner Pty Ltd

Copyright 2001 OneSteel Manufacturing Ltd and The University of Western Sydney.
All rights reserved.
First published:

Edition 1.0 - February 2001


Disclaimer
While every effort has been made and all reasonable care taken to
ensure the accuracy of the material contained herein, the
contributors, editors and publishers of this booklet shall not be held
liable or responsible in any way whatsoever, and expressly disclaim
any liability or responsibility for any loss or damage, cost or
expenses, howsoever incurred by any person whether the user of
the booklet or otherwise including without limitation, loss or damage,
costs or expenses incurred as a result of or in connection with the
reliance, whether whole or partial by any person as aforesaid upon
any part of the contents of this booklet. Should expert assistance be
required, the services of a competent person should be sought.

DB2.1-ii

Continuous Composite Beams


Edition 1.0 February 2001
Design of Continuous Composite Beams with Rigid Connections for Strength

OneSteel Market Mills


Composite Structures Design Manual

Foreword
OneSteel is a leading manufacturer of steel long products in Australia after its spin-off from BHP Pty
Ltd on the 1st November 2000. It manufactures a wide range of steel products, including structural,
rail, rod, bar, wire, pipe and tube products and markets welded beams.
OneSteel is committed to providing to design engineers, technical information and design tools to
assist with the use, design and specification of its products. This design booklet Design of Continuous
Composite Beams with Rigid Connections for Strength and associated computer software
COMPSECT are testament to that commitment. In May 1998, BHP Steel published the first two
design booklets of the Composite Structures Design Manual, on slabs and simply-supported beams,
followed in April 1999 by a third booklet on beams with large web penetrations. This is the fifth booklet
to be published for the Composite Structures Design Manual, which is now being completed and
maintained by OneSteel. It is also being released with an associated booklet on shear connection
design. In November 2000, OneSteel published the fourth booklet and a supplement on the web-sideplate steel connection, along with computer software WSP-STEEL.
The initial development work required to produce the design booklets was carried out at BHP
Melbourne Research Laboratories before its closure in May 1998. OneSteel Market Mills is funding the
University of Western Sydneys Centre for Construction Technology and Research in continuing the
research and development work to publish this and future booklets.
The Composite Structures Design Manual refers specifically to the range of long products that
are manufactured by OneSteel and plate products that continue to be manufactured by BHP. It
is strongly recommended that OneSteel sections and reinforcement, and BHP plate products
are specified for construction when any of the design models in the design booklets are used,
as the models and design formulae including product tolerances, mechanical properties and
chemical composition have been validated by detailed structural testing using only OneSteel
and BHP products.
To ensure that the Designers intent is met, it is recommended that a note to this effect be
included in the design documentation.

Continuous Composite Beams


DB2.1Design of Continuous Composite Beams with Rigid Connections for Strength

Edition 1.0 February 2001

iii

OneSteel Market Mills


Composite Structures Design Manual

Contents
Preface ................................................................................................................ vi
1.

1
SCOPE AND GENERAL
1.1 Scope .............................................................................................................1
1.2 General...........................................................................................................3

2.

TERMINOLOGY

3.

DESIGN CONCEPTS
19
3.1 General Behaviour of Continuous Beams....................................................19
3.2 Section Behaviour of Members and Connections........................................23
3.3 Global Analysis and Behaviour ....................................................................31

4.

42
DESIGN MODELS
4.1 Ductile Shear Connection ............................................................................42
4.2 Moment-Shear Interaction............................................................................42
4.3 Member Cross-Sections in Negative Bending .............................................43
4.4 Partial-Depth End Plate Connections ..........................................................46
4.5 Flush End Plate Connections.......................................................................49
4.6 Lateral Distortional Buckling.........................................................................50

5.

DESIGN APPROACH
54
5.1 Design Data..................................................................................................54
5.2 Preliminary Design .......................................................................................54
5.3 Strength Design Construction Stage 3 (AS 2327.1) .................................55
5.4 Strength Design Construction Stages 4, 5 and 6 (AS 2327.1) .................56
5.5 Strength Design In-Service Condition (AS 2327.1) ..................................56
5.6 Serviceability Design....................................................................................57

6.

DESIGN RULES
58
6.1 Scope ...........................................................................................................58
6.2 Design Loads ...............................................................................................58
6.3 Construction .................................................................................................58
6.4 Properties of Cross-Sections .......................................................................58
6.5 Classification of Cross-Sections...................................................................59
6.6 Methods of Analysis .....................................................................................59
6.7 Positive Moment Capacity of Members .......................................................61
6.8 Negative Moment Capacity of Members......................................................61
6.9 Negative Moment Capacity of End Plate Connections ................................62
6.10 Lateral Distortional Buckling.....................................................................63
6.11 Potentially Critical Cross-Sections ...........................................................63
6.12 Distribution of Shear Connectors .............................................................63
6.13 Design of the Shear Connection ..............................................................64
6.14 Crack Control ...........................................................................................64

7.

WORKED EXAMPLES
66
7.1 General.........................................................................................................66
7.2 Secondary Beam in a Carpark .....................................................................66
7.3 Primary Beam in a Carpark..........................................................................78
7.4 Secondary Beam in an Office with Compactus Loads.................................95

8.

REFERENCES

DB2.1-iv

15

103

Continuous Composite Beams


Edition 1.0 February 2001
Design of Continuous Composite Beams with Rigid Connections for Strength

OneSteel Market Mills


Composite Structures Design Manual
APPENDIX A
104
REFERENCED AUSTRALIAN STANDARDS...............................................................104
105
APPENDIX B
NOTATION ..........................................................................................................105
113
APPENDIX C
ELASTIC PROPERTIES OF MEMBERS IN NEGATIVE BENDING ..................................113
C.1 Elastic Neutral Axis (ENA) .........................................................................113
C.2 Effective Cross-Section..............................................................................114

C.3 Second Moment of Area, I .......................................................................114


APPENDIX D
116
ELASTIC CONTRAFLEXURE ANALYSIS ...................................................................116
D.1 General Principles ......................................................................................116
D.2 Moment Area Theorems ............................................................................116
D.3 Symmetric Beams ......................................................................................116
D.4 Propped Cantilevers...................................................................................117
APPENDIX E
119
NEGATIVE MOMENT CAPACITY OF MEMBERS........................................................119
E.1 Effective Cross-Section..............................................................................119
E.2 Key Levels of Reinforcement .....................................................................119

E.3 Nominal Negative Moment Capacity, M ...................................................120


E.4 Linear Approximation .................................................................................122
APPENDIX F
123
NEGATIVE MOMENT CAPACITY OF END PLATE CONNECTIONS ...............................123
F.1 Effective Cross-Section..............................................................................123
F.2 Key Levels of Reinforcement .....................................................................123

F.3 Nominal Negative Moment Capacity, M ...................................................123


F.4 Linear Approximation .................................................................................124
125
APPENDIX G
O
DESIGN TABLES AND CHARTS FOR =0 (=90 ) ...................................................125
145
APPENDIX H
O
DESIGN TABLES AND CHARTS FOR =1 (=0 ) .....................................................145

Continuous Composite Beams


DB2.1Design of Continuous Composite Beams with Rigid Connections for Strength

Edition 1.0 February 2001

OneSteel Market Mills


Composite Structures Design Manual

Preface
This design booklet forms part of a suite of booklets covering the design of simply-supported and
continuous composite beams, composite slabs, composite columns, steel and composite connections
and related topics. The booklets are part of the OneSteel Market Mills Composite Structures Design
Manual which has been produced to foster composite steel-frame building construction in Australia to
ensure cost-competitive building solutions for specifiers, builders and developers.
An Australian Standard for continuous composite beams is currently under development. The
information contained in this design booklet, the first in this Manual on this topic, should contribute
significantly to the achievement of this task. Those conversant with the design of simply-supported
composite beams in accordance with AS 2327.1-1996 will find they will be familiar with much of the
information presented, particularly with regard to cross-section analysis and design of the shear
connection, and design booklets DB1.1 and DB1.2 are considered essential pre-reading material.
Continuous composite beams can offer significant benefits over simply-supported beams, viz.:
Strength. In most composite structures, reinforcement is present over the supports to control
cracking, so, provided it is Class N steel, it might as well be used for increased strength. The issue
is not so much in achieving the extra strength, but in ensuring sufficient ductility of the connection
regions for it to be fully utilised. Typical strength gains are in the order of 15-40%.
Serviceability. The following aspects of serviceability are improved.
Deflections. This represents the most significant gain from continuity, with typical reductions in
the order of 60%. Significantly smaller steel sections can result.
Vibrations. The higher flexural stiffness due to continuity greatly improves vibration
performance.
Cracking. Continuity greatly reduces the beam end rotations, which in turn greatly improves
crack control of the concrete over the supports.
These improvements in structural performance allow continuous composite beams to achieve higher
span-to-depth ratios than equivalent simply-supported beams. The resulting shallower steel sections
can give rise to lower floor-to-floor heights and, importantly, reduced exterior cladding costs. However,
it is explained in the booklet that a mix of both simply-supported and continuous beams will normally
be required it is not just a matter of using one type over the other.
As well as continuous beams, the design of semi-continuous beams is covered. These members have
partial-strength as distinct from full-strength composite end connections. Beams incorporating the
flush end plate steel connection fall into this category, the behaviour of which has been researched
overseas. The design rules presented in the booklet for this and similar types of connections, is based
on the overseas findings. The connections must remain rigid under serviceability loads if the beams
are to be treated as continuous or semi-continuous, which may affect the minimum amount of
longitudinal reinforcement required over the connections.
Designers must also determine whether any of the construction stages defined in AS 2327.1 are
critical to the design of the steel elements. Connections such as the flush end plate connection lend
themselves to simply using a steel strap welded to the top flanges of adjacent steel beams to improve
the strength and stiffness of the bare steelwork. Examples illustrating its use are given in the booklet,
which can prove very beneficial, particularly when the in-service loads are relatively low. Another
novel approach presented in the booklet is the use of a bottom flange plate in negative moment
regions, which can overcome problems with buckling of the beam web and can considerably increase
the negative moment capacity and ductility of continuous composite beams.
For preliminary design work, a comprehensive set of design tables and charts in Appendices G and H,
based on plastic theory, can be used to quickly obtain a feasible solution, which can then be checked
in detail. Computer program COMPSECT has been written to assist in this regard. In due course, it
is expected that more powerful software will become available.

DB2.1-vi

Continuous Composite Beams


Edition 1.0 February 2001
Design of Continuous Composite Beams with Rigid Connections for Strength

OneSteel Market Mills


Composite Structures Design Manual

1.
1.1

Scope

1.1.1

SCOPE AND GENERAL

Introduction

This booklet covers the design of continuous composite beams, which may be defined in the broadest
sense to refer to any composite member (beam or cantilever) subject to negative curvature at one or
more of its supports. The emphasis is on design at the strength limit state, but consideration is also
given to deflections and crack control. A thorough knowledge of the design of simply-supported beams
[1-3] is a prerequisite for understanding the material presented in this booklet.
Continuity in a composite beam may be achieved either with internal supports, or by the use of
suitable connections within a frame. This booklet is limited to braced frames, so that no positive
moments are generated in the connections supporting a composite member.
1.1.2

Design at the Strength Limit State

Three key attributes must be considered in the design of a composite member or connection at the
strength limit state.
1.

Strength. The strength usually refers to the design plastic moment capacity of the member
or connection. Members or connections that are unable to reach their full plastic moment
capacity, due to buckling or premature failure, are normally considered to have insufficient
ductility for use in continuous composite construction.

2.

Ductility. The member or connection must be sufficiently ductile for its strength to be
properly utilised. Using global plastic analysis, for example, any hinge that is not the last to
form must possess sufficient rotation capacity to maintain its strength until a complete plastic
collapse mechanism has developed.

3.

Stiffness. The relative stiffness of the member or connection determines the distribution of
action effects within the beam, and hence the requirements for strength and ductility at
specific cross-sections.

1.1.3

Classification of Connections

These three attributes form the basis of a useful classification system for connections in both the bare
steel and composite states, as shown in Fig. 1.1.1.
1.

Strength.

Partial-strength. The moment capacity of the connection is significant, but is less than

the moment capacity of the adjacent member, M bv .

2.

Nominally pinned. The moment capacity of the connection is negligible and is ignored in
the global analysis.

Full-strength. The moment capacity of the connection is equal to or greater than the
moment capacity of the adjacent member. Unless the moment capacity of the
connection is at least 1.2 times that of the adjacent member, in which case the plastic
hinge is assumed to form in the member and not in the connection, the ductility of a fullstrength connection must be checked.

Ductility.

Non-ductile. The connection has insufficient rotation capacity to form a plastic hinge.

Ductile. The connection is capable of undergoing sufficient rotation to form a plastic


hinge.

Continuous Composite Beams


DB2.1Design of Continuous Composite Beams with Rigid Connections for Strength

Edition 1.0 February 2001

OneSteel Market Mills


Composite Structures Design Manual
3.

Stiffness.

Nominally pinned. The rotational stiffness of the connection is negligible and is ignored
in the global analysis.

Semi-rigid. The rotational stiffness of the connection is significant and should be


included in the global analysis. Semi-rigid connections are beyond the scope of this
booklet, but may be included in a future booklet.

Rigid. The rotational stiffness of the connection is sufficiently high that the member can
be treated as if it had fully fixed ends.

Connection moment, M

Non-ductile

Full strength

Mbv

Partial strength

Rigid

Ductile

Semi-rigid
Nominally pinned

Connection rotation,

Figure 1.1.1 Classification of Connections (adapted from Ref. 4)


1.1.4

Types of Framing

Three different types of framing can be defined by the requirements of global analysis [5] and the
corresponding connections that are applicable.
1.

Simple. Only equilibrium need be considered in the global analysis. Simple framing uses
only nominally pinned connections.

2.

Continuous. Both equilibrium and the structural properties of the member need to be
considered in the global analysis. Any connections that are not nominally pinned must fullstrength rigid connections, so that the connection properties do not affect the member
behaviour.

3.

Semi-continuous. The structural properties of the connections also need to be considered


in the global analysis. For the purposes of this design booklet, which excludes semi-rigid
connections, semi-continuous framing may use partial-strength rigid connections in addition
to those permitted for continuous framing.

DB2.1-2

Continuous Composite Beams


Edition 1.0 February 2001
Design of Continuous Composite Beams with Rigid Connections for Strength

OneSteel Market Mills


Composite Structures Design Manual

1.2

General

Details of the different types of components that may be used in the construction of continuous
composite beams designed in accordance with this booklet are described in this section.
1.2.1

Steel Beam

The alternative types of steel beams that are permitted are shown in Fig. 1.2.1. The cross-section of
the steel beam must be symmetrical about the vertical axis. Cold-rolled RHS, SHS and channel
sections may be used provided that the wall thickness satisfies the requirements of AS 2327.1
(Clauses 5.2.3.3(a) and 8.4.3.1).
The channel sections shown in Fig. 1.2.1(c) and (d), and the T-sections shown in Fig. 1.2.1(g) and (h),
may not be the most efficient steel sections for use in composite beams. However, these sections may
be encountered in design when hollow sections or I-sections are notched to allow the passage of
service ducts within the depth of the beam. Optional flange plates may be attached to the bottom
flange of some of the steel beam types (see Fig. 1.2.1(a)) to increase the moment capacity of the
cross-section.

Optional flange
plate

(c)

(g)

(a)

(h)

(b)

(e)

(d)

(f)

Note: Optional flange plates similar to that shown in (a) can also be used with (b), (e) and (f).

Figure 1.2.1 Alternative Steel Beam Types


1.2.2

Concrete Slab

The concrete slab forms the top flange of the composite beam. It must be reinforced with deformed
bars or mesh to strengthen it against flexure, direct tension or compression, and vertical or longitudinal
shear. These action effects can arise due to direct loading, shrinkage, temperature effects, and fire.
The use of profiled steel sheeting as the bottom-face reinforcement in composite slabs can
significantly reduce the amount of steel reinforcement (see Section 1.2.5) required in the slab for
flexural, shrinkage, and temperature effects. The design of solid (reinforced-concrete) slabs must be in
accordance with AS 3600. Composite slabs can be designed using the information given in the design
booklets provided in Part 3 of this manual. Restrictions which apply to the geometry of the profiled
steel sheeting are given in Clause 1.2.4 of AS 2327.1, and, in association with other measures, were
necessary to ensure that the shear connection is both efficient and ductile.
The design of composite beams with a precast concrete slab is beyond the scope of AS 2327.1 and,
therefore, this booklet.

Continuous Composite Beams


DB2.1Design of Continuous Composite Beams with Rigid Connections for Strength

Edition 1.0 February 2001

OneSteel Market Mills


Composite Structures Design Manual
1.2.3

Profiled Steel Sheeting

The major types of profiled steel sheeting used in Australia, viz. BONDEK II, COMFORM and
CONDECK HP (see Products Manufactured From OneSteel and BHP Steel in this manual), all satisfy
the geometric requirements specified in Fig. 1.2.4 of AS 2327.1. In accordance with Fig. 1.2.4(a) of
AS 2327.1, the minimum cover slab thickness ( Dc hr ) is 65 mm. Therefore, the minimum overall
slab depth Dc of a composite slab is nominally 120 mm for BONDEK II and CONDECK HP, and
125 mm for COMFORM.
1.2.4

Shear Connectors

Headed studs (manually or automatically welded), channels or high-strength structural bolts shown in
Fig. 1.2.2 may be used as shear connectors. Automatically welded headed studs are the only type of
shear connector that may be attached through profiled steel sheeting. The reader is referred to design
booklet DB1.2 [3] for information about other types of shear connector and design of the shear
connection.
The geometry of the shear connectors must conform with Clause 8.2.2 of AS 2327.1. It should be
noted that the 100 TFC section is no longer produced, but the 300PLUS, 100 PFC section may be
used as a direct substitute.

(a)

Headed studs

(b)

Channels

(c)

High-strength
structural bolts

Figure 1.2.2 Acceptable Shear Connector Types


1.2.5

Steel Reinforcement

Reinforcement used in design at the strength limit state shall be 500PLUS Rebar (Class N).

Reinforcement used in design at the serviceability limit state may be either 500PLUS Rebar or

OneMesh500 (Class L). Both 500PLUS Rebar and OneMesh500 satisfy the requirements of

AS 4671 with a nominal yield stress of 500 MPa. The ductility of 500PLUS Rebar, as defined by
uniform elongation and tensile-to-yield-stress ratio, well exceeds the minimum requirements specified
in AS 4671 for Class N reinforcement. Therefore, other Class N products that might have inferior
ductility must not be used as substitutes.

DB2.1-4

Continuous Composite Beams


Edition 1.0 February 2001
Design of Continuous Composite Beams with Rigid Connections for Strength

OneSteel Market Mills


Composite Structures Design Manual

1.2.6

Bare Steel and Composite Connections

Since semi-rigid connections are beyond the scope of this booklet, only pinned and rigid connections
in either the bare steel or composite state are considered. The possible connection combinations and
locations in which they would typically be used are shown in Table 1.2.1. Example framing layouts
using these connections are given in the next section.
Connection

Steel state

Composite state

Typical location

P-P

Nominal pin

Nominal pin

Exterior beam support

P-RC

Nominal pin

Rigid composite

Interior beam-to-beam

RS-RS

Rigid steel

Rigid steel

Edge beam-to-column

RS-RC

Rigid steel

Rigid composite

Interior beam-to-column

Table 1.2.1 Connection Combinations and Typical Locations


A range of proposed rigid composite connections, together with some photographs giving examples of
their use in recently completed structures, are shown in Figures 1.2.3 to 1.2.13. In order to achieve
rigidity in the composite state, the connection must provide a rigid compressive load path with a
capacity equal to that of the tensile reinforcement over the support. Web-side-plate connections do not
meet this requirement and must be treated as nominally pinned (see Design Booklet DB5.1, Design of
the Web-Side-Plate Steel Connection [6]).

Sheeting ribs

Column stiffener *

Extra row of bolts *

Flange plate *

Column stiffener *

End plate

Web stiffener *

* if required

Figure 1.2.3 Flush End Plate Connection

Continuous Composite Beams


DB2.1Design of Continuous Composite Beams with Rigid Connections for Strength

Edition 1.0 February 2001

OneSteel Market Mills


Composite Structures Design Manual

Figure 1.2.4 Examples of End Plate Connections

Flange plate *

Erection bolt *

Partial-depth
end plate

Web stiffener *

* if required

Figure 1.2.5 Partial-Depth End Plate Connection

DB2.1-6

Continuous Composite Beams


Edition 1.0 February 2001
Design of Continuous Composite Beams with Rigid Connections for Strength

OneSteel Market Mills


Composite Structures Design Manual

Vertical web stiffener

Web stiffener *
Flange plate *
Vertical web stiffeners

* if required

Figure 1.2.6 Beam Continuous over Support

Figure 1.2.7 Examples of Beams Continuous over a Support

Continuous Composite Beams


DB2.1Design of Continuous Composite Beams with Rigid Connections for Strength

Edition 1.0 February 2001

OneSteel Market Mills


Composite Structures Design Manual

Sheeting ribs

Vertical web stiffeners

Extra rows of bolts *

Web stiffener *

Flange plate *

* if required

Figure 1.2.8 Split Column Connection

Sheeting ribs

Flange plate *

Column stiffener *

Full strength
weld

Web stiffener *

* if required

Figure 1.2.9 Fully Welded Connection

DB2.1-8

Continuous Composite Beams


Edition 1.0 February 2001
Design of Continuous Composite Beams with Rigid Connections for Strength

OneSteel Market Mills


Composite Structures Design Manual

Sheeting ribs

Flush end plate


connection

Flange plate *

Column stiffener *

Cantilever

Full strength
weld

Web stiffener *

* if required

Figure 1.2.10 Fully Welded Column Cruciform incorporating Cantilever

Flush end plate


connection

Flange plate *

Full butt weld

Full strength
weld

Cantilever

Web stiffener *

* if required

Figure 1.2.11 Fully Welded Beam Cruciform incorporating Cantilever

Continuous Composite Beams


DB2.1Design of Continuous Composite Beams with Rigid Connections for Strength

Edition 1.0 February 2001

OneSteel Market Mills


Composite Structures Design Manual

Column stiffener *

Sheeting ribs

Extra row of bolts *

Flange plate *

Column stiffener *

Web stiffener *

Extended
end plate

* if required

Figure 1.2.12 Extended End Plate Connection (Bare Steel Connection to Ref. 7)

Top strapping
plate

Flange plate *

Erection bolt *

Partial depth
end plate

Web stiffener *

* if required

Figure 1.2.13 Strapped Partial-Depth End Plate

DB2.1-10

Continuous Composite Beams


Edition 1.0 February 2001
Design of Continuous Composite Beams with Rigid Connections for Strength

OneSteel Market Mills


Composite Structures Design Manual
1.2.7

Framing Layouts

A framing layout for scheme 1C from the BHP Economical Car Parks Design Guide [8] is shown in
Fig. 1.2.14. All four of the connection types given in Table 1.2.1 are used as appropriate.
Rigid steel connections are best suited to beam-to-column connections in which there are opposing
beams on either side of the column. This applies to the beams B2, PB1, and to the interior supports
of beam PB2. The exterior support of PB2 beams can also be a rigid steel connection, provided that
the column is designed for the unbalanced moment and corresponding web shear. Due to the low
torsional rigidity of the supporting primary beams and the cope required in the top flange of the
attached secondary beams, beam-to-beam connections are normally considered to be nominally
pinned in the bare steel state.
Rigid composite connections require continuity of the reinforcement over the support and can normally
be used only at interior locations. This applies to the beams B1, PB1, and to the interior supports of
beam PB2. The B2 beams, being edge beams, may only have half the normal width of concrete
flange, which is not normally considered to be sufficient for the placement of adequate reinforcement.

Connection types (from Table 1.2.1):


P-RC

RS-RC

B1

B1

PB2

B1

B1

PB1

B1

13300 module width

B2

PB2

RS-RS

B2

P-P

STEEL DECKING

PB2

4500

PB1

PB2

7600

4500

Figure 1.2.14 Beam Layout for Car Park Scheme 1C [8]

Continuous Composite Beams


DB2.1Design of Continuous Composite Beams with Rigid Connections for Strength

Edition 1.0 February 2001

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Composite Structures Design Manual
A recommended framing layout for a typical office floor is shown in Fig. 1.2.15. The interior columns
are located on a standard 8.4 m square grid, which is reduced to 7 m for the end spans in order to
maintain consistent beam sizes. The profiled steel sheeting spans 2.8 m between the secondary
beams. The choice of grid dimensions and the reduced end spans allow the secondary beam supports
to be offset from the column centrelines, which avoids potential problems caused by congestion of the
reinforcement in the vicinity of columns.

Connection types (from Table 1.2.1):


P-RC

RS-RS

RS-RC

B3
B4

STEEL DECKING

PB3

8400 interior span

B2

B2

PB2

B2

B2

B2

PB1

7000 exterior span

B1

B1

B1

PB2

B1

B1

B1

8400 interior span

PB1

B2

P-P

PB4

7000 exterior span

Figure 1.2.15 Beam Layout for a Typical Office Floor


1.2.8

Fabrication and Erection

It is important that fabrication and erection details are considered in the early stages of a project using
composite connections, since fabrication and erection costs represent 50-65% of the total cost of a
steel frame [9]. Wherever possible, it is best to avoid the need for both welding and drilling of any one
item (either a beam or a column), as this doubles the amount of handling during fabrication. Similarly,
an erection procedure should be chosen that only requires one crane.
Welds should be designed and specified in accordance with AS 4100 and the procedures given for
bolted end plate connections in the AISC Design of Structural Connections Manual [7]. Weld details
for opposing flush end plate connections with column stiffeners are shown in Fig. 1.2.16. Partial-depth
end plate connections should use the same weld details as those for the web and bottom flange of
flush end plate connections. A pair of opposing fillet welds is generally more economical than the
equivalent strength butt weld. Fillet weld sizes on stiffeners should be 6 mm or 8 mm, so that only one

DB2.1-12

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Edition 1.0 February 2001
Design of Continuous Composite Beams with Rigid Connections for Strength

OneSteel Market Mills


Composite Structures Design Manual
pass is required. Tension and compression stiffeners need to be cropped to clear the column root
radius.

No web weld is required when the


flange welds have sufficient capacity
to transmit the design force in the
tension stiffener.

or

or
No flange weld is required when the
compression stiffener is a bearing fit
between the column flanges.

or

or

Figure 1.2.16 Weld Details for Flush End Plate Connections


The use of end plate connections requires close tolerances on the member length and provision must
be made for misfit. Since over-length beams present a major problem, it is recommended that beams
are specified under-length and packing plates used to make up the difference, as shown in Fig. 1.2.17.
Depending on the project, this may not be necessary for every beam and it may be sufficient to specify
an under-length beam every third or fourth bay to correct for any cumulative misfit. Packing plates may
be slotted either vertically (trouser packs) or horizontally (finger shims) to allow installation from
above or side-on respectively after the bolts have been inserted. Note that beam-to-beam connections
do not provide access for installation from above. If the erection procedure permits the packing plates
to be installed in conjunction with inserting the bolts, slotting is not required and drilled or punched
holes are sufficient. The minimum practical thickness for packing plates is 3 mm, so a beam might
typically be specified 12 mm under-length. Alternatively, if two packing thicknesses were available
(say 4 mm and 6 mm, with a specified under-length of 10 mm), fewer packing plates would be
required and the fitting error would be reduced to 2 mm rather than 3 mm.
Any opposing connections that share the same bolts, such as beam-to-beam and beam-to-columnweb connections, must make allowance for one beam to be held in position while the other is craned
into place. This can be achieved by extending the end plate downwards at the appropriate end of the
first beam to include an extra row of holes so that an erection bolt can be inserted that does not
interfere with the placement of the second beam (see Figs 1.2.5 and 1.2.13). Only one erection bolt is
required if the beam is assumed to be torsionally restrained by the bolts at its other end, but it is
recommended that two holes are provided to allow the steel rigger access from either side of the
beam and to avoid potential errors caused by left- and right-hand mirror images. If the end plate
cannot be extended downwards, it may be possible to extend it to one side. Either arrangement would
also allow the packing plates to be installed in conjunction with inserting the bolts.

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Trouser packs

Finger shims

Packing plates

Figure 1.2.17 Packing Plates


1.2.9

Construction Method

Either propped or unpropped construction may be used. In general, unpropped construction is


preferred, because it provides simpler, faster construction and better serviceability performance. A
more complete discussion of the effects of propping is given in Section 3.3.5.

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2.

TERMINOLOGY

Some important terminology used in this booklet is summarised in this section. Reference should also
be made to Clause 1.4.3 of AS 2327.1 for additional terminology.
Compact Cross-Section
A cross-section that can reach the full plastic moment and undergo sufficient rotation to develop a
plastic hinge.
Complete Shear Connection (=1)

The moment capacity at a cross-section is not limited by the strength of the shear connection.
Composite Connection
A connection, in which reinforcement in the slab contributes to the moment capacity of the connection.
Continuous Framing
In continuous framing, both equilibrium and the structural properties of the member need to be
considered in the global analysis. Any connections used in continuous framing must be either
nominally pinned connections or full-strength rigid connections, so that the connection properties do
not affect the member behaviour.
Continuous Composite Beam
The steel beam is either continuous over internal supports or is joined by full-strength rigid
connections.
Cracked Second Moment of Area
The cracked second moment of area is based on the effective section in negative bending with the
concrete fully cracked.
Critical Cross-Section
The cross-section that has the highest ratio of design action effect to design capacity and therefore
governs the design.
Degree of Negative Moment Shear Connection,
The ratio of the strength of the shear connection within the anchored length of the reinforcement,
n f ds , to the yield capacity of the tensile reinforcement that is located within the effective width of the
slab, Ar f yr .
Degree of Positive Moment Shear Connection, +
The ratio of the compressive force in the concrete at the strength limit state, Fc , to the value
corresponding to complete shear connection in the absence of vertical shear force, Fcc (AS 2327.1).
Effective Cross-Section
That portion of the total cross-section that is unaffected by local buckling and able to contribute fully to
the strength of the cross-section.
Elastic Contraflexure Global Analysis
An elastic contraflexure global analysis uses the ratio of the transformed to the cracked second
moment of area, to determine the location of points of contraflexure, which then makes the beam
behaviour determinate.

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Elastic Cracked Global Analysis
An elastic cracked global analysis assumes that the cracked second moment of area may be applied
to a 15% length of the beam adjacent to the support and that the transformed second moment of area
should be applied elsewhere.
Elastic Cross-Section Analysis
Elastic theory assumes that all strains lie within the linear-elastic region of material behaviour. The
stress distribution is directly proportional to the strain distribution, leading to triangular stress blocks.
Elastic Global Analysis
Elastic global analysis is based on linear moment-curvature behaviour.
Elastic Neutral Axis (ENA)
The location of zero strain within a cross-section using elastic analysis. In cases when slip at the steelconcrete interface produces two such locations, the lower one is defined to be the elastic neutral axis.
Elastic-Plastic Global Analysis
Elastic-plastic global analysis is based on idealised elastic, perfectly-plastic moment-curvature
behaviour. The action effects may be determined from a superimposed series of elastic analyses: as
each plastic hinge forms, it is replaced by a pin and the next analysis commenced.
Elastic Uncracked Global Analysis
Elastic uncracked global analysis assumes that the transformed second moment of area may be
applied uniformly to the entire length of the beam.
Framing
The type of framing is classified according to the requirements of global analysis and the
corresponding connections as either simple, continuous, or semi-continuous.
Full Interaction
The condition of a composite beam assuming no slip occurs along the length of the beam at the steelconcrete interface.
Full-Strength Connection
The strength of the connection is equal to or greater than the strength of the adjacent member.
Member
In general, reference to the behaviour of members and member cross-sections is intended to exclude
the connections.
Moment Redistribution
Moment redistribution describes the load-carrying behaviour of an indeterminate structure as its most
highly loaded cross-sections approach their maximum capacity. Cross-sections that are highly loaded
shed moment to cross-sections that still have excess capacity for moments in the opposite sense.
Non-Compact Cross-Section
A cross-section in which the extreme compressive fibre can reach the yield stress, but is unable, due
to local buckling, to strain sufficiently for the cross-section to reach the full plastic moment.
Partial Shear Connection (<1)
The moment capacity at a cross-section is limited by the strength of the shear connection.

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Partial-Strength Connection
The strength of the connection is significant, but is less than the strength of the adjacent member.
Pinned Connection
Both the rotational stiffness and moment capacity of the connection are negligible and are ignored in
the global analysis.
Plastic Cross-Section Analysis
Plastic theory assumes that most strains greatly exceed the elastic limit of the material. For idealised
rigid-plastic behaviour, cross-sections may be analysed using rectangular stress blocks in either
tension or compression with magnitude equal to the yield stress.
Plastic Global Analysis
Plastic global analysis is based on idealised rigid-plastic moment-curvature behaviour.
Plastic Neutral Axis (PNA)
The location of zero strain within a cross-section using plastic analysis. In cases when slip at the steelconcrete interface produces two such locations, the lower one is defined to be the plastic neutral axis.
Potentially Critical Cross-Section
A cross-section that is likely to be critical.
Propped Construction
The steel beam and/or the slab formwork is supported until the concrete is able to resist stresses.
Rigid Connection
The rotational stiffness of the connection is sufficiently high that the member can be treated as if it had
fully fixed ends.
Simply-Supported Composite Beam
The composite beam uses only pinned connections.
Semi-Continuous Composite Beam
The composite beam is joined by partial-strength rigid connections. Semi-rigid connections are beyond
the scope of this booklet.
Semi-Continuous Framing
In semi-continuous framing, equilibrium and the structural properties of both the member and the
connections need to be considered in the global analysis. For the purposes of this design booklet,
which excludes semi-rigid connections, semi-continuous framing may use partial-strength rigid
connections in addition to pinned and full-strength rigid connections.
Semi-Rigid Connection
The rotational stiffness of the connection is significant and should be included in the global analysis.
Semi-rigid connections are beyond the scope of this booklet.
Shear Ratio,
The ratio at a member cross-section of the design vertical shear force, V * , to the design vertical shear
capacity, Vu .
Simple Framing
In simple framing, only equilibrium need be considered in the global analysis. Simple framing uses
only pinned connections.
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Slender Cross-Section
A cross-section in which the extreme compressive fibre is unable, due to local buckling, to reach the
yield stress. (Slender cross-sections are beyond the scope of this design booklet.)
Transformed Second Moment of Area
The transformed second moment of area is based on the effective section in positive bending, ignoring
the tensile strength of the concrete (AS 2327.1 Paragraph B3.1).
Unpropped Construction
No temporary supports are provided to the steel beams or formwork to carry loads during construction.

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3.

DESIGN CONCEPTS

3.1

General Behaviour of Continuous Beams

3.1.1

Action Effects

The free body diagram of a general continuous beam supporting a uniformly distributed load of
intensity, w , over a span, L , with unequal end moments, M A and M B , is shown in Fig. 3.1.1(a). The
free bending moment diagram (with a mid-span value of wL2 8 ) can be superimposed onto the
reactant bending moment diagram to produce the total bending moment diagram for the beam, as
shown in Fig. 3.1.1(b). Similarly, the free shear force diagram (with end values of wL 2 ) can be
superimposed onto the reactant shear force diagram to produce the total shear force diagram, as
shown in Fig. 3.1.1(c).

w
MA

MB

(a)
L
VA = wL/2 + (MAMB)/L

VB = wL/2 (MAMB)/L
C

MA

(b)

wL /8

MB
maximum

VA

(c)
wL/2
(MAMB)/L
wL/2
z = VA/w

VB

Figure 3.1.1 General Continuous Beam


3.1.2

Potentially Critical Cross-Sections (PCCs)

Any cross-section that causes a composite beam to fail at the strength limit state is called a critical
cross-section. Failure of a cross-section may be due to high moment, shear, or a combination of both
(moment-shear interaction). Since it is not possible, especially for non-prismatic beams, to predict the
exact location of these cross-sections at the beginning of the design process, a number of crosssections are identified as being potentially critical. The strength limit state requirements are deemed to
be satisfied for the entire beam, provided that they are satisfied at each potentially critical crosssection.

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Potentially critical cross-sections include locations at which there is a:

peak moment;

peak shear;

heavy concentrated load;

sudden change in the cross-section; or,

composite moment capacity exceeding 2.5 times the bare steel moment resistance, midway
between adjacent potentially critical cross-sections (see AS 2327.1 Clause 6.3).

For the general continuous beam shown in Fig. 3.1.1, assuming a uniform cross-section, there are
three potentially critical cross-sections: the two supports, which are locations of both peak negative
moment and peak shear; and, at z = V A w , in the vicinity of mid-span, which is the location of peak
positive moment.
3.1.3

Distribution of Shear Connectors

Moments at potentially critical cross-sections are resisted by composite action between the various
cross-section elements: positive moments by tension in the steel and compression in the concrete;
negative moments by compression in the steel and tension in the reinforcement. Fig. 3.1.2(a) shows
the free body diagram for a segment between the support and mid-span of a general continuous
beam. In order to achieve this composite behaviour, horizontal shear forces need to be transferred
between the various cross-section elements, usually by means of shear connectors at the steelconcrete interface. The free body diagram of the concrete slab in Fig. 3.1.2(b) shows the number of
shear connectors, n , each carrying a shear force, f ds , that are required between the support and midspan.
The required rate of horizontal shear transfer is directly proportional to the rate of change of bending
moment along the beam, which is equal to the vertical shear force at any given cross-section.
Referring to Fig. 3.1.1(c), it is clear that a higher density of shear connectors is required near the
support than in the vicinity of mid-span.
For simplicity, rather than continuously varying the spacing, it is preferable for shear connectors to be
distributed using a limited number of discrete densities. It is therefore recommended that points of
contraflexure be treated as potentially critical cross-sections for the purpose of determining the shear
connector distribution. This is similar to the treatment of the free end of a cantilever, except that the
point of contraflexure varies according to the loading case. For each loading case, the number of
shear connectors in the positive and negative bending moment regions, n + and n , is determined as
shown in Fig. 3.1.2(c) from
n+

Fc
f ds
Fr
f ds

3.1(1)

3.1(2)

Based on the assumption of ductile shear connection (see Section 4.1), shear connectors may be
distributed uniformly between two adjacent critical cross-sections, or between the free end of a
cantilever and an adjacent critical cross-section.
+
Positive moment regions may use partial shear connection theory ( m 0.5 ), but tests have shown
that catastrophic failure can occur in negative moment regions that do not have complete shear

connection at the peak moment cross-section ( m = 1) [10]. Therefore reinforcement in negative

moment regions must extend at least a tensile development length , Lsy.t (AS 3600), beyond the
number of shear connectors required to develop its full strength.

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Fully fixed support

(a)

Maximum
positive moment

Fr
C

Fc
T

(b)

Fr

Fc
nfds

(c)

F=0
Fr

n fds

Fc
+

n fds
Point of
contraflexure

Figure 3.1.2 Shear Connection in Continuous Beams (adapted from Ref. 10)
3.1.4

Effective Width of Concrete Flange

In addition to shear transfer at the steel-concrete interface, there must also be a transfer of horizontal
shear within the concrete itself:
(a) in regions of positive moment, to develop compression in the concrete located at some
distance from the beam axis; and,
(b) in regions of negative moment, to develop tension in the reinforcement.
Due to the in-plane shear flexibility (shear lag) of a concrete slab, the width of flange (for either
concrete or reinforcement) effectively engaged in composite action varies along the length of the
beam, from zero at points of contraflexure to a maximum at critical cross-sections. For simplicity,
+

uniform values of effective width, bcf and bcf , based primarily on the effective spans, L+ and L ,
ef
ef
are adopted in positive and negative moment regions, as shown schematically in Fig. 3.1.3.

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Points of
contraflexure

Lef

bcf

Lef+

bcf

Lef

Figure 3.1.3 Effective Width of Concrete Flange


3.1.5

Effective Portion of Steel Section

Any steel plate elements at a potentially critical cross-section that are in compression may be affected
by local buckling. The extent to which local buckling may limit the resistance of these elements
depends on the plate element slenderness, e , given by Equation 5.2.3.3(1) of AS 2327.1 as
e

b
t

3.1(3)

where

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The appropriate slenderness limits, which depend on both the strength and ductility requirements of
the cross-section, can be represented by the following classes:
(a) compact, in which the cross-section can reach the full plastic moment and undergo
sufficient rotation to develop a plastic hinge;
(b) non-compact, in which the cross-section can reach the yield moment, but is unable to reach
the full plastic moment; and,
(c) slender, in which the cross-section is unable even to reach the yield moment. (Slender
cross-sections are beyond the scope of this design booklet.)
A non-compact cross-section may be re-classified as compact by reducing its effective cross-section
for plate elements in compression as follows:
(a) in the case of flanges, ignoring any width beyond the plasticity slenderness limit; and,
(b) in the case of webs, removing any portion that is more than 15t w from a lateral restraint.
Permissible lateral restraints include flanges, regions of the web in tension, and horizontal
stiffeners of suitable size.

3.2

Section Behaviour of Members and Connections

3.2.1

Design at the Strength Limit State

Three key attributes must be considered in the design of a composite member or connection at the
strength limit state.
1.

Strength. The strength usually refers to the design plastic moment capacity of the member
or connection. Members or connections that are unable to reach their full plastic moment
capacity, due to buckling or premature failure, are normally considered to have insufficient
ductility for use in continuous composite construction.

2.

Ductility. The member or connection must be sufficiently ductile for its strength to be
properly utilised. Using global plastic analysis, for example, any hinge that is not the last to
form must possess sufficient rotation capacity to maintain its strength until a complete plastic
collapse mechanism has developed.

3.

Stiffness. The relative stiffness of the member or connection determines the distribution of
action effects within the beam, and hence the requirements for strength and ductility at
specific cross-sections. This booklet is limited to connections that are either nominally pinned
(approaching zero stiffness) or rigid (approaching infinite stiffness).

3.2.2

Types of Section Analysis

Either elastic or plastic theory may be used for the analysis of composite cross-sections, depending on
the section classification. In both cases, for cross-sections with complete shear connection, the effects
of longitudinal slip at the steel-concrete interface may be ignored, and the analysis may assume that
plane sections remain plane (a linear strain distribution). Critical negative moment cross-sections must
be designed for complete shear connection, but critical positive moment cross-sections may be
designed for partial shear connection in accordance with AS 2327.1.
Composite construction in buildings rarely involves cross-sections which require elastic section
analysis, so plastic section analysis is adopted as the standard in this booklet unless stated otherwise.
Elastic
Elastic section analysis may be used for any class of cross-section. It must be used for cross-sections
that are unable to attain the full plastic moment, due to either premature buckling or fracture, such as:

non-compact cross-sections, unless they are reduced to an effective compact cross-section;

slender cross-sections, which are beyond the scope of this design booklet; and,

fully welded connections.

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Elastic theory assumes that all strains lie within the elastic region of material behaviour. The peak
steel strains are all less than or equal to the yield strain, y , and the stress distribution is directly
proportional to the strain distribution, leading to triangular stress blocks, as shown in Fig. 3.2.1.
Plastic
Plastic section analysis may only be used for cross-sections that are able to attain the full plastic
moment, without being affected by premature buckling or fracture, which includes:

compact cross-sections;

the effective compact portion of non-compact cross-sections; and,

most bolted connections, provided that any reinforcement in the slab is ductile.

Plastic theory assumes that most strains greatly exceed the elastic limit of material behaviour, leading,
in the idealised case, to rectangular stress blocks in either tension or compression equal to the yield
stress, as shown in Fig. 3.2.1. The required peak strains are typically in the order of ten times the yield
strain, which is the reason for the more stringent slenderness requirements.

Elastic
bcf

Plastic

PNA
+

ENA

bcf

PNA
ENA

Figure 3.2.1 Elastic and Plastic Stress Distributions in Positive and Negative Bending of
Cross-Sections with Complete Shear Connection for 0.5
3.2.3

Positive Bending of Members

Strength
The moment capacity of a composite cross-section in positive bending is based on the typical stress
distributions shown in Fig. 3.2.2. When the plastic neutral axis (PNA) lies within the steel section, the
effective portion of the steel elements in compression may need to be reduced.
The force that can be developed in the concrete flange, and hence the moment capacity of the crosssection, depends on the degree of shear connection, , as shown in Fig. 3.2.3. As the degree of
shear connection is increased, the PNA moves higher up the cross-section, reducing the compression
region within the steel section. Therefore element slenderness needs to be considered more in
regions with a low degree of shear connection.

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0.85f 'c
fyf

PNA

PNA in concrete slab


fyw

fyf

0.85f 'c
fyf

PNA in steel beam

fyw

PNA

fyw

fyf

Figure 3.2.2 Typical Plastic Stress Distributions in Positive Bending of Cross-Sections with
Complete Shear Connection for 0.5
Ductility
When the plastic hinge in the positive moment region is not the last to form, the cross-section must
have sufficient ductility for the full collapse mechanism to develop. Such cases are rare, especially for
semi-continuous construction.
Stiffness
In positive moment regions with complete shear connection at the peak moment cross-section
+
( m = 1), the flexural stiffness of the member is based on the transformed section properties of the
effective section, ignoring the tensile strength of the concrete (AS 2327.1 Paragraph B3). For positive
+
moment regions with partial shear connection at the peak moment cross-section ( m < 1 ), the stiffness
is reduced in accordance with AS 2327.1 Paragraph B3.4. In either case, the concrete flange makes a
significant contribution to the composite member stiffness, which is typically three to four times that of
the bare steel section.

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Design moment capacity, Mb

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Mbc

PNA in top flange


Ms

0.0

0.5

1.0

Degree of shear connection,

PNA

PNA

PNA

Corresponding effective sections

Figure 3.2.3 Typical Positive Moment Capacity as a Function of for


3.2.4

0.5

Negative Bending of Members

Strength
The moment capacity of composite cross-sections in negative bending is based on the typical stress
distribution shown in Fig. 3.2.4. For any level of reinforcement, at least half the area of the steel
section is in compression and must be assessed for slenderness to determine its effective portion.
The moment capacity of the cross-section depends on the area of reinforcement, Ar , as shown in
Fig. 3.2.5. The maximum area of reinforcement, Arm , corresponds to the maximum force attained by
the steel section fully in compression. As the area of reinforcement is increased, the PNA moves
higher up the cross-section, increasing the compression region within the steel section. For this
reason, plate element slenderness is very significant in the design of composite members for negative
bending.

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fyr
fyf
PNA

fyw
fyw

fyf

Design moment capacity, Mb

Figure 3.2.4 A Typical Plastic Stress Distribution in Negative Bending for

0.5

PNA in top flange


Ms
hole in web

0.0

Arm /2

Arm

Area of reinforcement, Ar

PNA

PNA

PNA

Corresponding effective sections

Figure 3.2.5 Negative Moment Capacity as a Function of Ar for

0.5

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The moment capacity that can be achieved before the onset of local buckling is enhanced by the use
of either a longitudinal web stiffener, which reduces the web slenderness, or an additional bottom
flange plate, which lowers the PNA putting less of the web in compression. An example of these
benefits is shown in Fig. 3.2.6.

310 UB 46.2
Design moment capacity, Mbv (kNm)

600
Flange
plate

500

400

Web stiffener

300

200
0.5
=1

100

0
0

1000

2000

3000

4000

5000

Area of reinforcement, Ar (mm )

Figure 3.2.6 Negative Moment Capacity with a Bottom Flange Plate as a Function of Ar
Ductility
The ductility of composite cross-sections in negative bending may be limited by local buckling of the
steel section or fracture of the reinforcement. Local buckling affects not only the strength of steel
elements but also their ability to undergo sufficient deformation for the cross-section to form a plastic
hinge. The use of either a longitudinal web stiffener or an additional bottom flange plate improves the
cross-section ductility as well as its strength.
Rib shear failure (Type 4 longitudinal shear failure in AS 2327.1) can significantly limit the rotation
capacity of a composite connection in negative bending [10], so it is reasonable to expect that it may
be important for composite members as well. Reinforcement, such as the proprietary DECKMESH
[11], should therefore be provided in regions of negative bending to enhance ductility.
Stiffness
For practical levels of reinforcement the PNA is always located within the steel section, so the entire
concrete flange is in tension and can be treated as fully cracked. Only the effective steel section and
the reinforcement contribute to the stiffness of the cross-section. Tension stiffening of the concrete is
ignored in the negative moment regions of continuous composite beams.
3.2.5

Web Crippling

At an internal support of a continuous beam, the support reaction applies a severe concentrated load
to the bottom flange of the steel section, which may cause the web to buckle in a manner known as
web crippling. In most cases, transverse stiffeners must be provided, which, together with an effective
portion of the web, form a cruciform column that can resist this load.

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3.2.6

Negative Bending of Connections

Strength

Design moment capacity, Mc

The ultimate strength behaviour of composite connections is similar to that of composite members,
except that tension in the steel section of a composite member is replaced by tension in the welds or
bolts of a composite connection. Bolted connections can normally be designed using plastic section
analysis, but fully welded connections must be designed using elastic section analysis.

PNA in web

0.0

Arh /2

Arh

Area of reinforcement, Ar

PNA

PNA

Corresponding effective sections

Figure 3.2.7 Negative Moment Capacity of Partial-Depth End Plate Connections for

0.5

The moment capacity of a connection depends on the area of reinforcement, Ar , as shown for a
partial-depth end plate connection in Fig. 3.2.7. The tension bolts make a negligible contribution and
are conservatively ignored. Typically, the PNA for partial-strength connections is located within or
close to the bottom flange of the steel section, so local buckling of the web is rare. In fact, the
commencement of a hole in the web (at Ar = Arh ) is a reasonable upper limit for the PNA (and hence

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Ar ), since no more compressive force can be generated until the PNA enters the top flange of the
steel section, which would require very high curvatures.
Ductility
The ductility of composite connections in negative bending may be limited by local buckling of the
steel section, fracture of the bolts, fracture of the weld, or fracture of the reinforcement, as well as nonductile failures in the column. Premature bolt fracture should be prevented by choosing connection
details that promote deformation of the end plate rather than the bolts. Buckling of the column web
should be prevented by providing transverse stiffeners as an effective continuation of the bottom
flange of the steel beam. The ductility of the reinforcement is particularly important for partial-strength
composite connections, because the beam end rotations are concentrated at the connection and the
reinforcement has a high lever arm about the PNA.
Rib shear failure (Type 4 longitudinal shear failure in AS 2327.1) can significantly limit the rotation
capacity of a composite connection in negative bending [10]. Reinforcement, such as the proprietary
DECKMESH [11], should therefore be provided in regions of negative bending to enhance ductility.
Any composite connection that has insufficient rotation capacity to sustain the formation of a plastic
hinge, must be designed for 1.2 times the strength of the adjacent member, so that the plastic hinge
forms in the member and not in the connection.
Stiffness
The rotational stiffness of a composite connection with a rigid compressive load path is directly
determined by the area of reinforcement. For most composite beams, end plate connections with
minimum levels of reinforcement satisfy the requirements of rigid connections.
A rigid compressive load path is provided by details with abutting plates at the bottom flange of the
steel section, which includes all end plate connections but not web-side-plate connections, unless
contact plates are welded into place during construction. Web-side-plate connections, although
potentially semi-rigid, should be treated as nominally pinned connections [6].

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3.3

Global Analysis and Behaviour

3.3.1

Elastic

Elastic global analysis is based on a linear model of moment-curvature behaviour, as shown in


Fig. 3.3.1(a). The key structural properties are stiffness and strength; ductility is irrelevant. The
distribution of action effects is determined by the relative stiffness of each component, and the loadcarrying capacity of the structure is reached when the action effects equal the strength at any location.
Elastic analysis correctly predicts the maximum load-carrying capacity of determinate structures,
because failure at just one location is sufficient to cause collapse. However, for indeterminate
structures, the formation of a collapse mechanism generally requires two or more points of failure, and
the structure may be able to support significant additional load beyond the development of plasticity at
the first location, provided that the response is ductile. To allow for this, the distribution of moments
within the structure may be rearranged, provided that equilibrium is still satisfied, so as to reduce the
moment at any cross-section that would exceed its capacity. The degree to which moments may be
redistributed from one cross-section to another is determined by the ductility of those cross-sections
that have reached their capacity.
Elastic analysis requires knowledge of the flexural stiffness at each cross-section, which presents
some difficulties in the case of continuous composite beams. The positive moment stiffness is equal to
that of a simply-supported beam with the same effective span, but the negative moment stiffness
depends on the level of reinforcement and its extent is determined by the points of contraflexure, both
of which are unknown in the initial stages of design.
Two simplified methods of elastic analysis may be used to overcome this:

Uncracked. An uncracked analysis (i.e. in negative moment regions) assumes that the
transformed second moment of area, I t , based on the effective section in positive bending,
may be applied uniformly to the entire length of the beam.

Cracked. A cracked analysis assumes that the cracked second moment of area, I cr , based
on the effective section in negative bending with the concrete fully cracked, may be applied
to a 15% length of the beam adjacent to the support and that the transformed second
moment of area should be applied elsewhere. The greater accuracy of a cracked analysis is
reflected in reduced levels of allowable moment redistribution.

A more sophisticated method of analysis is:

3.3.2

Contraflexure. A contraflexure analysis uses the assumed second moments of area in


positive and negative bending, typically I t and I cr as above, to determine the points of
contraflexure for a given loading configuration, by solving for compatibility as well as
equilibrium. Once the points of contraflexure are known, they can be replaced by internal
hinges, and the structure becomes determinate. The structure may be represented as a
simply-supported beam between the points of contraflexure, supported by cantilevers at the
continuous supports. This approach is particularly useful for estimating the deflections at the
serviceability limit state. Details of this technique are presented in Appendix D.
Plastic

Plastic global analysis is based on an idealised rigid-plastic model of moment-curvature behaviour, as


shown in Fig. 3.3.1(b). The key structural properties are strength and ductility; stiffness is irrelevant.
The structure is analysed as the set of all potential collapse mechanisms composed of rigid links
connected by plastic hinges. The capacity of the structure is reached when sufficient plastic hinges
develop to form the weakest possible collapse mechanism. Any plastic hinge that is not the last to
form must possess sufficient ductility to maintain its moment capacity until the complete collapse
mechanism has developed. Plastic analysis involves few calculations and is easily done by hand,
provided that the collapse mechanism is known. Although difficult for complex structures, identifying
the critical collapse mechanism for continuous beams can normally be done by inspection.

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Plastic analysis overcomes the difficulties in elastic analysis associated with appropriate selection of
flexural stiffness and accurate prediction of the overall capacity. Namely, plastic analysis is based on
the strength of cross-sections, which can be determined more accurately than the stiffness, and on the
formation of collapse mechanisms, which more closely resemble behaviour at the strength limit state
than linear-elastic models. However, being based on the principles of virtual work, plastic analysis is
unable to predict the real displacements, so an elastic or elastic-plastic analysis must be used for
serviceability conditions.
The main difficulty with plastic analysis, which also applies to the use of moment redistribution in
elastic analysis, is ensuring the ductility of critical cross-sections. Both approaches give no indication
of the actual rotation at plastic hinge locations that is required to develop the complete collapse
mechanism. Ductility requirements are assumed to be satisfied by using cross-sections that lie within
specified classification boundaries.
3.3.3

Elastic-Plastic

Elastic-plastic global analysis is based on an idealised elastic, perfectly-plastic model of momentcurvature behaviour, as shown in Fig. 3.3.1(c). Stiffness, strength, and ductility are all important. The
action effects may be determined from a superimposed series of elastic analyses. The initial momentcurvature behaviour is linear everywhere, so the first analysis can proceed elastically up to the load at
which a plastic hinge starts to form. The cross-section at this plastic hinge now has zero flexural
stiffness, so it may be replaced by a nominal pin and the elastic analysis recommenced. This
procedure is applied iteratively until a complete plastic collapse mechanism has developed.

Moment, M

Moment, M

Moment, M

Although it may appear complicated, an elastic-plastic analysis is very simple for continuous beams.
Unlike elastic and plastic analyses, it enables calculation of the required rotation capacity at plastic
hinges, improving the rigour of ductility design for these cross-sections.

Curvature,

Curvature,

Curvature,

(a) Elastic

(b) Rigid-plastic

(c) Elastic-plastic

Figure 3.3.1 Moment-Curvature Models

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3.3.4

Moment Redistribution

In the context of this booklet, moment redistribution describes the load-carrying behaviour of an
indeterminate structure as its most highly loaded cross-sections approach their maximum capacity. In
order to collapse, a structure must develop sufficient hinges to become a mechanism. If all these
hinges form simultaneously, for which the collapse of a determinate structure is the degenerate case
with only one hinge, then the behaviour of the structure up to the collapse load may be closely
approximated as linear and accurately modelled by an elastic analysis. If, however, the hinges form
progressively, the structure loses one degree of redundancy with the formation of each hinge until it
becomes a mechanism. Each of these intermediate structural states carries load in a different way,
which means that the final distribution of moments at collapse may be quite different from the
distribution predicted by an elastic analysis of the initial structure. For this progressive failure to occur,
any hinge that is not the last to form must be sufficiently ductile, often termed plastic, to maintain its
strength until the final collapse mechanism is reached. It should be noted that cantilevers, although
they give rise to negative bending over supports, are determinate, and moment distribution must not
be applied to either the cantilever or the adjacent end of the corresponding interior beam.
The effects of moment redistribution are best illustrated with reference to an example. Consider a fully
built-in composite beam of span, L , subjected to a central design point load, P , as shown in
Fig. 3.3.2. The relative values adopted in regions of positive and negative bending, although chosen
for ease of calculation, are nevertheless reasonably typical: for strength, the design positive moment
+

capacity, M bv , is taken to be three times the design negative moment capacity, M bv ; and, for
stiffness, the positive second moment of area, I t , is taken to be four times the negative second
moment of area, I cr .

L/2
EsIcr

Mbv

L/2

Mbv = 3 Mbv

EsIcr

EsIt = 4 EsIcr

Mbv

Figure 3.3.2 Beam Example with Fully Fixed Ends

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Elastic Uncracked Analysis


The results of an elastic uncracked analysis with no moment redistribution are shown in Fig. 3.3.3(a).
The critical cross-sections are at the supports, for which the required design moment capacity is

M bv = PL 8 , but there is an enormous waste of capacity in the positive moment region, where the
strength is three times the action effects. Fig. 3.3.3(b) shows the results of the same analysis after
50% moment redistribution: a moment of PL 16 equal to 50% of the original PL 8 is redistributed
from the highly loaded negative moment region to the under-utilised positive moment region. Now, the
support cross-sections and the mid-span cross-section are all critical. The required design negative

moment capacity is M bv = PL 16 , half that required for the same analysis without moment
redistribution, and there is no longer wasted positive moment capacity.

L/2

L/2
EsIt

(a) No moment redistribution:


Mbv

PL/8

PL/8

Mbv = 3 Mbv
+

3PL/8

(b) 50% moment redistribution:


Mbv

Mbv = 3 Mbv

50%(PL/8) = PL/16

PL/16

3PL/16

Figure 3.3.3 Elastic Uncracked Analysis

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Elastic Cracked Contraflexure Analysis


The results of an elastic cracked contraflexure analysis with no moment redistribution are shown in
Fig. 3.3.4(a). For a fully built-in beam with I t I cr = 4 subjected to a central point load, the points of
contraflexure are located at L 6 away from the supports (Fig. D.1), which is very similar to the value
of 0.15 L used in a simplified cracked analysis. The critical cross-sections are at the supports, for

which the required design moment capacity is M bv = PL 12 , but there is again considerable wasted
capacity in the positive moment region, where the strength is 1.5 times the action effects. Fig. 3.3.4(b)
shows the results of the same analysis, only this time after just 25% moment redistribution: a moment
of PL 48 equal to 25% of the original PL 12 is redistributed from the highly loaded negative moment
region to the under-utilised positive moment region. Now, the support cross-sections and the mid-span

cross-section are all critical. The required design negative moment capacity is M bv = PL 16 , threequarters of that required for the same analysis without moment redistribution, and there is again no
longer any wasted positive moment capacity. Note the much lower degree of moment redistribution
required for the cracked analysis to reach the same result as the uncracked analysis. In an attempt to
maintain consistency, design rules specify different limits for the allowable level of moment
redistribution depending on the type of analysis (see Table 6.6.1).

L/2
EsIcr

L/2
EsIcr

EsIt = 4 EsIcr

L/6

L/6

(a) No moment redistribution:


Mbv

PL/12

PL/6
Mbv+ = 3 Mbv

PL/4

(b) 25% moment redistribution:


Mbv

25%(PL/12) = PL/48

+
Mbv = 3 Mbv

PL/16

3PL/16

Figure 3.3.4 Elastic Cracked Contraflexure Analysis

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Plastic Analysis
The collapse mechanism and virtual displacements for a plastic analysis are shown in Fig. 3.3.5. From
simple trigonometry for small angles,
L
=
2

3.3(1)

Using the principle of virtual work, the external and internal work must be equal, therefore
P

M bv + M bv 2 + M bv

3.3(2)

Substituting = (L 2 ) and M bv = 3 M bv , this reduces to the required design negative moment


capacity of

M bv

PL
16

3.3(3)

which, as expected, is equal to the result for an elastic analysis with the required moment
redistribution.

L/2

Mbv

L/2

Mbv

Mbv = 3 Mbv

Figure 3.3.5 Plastic Analysis

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Elastic-Plastic Uncracked Analysis


The results of an elastic-plastic uncracked analysis are shown in Fig. 3.3.6. The first phase of the
analysis shown in Fig. 3.3.6(a) is elastic up to a load of P 2 , at which point plastic hinges form at the
support cross-sections and the structure effectively becomes a simply-supported beam. The second
phase of the analysis, shown in Fig. 3.3.6(b), ends after an additional load of P 2 , when a hinge
forms at the mid-span cross-section and the structure becomes a mechanism. The beam end rotations
during this second phase represent the ductility required by the connections. For a beam of uniform
flexural stiffness supporting a central point load, in this case P 2 , the required rotation capacity may
be calculated from the standard result as:

PL2
32 E s I t

3.3(4)

Fig. 3.3.6(c) shows the final superimposed bending moment diagram, which is identical to the earlier
elastic (with the required moment redistribution) and plastic analysis results.

P/2
PL/16

(a)
PL/16

P/2

(b)

PL/8

Mbv

+
Mbv = 3 Mbv

(c)

PL/16

3PL/16

(a) + (b)

Figure 3.3.6 Elastic-Plastic Uncracked Analysis

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Elastic-Plastic Cracked Contraflexure Analysis


The results of an elastic-plastic cracked contraflexure analysis are shown in Fig. 3.3.7. The first phase
of the analysis shown in Fig. 3.3.7(a) is elastic up to a load of 3P 4 , at which point plastic hinges
form at the support cross-sections and the structure effectively becomes a simply-supported beam.
The second phase of the analysis, shown in Fig. 3.3.7(b), ends after an additional load of P 4 , when
a hinge forms at the mid-span cross-section and the structure becomes a mechanism. The beam end
rotations during this second phase represent the ductility required by the connections. For a beam of
this geometry supporting a central point load, in this case P 4 , the required rotation capacity may be
calculated using the moment area theorem of slopes (Appendix D) as:

PL2
48 E s I t

3.3(5)

which is two-thirds of the value resulting from an elastic-plastic uncracked analysis. Fig. 3.3.7(c)
shows the final superimposed bending moment diagram, which is identical to the relevant earlier
analyses.

3P/4
PL/16

(a)

PL/8
P/4

(b)
PL/16

Mbv

+
Mbv = 3 Mbv

(c)

PL/16

3PL/16

(a) + (b)

Figure 3.3.7 Elastic-Plastic Cracked Contraflexure Analysis

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3.3.5

Effect of Propping

Action Effects
Propping delays the application of dead loads imposed during construction until the beam has reached
its composite state, which may affect the distribution of bending moments along the beam, and
definitely affects the distribution of stresses within each cross-section.
For a determinate beam in its composite state, the bending moment diagram due to dead loads
depends solely on satisfying equilibrium and is independent of whether the beam was propped during
construction. However, for an indeterminate beam, the relative stiffnesses, both within the beam and
of the connections, must be considered, which can cause a significant difference. The difference is
most pronounced when the connection stiffness changes from the bare steel to the composite state,
as it does for semi-continuous beams with partial-depth end plate connections. Using unpropped
construction, the dead loads are supported in the bare steel state with pinned connections, leading to
a simply-supported bending moment diagram, whereas for propped construction, the dead loads are
supported in the composite state with rigid connections, leading to a fully built-in bending moment
diagram.
More significant than the distribution of bending moments, though, is the manner in which they are
resisted. Using unpropped construction, the dead loads are fully supported by the bare steel beam,
and in the composite state, before the application of any further loads, the stresses in the concrete
and reinforcement are zero, ignoring shrinkage, creep, and temperature effects. Using propped
construction, however, the dead loads are effectively applied to the composite state, causing
significant stresses in the concrete and reinforcement.
Serviceability
At the serviceability limit state, the concrete and reinforcement stresses for propped beams derive
from the full service load, but for unpropped beams only from the additional component above the
dead loads. Assuming a live load of equal magnitude to the dead loads, and a short-term serviceability
load factor, s = 0.7 , the concrete and reinforcement stresses for an unpropped beam are only 40%
of those for a propped beam. For this reason, unpropped beams provide much better crack control
and reduced incremental deflections. Furthermore, pre-cambering the steel beam can greatly reduce
the dead load deflections and hence also the total deflections.
The one positive aspect of propped construction is a decrease in the bottom fibre steel stress, which
can be calculated from

My
I

3.3(6)

In negative moment regions, however, the increase from I s to I cr is partly offset by an increase in y ,
so that, for equal magnitudes of dead and live loads, the decrease in the bottom fibre steel stress
under service loads is usually less than 10%.
Strength
The dead loads that are supported by the bare steel beam in unpropped construction effectively
become residual stresses (or strains) once the concrete has set. The magnitude of these residual
strains is often similar in order to the yield strain, y . For slender or non-compact sections that are
governed by yielding, these residual strains are very significant, but for compact cross-sections that
reach bottom fibre strains in the order of 10 y at their ultimate moment capacity, residual strains in
the order of y are insignificant. Therefore, the effect of propping can be ignored in the strength
calculations of this design booklet.

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3.3.6

Lateral Distortional Buckling

Lateral distortional buckling of the steel section in continuous composite beams is similar to the better
known lateral torsional buckling of bare steel beams. The main difference is illustrated by the
contrasting buckling modes, which are shown in Fig. 3.3.8. For lateral torsional buckling, the steel
section must be able to translate and rotate as a rigid body, but this mode is prevented in composite
beams by the attachment of the top steel flange to the concrete slab. Any lateral displacements of the
bottom flange must be accompanied by distortion of the web.

Lateral torsional

Lateral distortional

Figure 3.3.8 Lateral Buckling Modes of Cross-Sections in Negative Bending


Lateral distortional buckling requires the bottom flange of the steel section to be in compression, which
only occurs in the negative moment regions of continuous composite beams. (Note that pattern
loading of alternate spans can substantially increase the extent of negative moment regions in the
adjacent unloaded spans.) The behaviour of the bottom flange is similar to an axially loaded column
with a continuous lateral restraint provided by the resistance of the web to distortion. A typical pattern
of lateral displacements for the bottom flange is shown in Fig. 3.3.9.
Lateral distortional buckling frequently governs the design of bridge girders, which are typically large
welded steel sections with relatively slender webs (d w t w 70 ) , but is rarely significant for the more
stocky universal beams used in buildings (d w t w 45 ) . Furthermore, in buildings, the use of partial
strength connections (semi-continuous beams) reduces the peak negative moment and the extent of
negative moment regions, and for grid layouts, the secondary beams may provide some degree of
lateral restraint to the primary beams.

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Bending moment diagram:

Displacements of bottom flange:

Lateral restraint,
but free to warp

Figure 3.3.9 Lateral Displacements of the Bottom Flange due to Lateral Distortional Buckling

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4.
4.1

DESIGN MODELS

Ductile Shear Connection

The design methods in this booklet rely on ductile shear connection, as shown in Fig. 4.1.1. It is
assumed that shear connectors designed in accordance with AS 2327.1 Section 8, and reinforced
locally in accordance with AS 2327.1 Section 9, are sufficiently ductile for this purpose [3].
In positive moment regions, tests have shown this to be a valid assumption even for beams with a low
degree of shear connection [1]. Nevertheless, in order to limit the ductility demand on the shear
connection, the degree of shear connection at the cross-section of maximum positive design bending
+
moment, m , must not be less than 0.5, in accordance with AS 2327.1 Clause 6.6.2(a).
In negative moment regions, tests have shown that partial shear connection can lead to catastrophic
failure [10]. Therefore, the degree of shear connection at the cross-section of maximum negative

design bending moment, m , must always be 1.0.

Connector shear capacity, f


Rigid-plastic behaviour

fvs
fds fvs

fds

Slip,

Figure 4.1.1 Ductile Shear Connection

4.2

Moment-Shear Interaction

The moment-shear interaction model for negative bending in continuous composite design is identical
to that for positive bending in simply-supported beams. The graph shown in Fig. 4.2.1, which is
essentially a reprint of Fig. D3.2 from AS 2327.1, is based on the following.
(a) Unless it can be demonstrated that the concrete slab contributes to the vertical shear
capacity, the web of the steel beam is assumed to carry the entire shear force.
(b) When the shear ratio is in the range 0 0.5 , the nominal moment capacity, either
positive or negative, of a cross-section is not affected by shear force, and the entire web of
the effective portion of the steel beam is available to resist bending.
(c) When the shear ratio, , is equal to 1.0, the entire steel web is utilised carrying shear, and
the nominal moment capacity, either positive or negative, is calculated with the web removed
from the effective section.
(d) Linear interpolation is used when the shear ratio is in the range 0.5 < < 1.0 .

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Mb or Mc
Mbv or Mcv
Mbf or Mcf
Mb or Mc
Mbf or Mcf

0.0

0.5

1.0

Figure 4.2.1 Moment-Shear Interaction in Negative Bending

4.3

Member Cross-Sections in Negative Bending

4.3.1

Effective Section

At the strength limit state, the effective cross-section of a composite member in negative bending
comprises steel reinforcement of suitable ductility and that portion of the steel beam that is assumed
to be unaffected by local buckling and is not required to resist vertical shear. The concrete flange, fully
in tension, is ignored. This booklet is limited to effective cross-sections that are compact, so plastic
analysis is applicable. The plastic neutral axis (PNA) is located by equilibrium:

Ti C i
or

= 0

4.3(1)

Ait f yi Aic f yi

= 0

4.3(2)

No Moment-Shear Interaction (

0.5)

A composite cross-section in which the entire steel section is effective and there is no moment-shear
interaction is shown in Fig. 4.3.1. If the bottom flange in compression is non-compact, its width, b f2 , is
reduced to an effective width, b f2e , for which it is compact. If the portion of the web in compression,
d wc , is non-compact, the segment that is more than 15t w from a lateral restraint is removed,
creating what is termed a hole in the web, as shown in Fig. 4.3.2. The lateral restraints in this case
are the tension region of the web above the PNA and the bottom flange. Alternatively, the need for a
hole in the web can be overcome with suitable lateral stiffeners or by adding an additional bottom
flange plate, thus lowering the PNA and reducing the portion of the web in compression. A general
cross-section incorporating a horizontal web stiffener and an additional bottom flange plate is shown in
Fig. 4.3.3.

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bcf

Ar

yr
yf1

tension
dwt

ywt
yPNA

PNA

dwc

ywc

compression
yf2
bf2

Figure 4.3.1 A Fully Effective Composite Cross-Section in Negative Bending

bcf
tension

Ar

PNA

yr
yf1

yPNA

15tw

tw

compression
15tw
tf2

yf2

bf2e

Figure 4.3.2 A Composite Cross-Section Reduced by Local Buckling

bcf

Ar

yr

tension

yPNA

PNA

bwp
twp

ywp

tfp

yfp

compression

bfp

Figure 4.3.3 A General Composite Cross-Section in Negative Bending

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Maximum Moment-Shear Interaction ( = 1.0)

When a cross-section is fully loaded in shear ( = 1 ), the web is totally utilised by shear and unable to
make any contribution to the moment resistance of the cross-section. The effective cross-section
therefore has the web removed, as shown in Fig. 4.3.4.

bcf

Ar

yr

tension

yPNA

PNA

bwp
twp

ywp

tfp

yfp

compression

bfp

Figure 4.3.4 A General Composite Cross-Section for =1


4.3.2

Strength

Provided that there is no net resultant axial force, the nominal moment capacity of the effective crosssection can be calculated as the sum of the elemental moments about the top surface of the concrete,
which can be expressed as
M

Ti y i C i y i

4.3(3)

Full details of the calculation method are given in Appendix E.


No Shear Interaction ( 0.5)

The design moment capacity of the effective cross-section shown in Fig. 4.3.3 is given by

M b

4.3(4)

Full Shear Interaction ( = 1.0)

The design moment capacity of the effective cross-section shown in Fig. 4.3.4 is given by

M bf

4.3(5)

Mbv - Ar - Relationship

Moment-shear interaction is then applied to obtain the general design moment capacity, M bv , as a

function of the shear ratio, ,


0.5 :

M bv

M b

0.5 < < 1 :

M bv

(2 1)M bf

= 1:

M bv

M bf

4.3.3

4.3(6)

+ 2 (1 )M b

4.3(7)
4.3(8)

Ductility

Provided that the reinforcement is of suitable ductility (Class N) and that all the steel elements are
compact, the composite cross-section is assumed to be ductile and capable of undergoing the

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necessary deformation to form a plastic hinge. The ductility, as well as the strength, is improved by the
use of web stiffeners and additional bottom flange plates.
4.3.4

Stiffness

In calculating the flexural stiffness for regions of negative moment, the concrete flange is assumed to
be fully cracked, the beneficial contribution of tension stiffening is conservatively ignored, and the
influence of creep and shrinkage is assumed to be negligible. The stiffness, termed the cracked
flexural stiffness and denoted by E s I cr , is the product of the elastic modulus for steel and the second
moment of area for the effective cross-section in negative bending. Refer to Appendix C for the
calculation of I cr .

4.4

Partial-Depth End Plate Connections

4.4.1

Effective Section

The effective section of a composite partial-depth end plate connection comprises steel reinforcement
of suitable ductility (see Section 1.2.5) and that portion of the steel beam in compression not affected
by local buckling. If necessary, web stiffeners and an additional bottom flange plate may be used to
improve the connection performance. The concrete flange, fully in tension, is ignored. The contribution
of any bolts in tension is generally insignificant and is conservatively ignored. The shear is carried by
the bolts closest to the bottom flange. This booklet is limited to effective cross-sections that are
compact, so plastic analysis is applicable.
A typical connection and its effective section are shown in Fig. 4.4.1. The plastic neutral axis (PNA) is
located by equilibrium:

Ti C i

4.4(1)

Ait f yi Aic f yi

or

= 0
= 0

4.4(2)

bcf

Ar

yr

tension

yPNA

PNA

compression

bf2e

Figure 4.4.1 A Partial-Depth End Plate Connection in Negative Bending


4.4.2

Strength

Provided that there is no net resultant axial force, the design moment capacity of the connection can
be calculated as the sum of the elemental moments about the top surface of the concrete, which can
be expressed as
M

= Tr y r C i y i

4.4(3)

Full details of the calculation method are given in Appendix F.

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No Shear Interaction ( 0.5)

The design moment capacity of the connection, including any contribution by the web if applicable
(see Fig. 3.2.7), is given by

M c

4.4(4)

Full Shear Interaction ( = 1.0)

The design moment capacity of the connection, excluding any contribution by the web, is given by

M cf

4. 4(5)

Mcv - Ar - Relationship

Moment-shear interaction is then applied to obtain the general design moment capacity, M cv , as a

function of the shear ratio, ,


0.5 :

M cv

M c

0.5 < < 1 :

M cv

(2 1)M cf

= 1:

M cv

M cf

4.4.3

4.4(6)

+ 2 (1 )M c

4.4(7)
4.4(8)

Ductility

The major contribution to rotation capacity is made by the elongation of the reinforcement over the
connection, , as shown in Fig. 4.4.2. Given the uniform strain of the reinforcement, su , the major
factor is the length of reinforcement that is engaged by the connection under ultimate strength limit
state conditions, Lrcu , for which a simple model is
Lrcu

= Lrf + 0.5 Lrd

4.4(9)

where
Lrf

the free length (assumed to be unbonded) of reinforcement over the connection,

the distance from the centreline of the support to the first shear connector, which, to
improve connection ductility, should be at least 200 mm; and,

the nominal development length of the reinforcing bar,

Lrd

25 bar diameters.

The factor of 0.5 applied to Lrd accounts for the stress gradient, which is assumed to be linear, from

f yr to zero along the development length of the bar, and 0.5 Lrd represents the equivalent length
subjected to a uniform stress of f yr .
The rotation capacity due to the reinforcement may then be calculated as
ru

su Lrcu
y PNA y r

4.4(10)

A lesser but not insignificant contribution to the rotation capacity of the connection is made by the
deformation of the concrete in the vicinity of the shear connectors, which manifests itself as slip at the
steel-concrete interface. Using the assumption of ductile shear connection, the tensile force in the
reinforcement, Fr , is resisted equally by each connector in the negative moment region.
The rotation capacity due to the shear connection may therefore be calculated as
su

Fr

n k s (y PNA Dc )

4.4(11)

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in which k s is the secant stiffness of one shear connector, which may be taken as 30 kN/mm for
welded studs [1,12]. The total rotation capacity may then be expressed as
u

ru + su

4.4(12)

yPNA yr

PNA

symmetric

Figure 4.4.2 Rotation Model For Partial-Depth End Plate Connections


4.4.4

Stiffness

A minimum area of reinforcement, Ar.st , is required to ensure that the assumption of rigid connection
behaviour is valid. From elastic bending theory and assuming symmetry about the beam centreline,
the moment attracted to a connection of stiffness, k , supporting a beam subjected to arbitrary loading
is
Mc

1
M
2EI F
1+
kL

4.4(13)

where M F is the fixed-end moment. The relationship between M c and k is illustrated in Fig. 4.4.3.
For an infinitely stiff connection, 2 EI kL 0 , and M c M F , as expected. If the limit required for
rigidity is within 10% of that, then the connection stiffness must satisfy
1
2 EI
1+
kL

> 0.90

4.4(14)

18 EI
L

4.4(15)

which reduces to
k

>

A simple expression for the connection stiffness is


k

EAr
(y PNA y r )2
Lrce

4.4(16)

in which
=

Lrf + 0.25 Lrd

Lrce

the length of reinforcement that is engaged by the connection under elastic conditions.

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The factor of 0.25 applied to Lrd is the product of two factors of 0.5: one to account for the linear
stress gradient, giving the equivalent length subjected to a uniform stress; and the other to account for
a maximum stress under elastic conditions for stiffness purposes of 0.5 f yr , which is assumed to
require a similarly reduced development length of 0.5 Lrd .
Combining these two equations, the minimum area of reinforcement required for stiffness reasons is
given by
Ar.st

18 ILrce

4.4(17)

L (y PNA y r )

Based on elastic contraflexure analysis, an equivalent uniform value of I can be derived as


Ia

I cr I t L
2 aI t + (L 2 a )I cr

4.4(18)

in which a is the location of the point of elastic contraflexure, I cr is the second moment of area in
negative bending regions, and I t is the second moment of area in positive bending regions.

Relative connection moment, Mc / MF

1
0.9
0.8

assumed rigid

0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
0.001

0.01

0.1

10

100

1000

Relative connection stiffness, kL/2EI

Figure 4.4.3 Assessment of Connection Rigidity

4.5

Flush End Plate Connections

Experiments have shown that the contribution of tension bolts to the ultimate moment capacity of
composite flush end plate connections is less than 10% [13]. Furthermore, beyond the ultimate load,
their contribution diminishes [14] and the connection moment capacity approaches that for a partialdepth end plate connection at medium to high rotations. It is therefore recommended, especially for
ductility, that the tension bolts in flush end plate connections are ignored in the composite design
state. This means that flush end plate connections can be designed using the same procedures as
those for partial-depth end plate connections.

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4.6

Lateral Distortional Buckling

4.6.1

Moment Capacity of the Steel Section, Msd

The susceptibility of the steel section of a continuous composite beam to lateral distortional buckling
can be represented by the non-dimensional slenderness [15]
d

Ms

4.6(1)

M od

where M s is the nominal negative moment capacity of the steel section, and M od is the elastic lateral
distortional buckling moment capacity of the steel section in a continuous composite beam.

The nominal moment capacity of the steel section, M sd , allowing for the interaction between plasticity
and elastic distortional buckling, may then be obtained from [16]

M sd

= 0.8 4 + 3 2 M s M s
d
d

4.6(2)

which is shown graphically in Fig. 4.6.1 and is similar to the interaction equation for lateral torsional
buckling of beams in Clause 5.6 of AS 4100. For slenderness values below d = 0.76 , the steel
section (and hence the composite beam) is unaffected by lateral distortional buckling and able to
reach its full moment capacity.

Relative moment capacity, Msd / Ms-

1.4
Elastic distortional buckling
1.2
1

Full moment capacity

0.8
0.6

Interaction curve

0.4
d = 0.76

0.2
0
0

0.5

1.5

2.5

Slenderness, d

Figure 4.6.1 Moment Capacity of the Steel Section, Msd , allowing for the Interaction between
Plasticity and Elastic Distortional Buckling (after Ref. 17)

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4.6.2

Non-Dimensional Slenderness, d

Inverted U-Frame Model

A widely used method to obtain d is to calculate M od using an inverted U-frame [17], based on the
design approach for continuous bridge girders [18]. The bottom flange of the steel section is modelled
by a laterally restrained pin-ended strut, as shown in Fig. 4.6.2. The lateral restraint per unit length,
y , is provided by the resistance of the inverted U-frame to distortion. This method assumes that the
compressive force is uniform along the whole length of the strut, which can be very conservative
because there is usually a steep moment gradient adjacent to the internal supports of continuous
beams. For this reason, the inverted U-frame model is not recommended in this booklet.

F=1

F=1

y/ per unit length

Ncr

Ncr
x

Lcr

Figure 4.6.2 Laterally Restrained Pin-Ended Strut


Empirical Method
Alternatively, and more accurately, d can be calculated directly from the design approximation [15]

L
= 0.018 b
ry

dw

t
w

0.40

4.6(3)

where Lb is the length of the beam between the supports, r y is the minor axis radius of gyration of the
compression flange, and d w and t w are the depth and thickness of the web respectively. Note that
for a rectangular bottom flange

ry

b f2

4.6(4)

2 3

This approximation is independent of M s , because it represents the best fit for f y in the range 250

400 MPa, based on a finite element study by Weston, Nethercot and Crisfield [19] that included both
geometric and material non-linearities. The approximation shows d is also independent of the
moment gradient, which was confirmed by Bradford [16] using an inelastic finite element analysis.
Equation 4.6(3) can be rearranged as

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2

Lb

tw
+ 0.40
= d
0.018 r y d

4.6(5)

Substituting d = 0.76 from above (Fig. 4.6.1), the value of Lb below which lateral distortional
buckling need not be considered, Ld , is given by

Ld

t
4140 r y w
d
w

4.6(6)

The length, Ld , and the ratio, Ld D s , are given for all OneSteel Universal Beams in Table 4.6.1. The
tabulated values are also valid for beams with additional bottom flange plates, provided that the width
of the additional flange plate, b fp , is equal to or greater than the width of the bottom flange of the steel
section, b f2 . If this is not the case, Ld must be calculated using the value of r y for the combined
bottom flange and additional plate.
Section

Ld (m)

Ld D s

Section

Ld (m)

Ld D s

610 UB 125.0

20.7

33.8

310 UB 40.4

15.3

50.2

610 UB 113.0

19.8

32.6

310 UB 32.0

12.9

43.3

610 UB 101.0

19.1

31.7

250 UB 37.3

15.8

61.9

530 UB 92.4

18.6

34.9

250 UB 31.4

15.3

60.8

530 UB 82.0

17.9

33.9

250 UB 25.7

11.5

46.3

460 UB 82.1

18.5

40.3

200 UB 29.8

16.7

80.5

460 UB 74.6

17.4

38.1

200 UB 25.4

15.7

77.2

460 UB 67.1

16.6

36.7

200 UB 22.3

14.2

70.1

410 UB 59.7

15.9

39.3

200 UB 18.2

10.0

50.4

410 UB 53.7

15.6

38.8

180 UB 22.2

12.1

67.6

360 UB 56.7

17.1

47.7

180 UB 18.1

10.7

61.2

360 UB 50.7

16.0

45.0

180 UB 16.1

10.0

57.8

360 UB 44.7

15.4

43.8

150 UB 18.0

11.2

72.2

310 UB 46.2

16.3

53.2

150 UB 14.0

9.9

66.1

Table 4.6.1 Lengths Below Which Lateral Distortional Buckling Need Not Be Considered
4.6.3

Moment Capacity of the Composite Beam, Mbd

The nominal moment capacity of the steel section, M sd , can be used to determine the strain in the

extreme fibre of the bottom flange to cause lateral distortional buckling, fd . This limiting strain can
then be applied in a composite cross-section analysis to calculate the nominal moment capacity of the

composite beam allowing for lateral distortional buckling, M bd . Full interaction can be assumed at
critical negative moment cross-sections, so there is no slip at the steel-concrete interface and the
strain distribution is linear.
Elastic Behaviour

Since M sd < M s , the behaviour of the steel section will often be elastic, in which case

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fd

M sd
(y B y s )
E sI s

4.6(7)

where y B and y s are the coordinates of the extreme bottom fibre and elastic centroid of the steel
section respectively. Provided that the behaviour of the composite cross-section is also elastic,

M bd

E s I cr
fd
y B y ENA

M bd

yB y s
y B y ENA

4.6(8)

which can be simplified to


I cr

I
s


M sd

4.6(9)

where y ENA is the coordinate of the elastic centroid of the composite cross-section (see Appendix C).
Plastic Behaviour
In cases where either the steel or the reinforcement yields before the onset of lateral distortional
buckling, an elastic-plastic section analysis should be used. Alternatively, as a simplification, the
nominal moment capacity of the composite beam may be approximated as

M bd

M
= sd
M
s


M bv

4.6(10)

where M bv is the nominal moment capacity of the peak negative moment cross-section in a
composite beam that is fully restrained against lateral distortional buckling.

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5.
5.1

Design Data

5.1.1

DESIGN APPROACH

Geometry

It is assumed that, due to either architectural considerations or a prior conceptual design, the general
layout is known, including details of the:

beam (length and spacing to adjacent beams);

concrete (grade and depth); and,

profiled steel sheeting (type and orientation).

5.1.2

Loads

It is assumed that all loads, together with their stage of application, are known. The one exception is
the beam self-weight, which can typically be approximated by a uniformly distributed load in the range
0.5 1 kN/m.

5.2

Preliminary Design

5.2.1

Supports in the Composite State

The supports in the composite state must be either pinned or rigid, since semi-rigid connections are
beyond the scope of this design booklet. Rigid composite supports rely on symmetry for properly
anchored negative moment reinforcement, and can only be used at internal supports. The possible
beams are:

Simply-supported, with both supports pinned;

Propped cantilever, with one pinned support and one rigid support; and,

Fully built-in, with both supports rigid.

Rigid supports may be either partial-strength or full-strength, which correspond to semi-continuous


and continuous framing respectively. Semi-continuous framing relies on high levels of moment
redistribution and requires a 0.85 positive moment reduction factor to minimise the rotation demand at
the supports [4].
5.2.2

Degree of Positive Moment Shear Connection

Partial shear connection is permitted for critical cross-sections in positive moment regions, so the
designer may choose the desired degree of shear connection at the peak positive moment cross+
section, m , such that
+
0.5 m 1

5.2.3

Level of Negative Moment Reinforcement

The designer may choose the desired level of reinforcement, within certain limits. One of the
requirements for crack control (Section 6.14) equates to pr = 0.75% for N12 reinforcing bars [20],
which represents a suitable minimum, and 1.5% has been chosen as a convenient maximum for the
purposes of preliminary design. Therefore,
0.75% p r 1.5%
If a beam is relatively short and heavily loaded, levels of negative reinforcement towards the higher
end of this range will be required to satisfy the stiffness requirements for a rigid connection.

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5.2.4

Initial Member Sizing

Semi-continuous and continuous beams are more likely to be governed by strength than deflection,
which means that the strength charts in Appendices G and H can provide accurate member sizing.
The charts are based on fully built-in beams with complete shear connection at the peak positive
moment cross-section. In other cases, approximate solutions can be obtained by making the following
adjustments before using the charts:

For propped cantilevers, increase the beam span by 15%; and,

+
For partial shear connection ( m = 0.5 ), increase the loads by 10%.

5.2.5
Shear Ratio
Continuous beams are often governed by the shear capacity of the web, so the shear ratio, , should
be checked before proceeding with the detailed design.

5.3

Strength Design Construction Stage 3 (AS 2327.1)

5.3.1

Construction Sequence

The designer must identify the intended use of props during concreting. Unpropped construction is
generally preferable due to its simplicity and better serviceability under in-service conditions, but may
not be possible if the capacity of the bare steelwork and/or profiled steel sheeting is insufficient to
support the construction loads.
5.3.2

Design Action Effects

The design action effects should be determined using either an elastic or a plastic analysis. Provided
that the steel beam is compact, the design free bending moment, M f* , can be used for a simple
plastic analysis.
5.3.3

Strength

Semi-Continuous Beams
The required design moment capacity of a bare steel connection in a fully built-in semi-continuous
beam, for example, is given by

M sc

+
M f * M s

5.3(1)

and should be calculated in accordance with the general principles of AS 4100.


Possible connections include:

pinned (e.g. partial-depth end plate connections), in which case M sc = 0 ;

bolted (e.g. flush or extended end plate connections);

bolted, combined with a top tie strap (see Fig. 1.2.13); or,

welded.

Note that if the connection can be classified as full-strength, then the beam may be treated as fully
continuous.
Continuous Beams

+
The required strength for a uniform continuous beam ( M s = M s ) is given by

M s
5.3.4

0.5 M f *

5.3(2)

Ductility

Any partial-strength connection must be shown to have sufficient ductility for a plastic collapse
mechanism to form.
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5.4

Strength Design Construction Stages 4, 5 and 6 (AS 2327.1)

Detailed coverage of the strength design for Construction Stages 4, 5 and 6 is beyond the scope of
this booklet. In positive moment regions, the strength design should be in accordance with AS 2327.1.
In negative moment regions, the general principles given in this booklet for the in-service condition
may be applied, provided that allowance is made for the reduced strength of the concrete during
Stage 5.

5.5

Strength Design In-Service Condition (AS 2327.1)

5.5.1

Elastic Properties

+
The second moments of area should be calculated based on the chosen values of m and Ar .

COMPSECT, COMPBEAM, or AS 2327.1 can be used for the positive moment value, I + , and
either COMPSECT or Appendix C for the negative moment value, I .
5.5.2

Design Action Effects

The design action effects should be determined using either an elastic-plastic or a plastic analysis. For
compact beams and connections, the design free bending moment, M f * , can be used for a simple
plastic analysis.
5.5.3

Strength

+
The moment capacity of the PCCs is required. The design positive moment capacity, M bv , can be
+
obtained from COMPSECT, COMPBEAM, or AS 2327.1 for the chosen value of m . For

continuous beams, the design negative moment capacity of the member, M bv , can be obtained for

the chosen value of Ar using COMPSECT or calculated using Appendix E. For semi-continuous

beams, the design negative moment capacity of the connection, M cv , can be calculated for the

chosen value of Ar using Appendix F. Equilibrium is satisfied when,


for continuous beams,

+
M bv + M bv

M f*

5.5(1)

M f*

5.5(2)

and, for semi-continuous beams,

+
M cv + 0.85 M bv

Alternatively, in many cases, the strength charts in Appendices G and H can be used to obtain directly
the design free bending moment capacity, M f , given by
for continuous beams,
M f

+
M bv + M bv

5.5(3)

+
M cv + 0.85 M bv

5.5(4)

and, for semi-continuous beams,


M f
5.5.4

Ductility

Design Rotation
The design rotation at the connection, * , should be calculated using an elastic-plastic contraflexure
analysis (see Appendix D).
Rotation Capacity
The design rotation capacity of the connection, u , should be calculated for partial-depth end plate
connections using the model presented in Section 4.4.3. This model may also be applied to flush and

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extended end plate connections, provided that the moment capacity of the composite connection is
calculated ignoring the contribution of bolts in tension.
5.5.5

Stiffness

Calculate the minimum area of reinforcement, Ar.st , in accordance with the model presented in
Section 4.4.4, that is required to ensure that the connection may be treated as rigid.
5.5.6

Shear

Check that both the steel web and the bolts of any end plate connection can resist the design shear
force in accordance with Section 6.8.1 and Section 6.9.5 respectively. In the case of bolted
connections, note that for end plate and supporting component thicknesses greater than or equal to
6 mm, the shear capacity of the bolt normally governs.
5.5.7

Lateral Distortional Buckling

Lateral distortional buckling need only be considered if the length of the beam between supports, Lb ,
is greater than the appropriate value given in Table 4.6.1.

5.6

Serviceability Design

5.6.1

Crack Control

Of the three requirements for crack control specified in Section 6.14, only the check for yielding of the
reinforcement under serviceability overload conditions is independent of the reinforcing bar diameter.
That check should therefore be undertaken first, as given by the following procedure.

Elastic cracked section properties. These should be calculated for either the member
(continuous framing) or the connection (semi-continuous framing) as appropriate. The elastic
properties for the member have already been calculated in Section 5.5.1. The elastic
properties for the connection should be calculated assuming elastic cracked behaviour. The
contributing components are therefore the reinforcement in tension and any part of the steel
beam in compression. This calculation requires the solution of a quadratic equation to
establish the location of the elastic neutral axis.

Yield check. The stress in the reinforcement under the load condition, G + Q , should not
exceed 0.8 f yr .

Distribution of reinforcement. Giving consideration to the effective width of the concrete


flange, a suitable distribution of reinforcement should be chosen. If the area of reinforcement
has substantially increased, the elastic cracked properties should be recalculated.

Service check. The stress in the reinforcement under service loads, G + sQ , should not
exceed ( 760 173 log e d b ), the maximum stress permitted in reinforcement with a diameter,
db .

5.6.2

Minimum reinforcement. The final area of reinforcement must satisfy the minimum
requirements, as given by Equation 6.14(1).
Deflections

An elastic cracked contraflexure analysis can be used to represent a fully built-in beam as a simplysupported beam of length, L+ , supported by two cantilevers of length, a . The deflections can be
calculated as the sum of the deflections of these subcomponents. The deflections of the effective
simply-supported beam can be obtained from either AS 2327.1 or COMPBEAM. The deflections of
the cantilevers can be calculated from the cracked second moment of area, I cr . Since the concrete is
assumed to be fully cracked, the effects of creep and shrinkage can be ignored in calculating the
cantilever
deflections.

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6.
6.1

DESIGN RULES

Scope

These rules cover the design of continuous and semi-continuous composite beams in braced frames.
The connections must be either pinned or rigid; semi-rigid connections are beyond the scope of this
booklet. Rigid connections may be either full strength (continuous framing) or partial strength (semicontinuous framing). Rigid composite connections must be approximately symmetric about the support
to ensure that the negative moment reinforcement is properly anchored, and are therefore restricted to
either internal supports or external supports with a cantilever. Composite cross-sections must be
either compact or non-compact, and steel sections must be symmetric about the vertical axis.

6.2

Design Loads

The design loads shall be calculated in accordance with AS 2327.1 and AS 1170.1.

6.3

Construction

The design of the structural steel member for the construction stages is not explicitly covered by this
booklet and shall be undertaken in accordance with AS 2327.1 and AS 4100. In particular, moment
resisting steel connections shall be designed in accordance with AS 4100. Further guidance on the
design of steel connections is given in Ref. 7.
The method of construction may be either propped or unpropped. The method of construction may be
ignored in the design of members with compact critical cross-sections for the strength limit state, but
must be considered in the design of all members for the serviceability limit state.

6.4

Properties of Cross-Sections

6.4.1

Effective Width of Concrete

The effective width of the concrete flange, for both positive and negative bending, is affected by the inplane shear flexibility of the concrete slab and shall be calculated in accordance with AS 2327.1
Clause 5.2.2, based on the effective span of the beam. The effective span is the approximate distance
between points of zero bending moment. For simply-supported beams, it is calculated in accordance
with Appendix H of AS 2327.1. For typical continuous beams, the values given in Fig. 6.4.1 may be
used.

Lef =

Lef =

0.25(L1+L2)

0.8L1

0.25(L2+L3)

0.7L2

1.5L4 but < L4+0.5L3

0.8L30.3L4
but > 0.7L3

L1

L2

L3

L4

Figure 6.4.1 Equivalent Spans for Effective Width of Concrete Flange (after Ref. 5)
For simplified global analysis, the effective width may be taken as constant over the entire span. This
shall be the value at mid-span for a beam supported at both ends, and the value at the support for a

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cantilever. For the analysis of cross-sections, the appropriate value in positive or negative bending
shall be used.
6.4.2

Reinforcement

Reinforcement must be properly anchored and lie within the effective width of the concrete flange for
negative bending. The shear connection between the concrete slab and the steel beam must be able
to develop the full force in the reinforcement; partial shear connection at critical cross-sections in
regions of negative bending is not permitted.
Where either plastic global analysis or plastic analysis of cross-sections is used, only reinforcement of
high ductility (Class N) shall be included in the effective cross-section. The presence of Class L
welded mesh shall be excluded from consideration at the strength limit state.
6.4.3

Steel Sheeting

The contribution of the profiled steel sheeting shall be ignored.


6.4.4

Effective Portion of Steel Beam

The effective portion of the steel beam shall be calculated in accordance with the principles of
AS 2327.1 Clause 5.2.3.
(a) If the flange and the web are compact, the entire steel section shall be assumed to be
effective.
(b) If a flange in compression is non-compact, the effective flange width shall be the maximum
width for which the flange is compact.
(c) If the web is non-compact, any portion that is more than 15t w from a lateral restraint shall be
removed, creating a hole in the web. Permissible lateral restraints include flanges, regions of
the web in tension, and horizontal stiffeners of suitable size.
6.4.5

Elastic Section Properties

At mid-span, the transformed second moment of area, I t , shall be calculated ignoring the tensile
strength of the concrete, in accordance with AS 2327.1 Paragraph B3.
At the supports, the cracked second moment of area, I cr , shall be calculated neglecting concrete in
tension but including reinforcement, in accordance with Appendix C.

6.5

Classification of Cross-Sections

A cross-section shall be classified according to the most severe classification of its steel elements in
compression. A semi-compact cross-section may be re-classified as compact by reducing its effective
cross-section as specified in Section 6.4.4. Only compact cross-sections can form and maintain a
plastic hinge with sufficient rotation capacity for global plastic analysis.

6.6

Methods of Analysis

6.6.1

Assumptions

The assumptions used for any analysis must be consistent with the anticipated behaviour of the
connections in both the bare steel and composite states. The assessment of a connection must
consider its strength, ductility and stiffness. The effects of slip and uplift may be neglected when shear
connection is provided in accordance with Sections 8 and 9 of AS 2327.1.
6.6.2

Elastic Analysis

Elastic analysis may be used for all composite beams provided that any connections are either rigid or
nominally pinned. Concrete in tension and reinforcement in compression may be neglected. The
arrangement of loads shall consider pattern loading as specified in AS 4100 Clause 4.3.3.
Three types of elastic analysis are permitted:

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(a) an uncracked analysis, in which the transformed section properties are used over the full
length of the beam;
(b) a cracked analysis, in which the transformed section properties shall be replaced by the
cracked section properties for 15% of the span on each side of an internal support; and,
(c) a cracked contraflexure analysis, in which the point of contraflexure is determined in
accordance with Appendix D.
The resulting negative moments from any of these analyses may be redistributed to positive moment
regions provided that equilibrium is satisfied and that the necessary rotation capacity is available. The
rotation capacity is governed by the section classification and the following table gives the maximum
percentages of negative moments that may be redistributed depending on the type of analysis.
Section classification

Uncracked analysis

Cracked analysis

Compact

40%

25%

Non-compact

20%

10%

Table 6.6.1 Maximum allowable levels of moment redistribution (after Ref. 5)


The degree of moment redistribution is affected by the method of construction. This effect may be
ignored for compact cross-sections, but for non-compact sections used in unpropped construction,
only the moments applied during the composite state shall be redistributed.
6.6.3

Plastic Analysis

Plastic analysis may be used to obtain the design action effects provided that both the beam and the
connections have sufficient rotation capacity for the necessary plastic hinges to form without
premature failure due to fracture or buckling.
For plastic hinge locations within cross-sections of the beam, this requirement may be assumed to be
satisfied when:
(a) the conditions of AS 4100 Clause 4.5.2 are met;
(b) at plastic hinge locations, both the compression flange and the web are compact;
(c) at all other locations, the compression flange is compact and the web is either compact or
non-compact;
(d) the steel compression flange at a plastic hinge location is laterally restrained;
(e) adjacent spans do not differ by more than 50% of the shorter span;
(f)

end spans do not exceed 115% of the length of adjacent spans; and,

(g) at any positive moment hinge that is not the last to form, the cross-section has sufficient
rotation capacity for the complete collapse mechanism to develop.
The connections must be shown either to have sufficient rotation capacity to form a plastic hinge, or to
have a design moment capacity greater than 1.2 times the design moment capacity of the adjacent
member cross-section so that the plastic hinge will form within the member and not at the connection.
When a plastic hinge forms at a connection, the following conditions also apply:
(a) the connection moment capacity must not be governed by a brittle failure mode;
(b) the connection must have a design moment capacity greater than 30% of the design positive
moment capacity of the member [4]; and,
(c) the design positive moment must not exceed 85% of the design moment capacity at the
critical positive moment cross-section [4].

DB2.1-60

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6.6.4

Elastic-Plastic Analysis

Elastic-plastic analysis may be used to obtain the design rotation, * , at plastic hinges, provided that
either:
(a) the conditions for plastic analysis given in Section 6.6.3 are met; or,
(b) the implied level of moment redistribution based on an elastic analysis, is within the limits of
Table 6.6.1.

6.7

Positive Moment Capacity of Members

The design positive moment capacity of a composite cross-section shall be determined in accordance
with AS 2327.1. To ensure ductility, any positive moment hinge that is not the last to form must have
sufficient rotation capacity for the complete collapse mechanism to develop.

6.8

Negative Moment Capacity of Members

6.8.1

Vertical Shear Capacity

Unless it can be demonstrated that the concrete slab makes a contribution, the design vertical shear
capacity of a composite beam, Vu , shall be calculated in accordance with AS 4100, assuming that
only the steel beam is effective.
6.8.2
Shear Ratio,
The shear ratio, , is given by

6.8.3

V*
Vu

6.8(1)

Moment-Shear Interaction

The design moment capacity of a composite member in negative bending, M bv , shall be calculated
as a function of the shear ratio, , in accordance with the moment-shear interaction given in Fig. 4.2.1

6.8.4

Degree of Shear Connection,

The cross-sections of maximum negative moment must have complete shear connection ( m = 1), in
which case

Fr

Ar f yr n f ds

6.8(2)

At intermediate negative moment cross-sections, the tensile force that can be developed in the
reinforcement may be calculated as
Fr

= Ar f yr

6.8(3)

where
n i f ds
1
Ar f yr

6.8(4)

and n i is the number of shear connectors that contribute to the strength of the particular crosssection.
6.8.5

Design Negative Moment Capacity, Mb , for

The design negative moment capacity,


including the web of the steel beam.

M b

0.5

, shall be calculated in accordance with Appendix E

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6.8.6

Design Negative Moment Capacity, Mbf , for = 1.0

The design negative moment capacity, M bf , shall be calculated in accordance with Appendix E
excluding the web of the steel beam.

6.8.7

Design Negative Moment Capacity, Mbv , for 0.5 < < 1.0

The design negative moment capacity, M bv , shall be calculated as

M bv

(2 1)M bf

+ 2 (1 )M b

6.9

Negative Moment Capacity of End Plate Connections

6.9.1

6.8(5)

Moment-Shear Interaction

The design negative moment capacity of a composite end plate connection, M cv , shall be calculated
as a function of the shear ratio, , in accordance with the moment-shear interaction given in Fig. 4.2.1

6.9.2

Design Negative Moment Capacity, Mc , for 0.5

The design negative moment capacity of a composite end plate connection, M c ,shall be calculated
in accordance with Appendix E including the web of the steel beam. The contribution of tension bolts
to the moment capacity may be ignored, even for flush or extended end plate connections.

6.9.3

Design Negative Moment Capacity, Mcf , for = 1.0

The design negative moment capacity of a composite end plate connection, M cf ,shall be calculated
in accordance with Appendix E excluding the web of the steel beam. The contribution of tension bolts
to the moment capacity may be ignored, even for flush or extended end plate connections.

6.9.4

Design Negative Moment Capacity, Mcv , for 0.5 < < 1.0

The design negative moment capacity, M cv , shall be calculated as

M cv

6.9.5

(2 1)M cf

+ 2 (1 )M c

6.9(1)

Design Rotation Capacity, u

The design rotation capacity, u , of a composite end plate connection shall be calculated in
accordance with Section 4.4.3 and must be not less than the design rotation, as given by
*

6.9(2)

in which the capacity factor, , shall be taken as 0.8.


6.9.6

Connection Stiffness

The minimum area of reinforcement required to ensure that a composite end plate connection may be
treated as rigid, Ar.st , shall be calculated in accordance with Section 4.4.4. Any connection that is
assumed to behave in a rigid manner must satisfy
Ar
6.9.7

Ar.st

6.9(3)

Vertical Shear Capacity

The design vertical shear capacity of end plate connections shall be determined in accordance with
AS 4100 and Ref. 7. Only bolts that are located in one or more rows closest to the compression flange
of the steel beam may be considered to contribute to the shear capacity of end plate connections. The
design vertical shear capacity of a bolted end plate connection is given by
V fb

DB2.1-62

n cw (V df

6.9(4)

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where n cw is the number of bolts located at the compression flange or along the web, and Vdf is the
design shear capacity of a single bolt.
For bolted end plate connections,
Vdf

min [V fn or V fx ; Vbi ; Vbc ]

6.9(5)

where
V fn , V fx

the design shear capacity of the bolt with the threads either included or excluded from
the shear plane, which may be obtained from Appendix A of Ref. 7,

Vbi

design capacity related to local bearing in the end plate component,

0.9 3.2d f t i f ui ,

design capacity related to local bearing in the supporting component,

0.9 3.2d f t c f uc ,

df

diameter of bolt,

t i ,t c

thickness of the end plate or supporting component respectively, and

fui ,f uc

tensile strength of the end plate or supporting component respectively.

Vbc

6.10

Lateral Distortional Buckling

The design moment capacity of a composite beam allowing for lateral distortional buckling, M bd ,
shall be calculated in accordance with Section 4.6.

6.11

Potentially Critical Cross-Sections

Potentially critical cross-sections shall be identified in accordance with AS 2327.1 Clause 6.3. In
addition, points of contraflexure shall be treated as potentially critical cross-sections for the purpose of
determining the shear connector distribution. The strength limit state requirements are deemed to be
satisfied for the entire beam, provided that they are satisfied at each potentially critical cross-section.

6.12

Distribution of Shear Connectors

Sufficient shear connectors shall be provided to resist the required horizontal shear forces at the steelconcrete interface between any two adjacent potentially critical cross-sections. In particular, the
minimum number of shear connectors in the positive and negative bending moment regions, n + and
n , shall be determined from
n+

Fc
f ds
Fr
f ds

6.12(1)

6.12(2)

Based on the assumption of ductile shear connection given in Section 4.1, shear connectors may be
distributed uniformly between two adjacent critical cross-sections, or between the free end of a
cantilever and an adjacent critical cross-section.
The maximum moment cross-section of positive moment regions may have partial shear connection
+
( 0.5 m 1), but in negative moment regions the maximum moment cross-section must have

complete shear connection ( m = 1). Reinforcement in negative moment regions shall extend at least
a tensile development length, Lsy.t , beyond the number of shear connectors required to develop its full

tensile capacity. The spacing requirements for shear connectors given in AS 2327.1 Section 8 should
be observed.
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6.13

Design of the Shear Connection

Design of the shear connection in positive moment regions should be in accordance with Sections 8
and 9 of AS 2327.1. Reference should also be made to Design Booklet DB1.2 [3]. In negative moment
regions, the shear connectors should be designed and detailed in accordance with Section 8 of
AS 2327.1. Rules for the transfer of longitudinal shear in the concrete are under development. In the
interim, the provisions given in Section 9 of AS 2327.1 may be used with care. It is recommended that
DECKMESH is used to prevent rib shearing failure (Type 4) in continuous composite edge beams
with the sheeting ribs deemed perpendicular to the steel beam, as shown in Figure 6.13.1.

DECKMESH-B for BONDEK II

DECKMESH-C for CONDECK HP

Figure 6.13.1 OneSteel Reinforcings DECKMESH

6.14

Crack Control

The concrete slab in negative moment regions of composite beams shall be designed for crack control
in accordance with the appropriate provisions of AS 3600 and Ref. 20.
6.14.1

Minimum Reinforcement

The minimum area of reinforcement shall be


Arcr.min

3 k s Acf
fr

6.14(1)

where
ks

0.8, a coefficient for the whole of the concrete slab in tension,

Acf

bcf [(Dc hr ) + hr ]

the effective area of the concrete flange in negative bending, and

760 173 log e d b f yr

the maximum stress (MPa) permitted in reinforcement with a diameter, d b (mm).

fr

6.14.2

Service Check

In order to control crack widths at service loads, which shall be taken as G + sQ , the stress in the

reinforcement shall not exceed 760 173 log e d b .


6.14.3

Yield Check

In order to avoid yielding of the reinforcement under service loads, the stress in the reinforcement for
the load condition G + Q shall not exceed 0.8 f yr .

DB2.1-64

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6.14.4

Method Of Construction

The direct loads to be considered for crack control must be determined taking into account the method
of construction. In all cases, it is assumed that the stress in the reinforcement is due only to those
loads applied once the member has attained its composite state. For unpropped construction, it is
assumed that the construction dead loads are carried by the member in the bare steel state and do
not contribute to the stress in the reinforcement. For propped construction, it is assumed that the
removal of a prop is equivalent to applying to the member in its composite state a point load of equal
magnitude, but opposite in sense, to the propping force.
For imposed or restrained deformation, a separate analysis would be required to determine the
appropriate design action effects.

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7.
7.1

WORKED EXAMPLES

General

These examples follow the design steps given in Chapter 5 and clearly demonstrate the benefits of
using continuity in composite construction.

7.2

Secondary Beam in a Carpark

Consider the secondary beam B1 from scheme 1C of the BHP Design Guide for Economical
Carparks [8], as shown in Fig. 7.2.1.

7.2.1

7.2.2
Simply-supported

460 UB 74.6

L=13.3 m (between centres)

8 N12

7.2.3

7512 tie
360 UB 50.7

Semi-continuous

40% less incremental deflection

11 N12

7.2.4
Semi-continuous

360 UB 50.7
25% less incremental deflection

Prop

Figure 7.2.1 Secondary Beam in a Carpark

DB2.1-66

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7.2.1

Design Data

Geometry
L

13300 mm

b1 = b2

2800 mm

Dc

120 mm

0 ( = 90 )

Indirect Loads
G

0.120 m 25 kN/m 3 = 3 kPa (due to wet concrete and reinforcement)

G sup

0.1 kPa

1 kPa (construction)

3 kPa (in-service)

Direct Uniformly Distributed Loads


G

3 kPa 2.8 m = 8.4 kN/m (due to wet concrete and reinforcement)

G sup

0.1 kPa 2.8 m = 0.28 kN/m

0.75 1 kPa 2.8 m = 2.1 kN/m (construction)

[Note: 25% reduction due to the tributary area AS 2327.1, F.2.4.2(b)(iii)]


Q

3 kPa 2.8 m = 8.4 kN/m (in-service)

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7.2.2

Simply-Supported Beam Design

Beam B1 is a 460 UB 74.6 with a self-weight of


G sw

0.75 kN/m

Construction Stage 3
Construction Sequence
Unpropped.
Design Action Effects
Note that due to the tributary area, Q has been reduced by 25%.
w

1.25G + 1.5Q = 1.25 (0.75 + 8.4 ) + 1.5 (2.1) = 14.6 kN/m

M*

wL2 8 = 14.6 13.3 2 8 = 323 kNm

449 kNm > M *

Strength
M s

OK

In-Service Condition
Design Action Effects
Note that there is no live load reduction for carparks.
w

1.25G + 1.5Q = 1.25 (0.75 + 8.4 + 0.28 ) + 1.5 (8.4 ) = 24.4 kN/m

M*

wL2 8 = 24.4 13.3 2 8 = 540 kNm

Strength
From COMPSECT or COMPBEAM,
M b.5

723 kNm > M *

n+

OK

17

Serviceability
Deflections
Using COMPBEAM leads to the following deflections:

max

(mm)

(mm)

max

Total 3+5+6, Dead

57.1

66.5 ( L 200 )

0.86

Incremental

26.5

26.6 ( L 500 )

1.00

Total

34.0

53.2 ( L 250 )

0.64

Description

The simply-supported beam design is governed by the incremental deflection. Note that the dead load
deflection can be cambered out.

DB2.1-68

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7.2.3

Unpropped Semi-Continuous Beam Design

Preliminary Design
Composite State Supports
Rigid, partial strength.
Shear Connection
+
Choose m = 1 .

Reinforcement Level
Choose pr = 0.75% .
Initial Member
From the simply-supported beam design, w = 24.4 kN/m . Using Chart G2.1, choose a 360 UB 50.7,
which has a self-weight of G sw = 0.5 kN/m .
Construction Stage 3
Construction Sequence
Unpropped.
Design Action Effects
Note that due to the tributary area, Q has been reduced by 25%.
w

1.25G + 1.5Q = 1.25 (0.5 + 8.4 ) + 1.5 (2.1) = 14.3 kN/m

M f*

wL2 8 = 14.3 13.3 2 8 = 316 kNm

241 kNm < M f *

Strength
M s

NG

This can be overcome either by providing a bare steel connection of suitable strength, or by propping,
which effectively delays supporting the loads until the member and its connections have reached the
composite state, at which time they will have greater moment capacity. Propping changes some
aspects of the design and is covered as the next example (Section 7.2.4).
Being a beam-to-beam junction with a partial-depth end plate connection, it is difficult to achieve the
necessary strength from bolting. Using a welded top strap is therefore the recommended approach.
Assuming plastic analysis, the design moment capacity required of the bare steel connection is equal
to
M sc

M f * M s = 75 kNm

Assume that the tie strap force, Ft , is less than the compressive force capacity of the bottom flange,
Ff2e . In that case the lever arm can be taken as D s = 356 mm . Therefore
Ft

M sc
= 234 kN < Ff2e (590 kN ) as assumed.
Ds

The required tie strap area for f yt = 300 MPa is


At

780 mm 2

which is satisfied by a 65 mm 12 mm Merchant bar flat 300PLUS. The length of a 6 mm fillet weld on
each side of the tie strap is

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Lw

Ft
= 100 mm
2 0.6 f uw t t

Ductility
Using elastic-plastic analysis, the load supported by the connection while it acts as a plastic hinge is
w pl

M F* M sc
wL2 12 75
=
w = 9.2 kN/m
M F*
wL2 12

Therefore the required end rotation capacity is

w pl L3
24 EI

= 32.4 mrad

and the required tie strap elongation is (see Fig. 4.4.2)

D s = 11.5 mm

The tie strap has a free length equal to the cope length of 120 mm, so

L = 9.6% < su (300PLUS)

OK

In-Service Condition
The composite connection may conservatively be designed ignoring the presence of the tie strap.
Elastic Properties

L+
ef

0.7 L = 9310 mm

From COMPSECT or COMPBEAM using L+ ,


ef
I+

I t = 480 10 6 mm 4

L
ef

0.5 L = 6650 mm

bcf

1663 mm

Acf

bcf (Dc hr ) = 1663 65 = 108 10 3 mm 2

Ar

0.75% Acf = 810 mm 2

From Fig. C.1,


I

I cr = 190 10 6 mm 4

I + I = 480 190 = 2.53

Design Action Effects


Note that there is no live load reduction for carparks.
w

1.25G + 1.5Q = 1.25 (0.5 + 8.4 + 0.28 ) + 1.5 (8.4 ) = 24.1 kN/m

V*

wL 2 = 24.1 13.3 2 = 160 kN

M f*

wL2 8 = 24.1 13.3 2 8 = 533 kNm

Strength
+
From COMPSECT or COMPBEAM using L+ with m = 1 ,
ef

DB2.1-70

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+
M bc

486 kNm

n+

23

Ignore the presence of the tie strap in the calculation of the connection strength.
Following the procedures of Appendix F,
b f2e

b f2 = 171 mm

t f2

11.5 mm

f yf2

300 MPa

Ff2e

bf2e t f2 f yf2 = 590 kN

f yr

500 MPa for Class N reinforcement.

Arj2

Ff2e
= 1180 mm 2
f yr

For Ar = 810 mm 2 , the PNA lies in flange 2,


Arj2 Ar

1180 810
= 0.314
1180

Dc

120 mm

t f1

11.5 mm

dw

333 mm

y PNA

Dc + t f1 + d w + r t f2 = 120 + 11.5 + 333 + 0.314 11.5 = 468 mm

Ff2c

(1 r )Ff2e = (1 0.314 ) 590 = 405 kN

y f2c

y PNA +

yr

40 mm

Ar f yr y r Ff2c y f2c = 810 500 40 405 10 3 472 = 175 kNm

M cv

0.9 175 = 158 kNm

Fr

Ar f yr = 405 kN

f ds

83.1 kN (for n = 5 )

Fr f ds = 4.9 = 5

Arj2

(1 r )t f2
2

= 468 +

(1 0.314 ) 11.5 = 472 mm


2

Applying a rotation reduction factor of 0.85 (Section 6.6.3),


M f

+
M cv + 0.85 M bv = 158 + 0.85 486 = 571 kNm > M f *

OK

Ductility
Design Rotation
Calculate the design rotation from an elastic-plastic contraflexure analysis.
From the elastic properties,

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2.53

From Fig. D.1,


a L

0.162

2150 mm

L+

L 2a = 9000 mm

M +*

wL+
8

M *

M f * M + * = 533 244 = 289 kNm

24.1 9 2
= 244 kNm
8

The required redistribution is


rM

M * M cv

M *

289 159
100 % = 45%
289

The plastic component of the load is


w pl

rMw = 45% w = 10.9 kN/m

In the absence of a more sophisticated calculation, a simplified uniform value of I can be taken as
that derived for stiffness calculations,
Ia

I cr I t L
190 480 13300
=
10 6 = 321 10 6 mm 4
2 aI t + (L 2 a )I cr
2 2150 480 + 9000 190

The design rotation can then be calculated from the standard result
*

wL3
10.9 13300 3
=
= 17 mrad
24 EI 24 2 10 5 321 10 6

The result from a more sophisticated calculation is 13 mrad, so the approximation is conservative.
Rotation Capacity
Using the model of Section 4.4.3,
Lrf

200 mm

Lrd

25 d b = 300 mm

Lrcu

Lrf + 0.5 Lrd = 350 mm

For Class N reinforcement,


su

0.05 (minimum from AS/NZS 4671)

ru

su Lrcu
0.05 350
=
= 41 mrad
468 40
y PNA y r

su

Fr

n k s (y PNA Dc )

405 10 3
= 8 mrad
5 30 (468 120 )

( ru + su ) = 39 mrad > *

OK

Stiffness
Using the model of Section 4.4.4,
Lrce

DB2.1-72

Lrf + 0.25 Lrd = 275 mm

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Ia

Ar.st

321 10 6 mm 4 (from before)


18 I a Lrce

L (y PNA y r )

18 321 10 6 275

13300 (468 40 )

= 646 mm 2 < Ar

Shear
The required number of M20 8.8/S bolts is
n wc

V * V fn = 160 / 92.6 = 1.7

Therefore n wc = 2 M20 8.8/S bolts is satisfactory.


Serviceability
Crack Control
The design for crack control ignores the presence of the tie strap.
Elastic Cracked Section Properties for the Connection
For Ar = 810 mm 2 ,
y ENA

359 mm

I cr

110 10 6 mm 4

Yield Check
Stress limit, 0.8 f yr = 400 MPa .
Since the construction is unpropped, the load applied during the composite state is equal to the load
applied during the in-service condition.
w

G sup + Q = 0.28 + 8.4 = 8.7 kN/m

M f*

wL2 8 = 8.7 13.3 2 8 = 192 kNm

From the earlier contraflexure analysis,


L+

9000 mm

M +*

wL+
8

M *

M f * M + * = 192 88 = 104 kNm

8.7 9 2
= 88 kNm
8

Stress in the reinforcement,


fr

M * (y ENA y r ) 104 10 6 (359 40 )


= 302 MPa < 0.8 f yr
=
I cr
110 10 6

OK

Distribution of Reinforcement

For bcf = 1663 mm and Ar = 810 mm 2 , choose

8 N12 bars at approximately 200 mm spacing with Ar = 8 110 = 880 mm 2


Elastic Cracked Section Properties for the Connection
For Ar = 880 mm 2 , these properties conservatively remain unchanged.

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Service Check
For d b = 12 mm ,
Stress limit, 760 173 log e d b = 330 MPa
Since the construction is unpropped, the load applied during the composite state is equal to the load
applied during the in-service condition.
w

G sup + 0.7Q = 0.28 + 0.7 8.4 = 6.2 kN/m

Since the behaviour is elastic, the stress in the reinforcement can be calculated from the earlier result
by using linear interpolation
fr

6.2
302 = 215 MPa < 330 MPa
8.7

Minimum Reinforcement

OK

fr

min f yr ,760 173 log e d b = min (500,330 ) = 330 MPa

Arcr.min

3 k s Acf
3 0.8 108 10 3
=
= 786 mm 2 < Ar
fr
330

OK

Deflections
Using the cracked contraflexure elastic-plastic analysis method for deflections described in
Appendix D, combined with COMPBEAM results for the effective internal simply-supported span,
leads to the following deflections:

max

(mm)

(mm)

max

7.2.2

Total 3+5+6, Dead

71.0

66.5 ( L 200 )

1.07

1.24

Incremental

17.2

26.6 ( L 500 )

0.65

0.62

Total

20.5

53.2 ( L 250 )

0.39

0.56

Description

Note that the high dead load deflection can be reduced by increasing the strength of the strapped
partial-depth end plate connection. For example, increasing the strap from a width of 65 mm to 75 mm
is sufficient to reduce the total dead load deflection to the allowable limit of 66.5 mm.
Precamber can be used to eliminate most of the dead load deflection.
Summary
460 UB 74.6 simply-supported beam can be replaced by
360 UB 50.7 semi-continuous beam with strapped (75 x 12 300PLUS) partial-depth end plate
connections.
The semi-continuous composite beam design not only uses a beam two serial sizes lower, but it also
reduces the incremental deflection by approximately 40% compared to the simply-supported beam
design.

DB2.1-74

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7.2.4

Propped Semi-Continuous Beam Design

Preliminary Design
The preliminary design remains unchanged as a 360 UB 50.7
Construction Stage 3
Construction Sequence
Propped (beam only).
Design Action Effects
w

14.3 kN/m

For a central prop, the vertical reaction at the prop to satisfy compatibility is
Vprop

5wL 8 = 119 kN

where L is the full span ignoring the prop.


The bending moment over the prop is
=

wL2 32 = 79 kNm

M prop

241 kNm > M prop

Strength
M s

OK

In-Service Condition
Using compact cross-sections and plastic section analysis, the in-service design remains unchanged
from the unpropped case.
Serviceability
Crack Control
Elastic Cracked Section Properties for the Connection
For Ar = 810 mm 2 ,
y ENA

359 mm

I cr

110 10 6 mm 4

Yield Check
Stress limit, 0.8 f yr = 400 MPa .
Since the construction is propped, the load applied to the composite beam is equal to the propping
force due to the construction dead loads, and the loads applied during the in-service condition. As an
approximation, these two cases can be treated separately and then superimposed.
Propping force:
The uniformly distributed load due to construction dead loads is
w

G sw + G = 0.5 + 8.4 = 8.9 kN/m

The propping force for a central prop is


P

5wL 8 = 5 8.9 13.3 8 = 74 kN

M f*

PL 4 = 74 13.3 4 = 246 kNm

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For a contraflexure analysis, from Fig. D.1 using = 2.53 ,
a L

0.193

2570 mm

L+

L 2a = 8160 mm

M +*

PL+ 74 8.16
=
= 151 kNm
4
4

M *

M f * M + * = 246 151 = 95 kNm

In-service condition:
w

G sup + Q = 0.28 + 8.4 = 8.7 kN/m

M f*

wL2 8 = 8.7 13.3 2 8 = 192 kNm

From the earlier contraflexure analysis,


L+

9000 mm

M *

wL+
8

M *

M f * M + * = 192 88 = 104 kNm

8.7 9 2
= 88 kNm
8

Superimposed:
M *

95 + 104 = 199 kNm

Stress in the reinforcement,


fr

M * (y ENA y r ) 199 10 6 (359 40 )


=
= 577 MPa > 0.8 f yr
I cr
110 10 6

NG

Increase the reinforcement using linear extrapolation to


Ar

577
810 = 1154 mm 2
400

Note that the moment capacity is monotonically increasing (Fig. 3.2.7), so increasing the
reinforcement has no detrimental consequences at the strength limit state.
Distribution of Reinforcement

For bcf = 1663 mm and Ar = 1154 mm 2 , choose

11 N12 bars at approximately 150 mm spacing with Ar = 11 110 = 1210 mm 2


Recalculate the Elastic Cracked Section Properties for the Connection
For Ar = 1210 mm 2 ,
y ENA

326 mm

I cr

149 10 6 mm 4

Service Check
For d b = 12 mm ,
Stress limit, 760 173 log e d b = 330 MPa

DB2.1-76

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Since the construction is propped, the load applied to the composite state is equal to the propping
force due to the construction dead loads, and the loads applied during the in-service condition. As an
approximation, these two cases can be treated separately and then superimposed.
Propping force:
The bending moment remains unchanged from the yield check
M *

95 kNm

G sup + 0.7Q = 0.28 + 0.7 8.4 = 6.2 kN/m

In-service:
w

Since the behaviour is elastic, the bending moment can be calculated using linear interpolation as
M *

6.2
104 = 74 kNm
8.7

Superimposed:
M *

95 + 74 = 169 kNm

Stress in the reinforcement,


fr

M * (y ENA y r ) 169 10 6 (326 40 )


= 324 MPa < 330 MPa
=
I cr
149 10 6

Minimum Reinforcement

OK

fr

min f yr ,760 173 log e d b = min (500,330 ) = 330 MPa

Arcr.min

3 k s Acf
3 0.8 108 10 3
=
= 786 mm 2 < Ar
fr
330

OK

Deflections
Using the cracked contraflexure elastic-plastic analysis method for deflections described in
Appendix D, combined with COMPBEAM results for the effective internal simply-supported span,
leads to the following deflections:

max

(mm)

(mm)

max

7.2.2

Total 3+5+6, Dead

16.1

66.5 ( L 200 )

0.24

0.28

Incremental

20.5

26.6 ( L 500 )

0.77

0.74

Total

40.1

53.2 ( L 250 )

0.75

1.10

Description

Note that the dead load deflection cannot be cambered out in propped construction, which leads to
much higher total deflection. However, they are still well within the specified limit.
Summary
460 UB 74.6 simply-supported beam can be replaced by
360 UB 50.7 semi-continuous beam with partial-depth end plate connections (and mid-span propping)
The semi-continuous composite beam design not only uses a beam two serial sizes lower, but it also
reduces the incremental deflection (which was critical) by approximately 25% compared to the simplysupported beam design.

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7.3

Primary Beam in a Carpark

Consider the primary beam PB1 from scheme 1C of the BHP Design Guide for Economical Carparks
[8], as shown in Fig. 7.3.1.

P
7.3.1

P
L=2.8 m

P
L=2.8 m

7.3.2
Simply-supported

530 UB 92.4

L=7.6 m (between centres)

8 N16

7.3.3
Semi-continuous

460 UB 74.6
50% less total deflection

8 N12

7.3.4
Continuous

410 UB 53.7
25% less total deflection

Figure 7.3.1 Primary Beam in a Carpark

DB2.1-78

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7.3.1

Design Data

Geometry
L

7600 mm

b1 = b2

13300 mm

Dc

120 mm

1 ( = 0 )

Indirect Loads
G

0.120 m 25 kN/m 3 = 3 kPa (due to wet concrete and reinforcement)

G sw

0.75 kN/m (due to self-weight of secondary steel beam)

G sup

0.1 kPa

1 kPa (construction)

3 kPa (in-service)

Direct Point Loads


G

3 kPa 2.8 m 13.3 m = 111 .7 kN (due to wet concrete and reinforcement)

G sw

0.75 kN/m 13.3 m = 10.0 kN (due to self-weight of secondary steel beam)

G sup

0.1 kPa 2.8 m 13.3 m = 3.7 kN

0.6 1 kPa 2.8 m 13.3 m = 22.3 kN (construction)

[Note: 40% reduction due to the tributary area AS 2327.1, F.2.4.2(b)(ii)]


Q

3 kPa 2.8 m 13.3 m = 112 kN (in-service)

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7.3.2

Simply-Supported Beam Design

Beam PB1 is a 530 UB 92.4 with a self-weight of


G sw

0.92 kN/m

Construction Stage 3
Construction Sequence
Unpropped.
Design Action Effects
Note that due to the tributary area, Q may be reduced by 40%.
At each beam support,
P

1.25G + 1.5Q = 1.25 (111 .7 + 10.0 ) + 1.5 (22.3 ) = 185.6 kN

For the beam self-weight,


=

1.25G = 1.25 0.92 = 1.2 kN/m

V*

1.5 P + wL 2 = 1.5 185.6 + 1.2 7.6 2 = 283 kN

M*

(29

640 kNm > M *

w
Combined,

76 )PL + wL2 8 = (29 76 ) 185.6 7.6 + 1.2 7.6 2 8 = 547 kNm

Strength
M s

OK

In-Service Condition
Design Action Effects
Note that there is no live load reduction for carparks.
At each beam support,
P

1.25G + 1.5Q = 1.25 (111 .7 + 10.0 + 3.7 ) + 1.5 (111 .7 ) = 324.4 kN

For the beam self-weight,


=

1.25G = 1.25 0.92 = 1.2 kN/m

V*

1.5 P + wL 2 = 1.5 324 .4 + 1.2 7.6 2 = 491 kN

M*

(29

w
Combined,

76 )PL + wL2 8 = (29 76 ) 324.4 7.6 + 1.2 7.6 2 8 = 949 kNm

Strength
+
From COMPSECT or COMPBEAM, m = 0.5 is sufficient, since

M b.5

1009 kNm > M *

OK

+
The maximum value at PCCs of M * / M bv = 0.96 .

n+

DB2.1-80

21

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Serviceability
Deflections
Using COMPBEAM leads to the following deflections:

Total 3+5+6, Dead


Incremental
Total

max

(mm)

Description

(mm)

max

18.5

38.0 ( L 200 )

0.49

8.9

15.2 ( L 500 )

0.59

29.6

30.4 ( L 250 )

0.97

The simply-supported beam design is governed by the composite strength and the total deflection.

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7.3.3

Semi-Continuous Beam Design

Preliminary Design
Composite State Supports
Rigid, partial strength.
Shear Connection
+
Choose m = 1 .

Reinforcement Level
Since this beam is relatively short (for the simply-supported beam design, L D s = 7600 530 = 14 ), a
higher level of reinforcement will be necessary to satisfy the connection stiffness requirements.
Therefore, choose pr = 0.75% 1.5% .
Initial Member
From the simply-supported beam design,
M f*

949 kNm

Using Chart H1.1 (0.75%), for a 460 UB 74.6,


M f*

875 kNm

Using Chart H1.2 (1.5%), for a 460 UB 74.6,


M f*

1075 kNm

Therefore, using interpolation, choose a 460 UB 74.6 with pr = 1.1% , which has a self-weight of
G sw = 0.75 kN/m .
Construction Stage 3
Construction Sequence
Unpropped.
Design Action Effects
From the simply-supported beam design,
M f*

547 kNm

449 kNm < M f *

Strength
M s

NG

This can be overcome either by providing a bare steel connection of suitable strength, or by propping,
which effectively delays supporting the loads until the member and its connections have reached the
composite state, at which time they will have greater moment capacity.
Being a beam-to-column junction with a flush end plate connection, the necessary strength can be
achieved from bolting. Assuming plastic analysis, the moment capacity required of the bare steel
connection is equal to
M sc

M f * M s = 98kNm

Following the general principles of Ref. 21, a bare steel flush endplate connection for a 460 UB 74.6
with 2 rows of M20 8.8/S bolts has an approximate design moment capacity of
M sc

DB2.1-82

125 kNm

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Ductility
For an elastic analysis with uniform EI ,
M *

343 kNm

Therefore, the required redistribution is


rM

M * M sc

M *

343 125
100% = 64%
343

which results in a plastic end rotation of


*

13 mrad

This connection is classified as compact [21], so it is assumed to be sufficiently ductile.


In-Service Condition
The composite connection is designed ignoring the presence of the top bolts.
Elastic Properties

L+
ef

0.7 L = 5320 mm

From COMPSECT or COMPBEAM using L+ ,


ef
I+

I t = 913 10 6 mm 4

L
ef

0.5 L = 3800 mm

bcf

950 mm

Acf

bcf Dc = 950 120 = 114 10 3 mm 2

Ar

1.1% Acf = 1250 mm 2

From Fig. C.1,


I

I cr = 440 10 6 mm 4

I + I = 913 440 = 2.08

Design Action Effects


V*

491 kN

M f*

949 kNm

Strength
+
From COMPSECT or COMPBEAM using L+ with m = 1 ,
ef
+
M bc

776 kNm

n+

34

Following the procedures of Appendix F (for full details see example in Section 7.2.3),
y PNA

556 mm

M cv

300 kNm

Fr

625 kN

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f ds

84.4 kN (for n = 8 )

Fr f ds = 7.4 = 8

Applying a rotation reduction factor of 0.85 (Section 6.6.3),


M f

+
M cv + 0.85 M bv = 300 + 0.85 776 = 959 kNm > M f *

OK

Ductility
Design Rotation
Calculate the design rotation from an elastic-plastic contraflexure analysis.
From the elastic properties,

2.08

Approximate the loading as a UDL, with equivalent


w

131 kN/m (such that wL2 8 = M f * )

From Fig. D.1,


a L

0.172

1300 mm

L+

L 2a = 5000 mm

M +*

wL+
8

M *

M f * M + * = 949 409 = 540 kNm

131 5 2
= 409 kNm
8

The required redistribution is


rM

M * M cv

M *

540 300
100 % = 44%
540

The plastic component of the load is


w pl

rMw = 44% w = 58 kN/m

In the absence of a more sophisticated calculation, a simplified uniform value of I can be taken as
that derived for stiffness calculations,
Ia

I cr I t L
440 913 7600
=
10 6 = 668 10 6 mm 4
2 aI t + (L 2 a )I cr
2 1300 913 + 5000 440

The design rotation can then be calculated from the standard result
*

58 7600 3
wL3
= 8 mrad
=
24 EI 24 2 10 5 668 10 6

The result from a more sophisticated calculation is 6 mrad, so the approximation is conservative.
Rotation Capacity
Using the model of Section 4.4.3,
Lrf

200 mm

Lrd

25 d b = 300 mm

Lrcu

Lrf + 0.5 Lrd = 350 mm

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For Class N reinforcement,
su

0.05 (minimum from AS/NZS 4671)

ru

su Lrcu
0.05 350
=
= 33 mrad
y PNA y r
566 40

su

Fr

n k s (y PNA Dc )

625 10 3
= 6 mrad
8 30 (566 120 )

( ru + su ) = 31 mrad > *

OK

Stiffness
Using the model of Section 4.4.4,
Lrce

Lrf + 0.25 Lrd = 275 mm

Ia

668 10 6 mm 4 (from before)

Ar.st

18 I a Lrce

L (y PNA y r )

18 668 10 6 275
7600 (566 40 )

= 1570 mm 2 > Ar

Therefore, increase Ar to 1570 mm .


Shear
The required number of M20 8.8/S bolts is
n wc

V * V fn = 491/ 92.6 = 5.3

For a 460 UB 74.6, n wc = 6 may be impractical. Therefore consider M24 8.8/S bolts, for which the
required number is
n wc

V * V fn = 491/ 133 = 3.7

Therefore n wc = 4 M24 8.8/S bolts is satisfactory.


Serviceability
Crack Control
The contribution of the tensions bolts is conservatively ignored.
Elastic Cracked Section Properties for the Connection
Conservatively use the values for Ar = 1250 mm 2 ,
y ENA

426 mm

I cr

251 10 6 mm 4

Yield Check
Stress limit, 0.8 f yr = 400 MPa .
Since the construction is unpropped, the load applied during the composite state is equal to the load
applied during the in-service condition.
P

G sup + Q = 3.7 + 111.7 = 115 kN

M f*

(29

76 )PL = (29 76 ) 115 7.6 = 334 kNm

From the earlier contraflexure analysis,


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L+

5000 mm

Since only a central load is present in the positive span,


M +*

PL+ 115 5
=
= 144 kNm
4
4

M *

M f * M + * = 334 144 = 190 kNm

Stress in the reinforcement,


fr

M * (y ENA y r ) 190 10 6 (426 40 )


=
= 292 MPa < 0.8 f yr
I cr
251 10 6

OK

Distribution of Reinforcement

For bcf = 950 mm and Ar = 1570 mm 2 , choose

8 N16 bars at approximately 140 mm spacing with Ar = 8 200 = 1600 mm 2


Note that increasing d b to 16 mm will also increase Lrd , which is conservative.
Elastic Cracked Section Properties for the Connection
For Ar = 1600 mm 2 , these conservatively remain unchanged.
Service Check
For d b = 16 mm ,
Stress limit, 760 173 log e d b = 280 MPa
Since the construction is unpropped, the load applied during the composite state is equal to the load
applied during the in-service condition.
P

G sup + 0.7Q = 3.7 + 0.7 111 .7 = 82 kN

Since the behaviour is elastic, the stress in the reinforcement can be calculated from the earlier result
by using linear interpolation
fr

82
292 = 208 MPa < 280 MPa
115

Minimum Reinforcement

OK

fr

min f yr ,760 173 log e d b = min (500,280 ) = 280 MPa

Arcr.min

3 k s Acf
3 0.8 114 10 3
=
= 977 mm 2 < Ar
fr
280

OK

Deflections
Using the cracked contraflexure elastic-plastic analysis method for deflections described in
Appendix D, combined with COMPBEAM results for the effective internal simply-supported span,
leads to the following deflections:

DB2.1-86

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max

(mm)

Description

(mm)

max

7.3.2

Total 3+5+6, Dead

7.9

38.0 ( L 200 )

0.21

0.43

Incremental

4.6

15.2 ( L 500 )

0.30

0.52

13.7

30.4 ( L 250 )

0.45

0.46

Total

Summary
530 UB 92.4 simply-supported beam can be replaced by a
460 UB 74.6 semi-continuous beam with flush end plate connections
The semi-continuous composite beam design not only uses a beam one serial sizes lower, but it also
reduces the total deflection (which was critical) by more than 50% compared to the simply-supported
beam design.

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7.3.4

Continuous Beam Design with an Additional Bottom Flange Plate

Preliminary Design
Composite State Supports
Rigid, full strength.
Shear Connection
+
Choose m = 1 .

Reinforcement Level
Choose pr = 0.75% .
Initial Member
From the simply-supported beam design, M f* = 949 kNm . Using Chart H1.3, choose a 360 UB 56.7.
Shear Ratio
However, the shear ratio is = 0.99 , so the initial beam is changed to a 410 UB 53.7, which has a
self-weight of G sw = 0.54 kN/m .
Construction Stage 3
Construction Sequence
Unpropped.
Design Action Effects
From the simply-supported beam design,
M f*

547 kNm

323 kNm

Strength
M s

so, using plastic global analysis, the capacity of the continuous beam is
M f

2 M s = 626 kNm > M f *

OK

Ductility
The beam is compact, so it has sufficient ductility for plastic analysis.
In-Service Condition
Elastic Properties

L+
ef

0.7 L = 5320 mm

From COMPSECT or COMPBEAM using L+ ,


ef
I+

I t = 575 10 6 mm 4

L
ef

0.5 L = 3800 mm

bcf

950 mm

Acf

bcf Dc = 950 120 = 114 10 3 mm 2

DB2.1-88

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Ar

0.75% Acf = 855 mm 2

From Fig. C.1,


I

I cr = 250 10 6 mm 4

I + I = 575 250 = 2.3

Design Action Effects


V*

491 kN

M f*

949 kNm

Strength
+
From COMPSECT or COMPBEAM using L+ with m = 1 ,
ef
+
M bc

533 kNm

n+

26

Therefore, the required design negative moment capacity is

M bv

+
M f * M bv = 949 553 = 396 kNm

The simplest design of the negative moment region is to assume that the shear ratio approaches
= 1 , which is often the case for continuous beams, and that the compressive capacity of the
additional bottom flange plate is equal to or greater than the tensile yield force of the reinforcement.
Therefore, the lever arm for this couple of forces is
t fp

y fp y r =

Dc + D s +

M bf

M sf + Fr y fp y r

M sf

242 kNm

y r = 120 + 403 + 6 40 = 489 mm

Rearranging the above,


Fr

Ar

M bv M sf

y fp y r

(396 242 ) 10 6
0.9 489

= 350 kN

Fr
350 10 3
=
= 700 mm 2
f yr
500

Therefore, Ar = 855 mm 2 is adequate.


Ffp

Afp

Fr = 350 kN
Ffp
f yfp

350 10 3
= 1170 mm 2
300

Therefore, the minimum required 300PLUS flange plate is


Afp

100 mm 12 mm = 1200 mm 2

Alternatively, following the procedures of Appendix E, for Ar = 855 mm 2

M bf

487 kNm

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Fr

428 kN

f ds

83.1 kN (for n = 5 )

Fr f ds = 5.2 = 6

+
M bv + M bv = 487 + 553 = 1040 kNm > M f *

Therefore,
M f

OK

Ductility
Design Rotation
Calculate the design rotation from an elastic-plastic contraflexure analysis.
From the elastic properties,

2.3

Approximate the loading as a UDL, with equivalent


w

131 kN/m (such that wL2 8 = M f * )

From Fig. D.1,


a L

0.166

1250 mm

L+

L 2a = 5100 mm

M +*

wL+
8

M *

M f * M + * = 949 426 = 523 kNm

131 5.12
= 426 kNm
8

The required redistribution is


rM

M * M bv

M *

523 487
100% = 7%
523

The plastic component of the load is


w pl

rMw = 7% w = 9 kN/m

In the absence of a more sophisticated calculation, a simplified uniform value of I can be taken as
that derived for stiffness calculations,
Ia

I cr I t L
250 575 7600
=
10 6 = 403 10 6 mm 4
2 aI t + (L 2 a )I cr
2 1250 575 + 5100 250

The design rotation can then be calculated from the standard result
*

9 7600 3
wL3
= 2 mrad
=
24 EI 24 2 10 5 403 10 6

The result from a more sophisticated calculation is 1 mrad, so the approximation is conservative.
Rotation Capacity
Such levels of redistribution and plastic rotation are negligible.
Shear
= 0.93 , so check web crippling in accordance with AS 4100.

DB2.1-90

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Serviceability
Crack Control
Elastic Cracked Section Properties for the Member
For Ar = 855 mm 2 ,
y ENA

290 mm

I cr

250 10 6 mm 4

Yield Check
Stress limit, 0.8 f yr = 400 MPa .
Since the construction is unpropped, the load applied during the composite state is equal to the load
applied during the in-service condition.
P

G sup + Q = 3.7 + 111.7 = 115 kN

M f*

(29

76 )PL = (29 76 ) 115 7.6 = 334 kNm

From the earlier contraflexure analysis,


L+

5100 mm

Since only a central load is present in the positive span,


M +*

PL+ 115 5.1


=
= 147 kNm
4
4

M *

M f * M + * = 334 147 = 187 kNm

Stress in the reinforcement,


fr

M * (y ENA y r ) 187 10 6 (290 40 )


=
= 187 MPa < 0.8 f yr
I cr
250 10 6

OK

Distribution of Reinforcement

For bcf = 950 mm and Ar = 855 mm 2 , choose

8 N12 bars at approximately 125 mm spacing with Ar = 8 110 = 880 mm 2


Elastic Cracked Section Properties for the Member
For Ar = 880 mm 2 , these conservatively remain unchanged.
Service Check
For d b = 12 mm ,
Stress limit, 760 173 log e d b = 330 MPa
Since the construction is unpropped, the load applied during the composite state is equal to the load
applied during the in-service condition.
P

G sup + 0.7Q = 3.7 + 0.7 111 .7 = 82 kN

Since the behaviour is elastic, the stress in the reinforcement can be calculated from the earlier result
by using linear interpolation

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fr

82
187 = 133 MPa < 330 MPa
115

Minimum Reinforcement

OK

fr

min f yr ,760 173 log e d b = min (500,330 ) = 330 MPa

Arcr.min

3 k s Acf
3 0.8 114 10 3
=
= 829 mm 2 < Ar
fr
330

OK

Deflections
For the continuous beam, using COMPSECT or COMPBEAM,
Is

184 10 6 mm 4

I ti

575 10 6 mm 4

+
I ti + 0.6 m (I s I ti ) = [575 + 0.6 0.5(184 575 ) ] 10 6 = 458 10 6 mm 4

Therefore
I eti

The deflections can be calculated approximately by extrapolating from the results for the semicontinuous design (Section 7.3.3) using the linear factor

(I eti )sc
(I eti )c

745
= 1.63
458

Total 3+5+6, Dead


Incremental
Total

max

(mm)

Description

(mm)

max

7.3.2

12.9

38.0 ( L 200 )

0.34

0.70

7.5

15.2 ( L 500 )

0.49

0.84

22.3

30.4 ( L 250 )

0.73

0.75

Summary
530 UB 92.4 simply-supported beam can be replaced by a
410 UB 53.7 continuous beam with an extra bottom flange plate.
The continuous composite beam design not only uses a beam two serial sizes lower, but it also
reduces the total deflection (which was critical) by 25% compared to the simply-supported beam
design.

DB2.1-92

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7.3.5

Continuous Beam Design without an Additional Bottom Flange Plate

Removing the bottom flange plate greatly reduces the strength and ductility of the negative moment
regions, while at the same time requiring extremely high levels of moment redistribution.
410 UB 59.6
+
From COMPSECT or COMPBEAM using L+ with m = 1 ,
ef
+
M bc

588 kNm

Therefore, the minimum design negative moment is


M *

+
M f* M bv = 949 588 = 361 kNm

Without an extra flange plate, again assuming full moment-shear interaction ( = 1 ), the maximum
possible area of reinforcement is
Arm

3418 mm 2

and the corresponding negative moment capacity is

M bv

348 kNm < M *

NG

460 UB 67.1
+
From COMPSECT or COMPBEAM using L+ with m = 1 ,
ef
+
M bc

707 kNm

Therefore, the minimum design negative moment is


M *

+
M f* M bv = 949 707 = 242 kNm

Without an extra flange plate, again assuming complete moment-shear interaction ( = 1 ), the
maximum possible area of reinforcement is
Arm

4133 mm 2

and the corresponding design negative moment capacity is

M bv

459 kNm > M *

The behaviour for = 1 is very close to linear, so the required area of reinforcement can be calculated
using interpolation as
Ar

242
4133 = 2180 mm 2
459

which is more than twice the reinforcement required for the design with a bottom flange plate.
From the earlier contraflexure analysis,
M *

rM

M f * M + * = 949 426 = 523 kNm

M * M bv

M *

523 487
100% = 7%
523

Therefore the required moment redistribution is


rM

M * M bv

M *

523 242
100 % = 54%
523

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which is excessive for a continuous composite beam based on a cracked analysis and would require
the beam to meet the more stringent requirements for a full plastic global analysis.
Summary
410 UB 53.7 continuous beam with an extra bottom flange plate would need to be increased to a
460 UB 74.6 continuous beam without an extra bottom flange plate.
The continuous design without an extra bottom flange plate not only requires a beam one serial size
higher, but it also requires twice the amount of reinforcement and unacceptably higher levels of
moment redistribution. Therefore, the extra bottom flange plate is highly recommended, if not
essential,
in
achieving
an
efficient
continuous
beam
design.

DB2.1-94

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7.4

Secondary Beam in an Office with Compactus Loads

Consider the secondary beam shown in Fig. 7.4.1.

w (including 10 kPa compactus)

7.4.1

7.4.2
Simply-supported

410 UB 59.7

L=8.4 m (between centres)

9 N12

7.4.3
Semi-continuous

310 UB 46.2

35% less incremental and total deflections

Figure 7.4.1 Secondary Beam Subject to Compactus Loads

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7.4.1

Design Data

Geometry
L

8400 mm

b1 = b2

2800 mm

Dc

120 mm

0 ( = 90 )

Indirect Loads
G

0.120 m 25 kN/m 3 = 3 kPa (due to wet concrete and reinforcement)

G sup

0.5 kPa (includes lighting, air-conditioning, etc)

1 kPa (construction)

10 kPa (in-service, compactus)

Direct Uniformly Distributed Loads


G

3 kPa 2.8 m = 8.4 kN/m (due to wet concrete and reinforcement)

G sw

0.75 kN/m (conservative estimation)

G sup

0.5 kPa 2.8 m = 1.4 kN/m

1 kPa 2.8 m = 2.8 kN/m (construction)


2

[Note: tributary area = 23 m , so no reduction due to tributary area AS 2327.1, F.2.4.2(b)(iii)]


Q

DB2.1-96

10 kPa 2.8 m = 28 kN/m (in-service)

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7.4.2

Simply-Supported Beam Design

From COMPBEAM choose a 410 UB 59.7.


Construction Stage 3
Construction Sequence
Unpropped.
Design Action Effects
w

1.25G + 1.5Q = 1.25 (0.75 + 8.4 ) + 1.5 (2.8 ) = 15.6 kN/m

M*

wL2 8 = 15.6 8.4 2 8 = 136 kNm

323 kNm > M *

Strength
M s

OK

In-Service Condition
Design Action Effects
w

1.25G + 1.5Q = 1.25 (0.75 + 8.4 + 1.4 ) + 1.5 (28 ) = 55.2 kN/m

V*

wL 2 = 55.2 8.4 2 = 232 kN

M*

wL2 8 = 55.2 8.4 2 8 = 487 kNm

Strength
From COMPSECT or COMPBEAM,
M b.5

529 kNm > M *

n+

OK

14

Serviceability
Deflections
Using COMPBEAM leads to the following deflections:

max

(mm)

(mm)

max

Total 3+5+6, Dead

14.8

42.0 ( L 200 )

0.35

Incremental

17.6

16.8 ( L 500 )

1.05

Total

34.8

33.6 ( L 250 )

1.04

Description

The simply-supported beam design is governed by the incremental and total deflections.

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7.4.3

Semi-Continuous Beam Design

Preliminary Design
Composite State Supports
Rigid, partial strength.
Shear Connection
+
Choose m = 1 .

Reinforcement Level
Since this beam is relatively short (for the simply-supported beam design, L D s = 8400 410 = 20 ), a
higher level of reinforcement will be necessary to satisfy the connection stiffness requirements.
Therefore, choose pr = 0.75% 1.5% .
Initial Member
From the simply-supported beam design,
w

55.2 kN/m

Using Chart G2.1 (0.75%), for a 310 UB 46.2,


w max

47.5 kN/m

Using Chart G2.2 (1.5%), for a 310 UB 46.2,


w max

57.5 kN/m

Therefore, using interpolation, choose a 310 UB 46.2 with pr = 1.35% , which has a self-weight of
G sw = 0.5 kN/m .
Construction Stage 3
Construction Sequence
Unpropped.
Design Action Effects
From the simply-supported beam design,
w

15.6 kN/m

M f*

136 kNm

195 kNm > M f *

Strength
M s

OK

In-Service Condition
Elastic Properties

L+
ef

0.7 L = 5880 mm

From COMPSECT or COMPBEAM using L+ ,


ef
I+

I t = 337 10 6 mm 4

L
ef

0.5 L = 4200 mm

DB2.1-98

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bcf

1050 mm

Acf

bcf (Dc hr ) = 1050 65 = 68.3 10 3 mm 2

Ar

1.35% Acf = 921 mm 2

From Fig. C.1,


I

I cr = 140 10 6 mm 4

I + I = 337 140 = 2.41

Design Action Effects


From the simply-supported beam design,
w

55.2 kN/m

V*

232 kN

M f*

487 kNm

Strength
+
From COMPSECT or COMPBEAM using L+ with m = 1 ,
ef
+
M bc

393 kNm

n+

21

Following the procedures of Appendix F (for full details see example in Section 7.2.3),
y PNA

418 mm

M cv

159 kNm

Fr

461 kN

f ds

83.7 kN (for n = 6 )

Fr f ds = 5.5 = 6

Applying a rotation reduction factor of 0.85 (Section 6.6.3),


M f

+
M cv + 0.85 M bv = 159 + 0.85 393 = 493 kNm > M f*

OK

Ductility
Design Rotation
Calculate the design rotation from an elastic-plastic contraflexure analysis.
From the elastic properties,

2.41

From Fig. D.1,


a L

0.164

1380 mm

L+

L 2a = 5640 mm

wL+
8

M *

55.2 5.64 2
= 220 kNm
8

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M *

M f* M + * = 487 219 = 267 kNm

The required redistribution is


rM

M * M cv

M *

267 159
100 % = 40%
267

The plastic component of the load is


w pl

rMw = 40% w = 22.1 kN/m

In the absence of a more sophisticated calculation, a simplified uniform value of I can be taken as
that derived for stiffness calculations,
Ia

I cr I t L
140 337 8400
=
10 6 = 230 10 6 mm 4
2 aI t + (L 2 a )I cr
2 1380 337 + 5640 140

The design rotation can then be calculated from the standard result
*

wL3
22.1 8400 3
=
= 12 mrad
24 EI 24 2 10 5 230 10 6

The result from a more sophisticated calculation is 10 mrad, so the approximation is conservative.
Rotation Capacity
Using the model of Section 4.4.3,
Lrf

200 mm

Lrd

25 d b = 300 mm

Lrcu

Lrf + 0.5 Lrd = 350 mm

For Class N reinforcement,


su

0.05 (minimum from AS/NZS 4671)

ru

su Lrcu
0.05 350
=
= 46 mrad
418 40
y PNA y r

su

Fr

n k s (y PNA Dc )

461 10 3
= 9 mrad
6 30 (418 120 )

( ru + su ) = 50 mrad > *

OK

Stiffness
Using the model of Section 4.4.4,
Lrce

Lrf + 0.25 Lrd = 275 mm

Ia

230 10 6 mm 4 (from before)

Ar.st

18 I a Lrce

L (y PNA y r )

Therefore, increase Ar to 939 mm

18 230 10 6 275
8400 (418 40 )

= 939 mm 2 > Ar

NG

Shear
The required number of M20 8.8/S bolts is
n wc

DB2.1-100

V * V fn = 232 / 92.6 = 2.5

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Therefore n wc = 4 M20 8.8/S bolts is satisfactory. Alternatively, use M24 8.8/S bolts, for which the
required number is
n wc

V * V fn = 232 / 133 = 1.7

Therefore n wc = 2 M24 8.8/S bolts is also satisfactory.


Serviceability
Crack Control
Elastic Cracked Section Properties for the Connection
Conservatively use the values for Ar = 921 mm 2 ,
y ENA

312 mm

I cr

94 10 6 mm 4

Yield Check
Stress limit, 0.8 f yr = 400 MPa .
Since the construction is unpropped, the load applied during the composite state is equal to the load
applied during the in-service condition.
w

G sup + Q = 1.4 + 28 = 29.4 kN/m

M f*

wL2 8 = 29.4 8.4 2 8 = 259 kNm

From the earlier contraflexure analysis,


L+

5640 mm

M +*

wL+
8

M *

M f* M + * = 259 117 = 142 kNm

29.4 5.64 2
= 117 kNm
8

Stress in the reinforcement,


fr

M * (y ENA y r ) 142 10 6 (312 40 )


= 411 MPa > 0.8 f yr
=
I cr
94 10 6

NG

Increase the reinforcement using linear extrapolation to


Ar

411
921 = 946 mm 2
400

Distribution of Reinforcement

For bcf = 1050 mm and Ar = 946 mm 2 , choose

9 N12 bars at approximately 125 mm spacing with Ar = 9 110 = 990 mm 2


Elastic Cracked Section Properties for the Connection
For Ar = 990 mm 2 , these conservatively remain unchanged.
Service Check
For d b = 12 mm ,

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Stress limit, 760 173 log e d b = 330 MPa
Since the construction is unpropped, the load applied during the composite state is equal to the load
applied during the in-service condition.
w

G sup + 0.7Q = 1.4 + 0.7 28 = 21.0 kN/m

Since the behaviour is elastic, the stress in the reinforcement can be calculated from the earlier result
by using linear interpolation
fr

21.0
400 = 286 MPa < 330 MPa
29.4

Minimum Reinforcement

OK

fr

min f yr ,760 173 log e d b = min (500,330 ) = 330 MPa

Arcr.min

3 k s Acf
3 0.8 68.3 10 3
=
= 496 mm 2 < Ar
fr
330

OK

Deflections
Using the cracked contraflexure elastic-plastic analysis method for deflections described in
Appendix D, combined with COMPBEAM results for the effective internal simply-supported span,
leads to the following deflections:

max

(mm)

(mm)

max

7.4.2

8.6

42.0 ( L 200 )

0.20

0.58

Incremental

11.2

16.8 ( L 500 )

0.67

0.64

Total

21.3

33.6 ( L 250 )

0.63

0.61

Description

Total 3+5+6, Dead

Summary
410 UB 59.7 simply-supported beam can be replaced by
310 UB 46.2 semi-continuous beam with partial-depth end plate connections.
The semi-continuous composite beam design not only uses a beam two serial sizes lower, but it also
reduces the incremental and total deflections by more than 35% compared to the simply-supported
beam design.

DB2.1-102

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8.
1.

2.

REFERENCES

Patrick, M., Dayawansa, P.H., Eadie, I., Watson, K.B. and van der Kreek, N., Australian
Composite Structures Standard AS 2327, Part 1: Simply-Supported Beams, Journal of the
Australian Institute of Steel Construction, Vol. 29, No. 4, December, 1995.
OneSteel Market Mills, Composite Structures Design Manual Design Booklet DB1.1, Design of
nd
Simply-Supported Composite Beams for Strength, 2 Ed., February, 2001.

3.

OneSteel Market Mills, Composite Structures Design Manual Design Booklet DB1.2, Design of
the Shear Connection of Simply-Supported Composite Beams (To Australian Standard
st
AS 2327.11996), 1 Ed., February, 2001.

4.

The Steel Construction Institute and The British Constructional Steelwork Association, Joints in
Steel Construction: Composite Connections, SCI Publication 213, The Steel Construction
Institute, Ascot, United Kingdom, 1998.
European Committee for Standardization (CEN), Eurocode 4: Design of Composite Steel and
Concrete Structures, Part 1.1: General Rules and Rules for Buildings, ENV 1994-1-1, 1992.

5.
6.

OneSteel Market Mills, Composite Structures Design Manual Design Booklet DB5.1, Design of
st
the Web-Side-Plate Steel Connection, 1 Ed., November, 2000.

7.

Australian Institute of Steel Construction, Design of Structural Connections, 4 Ed., Australian


Institute of Steel Construction, Sydney, 1994.
BHP Integrated Steel, Economical Car Parks A Design Guide, 1998.

8.
9.
10.
11.
12.

13.

14.

th

CIMsteel, Eureka Project 130, Design for Manufacture Guidelines, SCI Publication 150, The
Steel Construction Institute, Ascot, United Kingdom, 1995.
Patrick, M., Dayawansa, P.H., Design of Continuous Composite Beams for Bending Strength,
Australasian Structural Engineering Conference, Auckland, 1998.
OneSteel Reinforcing, DECKMESH, September, 2000.
Ahmed, B. and Nethercot, D.A., Prediction of Initial Stiffness and Available Rotation Capacity of
Major Axis Composite Flush Endplate Connections, Journal of Constructional Steel Research,
Vol. 41, No. 1, pp. 3160, 1997.
Xiao, Y., Choo, B.S. and Nethercot, D.A., Composite Connections in Steel and Concrete.
I. Experimental Behaviour of Composite Beam-Column Connections, Journal of Constructional
Steel Research, Vol. 31, pp. 330, 1994.
Anderson, D. and Najafi, A.A., Performance of Composite Connections: Major Axis End Plate
Joints, Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Vol. 31, pp. 3157, 1994.

15.

Oehlers, D.J. and Bradford, M.A., Elementary Behaviour of Composite Steel and Concrete
Structural Members, Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford, 1999.

16.

Bradford, M.A., Buckling Strength of Partially Restrained I-Beams, Journal of Structural


Engineering, ASCE, Vol. 115, No. 5, pp. 12721276, 1989.
Oehlers, D.J. and Bradford, M.A., Composite Steel and Concrete Structural Members:
Fundamental Behaviour, Pergamon, Oxford, 1995.

17.
18.
19.

Johnson, R.P. and Buckby, R.J., Composite Structures of Steel and Concrete, Vol. 2: Bridges,
nd
2 Ed., Collins Professional and Technical Books, London, 1986.
Weston, G., Nethercot, D.A. and Crisfield, M., Lateral Buckling in Continuous Composite Bridge
Girders, The Structural Engineer, Vol. 69, No. 5, pp. 7987, 1991.

20.

OneSteel Reinforcing, Guide to Reinforced Concrete Design Design Booklet RCB-1.1(1),


nd
Crack Control of Beams, Part 1: AS 3600 Design, 2 Ed., August, 2000.

21.

Couchman, G.H., Design of Semi-Continuous Braced Frames, SCI Publication 183, The Steel
Construction Institute, Ascot, United Kingdom, 1997.
Johnson, R.P. and Anderson, D., Designers Handbook to Eurocode 4, Part 1.1: Design of
Composite Steel and Concrete Structures, Thomas Telford, London, 1993.

22.

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APPENDIX A
REFERENCED AUSTRALIAN STANDARDS
Reference No.

Title

AS 1170.11989

Minimum design loads on structures, Part 1: Dead and live loads and load
combinations.

AS 2327.11996

Composite Structures, Part 1: Simply Supported Beams.

AS 36001994

Concrete Structures.

AS 3600/Amdt 1/1996

Amendment No. 1 to AS 36001994 Concrete Structures, 5 August, 1996.

DR 99193 CP

Combined Postal Ballot/Draft for Public Comment Australian Standard,


Amendment 2 to AS 36001994 Concrete Structures, Issued 1 May, 1999.

AS 36002001

Concrete Structures (including Amendment Nos 1 & 2).

AS 41001998

Steel Structures.

AS/NZS 46712001

Steel Reinforcing Materials.

This Standard is yet to be published. References in this booklet are to AS 36002001.

DB2.1-104

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APPENDIX B
NOTATION
Wherever possible, the notation in this booklet is the same as that used in AS 2327.11996.
Parameters affected by the direction of the applied moment are denoted by a minus sign ( ) or plus
sign (+) superscript to indicate negative moment or positive moment regions respectively.

Latin letters
Acf

effective area of the concrete slab flange

Af1

cross-sectional area of flange 1 (top) of the steel beam

Af2

cross-sectional area of flange 2 (bottom) of the steel beam

Afp

cross-sectional area of the additional bottom flange plate of the steel beam

Ai

cross-sectional area of a component

Aic

cross-sectional area of a component in compression

Ait

cross-sectional area of a component in tension

Arcr.min

the minimum area of steel reinforcement required for crack control

Ar

cross-sectional area of the steel reinforcement

Arh

area of steel reinforcement such that the depth of the web in compression is equal to its
maximum effective depth, d we , before the development of a hole due to local buckling

Arj1

area of steel reinforcement such that the plastic neutral axis is located at the junction
between flange 1 (top) and the web of the steel beam

Arj2

area of steel reinforcement such that the plastic neutral axis is located at the junction
between the web and flange 2 (bottom) of the steel beam

Arjp

area of steel reinforcement such that the plastic neutral axis is located at the junction
between flange 2 (bottom) and the additional bottom flange plate of the steel beam

Arm

maximum area of steel reinforcement that can contribute to the negative moment
capacity at a cross-section of the composite member

Ar.st

the minimum area of steel reinforcement required for the rotational stiffness of a
connection to be considered rigid

At

cross-sectional area of a top tie strap

Aw

cross-sectional area of the web of the steel beam

longitudinal coordinate to the point of contraflexure in a member

width of an element in the cross-section

b1 , b2

centre-to-centre spacing of adjacent beams or distance from centre of steel beam to


edge of slab outstand

bcf

effective width of the concrete slab flange

b f1

width of flange 1 (top) of the steel beam

b f1e

effective width in compression of flange 1 (top) of the steel beam

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b f2

width of flange 2 (bottom) of the steel beam

b f2e

effective width in compression of flange 2 (bottom) of the steel beam

b fp

width of the additional bottom flange plate of the steel beam

b fpe

effective width in compression of the additional bottom flange plate of the steel beam

b wp

outstand width of a web stiffening plate of the steel beam

Ci

compressive force in a component

Dc

overall depth of a concrete slab

Ds

overall depth of a steel beam, but excluding an additional bottom flange plate if present

db

diameter of a steel reinforcing bar

df

diameter of bolt in an end plate connection

dw

clear depth between flanges of the web of the steel beam

d wc

depth of the web of the steel beam in compression

d we

effective depth in compression of the web of the steel beam

d wt

depth of the web of the steel beam in tension

elastic modulus

Es

elastic modulus of steel (= 2x10 MPa)

Fc

compressive force in the concrete slab at a cross-section at the strength limit state

Fcc

compressive force in the concrete slab at a cross-section with complete shear connection
where 0.5 at the strength limit state

Ff1

tensile capacity of flange 1 (top) of the steel beam

Ff1c

compressive force in flange 1 (top) of the steel beam

Ff1e

compressive capacity of the effective portion of flange 1 (top) of the steel beam

Ff1t

tensile force in flange 1 (top) of the steel beam

Ff2

tensile capacity of flange 2 (bottom) of the steel beam

Ff2c

compressive force in flange 2 (bottom) of the steel beam

Ff2e

compressive capacity of the effective portion of flange 2 (bottom) of the steel beam

Ff2t

tensile force in flange 2 (bottom) of the steel beam

Ffp

tensile capacity of the additional bottom flange plate of the steel beam

Ffpc

compressive force in the additional bottom flange plate of the steel beam

Ffpe

compressive capacity of the effective portion of the additional bottom flange plate of the
steel beam

Fr

tensile force in the steel reinforcement

Frm

maximum tensile force in the steel reinforcement that can contribute to the negative
moment capacity at a cross-section of the composite member

DB2.1-106

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Ft

tensile force in a top tie strap

Fw

tensile capacity of web of the steel beam

Fwc

compressive force in the web of the steel beam

Fwe

compressive capacity of the effective portion of web of the steel beam

Fwt

tensile force in the web of the steel beam

f c

28-day characteristic compressive strength of the concrete

f ds

design shear capacity of a shear connector in both positive and negative moment regions

fr

the maximum stress permitted in reinforcement with a bar diameter, d b , for crack control

f uc

tensile strength of the component supporting an end plate connection

f ui

tensile strength of the end plate in a connection

fuw

nominal tensile strength of weld metal

f vs

nominal shear capacity of a shear connector in both positive and negative moment
regions

fy

yield strength of steel used in design

f yf

yield strength of a flange of the steel beam

f yf1

yield strength of flange 1 (top) of the steel beam

f yf2

yield strength of flange 2 (bottom) of the steel beam

f yfp

yield strength of the additional bottom flange plate of the steel beam

f yi

yield strength of a component

f yr

yield strength of the steel reinforcement

f yw

yield strength of the web of the steel beam

nominal dead load

G sup

nominal superimposed dead load

G sw

nominal dead load due to self-weight

hr

height of the steel ribs in profiled steel sheeting

second moment of area

Ia

equivalent uniform value of I based on the coordinate of the point of contraflexure, a

I cr

cracked second moment of area, based on the effective section in negative bending with
the concrete fully cracked

Is

second moment of area of the steel beam about its centroid

It

second moment of area transformed with respect to the steel, based on the effective
section in positive bending ignoring the concrete in tension

stiffness

ks

secant stiffness of one shear connector, which may be taken as 30 kN/mm

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L

span of the beam

Lb

length of the beam between supports for assessing lateral distortional buckling

Ld

the value of Lb below which lateral distortional buckling need not be considered

Lef

effective span of the beam

Lrce

length of reinforcement that is engaged by a composite connection under elastic


conditions

Lrcu

length of reinforcement that is engaged by a composite connection under strength limit


state conditions

Lrd

nominal development length of a reinforcement bar (= 25 bar diameters)

Lrf

free length of reinforcement over a composite connection

Lsy.t

the development length of a reinforcing bar in tension (AS 3600)

Lw

the length of a weld

nominal moment capacity

M*

design bending moment at a cross-section

MA

bending moment at point A

MB

bending moment at point B

Mb

nominal moment capacity of a composite cross-section where 0.5 and 0 1

M b.5

value of M b corresponding to = 0.5

M bc

value of M b corresponding to = 1

M bd

nominal moment capacity of a composite beam allowing for lateral distortional buckling

M bf

nominal moment capacity of a composite cross-section where = 1 , neglecting any


contribution of the steel beam web

M bv

nominal moment capacity of a composite cross-section where 0 1 and 0 1

Mc

nominal moment capacity of a composite connection where 0.5

M cf

nominal moment capacity of a composite connection where = 1 , neglecting any


contribution of the steel beam web

M cv

nominal moment capacity of a composite connection where 0 1

MF

fixed end moment corresponding to an infinitely stiff support

Mf

free bending moment (for an equivalent simply-supported beam)

M od

nominal elastic lateral distortional buckling moment capacity of the steel section in a
composite beam

M prop

bending moment over a prop

Ms

nominal moment capacity of steel beam section

M sc

nominal moment capacity of a bare steel connection

M sd

nominal moment capacity of the steel section, allowing for the interaction between
plasticity and elastic lateral distortional buckling

DB2.1-108

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M sf

nominal moment capacity of steel beam section ignoring any contribution by the web

number of shear connectors

n cw

number of bolts located at the compression flange or along the web in an end plate
connection

ni

number of shear connectors that are effective at a particular cross-section

point load

Pmax

maximum design central point load that can be supported by a composite beam

pr

percentage of steel reinforcement in the effective concrete slab flange

nominal live load

ratio

re

proportion of the steel web in compression under elastic conditions

rM

percentage of moment redistribution

ry

minor axis radius of gyration of the compression flange

Ti

tensile force in a component

Tr

tensile force in the steel reinforcement

thickness of an element in the cross-section

tc

thickness of the component supporting an end plate connection

t f1

thickness of flange 1 (top) of the steel beam

t f2

thickness of flange 2 (bottom) of the steel beam

t fp

thickness of the additional bottom flange plate of the steel beam

ti

thickness of the end plate in a connection

tt

throat thickness of a weld

tw

thickness of the web of the steel beam

t wp

thickness of the web stiffening plate of the steel beam

V*

design shear force at a cross-section

VA

vertical support reaction at point A

VB

vertical support reaction at point B

Vbc

nominal capacity related to local bearing in the supporting component

Vbi

nominal capacity related to local bearing in the end plate component

Vdf

nominal capacity of a single bolt in shear for the strength limit state

V fb

nominal shear capacity of a bolted end plate connection

V fn

nominal shear capacity of a single bolt with the threads included in the shear plane

V fx

nominal shear capacity of a single bolt with the threads excluded from the shear plane

Vprop

vertical reaction force at a prop

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Vu

nominal shear capacity of the web of the steel beam at a member cross-section

uniformly distributed load

w max

maximum design uniformly distributed load that can be supported by a composite beam

w pl

the uniformly distributed load carried after the formation of the first plastic hinge

vertical coordinate within a cross-section measured from the top surface of the concrete

yB

coordinate to the extreme bottom fibre of the steel section

y ENA

coordinate to the elastic neutral axis of the composite cross-section

y f1

coordinate to the centroid of flange 1 (top) of the steel beam

y f1c

coordinate to the line of action of the compressive force, Ff1c

y f1t

coordinate to the line of action of the tensile force, Ff1t

y f2

coordinate to the centroid of flange 2 (bottom) of the steel beam

y f2c

coordinate to the line of action of the compressive force, Ff2c

y f2t

coordinate to the line of action of the tensile force, Ff2t

y fp

coordinate to the centroid of the additional bottom flange plate of the steel beam

y fpc

coordinate to the line of action of the compressive force, Ffpc

yi

coordinate to the centroid of a component of the cross-section

y PNA

coordinate to the plastic neutral axis of the composite cross-section

yr

coordinate to the centroid of the steel reinforcement in the slab

ys

coordinate to the elastic centroid of the steel section

yw

coordinate to the centroid of the web of the steel beam

y wc

coordinate to the line of action of the compressive force, Fwc

y wp

coordinate to the centroid of the web stiffening plate of the steel beam

y wt

coordinate to the line of action of the tensile force, Fwt

longitudinal coordinate to a cross-section within the beam

zA

longitudinal coordinate measured from point A

DB2.1-110

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Greek letters

degree of shear connection at a cross-section

degree of shear connection at the maximum moment cross-section of a composite beam

elongation of reinforcement over a composite connection

virtual displacement in plastic analysis

AB

distance measured from point A to the tangent from point B

max

maximum permissible beam deflection

strain
yield stress factor ( =

250 f y )

f1

yield stress factor for flange 1 of the steel beam

f2

yield stress factor for flange 2 of the steel beam

fd

strain in the extreme fibre of the bottom flange of the steel section to cause lateral
distortional buckling

fp

yield stress factor for the additional bottom flange plate of the steel beam

su

value of uniform strain (= 0.05 for Class N reinforcement)

yield stress factor for web of the steel beam

yield strain

capacity factor

ratio of the second moments of area in positive and negative bending ( = I + I )

shear ratio at a composite beam cross-section ( = V * Vu )

factor accounting for the inclination of profiled steel sheeting ribs with respect to the
longitudinal axis of the steel beam

non-dimensional slenderness for lateral distortional buckling

plate element slenderness

ey

plate element yield slenderness limit

ep

plate element plastic slenderness limit

stress

connection or beam end rotation


acute angle between the steel ribs of a composite slab and the longitudinal axis of the
steel beam

design rotation at a composite connection

slope of the beam at point A

slope of the beam at point B

ru

contribution of the elongation of the steel reinforcement to the ultimate rotation capacity
of a composite connection

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su

contribution of the slip at the shear studs to the ultimate rotation capacity of a composite
connection

ultimate rotation capacity of a composite connection

short-term live load factor used in assessing the design load for the serviceability limit
state

DB2.1-112

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APPENDIX C
ELASTIC PROPERTIES OF MEMBERS IN NEGATIVE BENDING
C.1

Elastic Neutral Axis (ENA)

A general composite cross-section subject to negative bending, including a web stiffener and an
additional bottom flange plate, is shown in Fig. 4.3.3. Steel members with slender plate elements are
outside the scope of this booklet, in which case the entire steel section can be assumed to be effective
under elastic conditions. This initial assumption must be checked once the ENA has been calculated.
The area of each component and the coordinate from the top surface to its centroid are given in
Table C.1.
Component

Area

Coordinate

Reinforcement

Ar

yr

Flange 1

Af1 = b f1t f1

y f1 = Dc + t f1 2

Web

Aw = d w t w

y w = Dc + t f1 + d w 2

Flange 2

Af2 = b f2 t f2

y f2 = Dc + t f1 + d w + t f2 2

Flange plate

Afp = b fp t fp

y fp = Dc + t f1 + d w + t f2 + t fp 2

Table C.1 Geometry of Steel Components


The elastic neutral axis (ENA) is calculated as
y ENA

Ai y i
Ai

C.1(1)

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C.2

Effective Cross-Section

Each component that is in compression must satisfy e ey to ensure that it is not slender. The
appropriate checks and the conditions under which they should be made are given in Table C.2.
Component

Condition

ey

Flange 1

y ENA < Dc + t f1

b f1 t w
2t f1 f1

16 (SR, HR)
15 (LW, CF)
14 (HW)

y ENA < Dc + t f1 + d w

Web

dw
tww

re =

Dc + t f1 + d w y ENA
1
dw

r e 0.5 :
r e < 0.5 :
Flange 2

y ENA < Dc + t f1 + d w + t f2

b f2 t w
2 t f2 f2

322
3.6 r e + 1
57.5
re

16 (SR, HR)
15 (LW, CF)
14 (HW)

Flange plate

b fp

45 (SR, HR)

t fp fp

all y ENA

40 (LW, CF)
35 (HW)

Table C.2 Elastic Slenderness of Steel Components (after Table 5.1 of AS 2327.1)

Second Moment of Area, I

C.3

The second moment of area for a member subject to negative bending may be calculated on the basis
that:

the full steel section is effective under elastic conditions;

the concrete in tension may be ignored; and,

any reinforcement is included.

Using the values already determined


I

Ar (y r y ENA ) +
2

3
b f1t f1
t d3
2
+ Af1 (y f1 y ENA ) + w w
12
12

+ A w (y w y ENA ) +
2

3
b fp t fp

12

3
b f2 t f2
2
+ A f2 (y f2 y ENA )
12

+ A fp y fp y ENA

)2

C.3(1)

The second moment of area for universal beams in negative bending is given for a range of
reinforcement levels in Fig. C.1.

DB2.1-114

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1500
610 UB 125
113
101
530 UB 92.4
82.0
460 UB 82.1
74.6
67.1
410 UB 59.7
53.7
360 UB 56.7
50.7
44.7
310 UB 46.2
40.4
32.0
250 UB 37.3
31.4
25.7
200 UB 29.8

1000
800

600
500

Cracked second moment of area, Icr (106 mm4)

400

300
250
200

150

25.4
22.3
18.2
180 UB 22.2

100

18.1
16.1
150 UB 18.0
14.0

80

60
50
40

30

20
yr = 40 mm

15

Dc = 120 mm

10
0

500

1000

1500

2000

2500

3000

Area of slab reinforcement, Ar (mm )


Figure C.1 Cracked Second Moment of Area for Universal Beams

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APPENDIX D
ELASTIC CONTRAFLEXURE ANALYSIS
D.1

General Principles

The elastic analysis of an indeterminate structure must satisfy equilibrium and compatibility. Satisfying
equilibrium is straightforward, but satisfying compatibility is more difficult. The bending moment
distribution depends on the variation of beam stiffness, and vice versa. In positive moment regions the
stiffness can be taken as I + = I t , while in negative moment regions it is I = I cr . Adopting this
distribution requires knowledge of the point of contraflexure. Much of the literature refers to the need
for iteration [15,17], but it is possible to obtain direct solutions by applying the moment area theorems.

D.2

Moment Area Theorems

D.2.1

Theorem of Slopes

The change in slope from point A to point B along a beam is equal to minus the area under the M EI
diagram between A and B:
B A
D.2.2

M
dz
EI

D.2(1)

Theorem of Deflections

The distance measured from point A to the tangent from point B is equal to the first moment of the
area under the M EI diagram between A and B about point A:
AB

D.3

M
z A dz
EI

D.2(2)

Symmetric Beams

For beams that are symmetric in all respects about their mid-span, the theorem of slopes can be
applied using point A as the support ( z = 0 ) and point B as mid-span ( z = L 2 ). From symmetry, the
slope at mid-span is zero, so the theorem of slopes can be reduced to
z=0

L 2

M
dz
EI

D.3(1)

Since the scope of this booklet is limited to either continuous beams or semi-continuous beams with
rigid connections, the slope at the support under elastic conditions must be zero, so the theorem of
slopes can be further reduced to
0

L 2

M
dz
EI

D.3(2)

Assuming that the point of contraflexure occurs at z = a and assigning the appropriate values of I ,
this integral can be expressed as
0

EI

L 2

EI +

dz +

dz

D.3(3)

Multiplying by EI + and assigning = I + I , this compatibility condition can be expressed as


0
D.3.1

L 2

M dz +

M dz

D.3(4)

Central Point Load, P

For a central point load, the moment can be expressed over the domain z [0, L 2 ] as
M

DB2.1-116

= MA +

P
z
2

D.3(5)

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If z = a is the point of contraflexure, then
MA

P
a
2

D.3(6)

and
P
(z a )
2
The compatibility integral reduces to the quadratic
M

D.3(7)

a
a
4 ( 1) + 4 1
L
L

D.3(8)

which has the desired solution as its positive root


a
L
D.3.2

D.3(9)

2 ( 1)

Uniformly Distributed Load, w

For a uniformly distributed load, the moment can be expressed over the domain z [0, L 2 ] as
M

= MA +

wL
w
z z2
2
2

D.3(10)

If z = a is the point of contraflexure, then


MA

w 2 wL
a
a
2
2

w
2

D.3(11)

and the moment can be expressed as


M

2
2

L
L

a z
2
2

D.3(12)

The compatibility integral reduces to the cubic


3

a
a
a
= 8 ( 1) 6 ( 2 ) 6 + 1
L
L
L

D.3(13)

To avoid having to solve the cubic, the solution is shown in graphical form in Fig. D.1.

D.4

Propped Cantilevers

For propped cantilevers, the theorem of deflections can be applied using point A as the pinned support
and point B as the fixed support. Since the scope of this booklet is limited to either continuous beams
or semi-continuous beams with rigid connections, the slope at point B under elastic conditions must be
zero, and hence the tangent at point B is horizontal. Assuming that point A does not undergo any
settlement, the distance from point A to the tangent from point B, AB , is zero, so the theorem of
deflections can be reduced to
0
D.4.1

M
z A dz
EI

D.4(1)

Central Point Load, P

A similar solution procedure to that for symmetric beams leads to a cubic equation, for which the
graphical solution is shown in Fig. D.2.
D.4.2

Uniformly Distributed Load, w

A similar solution procedure to that for symmetric beams leads to a quartic equation, for which the
graphical solution is shown in Fig. D.2.

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Relative point of contraflexure, a L

0.25
EI

0.2

EI +

EI

0.15
w
EI

0.1

EI

EI

0.05
1

5
+

Flexural stiffness ratio, = I I

Figure D.1 Point of Contraflexure for Fully Built-In Beams

Relative point of contraflexure, a L

P
EI

0.25

EI +

0.2

0.15

w
EI

EI

0.1
a

Flexural stiffness ratio, = I + I

Figure D.2 Point of Contraflexure for Propped Cantilevers

DB2.1-118

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APPENDIX E
NEGATIVE MOMENT CAPACITY OF MEMBERS
E.1

Effective Cross-Section

A general composite cross-section subjected to negative bending, including a web stiffener and an
additional bottom flange plate, is shown in Fig. 4.3.3. The effective width or depth of each component
and its corresponding capacity in tension and compression are given in Table E.1. The direct
contribution of the web stiffener to the moment capacity of the member is conservatively ignored. The
coordinate from the top surface to the centroid of each component is the same as that given in
Table C.2.
Component

Tension

Compression
1

Width/depth

Force

Width/depth

Force

Flange 1

b f1

Ff1 = bf1t f1f yf1

b f1e = 2 ep t f1 f1 + t w b f1

Ff1e = b f1e t f1f yf1

Web ( 0.5 )

d w = D s t f1 t f2

Fw = d w t w f yw

d we = 30 t w w d w

Fwe = d we t w f yw

Fw = 0

Web ( = 1 )

Fwe = 0

Flange 2

b f2

Ff2 = bf2 t f2 f yf2

b f2e = 2 ep t f2 f2 + t w b f2

Ff2e = bf2e t f2 f yf2

Flange plate

b fp

Ffp = b fp t fp f yfp

b fpe = ep t fp fp b fp

Ffpe = bfpe t fp f yfp

ep

is the appropriate value of plasticity slenderness limit taken from Table 5.1 of AS 2327.1.

Table E.1 Effective geometry and capacity of steel components

E.2

Key Levels of Reinforcement

The first step in calculating the negative moment capacity of a composite member is to determine the
location of the plastic neutral axis (PNA). Since the location of PNA depends on the effective crosssection and vice versa, it would appear that an iterative process is necessary and that is the approach
adopted in the literature [22]. However, a direct solution technique is possible, based on the
calculation of key levels of reinforcement that define the transition between different effective crosssections. A negative result for a particular transition point indicates that it will not occur for the given
steel section regardless of the level of reinforcement.
E.2.1

Maximum Area of Reinforcement, Arm

The area of reinforcement that can contribute to the negative moment capacity of a composite
member is ultimately limited by the maximum compressive capacity of the steel member. In this case,
the PNA is located between the top of the steel member and the bottom of the reinforcement, which
for equilibrium demands that
Frm

= Ff1e + Fwe + Ff2e + Ffpe

Arm

E.2(1)

and hence

E.2.2

Ff1e + Fwe + Ff2e + Ffpe


f yr

E.2(2)

Area of Reinforcement for PNA at Junction 1, Arj1

When the PNA is located at the junction of flange 1 and the web of the steel member, flange 1 is in
tension, but the remainder of the steel section is in compression, in which case equilibrium demands
that

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Arj1
E.2.3

Ff1 + Fwe + Ff2e + Ffpe


f yr

E.2(3)

Area of Reinforcement for PNA such that a Hole just forms in the Web, Arh

The maximum effective depth of the web in compression is d we , as given in Table E.1. If the depth of
the web exposed to compression exceeds this value, then a hole will develop in the web of the
effective cross-section. Locating the PNA such that the depth of the web in compression is equal to
d we leads to a compressive force in the web below the PNA of
Fwc

= Fwe

E.2(4)

and hence a tensile force in the web above the PNA of


Fwt

= Fw Fwe

E.2(5)

From equilibrium, the corresponding area of reinforcement is


Arh

Arh

Ff1 Fwt + Fwc + Ff2e + Ffpe


f yr

E.2(6)

which can also be expressed as


Ff1 Fw + 2 Fwe + Ff2e + Ffpe
f yr

E.2(7)

If d we = d w then no hole ever develops in the web, and Arh = Arj1 .


E.2.4

Area of Reinforcement for PNA at Junction 2, Arj2

When the PNA is located at the junction of the web and flange 2 of the steel member, flange 1 and the
web are in tension, but the remainder of the steel section is in compression, in which case equilibrium
demands that

Arj2
E.2.5

Ff1 Fw + Ff2e + Ffpe


f yr

E.2(8)

Area of Reinforcement for PNA at Junction p, Arjp

When the PNA is located at the junction of flange 2 and the extra flange plate of the steel member,
only the flange plate is in compression and the remainder of the steel section is in tension, in which
case equilibrium demands that

Arjp

E.3

Ff1 Fw Ff2 + Ffpe


f yr

E.2(9)

Nominal Negative Moment Capacity, M

Having calculated the key levels of reinforcement, the nominal negative moment capacity, M , can be
calculated according to the different cases so defined.
E.3.1

Arm Ar

In this case the entire steel section is in compression and any reinforcement in excess of Arm makes
no contribution to the negative moment capacity. Taking moments about the top surface of the
concrete
M

DB2.1-120

Arm f yr y r Ff1e y f1 Fwe y w Ff2e y f2


Ffpe y fp

E.3(1)

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E.3.2

Arj1 Ar < Arm

In this case the PNA is located in flange 1, and can be determined from equilibrium. To avoid a
discontinuity at junction 1, the width of flange 1 is assumed to be its full width, b f1 , for the portion that
is in tension (above the PNA), and its effective width, b f1e , for the portion that is in compression. The
PNA therefore varies linearly over this range and can be calculated as
y PNA

= Dc + r t f1

E.3(2)

where r is a ratio determined by


r

Arm Ar
Arm Arj1

E.3(3)

The forces within flange 1 and their coordinates are given by


Ff1t

r Ff1

y f1t

= Dc +

Ff1c
y f1c

E.3(4)
r t f1
2

E.3(5)

(1 r )Ff1e

E.3(6)

y f1t +

t f1
2

E.3(7)

Taking moments about the top surface of the concrete


M
E.3.3

Ar f yr y r + Ff1t y f1t Ff1c y f1c Fwe y w


Ff2e y f2 Ffpe y fp

E.3(8)

Arh Ar < Arj1

In this case the PNA is located in web, such that a hole forms in the compressive region of the web
below the PNA. The PNA varies linearly over this range and can be calculated as
y PNA

= Dc + t f1 + r (d w d we )

E.3(9)

where r is a ratio determined by


r

Arj1 Ar

E.3(10)

Arj1 Arh

The forces within the web and their coordinates are given by
r (Fw Fwe )

Fwt

y wt

= Dc + t f1 +

Fwc

= Fwe

y wc

y wt +

r (d w d we )
2

E.3(11)
E.3(12)
E.3(13)

dw
2

E.3(14)

Taking moments about the top surface of the concrete


M
E.3.4

Ar f yr y r + Ff1 y f1 + Fwt y wt Fwc y wc


Ff2e y f2 Ffpe y fp

E.3(15)

Arj2 Ar < Arh

In this case the PNA is located in the web, but below the point at which a hole forms in the
compressive region. The PNA varies linearly over this range and can be calculated as
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y PNA

= Dc + t f1 + (d w d we ) + rd we

E.3(16)

where r is a ratio determined by


r

Arh Ar
Arh Arj2

E.3(17)

The forces within the web and their coordinates are given by

(Fw Fwe ) + r Fwe

Fwt

E.3(18)

y wt

= Dc + t f1 +

Fwc

(1 r )Fwe

E.3(20)

y wc

y wt +

dw
2

E.3(21)

(d w d we ) + rd we
2

E.3(19)

Taking moments about the top surface of the concrete


M
E.3.5

Ar f yr y r + Ff1 y f1 + Fwt y wt Fwc y wc


Ff2e y f2 Ffpe y fp

E.3(22)

Arjp Ar < Arj2

In this case the PNA is located in flange 2, and can be determined from equilibrium. To avoid a
discontinuity at junction p, the width of flange 2 is assumed to be its full width, b f2 , for the portion that
is in tension (above the PNA), and its effective width, b f2e , for the portion that is in compression. The
PNA therefore varies linearly over this range and can be calculated as
y PNA

= Dc + t f1 + d w + r t f2

E.3(23)

where r is a ratio determined by


r

Arj2 Ar

E.3(24)

Arj2 Arjp

The forces within flange 2 and their coordinates are given by


Ff2t

r Ff2

E.3(25)

y f2t

= Dc + t f1 + d w +

Ff2c

(1 r )Ff2e

y f2c

y f2t +

r t f2
2

t f2
2

E.3(26)
E.3(27)
E.3(28)

Taking moments about the top surface of the concrete


M
E.3.6

Ar f yr y r + Ff1 y f1 + Fw y w + Ff2t y f2t


Ff2c y f2c Ffpe y fp

E.3(29)

Ar < Arjp

This case should never occur if the steel section is sensibly proportioned.

E.4

Linear Approximation

As an alternative to the above procedure, it is permissible to calculate the nominal negative moment
capacity for each key level of reinforcement and to use linear interpolation between these points.

DB2.1-122

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Composite Structures Design Manual

APPENDIX F
NEGATIVE MOMENT CAPACITY OF END PLATE CONNECTIONS
F.1

Effective Cross-Section

A general composite end plate connection subject to negative bending, including a web stiffener and
an additional bottom flange plate, is shown in Fig 4.4.1. The contribution of the tension bolts to the
negative moment capacity in the composite state is minor, even for flush or extended end plate
connections, and is conservatively ignored. The analysis is very similar to that for cross sections within
members, except that in the immediate vicinity of connections the steel plate elements are unable to
transmit any tensile forces and only the portion of the steel member that lies below the PNA is
effective. Given the very high strain gradient that would be required, it is unrealistic for the PNA to be
any higher than the junction between flange 1 and the web of the steel member. For plastic analysis,
this is equivalent to locating the PNA at the height at which a hole just forms in the web, since this is
the maximum compressive force that is available from the web. The effective width or depth of each
component and its corresponding capacity in compression is the same as that given in Table E.1. The
direct contribution of the web stiffener to the moment capacity of the member is conservatively
ignored. The coordinate from the top surface to the centroid of each component is the same as that
given in Table C.2.

F.2

Key Levels of Reinforcement

F.2.1

Area of Reinforcement for PNA such that a Hole just forms in the Web, Arh

The maximum effective depth of the web in compression is d we , as given in Table E.1. If the depth of
the web exposed to compression exceeds this value, then a hole will develop in the web of the
effective cross-section. Locating the PNA such that the depth of the web in compression is equal to
d we leads to a compressive force in the web below the PNA of
Fwc

= Fwe

Arh

F.2(1)

and hence

F.2.2

Fwe + Ff2e + Ffpe


f yr

F.2(2)

Area of Reinforcement for PNA at Junction 2, Arj2

When the PNA is located at the junction of the web and flange 2 of the steel member, equilibrium
demands that

Arj2
F.2.3

Ff2e + Ffpe
f yr

F.2(3)

Area of Reinforcement for PNA at Junction p, Arjp

When the PNA is located at the junction of flange 2 and the extra flange plate of the steel member,
equilibrium demands that

Arjp

F.3

Ffpe
f yr

F.2(4)

Nominal Negative Moment Capacity, M

Having calculated the key levels of reinforcement, the nominal negative moment capacity, M , can be
calculated according to the different cases so defined.
F.3.1

Arj2 Ar < Arh

In this case the PNA is located in the web, but below the point at which a hole forms in the
compressive region. The PNA varies linearly over this range and can be calculated as
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y PNA
where r is given by

= Dc + t f1 + (d w d we ) + rd we
=

Arh Ar
Arh Arj2

F.3(1)
F.3(2)

The compressive force within the web and its coordinate are given by
Fwc

(1 r )Fwe

y wc

y PNA +

F.3(3)

(1 r )d we
2

F.3(4)

Taking moments about the top surface of the concrete


M
F.3.2

Ar f yr y r Fwc y wc Ff2e y f2 Ffpe y fp

F.3(5)

Arjp Ar < Arj2

In this case the PNA is located in flange 2, and can be determined from equilibrium. The PNA varies
linearly over this range and can be calculated as
y PNA
where r is given by

= Dc + t f1 + d w + r t f2
=

Arj2 Ar

F.3(6)
F.3(7)

Arj2 Arjp

The compressive force within flange 2 and its coordinate are given by
Ff2c

(1 r )Ff2e

y f2c

y PNA +

F.3(8)

(1 r )t f2
2

F.3(9)

Taking moments about the top surface of the concrete


M
F.3.3

Ar f yr y r Ff2c y f2c Ffpe y fp

F.3(10)

Ar < Arjp

In this case the PNA is located in the flange plate, and can be determined from equilibrium. The PNA
varies linearly over this range and can be calculated as
y PNA
where r is given by

= Dc + t f1 + d w + t f2 + r t fp
=

Arjp Ar

F.3(11)
F.3(12)

Arjp

The compressive force within the flange plate and its coordinate are given by
Ffpc

(1 r )Ffpe

y fpc

y PNA +

F.3(13)

(1 r )t fp
2

F.3(14)

Taking moments about the top surface of the concrete


M

F.4

Ar f yr y r Ffpc y fpc

F.3(15)

Linear Approximation

As an alternative to the above procedure, it is permissible to calculate the nominal negative moment
capacity for each key level of reinforcement and to use linear interpolation between these points.

DB2.1-124

Continuous Composite Beams


Edition 1.0 February 2001
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Composite Structures Design Manual

APPENDIX G
DESIGN TABLES AND CHARTS FOR =0 (=90O)

The design tables and charts given in this appendix are based on strength criteria for the idealised
case of a symmetric composite beam with fully fixed ends. An approximate solution for propped
cantilevers, which are commonly encountered in end spans, can be obtained by increasing the span,
L, to a hypothetical span, 1.15L, for the purpose of using the design charts or tables. This increase is
intended to model the propped cantilever as an equivalent beam with fully fixed ends. Apart from
satisfying the minimum reinforcement requirement for crack control given in Equation 6.14(1), which
equates to pr = 0.75% for N12 reinforcing bars, no other aspects of the design are incorporated in the
given values. The design tables and charts are intended to provide accurate preliminary sizing of
members and not to replace detailed design calculations. In particular, the designer must ensure that
the chosen member and connections have sufficient stiffness and ductility at the strength limit state,
and that all serviceability requirements are met.
The design tables and charts are presented for three alternative loading cases, as shown in Table G:
1.

General moment. This case covers any general loading arrangement that can be
represented by a design free bending moment, M f * , which must be less than the design free
bending moment capacity, M f . No particular design shear force is implied for this loading
case, so these tables do not include any allowance for moment-shear interaction, and are
only valid for 0.5.

2.

Uniformly distributed load. In his case, the design free bending moment capacity is based
on a uniformly distributed loading pattern, so the corresponding shear force can be
determined. Values given for the design load-carrying capacity, wmax, are valid for any 1.

3.

Central point load. As for the uniformly distributed loading case, the corresponding design
shear force can be determined and the values given for the design load-carrying capacity,
Pmax, are valid for any 1.
Semi-Continuous
Loading Case

Continuous

+
M cv + 0.85 M bv

+
M bv + M bv

pr = 0.75%

pr = 1.50%

pr = 0.75%

pr = 1.50%

Mf

( 0.5)

G1.1

G1.2

G1.3

G1.4

wmax

( 1.0)

G2.1

G2.2

G2.3

G2.4

Pmax

( 1.0)

G3.1

G3.2

G3.3

G3.4

Table G Index to Design Tables and Charts


Efficient designs for continuous beams generally require the use of an additional bottom flange plate,
in order to avoid high levels of moment redistribution, which may lead to serviceability problems or
premature failure due to local buckling of the bottom flange or the web of the steel section. The charts
and tables for continuous beams are all based on the use of an additional bottom flange plate with
equal or greater compressive capacity than the tensile yield strength of the reinforcement in the slab.
This and other design parameters are indicated on the design charts.

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Table G1.1

Semi-Continuous Beams

Steel section
610 UB 125
113
101
530 UB 92.4
82.0
460 UB 82.1
74.6
67.1
410 UB 59.7
53.7
360 UB 56.7
50.7
44.7
310 UB 46.2
40.4
32.0
250 UB 37.3
31.4
25.7
200 UB 29.8
25.4
22.3
18.2
180 UB 22.2
18.1
16.1
150 UB 18.0
14.0

Table G1.2

4
1110
1020
977
819
742
660
613
565
471
447
408
375
351
314
295
249
247
222
196
191
174
162
136
149
128
117
121
100

6
1231
1136
1092
914
833
737
685
634
534
509
468
434
409
369
349
294
299
264
224
228
200
184
155
170
146
134
138
114

8
1327
1225
1180
988
903
803
750
698
595
569
526
491
459
417
389
321
329
289
246
249
220
202
172
187
162
149
152
126

Semi-Continuous Beams

Steel section
610 UB 125
113
101
530 UB 92.4
82.0
460 UB 82.1
74.6
67.1
410 UB 59.7
53.7
360 UB 56.7
50.7
44.7
310 UB 46.2
40.4
32.0
250 UB 37.3
31.4
25.7
200 UB 29.8
25.4
22.3
18.2
180 UB 22.2
18.1
16.1
150 UB 18.0
14.0

DB2.1-126

4
1186
1095
1051
885
809
719
671
624
524
500
456
423
398
356
336
290
283
258
231
222
205
192
166
177
155
144
146
123

6
1344
1248
1203
1015
932
825
772
721
613
588
540
505
479
432
412
355
353
318
276
274
245
226
192
210
181
160
169
130

8
1477
1374
1329
1121
1035
920
867
814
700
674
621
585
553
500
472
397
401
358
308
309
274
237
194
226
183
161
171
131

Mf (kNm)
Beam span, L (m)
10
12
14
1404
1480
1523
1300
1374
1416
1255
1328
1370
1058
1126
1162
972
1039
1074
868
932
962
814
877
906
761
810
839
650
685
711
617
651
677
573
605
628
526
556
579
491
520
543
446
472
493
416
442
462
345
368
387
352
374
392
311
332
349
266
285
300
268
286
301
238
254
267
219
233
241
186
196
196
203
216
227
175
185
185
161
163
163
164
173
173
132
133
133

Mf (kNm)
Beam span, L (m)
10
12
14
1592
1705
1784
1487
1597
1676
1440
1550
1628
1224
1325
1394
1136
1236
1304
1014
1106
1165
959
1050
1108
905
982
1037
781
841
888
747
805
849
691
745
786
643
692
729
605
648
680
549
591
622
518
556
575
424
427
427
440
470
474
389
394
394
314
315
315
334
337
337
278
280
280
240
241
241
195
196
196
228
229
229
184
185
185
162
163
163
173
173
173
132
133
133

=0
16
1560
1454
1407
1196
1107
991
935
868
738
703
652
603
566
513
483
403
410
365
312
315
278
241
196
229
185
163
173
133

=0
16
1859
1750
1701
1459
1366
1222
1162
1087
930
887
823
760
683
630
575
427
474
394
315
337
280
241
196
229
185
163
173
133

pr=0.75%
18
1583
1476
1429
1213
1124
1004
948
881
748
713
660
611
575
520
490
408
415
369
314
318
280
241
196
229
185
163
173
133

20
1583
1476
1429
1213
1124
1004
948
881
748
713
660
611
575
520
490
408
415
369
314
318
280
241
196
229
185
163
173
133

pr=1.50%
18
1903
1794
1744
1493
1396
1246
1184
1107
945
901
835
761
683
630
575
427
474
394
315
337
280
241
196
229
185
163
173
133

20
1903
1794
1744
1493
1396
1246
1184
1107
945
901
835
761
683
630
575
427
474
394
315
337
280
241
196
229
185
163
173
133

Continuous Composite Beams


Edition 1.0 February 2001
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Composite Structures Design Manual

Table G1.3

Mf (kNm)

Continuous Beams

Steel section
610 UB 125
113
101
530 UB 92.4
82.0
460 UB 82.1
74.6
67.1
410 UB 59.7
53.7
360 UB 56.7
50.7
44.7
310 UB 46.2
40.4
32.0
250 UB 37.3
31.4
25.7
200 UB 29.8
25.4
22.3
18.2
180 UB 22.2
18.1
16.1
150 UB 18.0
14.0

Table G1.4

4
2228
2022
1922
1592
1420
1264
1161
1055
869
816
746
675
619
557
518
412
422
367
313
309
272
247
204
226
190
172
176
142

6
2364
2152
2051
1700
1521
1350
1241
1132
938
884
812
741
684
620
579
461
481
414
343
350
301
271
225
249
210
190
194
158

8
2470
2250
2149
1781
1598
1423
1313
1203
1006
951
877
804
739
672
622
490
513
440
366
373
321
290
243
267
226
206
210
172

Mf (kNm)

Continuous Beams

Steel section
610 UB 125
113
101
530 UB 92.4
82.0
460 UB 82.1
74.6
67.1
410 UB 59.7
53.7
360 UB 56.7
50.7
44.7
310 UB 46.2
40.4
32.0
250 UB 37.3
31.4
25.7
200 UB 29.8
25.4
22.3
18.2
180 UB 22.2
18.1
16.1
150 UB 18.0
14.0

4
2305
2098
1997
1661
1487
1324
1220
1115
923
870
795
724
667
600
560
454
460
404
349
341
304
278
235
255
219
200
202
167

6
2479
2266
2165
1802
1622
1440
1330
1221
1019
965
886
813
756
684
643
524
537
469
398
398
348
318
268
292
250
221
232
177

Beam span, L (m)


10
12
14
2556
2639
2683
2333
2415
2458
2231
2311
2355
1858
1933
1971
1673
1747
1784
1495
1566
1597
1384
1453
1483
1272
1325
1355
1067
1104
1131
1003
1039
1066
928
962
986
841
873
897
773
803
827
703
731
752
651
678
699
516
540
561
538
561
580
464
485
503
388
408
426
393
412
428
340
358
374
308
326
337
260
273
273
284
300
314
242
255
255
221
225
225
225
237
237
180
180
180

8
2624
2403
2301
1917
1733
1544
1433
1321
1114
1058
975
901
835
758
707
574
588
514
439
437
384
333
271
314
253
223
235
179

Beam span, L (m)


10
12
14
2748
2870
2953
2524
2643
2726
2420
2538
2619
2028
2138
2209
1842
1949
2020
1646
1746
1807
1533
1632
1692
1420
1503
1562
1202
1266
1320
1137
1200
1254
1050
1109
1158
962
1018
1067
893
947
995
811
860
903
758
806
835
613
616
616
632
674
679
556
563
563
447
449
449
471
474
474
390
392
392
336
337
337
272
273
273
316
317
317
254
255
255
224
225
225
236
237
237
180
180
180

=0
16
2722
2497
2392
2005
1818
1627
1513
1385
1158
1093
1011
921
851
774
721
582
599
522
444
444
389
337
273
317
255
225
237
180

=0
16
3030
2802
2695
2277
2087
1867
1752
1622
1374
1307
1206
1115
1001
917
835
616
679
563
449
474
392
337
273
317
255
225
237
180

pr=0.75%
18
2745
2519
2415
2022
1835
1640
1526
1398
1169
1103
1020
930
860
781
728
587
604
527
447
447
392
337
273
317
255
225
237
180

20
2745
2519
2415
2022
1835
1640
1526
1398
1169
1103
1020
930
860
781
728
587
604
527
447
447
392
337
273
317
255
225
237
180

pr=1.50%
18
3076
2847
2740
2312
2122
1894
1778
1648
1396
1328
1224
1117
1001
917
835
616
679
563
449
474
392
337
273
317
255
225
237
180

20
3076
2847
2740
2312
2122
1894
1778
1648
1396
1328
1224
1117
1001
917
835
616
679
563
449
474
392
337
273
317
255
225
237
180

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Chart G1.1

=0

Mf (kNm)

Semi-Continuous Beams

pr=0.75%

2500
610 UB 125
113
101
530 UB 92.4
82.0
460 UB 82.1
74.6
67.1
410 UB 59.7
53.7
360 UB 56.7
50.7
44.7
310 UB 46.2
40.4
32.0
250 UB 37.3
31.4
25.7
200 UB 29.8
25.4
22.3
18.2
180 UB 22.2

2000
1800
1600

+
Design free bending moment capacity, Mf = Mc + 0.85 Mb (kNm)

1400
1200

1000
900
800
700
600

500
450

18.1
16.1
150 UB 18.0
14.0

400
350
300

250

0.5
+
m

200

= 1

fyr = 500 MPa


yr = 40 mm
f = 25 MPa
c

150

b1 2150 mm
b2 2150 mm
Dc = 120 mm
hr = 55 mm

100
6

10

12

14

16

18

20

Span, L (m)

DB2.1-128

Continuous Composite Beams


Edition 1.0 February 2001
Design of Continuous Composite Beams with Rigid Connections for Strength

OneSteel Market Mills


Composite Structures Design Manual

Chart G1.2

=0

Mf (kNm)

Semi-Continuous Beams

pr=1.50%

2500
610 UB 125
113
101
530 UB 92.4
82.0
460 UB 82.1
74.6
67.1
410 UB 59.7
53.7
360 UB 56.7
50.7
44.7
310 UB 46.2
40.4
32.0
250 UB 37.3
31.4
25.7
200 UB 29.8
25.4
22.3
18.2
180 UB 22.2

2000
1800
1600

+
Design free bending moment capacity, Mf = Mc + 0.85 Mb (kNm)

1400
1200

1000
900
800
700
600

500
450

18.1
16.1
150 UB 18.0
14.0

400
350
300

250

0.5
+
m

200

= 1

fyr = 500 MPa


yr = 40 mm
f = 25 MPa
c

150

b1 2150 mm
b2 2150 mm
Dc = 120 mm
hr = 55 mm

100
6

10

12

14

16

18

20

Span, L (m)

Continuous Composite Beams


DB2.1Design of Continuous Composite Beams with Rigid Connections for Strength

Edition 1.0 February 2001

129

OneSteel Market Mills


Composite Structures Design Manual

Chart G1.3

=0

Mf (kNm)

Continuous Beams

pr=0.75%

4000
610 UB 125
113
101
530 UB 92.4
82.0
460 UB 82.1
74.6
67.1
410 UB 59.7
53.7
360 UB 56.7
50.7
44.7
310 UB 46.2
40.4
32.0
250 UB 37.3
31.4
25.7
200 UB 29.8
25.4
22.3
18.2
180 UB 22.2

3500
3000

2500

2000

+
Design free bending moment capacity, Mf = Mb + Mb (kNm)

1800
1600
1400
1200

1000
900
800
700

18.1
16.1
150 UB 18.0
14.0

600

500
450

Ffp Fr

400

0.5

350

+
m

= 1

fyr = 500 MPa

300

yr = 40 mm
f = 25 MPa
c

250

b1 2150 mm
b2 2150 mm

200

Dc = 120 mm
hr = 55 mm
150
6

10

12

14

16

18

20

Span, L (m)

DB2.1-130

Continuous Composite Beams


Edition 1.0 February 2001
Design of Continuous Composite Beams with Rigid Connections for Strength

OneSteel Market Mills


Composite Structures Design Manual

Chart G1.4

=0

Mf (kNm)

Continuous Beams

pr=1.50%

4000
610 UB 125
113
101
530 UB 92.4
82.0
460 UB 82.1
74.6
67.1
410 UB 59.7
53.7
360 UB 56.7
50.7
44.7
310 UB 46.2
40.4
32.0
250 UB 37.3
31.4
25.7
200 UB 29.8
25.4
22.3
18.2
180 UB 22.2

3500
3000

2500

2000

+
Design free bending moment capacity, Mf = Mb + Mb (kNm)

1800
1600
1400
1200

1000
900
800
700

18.1
16.1
150 UB 18.0
14.0

600

500
450

Ffp Fr

400

0.5

350

+
m

= 1

fyr = 500 MPa

300

yr = 40 mm
f = 25 MPa
c

250

b1 2150 mm
b2 2150 mm

200

Dc = 120 mm
hr = 55 mm
150
6

10

12

14

16

18

20

Span, L (m)

Continuous Composite Beams


DB2.1Design of Continuous Composite Beams with Rigid Connections for Strength

Edition 1.0 February 2001

131

OneSteel Market Mills


Composite Structures Design Manual

Table G2.1

Semi-Continuous Beams

Steel section
610 UB 125
113
101
530 UB 92.4
82.0
460 UB 82.1
74.6
67.1
410 UB 59.7
53.7
360 UB 56.7
50.7
44.7
310 UB 46.2
40.4
32.0
250 UB 37.3
31.4
25.7
200 UB 29.8
25.4
22.3
18.2
180 UB 22.2
18.1
16.1
150 UB 18.0
14.0

Table G2.2

4
555
510
488
409
371
330
306
283
236
224
204
188
176
157
147
125
123
111
98
95
87
81
68
75
64
59
60
50

6
274
252
243
203
185
164
152
141
119
113
104
96
91
82
78
65
66
59
50
51
44
41
35
38
32
30
31
25

8
166
153
148
123
113
100
94
87
74
71
66
61
57
52
49
40
41
36
31
31
27
25
21
23
20
18
19
16

Semi-Continuous Beams

Steel section
610 UB 125
113
101
530 UB 92.4
82.0
460 UB 82.1
74.6
67.1
410 UB 59.7
53.7
360 UB 56.7
50.7
44.7
310 UB 46.2
40.4
32.0
250 UB 37.3
31.4
25.7
200 UB 29.8
25.4
22.3
18.2
180 UB 22.2
18.1
16.1
150 UB 18.0
14.0

DB2.1-132

4
590
548
526
443
404
359
336
312
262
250
228
211
199
178
160
142
142
129
107
111
102
87
77
89
76
67
72
56

6
299
277
267
225
207
183
172
160
136
131
120
112
107
96
92
78
78
71
59
61
53
47
39
45
38
33
36
28

8
185
172
166
140
129
115
108
102
87
84
78
73
69
62
59
48
50
44
37
38
33
28
23
28
22
20
21
16

=0

wmax (kN/m)
Beam span, L (m)
10
12
112
82
104
76
100
74
85
63
78
58
69
52
65
49
61
45
52
38
49
36
46
34
42
31
39
29
36
26
33
25
28
20
28
21
25
18
21
16
21
16
19
14
18
13
15
11
16
12
14
10
13
9
13
10
11
7

14
62
58
56
47
44
39
37
34
29
28
26
24
22
20
19
16
16
14
12
12
11
10
8
9
8
7
7
5

16
49
45
44
37
35
31
29
27
23
22
20
19
18
16
15
13
13
11
10
10
9
8
6
7
6
5
5
4

=0

wmax (kN/m)
Beam span, L (m)
10
12
127
95
119
89
115
86
98
74
91
69
81
61
77
58
72
55
62
47
60
45
55
41
51
38
48
36
44
33
41
30
33
24
35
26
31
22
25
18
26
19
22
16
19
13
16
11
18
13
15
10
13
9
14
10
11
7

pr=0.75%

14
73
68
66
57
53
48
45
42
36
35
32
30
28
25
23
17
19
16
13
14
11
10
8
9
8
7
7
5

18
39
36
35
30
28
25
23
22
18
18
16
15
14
13
12
10
10
9
8
8
7
6
5
6
5
4
4
3

20
32
30
29
24
22
20
19
18
15
14
13
12
11
10
10
8
8
7
6
6
6
5
4
5
4
3
3
3

pr=1.50%
16
58
55
53
46
43
38
36
34
29
28
26
24
21
20
18
13
15
12
10
11
9
8
6
7
6
5
5
4

18
47
44
43
37
34
31
29
27
23
22
21
19
17
16
14
11
12
10
8
8
7
6
5
6
5
4
4
3

20
38
36
35
30
28
25
24
22
19
18
17
15
14
13
12
9
9
8
6
7
6
5
4
5
4
3
3
3

Continuous Composite Beams


Edition 1.0 February 2001
Design of Continuous Composite Beams with Rigid Connections for Strength

OneSteel Market Mills


Composite Structures Design Manual

Table G2.3
Steel section

4
590
551
551
470
438
393
359
333
274
265
248
225
210
178
160
142
142
133
107
113
102
87
77
93
76
67
80
65

610 UB 125
113
101
530 UB 92.4
82.0
460 UB 82.1
74.6
67.1
410 UB 59.7
53.7
360 UB 56.7
50.7
44.7
310 UB 46.2
40.4
32.0
250 UB 37.3
31.4
25.7
200 UB 29.8
25.4
22.3
18.2
180 UB 22.2
18.1
16.1
150 UB 18.0
14.0

Table G2.4

6
393
367
368
313
292
262
240
222
182
176
165
150
139
118
107
94
94
87
71
74
64
57
48
53
45
41
42
34

8
279
255
244
205
185
167
154
141
118
112
104
95
87
80
74
58
62
53
44
45
39
35
29
33
28
25
26
21

Steel section
610 UB 125
113
101
530 UB 92.4
82.0
460 UB 82.1
74.6
67.1
410 UB 59.7
53.7
360 UB 56.7
50.7
44.7
310 UB 46.2
40.4
32.0
250 UB 37.3
31.4
25.7
200 UB 29.8
25.4
22.3
18.2
180 UB 22.2
18.1
16.1
150 UB 18.0
14.0

6
393
367
368
313
292
262
240
222
182
176
165
150
140
118
107
94
94
89
71
75
68
58
50
59
48
42
46
35

Beam span, L (m)


10
12
191
140
175
129
168
124
141
104
128
94
115
85
106
79
98
72
82
60
77
57
72
52
65
48
60
44
55
40
50
37
40
29
42
31
36
27
30
22
31
23
27
20
24
18
20
15
22
17
19
14
17
12
18
13
14
10

14
107
98
94
79
72
64
60
55
46
43
40
36
33
30
28
23
24
20
17
17
15
14
11
13
10
9
10
7

8
295
271
260
220
199
179
166
153
130
124
115
106
98
89
80
63
70
59
48
51
43
37
31
36
29
26
28
21

Beam span, L (m)


10
12
204
152
188
140
181
135
153
114
139
104
125
94
117
88
108
81
92
68
87
64
81
59
74
54
67
49
62
45
57
42
44
32
48
35
41
30
33
24
35
25
29
21
25
18
21
15
24
17
19
14
17
12
18
13
14
10

pr=0.75%
16
84
77
74
62
57
51
47
43
36
34
32
29
27
24
22
18
19
16
14
14
12
11
9
10
8
7
7
6

=0

wmax (kN/m)

Continuous Beams

4
590
551
551
470
438
393
359
333
274
265
248
225
210
178
160
142
142
133
107
113
102
87
77
93
76
67
80
65

=0

wmax (kN/m)

Continuous Beams

14
116
108
104
88
80
72
67
62
52
49
46
42
38
35
32
24
26
22
18
19
16
14
11
13
10
9
10
7

18
68
62
60
50
45
41
38
35
29
27
25
23
21
19
18
15
15
13
11
11
10
8
7
8
6
6
6
4

pr=1.50%
16
93
86
83
70
64
58
54
49
42
39
37
34
30
28
25
19
21
17
14
15
12
11
9
10
8
7
7
6

18
75
69
67
57
52
46
43
40
34
32
30
27
24
22
20
15
17
14
11
12
10
8
7
8
6
6
6
4

Continuous Composite Beams


DB2.1Design of Continuous Composite Beams with Rigid Connections for Strength

Edition 1.0 February 2001

20
55
50
48
40
37
33
31
28
23
22
20
19
17
16
15
12
12
11
9
9
8
7
5
6
5
4
5
4

20
61
57
55
46
42
38
36
33
28
27
24
22
20
18
17
12
14
11
9
9
8
7
5
6
5
4
5
4

133

OneSteel Market Mills


Composite Structures Design Manual

Chart G2.1

=0

wmax (kN/m)

Semi-Continuous Beams

pr=0.75%

300
610 UB 125
113
101
530 UB 92.4
82.0
460 UB 82.1
74.6
67.1
410 UB 59.7
53.7
360 UB 56.7
50.7
44.7
310 UB 46.2
40.4
32.0
250 UB 37.3
31.4
25.7
200 UB 29.8
25.4
22.3
18.2
180 UB 22.2

250

200
180

+
Design load-carrying capacity, wmax = (Mcv + 0.85 Mbv ) 8L2 (kN/m)

160
140
120

100
90
80
70
60

18.1
16.1
150 UB 18.0
14.0

50
45
40
35

1
+
m

30

= 1

fyr = 500 MPa


yr = 40 mm

25

f = 25 MPa
c
b1 2150 mm
20

b2 2150 mm
Dc = 120 mm
hr = 55 mm

15
6

10

12

14

16

18

20

Span, L (m)

DB2.1-134

Continuous Composite Beams


Edition 1.0 February 2001
Design of Continuous Composite Beams with Rigid Connections for Strength

OneSteel Market Mills


Composite Structures Design Manual

Chart G2.2

=0

wmax (kN/m)

Semi-Continuous Beams

pr=1.50%

300
610 UB 125
113
101
530 UB 92.4
82.0
460 UB 82.1
74.6
67.1
410 UB 59.7
53.7
360 UB 56.7
50.7
44.7
310 UB 46.2
40.4
32.0
250 UB 37.3
31.4
25.7
200 UB 29.8
25.4
22.3
18.2
180 UB 22.2

250

200
180

+
Design load-carrying capacity, wmax = (Mcv + 0.85 Mbv ) 8L2 (kN/m)

160
140
120

100
90
80
70
60

18.1
16.1
150 UB 18.0
14.0

50
45
40
35

1
+
m

30

= 1

fyr = 500 MPa


yr = 40 mm

25

f = 25 MPa
c
b1 2150 mm
20

b2 2150 mm
Dc = 120 mm
hr = 55 mm

15
6

10

12

14

16

18

20

Span, L (m)

Continuous Composite Beams


DB2.1Design of Continuous Composite Beams with Rigid Connections for Strength

Edition 1.0 February 2001

135

OneSteel Market Mills


Composite Structures Design Manual

Chart G2.3

=0

wmax (kN/m)

Continuous Beams

pr=0.75%

350
610 UB 125
113
101
530 UB 92.4
82.0
460 UB 82.1
74.6
67.1
410 UB 59.7
53.7
360 UB 56.7
50.7
44.7
310 UB 46.2
40.4
32.0
250 UB 37.3
31.4
25.7
200 UB 29.8
25.4
22.3
18.2
180 UB 22.2

300

250

200

+
Design load-carrying capacity, wmax = (Mbv + Mbv ) 8L2 (kN/m)

180
160
140

120

100
90
80
70

18.1
16.1
150 UB 18.0
14.0

60

50
Ffp Fr
45

1
+
m

40

= 1

fyr = 500 MPa

35

yr = 40 mm
f = 25 MPa
c

30

b1 2150 mm
b2 2150 mm

25

Dc = 120 mm
hr = 55 mm

20
6

10

12

14

16

18

20

Span, L (m)

DB2.1-136

Continuous Composite Beams


Edition 1.0 February 2001
Design of Continuous Composite Beams with Rigid Connections for Strength

OneSteel Market Mills


Composite Structures Design Manual

Chart G2.4

=0

wmax (kN/m)

Continuous Beams

pr=1.50%

350
610 UB 125
113
101
530 UB 92.4
82.0
460 UB 82.1
74.6
67.1
410 UB 59.7
53.7
360 UB 56.7
50.7
44.7
310 UB 46.2
40.4
32.0
250 UB 37.3
31.4
25.7
200 UB 29.8
25.4
22.3
18.2
180 UB 22.2

300

250

200

+
Design load-carrying capacity, wmax = (Mbv + Mbv ) 8L2 (kN/m)

180
160
140

120

100
90
80
70

18.1
16.1
150 UB 18.0
14.0

60

50
Ffp Fr
45

1
+
m

40

= 1

fyr = 500 MPa

35

yr = 40 mm
f = 25 MPa
c

30

b1 2150 mm
b2 2150 mm

25

Dc = 120 mm
hr = 55 mm

20
6

10

12

14

16

18

20

Span, L (m)

Continuous Composite Beams


DB2.1Design of Continuous Composite Beams with Rigid Connections for Strength

Edition 1.0 February 2001

137

OneSteel Market Mills


Composite Structures Design Manual

Table G3.1

Semi-Continuous Beams

Steel section
610 UB 125
113
101
530 UB 92.4
82.0
460 UB 82.1
74.6
67.1
410 UB 59.7
53.7
360 UB 56.7
50.7
44.7
310 UB 46.2
40.4
32.0
250 UB 37.3
31.4
25.7
200 UB 29.8
25.4
22.3
18.2
180 UB 22.2
18.1
16.1
150 UB 18.0
14.0

Table G3.2

4
1110
1020
977
819
742
660
613
565
471
447
408
375
351
314
295
249
247
222
196
191
174
162
136
149
128
117
121
100

6
821
757
728
610
555
491
457
423
356
339
312
289
273
246
233
196
199
176
149
152
133
123
104
113
97
89
92
76

8
663
612
590
494
452
402
375
349
297
285
263
246
230
208
194
161
164
145
123
125
110
101
86
94
81
74
76
63

Semi-Continuous Beams

Steel section
610 UB 125
113
101
530 UB 92.4
82.0
460 UB 82.1
74.6
67.1
410 UB 59.7
53.7
360 UB 56.7
50.7
44.7
310 UB 46.2
40.4
32.0
250 UB 37.3
31.4
25.7
200 UB 29.8
25.4
22.3
18.2
180 UB 22.2
18.1
16.1
150 UB 18.0
14.0

DB2.1-138

4
1184
1095
1051
885
809
719
671
624
524
500
456
423
398
356
334
289
283
258
228
222
204
189
163
177
155
142
146
123

6
896
832
802
676
621
550
515
481
409
392
360
337
320
288
275
237
235
212
184
183
163
151
128
140
120
106
113
87

8
739
687
664
561
518
460
433
407
350
337
311
293
276
250
236
198
200
179
154
155
137
119
97
113
91
81
86
66

=0

Pmax (kN)
Beam span, L (m)
10
12
562
493
520
458
502
443
423
375
389
346
347
311
326
292
304
270
260
228
247
217
229
202
210
185
196
173
178
157
167
147
138
123
141
125
124
111
107
95
107
95
95
85
88
78
75
65
81
72
70
62
64
54
66
58
53
44

14
435
405
391
332
307
275
259
240
203
193
179
165
155
141
132
110
112
100
86
86
76
69
56
65
53
47
50
38

=0

Pmax (kN)
Beam span, L (m)
10
12
637
568
595
532
576
517
490
442
454
412
406
369
384
350
362
327
312
280
299
268
276
248
257
231
242
216
220
197
207
185
170
142
176
157
156
131
125
105
134
112
111
93
96
80
78
65
91
76
74
62
65
54
69
58
53
44

16
390
363
352
299
277
248
234
217
184
176
163
151
142
128
121
101
102
91
78
79
69
60
49
57
46
41
43
33

14
510
479
465
398
372
333
316
296
254
242
225
208
194
178
164
122
135
113
90
96
80
69
56
65
53
47
50
38

16
465
438
425
365
341
306
290
272
233
222
206
190
171
158
144
107
118
99
79
84
70
60
49
57
46
41
43
33

pr=0.75%
18
352
328
317
269
250
223
211
196
166
159
147
136
128
116
109
91
92
82
70
71
62
53
44
51
41
36
39
29

20
317
295
286
243
225
201
190
176
150
143
132
122
115
104
98
82
83
74
63
64
56
48
39
46
37
33
35
27

pr=1.50%
18
423
399
388
332
310
277
263
246
210
200
186
169
152
140
128
95
105
88
70
75
62
53
44
51
41
36
39
29

20
381
359
349
299
279
249
237
221
189
180
167
152
137
126
115
85
95
79
63
67
56
48
39
46
37
33
35
27

Continuous Composite Beams


Edition 1.0 February 2001
Design of Continuous Composite Beams with Rigid Connections for Strength

OneSteel Market Mills


Composite Structures Design Manual

Table G3.3
Steel section
610 UB 125
113
101
530 UB 92.4
82.0
460 UB 82.1
74.6
67.1
410 UB 59.7
53.7
360 UB 56.7
50.7
44.7
310 UB 46.2
40.4
32.0
250 UB 37.3
31.4
25.7
200 UB 29.8
25.4
22.3
18.2
180 UB 22.2
18.1
16.1
150 UB 18.0
14.0

Table G3.4

4
1830
1669
1606
1358
1222
1107
1014
925
769
726
675
611
561
506
468
375
392
342
286
292
256
228
191
217
181
163
173
139

6
1455
1332
1285
1078
974
871
800
732
607
575
532
484
447
401
372
302
313
274
226
232
200
179
150
166
140
127
130
105

8
1221
1119
1075
891
799
712
657
601
503
476
438
402
370
336
311
245
256
220
183
187
161
145
121
134
113
103
105
86

Steel section
610 UB 125
113
101
530 UB 92.4
82.0
460 UB 82.1
74.6
67.1
410 UB 59.7
53.7
360 UB 56.7
50.7
44.7
310 UB 46.2
40.4
32.0
250 UB 37.3
31.4
25.7
200 UB 29.8
25.4
22.3
18.2
180 UB 22.2
18.1
16.1
150 UB 18.0
14.0

6
1509
1385
1338
1127
1022
916
844
776
648
615
570
521
484
435
405
332
343
303
253
258
226
202
172
193
163
144
155
118

Beam span, L (m)


10
12
1022
880
933
805
892
770
743
644
669
582
598
522
554
484
509
442
427
368
401
346
371
321
336
291
309
268
281
244
261
226
206
180
215
187
185
162
155
136
157
137
136
119
123
109
104
91
114
100
97
85
89
75
90
79
72
60

14
767
702
673
563
510
456
424
387
323
305
282
256
236
215
200
160
166
144
122
122
107
96
78
90
73
64
68
52

8
1279
1176
1138
954
867
772
716
661
555
529
487
450
418
375
347
286
292
257
218
219
192
167
135
157
126
111
117
89

Beam span, L (m)


10
12
1099
957
1010
881
968
846
811
713
737
650
658
582
613
544
568
501
481
422
455
400
420
370
385
339
357
316
324
287
303
269
245
205
253
225
222
188
179
150
188
158
156
131
134
112
109
91
126
106
102
85
90
75
95
79
72
60

16
680
624
598
501
454
407
378
346
290
273
253
230
213
193
180
145
150
130
111
111
97
84
68
79
64
56
59
45

=0

Pmax (kN)

Continuous Beams

4
1878
1716
1653
1401
1265
1148
1054
964
806
763
710
645
595
539
499
405
421
370
312
317
280
251
213
239
202
181
193
156

=0

Pmax (kN)

Continuous Beams

14
844
779
748
631
577
516
483
446
377
358
331
305
284
258
239
176
194
161
128
135
112
96
78
91
73
64
68
52

16
757
700
674
569
522
467
438
405
344
327
302
279
250
229
209
154
170
141
112
118
98
84
68
79
64
56
59
45

pr=0.75%
18
610
560
537
449
408
365
339
311
260
245
227
207
191
174
162
131
134
117
99
99
87
75
61
71
57
50
53
40

pr=1.50%
18
683
633
609
514
472
421
395
366
310
295
272
248
222
204
186
137
151
125
100
105
87
75
61
71
57
50
53
40

Continuous Composite Beams


DB2.1Design of Continuous Composite Beams with Rigid Connections for Strength

Edition 1.0 February 2001

20
549
504
483
404
367
328
305
280
234
221
204
186
172
156
146
117
121
105
89
89
78
67
55
63
51
45
47
36

20
615
569
548
462
424
379
356
330
279
266
245
223
200
183
167
123
136
113
90
95
78
67
55
63
51
45
47
36

139

OneSteel Market Mills


Composite Structures Design Manual

Chart G3.1

=0

Pmax (kN)

Semi-Continuous Beams

pr=0.75%

1000
610 UB 125
113
101
530 UB 92.4
82.0
460 UB 82.1
74.6
67.1
410 UB 59.7
53.7
360 UB 56.7
50.7
44.7
310 UB 46.2
40.4
32.0
250 UB 37.3
31.4
25.7
200 UB 29.8
25.4
22.3
18.2
180 UB 22.2

900
800
700

+
Design load-carrying capacity, Pmax = (Mcv + 0.85 Mbv ) 4L (kN)

600

500
450
400
350

300

250

18.1
16.1
150 UB 18.0
14.0

200
180
160
140

1
120

+
m

= 1

fyr = 500 MPa


yr = 40 mm

100

f = 25 MPa
c
b1 2150 mm
80

b2 2150 mm
Dc = 120 mm
hr = 55 mm
6

10

12

14

16

18

20

Span, L (m)

DB2.1-140

Continuous Composite Beams


Edition 1.0 February 2001
Design of Continuous Composite Beams with Rigid Connections for Strength

OneSteel Market Mills


Composite Structures Design Manual

Chart G3.2

=0

Pmax (kN)

Semi-Continuous Beams

pr=1.50%

1000
610 UB 125
113
101
530 UB 92.4
82.0
460 UB 82.1
74.6
67.1
410 UB 59.7
53.7
360 UB 56.7
50.7
44.7
310 UB 46.2
40.4
32.0
250 UB 37.3
31.4
25.7
200 UB 29.8
25.4
22.3
18.2
180 UB 22.2

900
800
700

+
Design load-carrying capacity, Pmax = (Mcv + 0.85 Mbv ) 4L (kN)

600

500
450
400
350

300

250

18.1
16.1
150 UB 18.0
14.0

200
180
160
140

1
120

+
m

= 1

fyr = 500 MPa


yr = 40 mm

100

f = 25 MPa
c
b1 2150 mm
80

b2 2150 mm
Dc = 120 mm
hr = 55 mm
6

10

12

14

16

18

20

Span, L (m)

Continuous Composite Beams


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141

OneSteel Market Mills


Composite Structures Design Manual

Chart G3.3

=0

Pmax (kN)

Continuous Beams

pr=0.75%

1600
610 UB 125
113
101
530 UB 92.4
82.0
460 UB 82.1
74.6
67.1
410 UB 59.7
53.7
360 UB 56.7
50.7
44.7
310 UB 46.2
40.4
32.0
250 UB 37.3
31.4
25.7
200 UB 29.8
25.4
22.3
18.2
180 UB 22.2

1400
1200

1000
900

+
Design load-carrying capacity, Pmax = (Mbv + Mbv ) 4L (kN)

800
700
600

500
450
400
350
300

18.1
16.1
150 UB 18.0
14.0

250

200

Ffp Fr
1

180

+
m

160

= 1

fyr = 500 MPa


140

yr = 40 mm
f = 25 MPa
c

120

b1 2150 mm
b2 2150 mm

100

Dc = 120 mm
hr = 55 mm

80
6

10

12

14

16

18

20

Span, L (m)

DB2.1-142

Continuous Composite Beams


Edition 1.0 February 2001
Design of Continuous Composite Beams with Rigid Connections for Strength

OneSteel Market Mills


Composite Structures Design Manual

Chart G3.4

=0

Pmax (kN)

Continuous Beams

pr=1.50%

1600
610 UB 125
113
101
530 UB 92.4
82.0
460 UB 82.1
74.6
67.1
410 UB 59.7
53.7
360 UB 56.7
50.7
44.7
310 UB 46.2
40.4
32.0
250 UB 37.3
31.4
25.7
200 UB 29.8
25.4
22.3
18.2
180 UB 22.2

1400
1200

1000
900

+
Design load-carrying capacity, Pmax = (Mbv + Mbv ) 4L (kN)

800
700
600

500
450
400
350
300

18.1
16.1
150 UB 18.0
14.0

250

200

Ffp Fr
1

180

+
m

160

= 1

fyr = 500 MPa


140

yr = 40 mm
f = 25 MPa
c

120

b1 2150 mm
b2 2150 mm

100

Dc = 120 mm
hr = 55 mm

80
6

10

12

14

16

18

20

Span, L (m)

Continuous Composite Beams


DB2.1Design of Continuous Composite Beams with Rigid Connections for Strength

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143

OneSteel Market Mills


Composite Structures Design Manual

APPENDIX H
DESIGN TABLES AND CHARTS FOR =1 (=0O)

The reader is referred to Appendix G for a general explanation that is applicable to all the design
charts and tables. This appendix covers composite beams with a solid slab. In cases when the ribs of
the profiled steel sheeting are parallel to the member (e.g. most primary beams), the slab may be
treated as solid, provided that the profiled steel sheeting satisfies the requirements of AS 2327.1.
For typical slab and rib depths, the effective area of the concrete flange may be 60-80% greater in this
case than for = 0 ( = 90). Due to the minimum crack control requirement of pr = 0.75% for N12
reinforcing bars, the area of slab reinforcement increases in proportion to the slab depth, and,
combined with the potential for increased design positive moment capacity, can lead to substantially
greater load-carrying capacity.
Appendix H may also be used in conjunction with Appendix G to obtain approximate solutions for a
wide range of slab depths. For example, ignoring changes to the lever arm between the tensile and
compressive forces, a composite beam with a concrete slab depth of 175 mm (with hr =55 mm) and
the profiled steel sheeting aligned perpendicular to the member axis ( = 0), is equivalent to a solid
slab (or = 1) with a depth of 120 mm. For intermediate depth values, linear interpolation may be
used, provided that the result is treated as a preliminary member sizing and not as a final design.
An index to the design charts and tables in this appendix is given in Table H.
Semi-Continuous
Loading Case

Continuous

+
M cv + 0.85 M bv

+
M bv + M bv

pr = 0.75%

pr = 1.50%

pr = 0.75%

pr = 1.50%

Mf

0.5)

H1.1

H1.2

H1.3

H1.4

wmax

1.0)

H2.1

H2.2

H2.3

H2.4

Pmax

1.0)

H3.1

H3.2

H3.3

H3.4

Table H Index to Design Tables and Charts


As for Appendix G, the design charts and tables for continuous composite beams are all based on the
use of an additional bottom flange plate with equal or greater compressive capacity than the tensile
yield strength of the reinforcement in the slab Ffp Fr .

Continuous Composite Beams


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Edition 1.0 February 2001

145

OneSteel Market Mills


Composite Structures Design Manual

Table H1.1

Semi-Continuous Beams

Steel section
610 UB 125
113
101
530 UB 92.4
82.0
460 UB 82.1
74.6
67.1
410 UB 59.7
53.7
360 UB 56.7
50.7
44.7
310 UB 46.2
40.4
32.0
250 UB 37.3
31.4
25.7
200 UB 29.8
25.4
22.3
18.2
180 UB 22.2
18.1
16.1
150 UB 18.0
14.0

Table H1.2

4
1262
1163
1118
928
844
745
693
641
539
513
471
436
411
369
348
294
294
263
228
226
202
187
161
173
151
140
142
119

6
1389
1284
1238
1038
951
846
792
738
627
599
553
512
482
435
409
346
347
310
269
267
239
221
189
204
177
160
166
130

8
1507
1399
1352
1143
1052
940
881
821
699
667
617
572
538
487
459
387
389
349
301
301
267
237
194
226
183
161
171
131

Semi-Continuous Beams

Steel section
610 UB 125
113
101
530 UB 92.4
82.0
460 UB 82.1
74.6
67.1
410 UB 59.7
53.7
360 UB 56.7
50.7
44.7
310 UB 46.2
40.4
32.0
250 UB 37.3
31.4
25.7
200 UB 29.8
25.4
22.3
18.2
180 UB 22.2
18.1
16.1
150 UB 18.0
14.0

DB2.1-146

4
1401
1301
1255
1052
966
854
800
748
636
610
559
523
497
446
425
366
361
328
288
282
254
227
187
216
176
156
165
127

6
1597
1490
1443
1222
1134
1008
952
897
772
742
683
640
604
548
519
413
440
381
307
325
271
234
192
223
181
160
169
130

8
1783
1673
1624
1387
1294
1154
1093
1027
882
844
781
725
670
617
564
420
464
388
311
331
275
237
194
226
183
161
171
131

Mf (kNm)
Beam span, L (m)
10
12
14
1620
1725
1798
1509
1607
1678
1459
1554
1625
1238
1321
1383
1139
1217
1279
1020
1091
1145
956
1024
1077
891
956
1008
761
818
864
727
782
826
673
724
765
625
673
710
589
631
664
533
575
606
504
542
569
419
427
427
428
459
474
380
394
394
314
315
315
328
337
337
278
280
280
240
241
241
195
196
196
228
229
229
184
185
185
162
163
163
173
173
173
132
133
133

Mf (kNm)
Beam span, L (m)
10
12
14
1964
2134
2263
1850
2007
2124
1796
1945
2056
1539
1666
1758
1428
1539
1619
1280
1383
1455
1207
1299
1328
1129
1196
1197
965
983
983
909
917
917
846
854
854
755
761
761
678
683
683
625
630
630
571
575
575
424
427
427
470
474
474
392
394
394
314
315
315
334
337
337
278
280
280
240
241
241
195
196
196
228
229
229
184
185
185
162
163
163
173
173
173
132
133
133

=1
16
1866
1746
1693
1444
1338
1198
1129
1057
905
864
801
742
683
630
575
427
474
394
315
337
280
241
196
229
185
163
173
133

=1
16
2375
2224
2151
1834
1626
1461
1328
1197
983
917
854
761
683
630
575
427
474
394
315
337
280
241
196
229
185
163
173
133

pr=0.75%
18
1907
1787
1733
1475
1368
1222
1151
1077
920
878
813
752
683
630
575
427
474
394
315
337
280
241
196
229
185
163
173
133

20
1907
1787
1733
1475
1368
1222
1151
1077
920
878
813
752
683
630
575
427
474
394
315
337
280
241
196
229
185
163
173
133

pr=1.50%
18
2435
2277
2201
1834
1626
1461
1328
1197
983
917
854
761
683
630
575
427
474
394
315
337
280
241
196
229
185
163
173
133

20
2435
2277
2201
1834
1626
1461
1328
1197
983
917
854
761
683
630
575
427
474
394
315
337
280
241
196
229
185
163
173
133

Continuous Composite Beams


Edition 1.0 February 2001
Design of Continuous Composite Beams with Rigid Connections for Strength

OneSteel Market Mills


Composite Structures Design Manual

Table H1.3

Mf (kNm)

Continuous Beams

Steel section
610 UB 125
113
101
530 UB 92.4
82.0
460 UB 82.1
74.6
67.1
410 UB 59.7
53.7
360 UB 56.7
50.7
44.7
310 UB 46.2
40.4
32.0
250 UB 37.3
31.4
25.7
200 UB 29.8
25.4
22.3
18.2
180 UB 22.2
18.1
16.1
150 UB 18.0
14.0

Table H1.4

4
2396
2179
2078
1713
1530
1357
1247
1137
941
887
813
741
683
617
575
460
473
411
345
346
301
273
231
251
214
196
198
163

6
2534
2311
2208
1833
1647
1467
1355
1243
1038
980
902
823
760
689
641
514
530
461
389
390
340
310
264
285
246
221
228
177

8
2663
2436
2331
1947
1756
1570
1452
1332
1115
1053
972
887
820
745
694
561
576
503
428
427
375
333
271
314
253
223
235
179

Mf (kNm)

Continuous Beams

Steel section
610 UB 125
113
101
530 UB 92.4
82.0
460 UB 82.1
74.6
67.1
410 UB 59.7
53.7
360 UB 56.7
50.7
44.7
310 UB 46.2
40.4
32.0
250 UB 37.3
31.4
25.7
200 UB 29.8
25.4
22.3
18.2
180 UB 22.2
18.1
16.1
150 UB 18.0
14.0

4
2539
2320
2218
1839
1655
1468
1357
1246
1041
986
903
830
771
697
654
537
542
479
413
405
359
321
263
302
245
217
227
174

6
2747
2522
2417
2021
1834
1634
1520
1407
1187
1128
1038
957
892
808
760
600
634
547
439
460
382
329
268
310
250
221
232
177

Beam span, L (m)


10
12
14
2785
2898
2974
2554
2659
2734
2446
2548
2621
2049
2137
2202
1849
1932
1996
1656
1732
1788
1532
1604
1660
1407
1476
1531
1181
1242
1291
1117
1175
1225
1031
1086
1131
944
996
1041
874
925
969
794
840
880
742
786
826
604
616
616
618
656
679
542
563
563
447
449
449
461
474
474
390
392
392
336
337
337
272
273
273
316
317
317
254
255
255
224
225
225
236
237
237
180
180
180

8
2947
2718
2610
2198
2005
1792
1672
1551
1314
1251
1152
1066
984
901
822
608
668
555
444
467
387
333
271
314
253
223
235
179

Beam span, L (m)


10
12
14
3140
3324
3471
2907
3082
3227
2796
2967
3110
2363
2515
2642
2161
2306
2432
1933
2065
2176
1808
1935
1984
1681
1783
1783
1430
1456
1456
1346
1355
1355
1246
1255
1255
1109
1117
1117
994
1001
1001
910
917
917
830
835
835
613
616
616
675
679
679
560
563
563
447
449
449
471
474
474
390
392
392
336
337
337
272
273
273
316
317
317
254
255
255
224
225
225
236
237
237
180
180
180

=1
16
3045
2804
2691
2265
2058
1843
1715
1585
1341
1274
1176
1085
1001
917
835
616
679
563
449
474
392
337
273
317
255
225
237
180

=1
16
3613
3367
3250
2766
2444
2186
1984
1783
1456
1355
1255
1117
1001
917
835
616
679
563
449
474
392
337
273
317
255
225
237
180

pr=0.75%
18
3087
2846
2732
2297
2090
1868
1739
1609
1361
1294
1193
1102
1001
917
835
616
679
563
449
474
392
337
273
317
255
225
237
180

20
3087
2846
2732
2297
2090
1868
1739
1609
1361
1294
1193
1102
1001
917
835
616
679
563
449
474
392
337
273
317
255
225
237
180

pr=1.50%
18
3698
3451
3332
2766
2444
2186
1984
1783
1456
1355
1255
1117
1001
917
835
616
679
563
449
474
392
337
273
317
255
225
237
180

20
3698
3451
3332
2766
2444
2186
1984
1783
1456
1355
1255
1117
1001
917
835
616
679
563
449
474
392
337
273
317
255
225
237
180

Continuous Composite Beams


DB2.1Design of Continuous Composite Beams with Rigid Connections for Strength

Edition 1.0 February 2001

147

OneSteel Market Mills


Composite Structures Design Manual

Chart H1.1

=1

Mf (kNm)

Semi-Continuous Beams

pr=0.75%

2500
610 UB 125
113
101
530 UB 92.4
82.0
460 UB 82.1
74.6
67.1
410 UB 59.7
53.7
360 UB 56.7
50.7
44.7
310 UB 46.2
40.4
32.0
250 UB 37.3
31.4
25.7
200 UB 29.8
25.4
22.3
18.2
180 UB 22.2

2000
1800
1600

+
Design free bending moment capacity, Mf = Mc + 0.85 Mb (kNm)

1400
1200

1000
900
800
700
600

500
450

18.1
16.1
150 UB 18.0
14.0

400
350
300

250

0.5
+
m

200

= 1

fyr = 500 MPa


yr = 40 mm
f = 25 MPa
c

150

b1 2150 mm
b2 2150 mm
Dc = 120 mm

100
6

10

12

14

16

18

20

Span, L (m)

DB2.1-148

Continuous Composite Beams


Edition 1.0 February 2001
Design of Continuous Composite Beams with Rigid Connections for Strength

OneSteel Market Mills


Composite Structures Design Manual

Chart H1.2

=1

Mf (kNm)

Semi-Continuous Beams

pr=1.50%

2500
610 UB 125
113
101
530 UB 92.4
82.0
460 UB 82.1
74.6
67.1
410 UB 59.7
53.7
360 UB 56.7
50.7
44.7
310 UB 46.2
40.4
32.0
250 UB 37.3
31.4
25.7
200 UB 29.8
25.4
22.3
18.2
180 UB 22.2

2000
1800
1600

+
Design free bending moment capacity, Mf = Mc + 0.85 Mb (kNm)

1400
1200

1000
900
800
700
600

500
450

18.1
16.1
150 UB 18.0
14.0

400
350
300

250

0.5
+
m

200

= 1

fyr = 500 MPa


yr = 40 mm
f = 25 MPa
c

150

b1 2150 mm
b2 2150 mm
Dc = 120 mm

100
6

10

12

14

16

18

20

Span, L (m)

Continuous Composite Beams


DB2.1Design of Continuous Composite Beams with Rigid Connections for Strength

Edition 1.0 February 2001

149

OneSteel Market Mills


Composite Structures Design Manual

Chart H1.3

=1

Mf (kNm)

Continuous Beams

pr=0.75%

4000
610 UB 125
113
101
530 UB 92.4
82.0
460 UB 82.1
74.6
67.1
410 UB 59.7
53.7
360 UB 56.7
50.7
44.7
310 UB 46.2
40.4
32.0
250 UB 37.3
31.4
25.7
200 UB 29.8
25.4
22.3
18.2
180 UB 22.2

3500
3000

2500

2000

+
Design free bending moment capacity, Mf = Mb + Mb (kNm)

1800
1600
1400
1200

1000
900
800
700

18.1
16.1
150 UB 18.0
14.0

600

500
450

Ffp Fr

400

0.5

350

+
m

= 1

fyr = 500 MPa

300

yr = 40 mm
f = 25 MPa
c

250

b1 2150 mm
b2 2150 mm

200

Dc = 120 mm

150
6

10

12

14

16

18

20

Span, L (m)

DB2.1-150

Continuous Composite Beams


Edition 1.0 February 2001
Design of Continuous Composite Beams with Rigid Connections for Strength

OneSteel Market Mills


Composite Structures Design Manual

Chart H1.4

=1

Mf (kNm)

Continuous Beams

pr=1.50%

4000
610 UB 125
113
101
530 UB 92.4
82.0
460 UB 82.1
74.6
67.1
410 UB 59.7
53.7
360 UB 56.7
50.7
44.7
310 UB 46.2
40.4
32.0
250 UB 37.3
31.4
25.7
200 UB 29.8
25.4
22.3
18.2
180 UB 22.2

3500
3000

2500

2000

+
Design free bending moment capacity, Mf = Mb + Mb (kNm)

1800
1600
1400
1200

1000
900
800
700

18.1
16.1
150 UB 18.0
14.0

600

500
450

Ffp Fr

400

0.5

350

+
m

= 1

fyr = 500 MPa

300

yr = 40 mm
f = 25 MPa
c

250

b1 2150 mm
b2 2150 mm

200

Dc = 120 mm

150
6

10

12

14

16

18

20

Span, L (m)

Continuous Composite Beams


DB2.1Design of Continuous Composite Beams with Rigid Connections for Strength

Edition 1.0 February 2001

151

OneSteel Market Mills


Composite Structures Design Manual

Table H2.1

Semi-Continuous Beams

Steel section
610 UB 125
113
101
530 UB 92.4
82.0
460 UB 82.1
74.6
67.1
410 UB 59.7
53.7
360 UB 56.7
50.7
44.7
310 UB 46.2
40.4
32.0
250 UB 37.3
31.4
25.7
200 UB 29.8
25.4
22.3
18.2
180 UB 22.2
18.1
16.1
150 UB 18.0
14.0

Table H2.2

4
590
551
551
464
422
373
346
321
269
257
236
218
205
178
160
142
142
132
107
113
101
87
77
86
76
67
71
56

6
309
285
275
231
211
188
176
164
139
133
123
114
107
97
91
77
77
69
59
59
53
47
39
44
37
33
36
28

8
188
175
169
143
132
118
110
103
87
83
77
71
67
61
57
47
49
43
36
37
32
28
23
28
22
20
21
16

Semi-Continuous Beams

Steel section
610 UB 125
113
101
530 UB 92.4
82.0
460 UB 82.1
74.6
67.1
410 UB 59.7
53.7
360 UB 56.7
50.7
44.7
310 UB 46.2
40.4
32.0
250 UB 37.3
31.4
25.7
200 UB 29.8
25.4
22.3
18.2
180 UB 22.2
18.1
16.1
150 UB 18.0
14.0

DB2.1-152

4
590
551
551
470
438
393
359
333
274
265
248
225
210
178
160
142
142
133
107
113
102
87
77
93
76
67
73
57

6
355
331
321
272
252
224
212
199
172
161
151
137
124
116
106
81
89
76
61
66
55
48
39
46
38
33
36
28

8
223
209
203
173
160
144
134
124
105
99
93
84
77
71
65
49
54
46
37
39
33
28
23
28
22
20
21
16

=1

wmax (kN/m)
Beam span, L (m)
10
12
130
96
121
89
117
86
99
73
91
68
82
61
76
57
71
53
61
45
58
43
54
40
50
37
47
35
43
32
40
30
33
24
34
25
30
22
25
18
26
19
22
16
19
13
16
11
18
13
15
10
13
9
14
10
11
7

14
73
68
66
56
52
47
44
41
35
34
31
29
27
25
23
17
19
16
13
14
11
10
8
9
8
7
7
5

16
58
55
53
45
42
37
35
33
28
27
25
23
21
20
18
13
15
12
10
11
9
8
6
7
6
5
5
4

=1

wmax (kN/m)
Beam span, L (m)
10
12
157
118
148
110
142
106
121
91
111
84
100
75
94
70
86
65
73
53
69
50
65
47
58
42
52
38
48
34
44
31
33
24
36
26
31
22
25
18
26
19
22
16
19
13
16
11
18
13
15
10
13
9
14
10
11
7

pr=0.75%

14
92
86
83
71
65
59
54
49
40
37
35
31
28
26
23
17
19
16
13
14
11
10
8
9
8
7
7
5

18
47
44
43
36
34
30
28
27
23
22
20
19
17
16
14
11
12
10
8
8
7
6
5
6
5
4
4
3

20
38
36
35
30
27
24
23
22
18
18
16
15
14
13
12
9
9
8
6
7
6
5
4
5
4
3
3
3

pr=1.50%
16
74
69
67
57
51
46
42
37
31
29
27
24
21
20
18
13
15
12
10
11
9
8
6
7
6
5
5
4

18
60
56
54
45
40
36
33
30
24
23
21
19
17
16
14
11
12
10
8
8
7
6
5
6
5
4
4
3

20
49
46
44
37
33
29
27
24
20
18
17
15
14
13
12
9
9
8
6
7
6
5
4
5
4
3
3
3

Continuous Composite Beams


Edition 1.0 February 2001
Design of Continuous Composite Beams with Rigid Connections for Strength

OneSteel Market Mills


Composite Structures Design Manual

Table H2.3
Steel section

4
590
551
551
470
438
393
359
333
274
265
248
225
210
178
160
142
142
133
107
113
102
87
77
93
76
67
80
65

610 UB 125
113
101
530 UB 92.4
82.0
460 UB 82.1
74.6
67.1
410 UB 59.7
53.7
360 UB 56.7
50.7
44.7
310 UB 46.2
40.4
32.0
250 UB 37.3
31.4
25.7
200 UB 29.8
25.4
22.3
18.2
180 UB 22.2
18.1
16.1
150 UB 18.0
14.0

Table H2.4

6
393
367
368
313
292
262
240
222
182
176
165
150
140
118
107
94
94
89
71
75
68
58
50
59
48
42
46
35

8
295
274
263
223
201
182
168
154
130
123
115
105
96
88
80
63
69
59
48
51
43
37
31
36
29
26
28
21

Steel section
610 UB 125
113
101
530 UB 92.4
82.0
460 UB 82.1
74.6
67.1
410 UB 59.7
53.7
360 UB 56.7
50.7
44.7
310 UB 46.2
40.4
32.0
250 UB 37.3
31.4
25.7
200 UB 29.8
25.4
22.3
18.2
180 UB 22.2
18.1
16.1
150 UB 18.0
14.0

6
393
367
368
313
292
262
240
222
182
176
165
150
140
118
107
94
94
89
71
75
68
58
50
59
48
42
46
35

Beam span, L (m)


10
12
207
153
190
140
183
135
154
114
140
103
126
93
117
86
107
79
90
67
85
63
79
59
73
53
66
49
61
45
57
41
44
32
47
35
40
30
33
24
35
25
29
21
25
18
21
15
24
17
19
14
17
12
18
13
14
10

14
117
108
104
88
80
72
66
61
51
48
45
41
38
34
32
24
26
22
18
19
16
14
11
13
10
9
10
7

8
295
275
276
235
219
197
180
167
137
131
124
111
100
89
80
64
71
60
48
52
43
37
31
36
29
26
28
21

Beam span, L (m)


10
12
231
171
213
156
202
149
171
126
153
114
140
104
128
95
116
87
97
72
91
67
86
63
77
56
69
51
64
46
58
42
44
32
48
35
41
30
33
24
35
25
29
21
25
18
21
15
24
17
19
14
17
12
18
13
14
10

pr=0.75%
16
93
86
83
70
63
57
53
49
41
39
36
33
30
28
25
19
21
17
14
15
12
11
9
10
8
7
7
6

=1

wmax (kN/m)

Continuous Beams

4
590
551
551
470
438
393
359
333
274
265
248
225
210
178
160
142
142
133
107
113
102
87
77
93
76
67
80
65

=1

wmax (kN/m)

Continuous Beams

14
131
120
116
98
89
81
73
66
55
51
48
43
38
35
32
24
26
22
18
19
16
14
11
13
10
9
10
7

16
105
97
93
79
71
64
58
53
43
40
38
34
30
28
25
19
21
17
14
15
12
11
9
10
8
7
7
6

18
75
69
67
56
51
46
43
39
33
32
29
27
24
22
20
15
17
14
11
12
10
8
7
8
6
6
6
4

pr=1.50%
18
86
80
77
65
58
52
47
43
35
33
30
27
24
22
20
15
17
14
11
12
10
8
7
8
6
6
6
4

Continuous Composite Beams


DB2.1Design of Continuous Composite Beams with Rigid Connections for Strength

Edition 1.0 February 2001

20
62
57
55
46
42
37
35
32
27
26
24
22
20
18
17
12
14
11
9
9
8
7
5
6
5
4
5
4

20
71
66
64
54
48
43
39
35
29
27
25
22
20
18
17
12
14
11
9
9
8
7
5
6
5
4
5
4

153

OneSteel Market Mills


Composite Structures Design Manual

Chart H2.1

=1

wmax (kN/m)

Semi-Continuous Beams

pr=0.75%

300
610 UB 125
113
101
530 UB 92.4
82.0
460 UB 82.1
74.6
67.1
410 UB 59.7
53.7
360 UB 56.7
50.7
44.7
310 UB 46.2
40.4
32.0
250 UB 37.3
31.4
25.7
200 UB 29.8
25.4
22.3
18.2
180 UB 22.2

250

200
180

+
Design load-carrying capacity, wmax = (Mcv + 0.85 Mbv ) 8L2 (kN/m)

160
140
120

100
90
80
70
60

18.1
16.1
150 UB 18.0
14.0

50
45
40
35

1
+
m

30

= 1

fyr = 500 MPa


yr = 40 mm

25

f = 25 MPa
c
b1 2150 mm
20

b2 2150 mm
Dc = 120 mm

15
6

10

12

14

16

18

20

Span, L (m)

DB2.1-154

Continuous Composite Beams


Edition 1.0 February 2001
Design of Continuous Composite Beams with Rigid Connections for Strength

OneSteel Market Mills


Composite Structures Design Manual

Chart H2.2

=1

wmax (kN/m)

Semi-Continuous Beams

pr=1.50%

300
610 UB 125
113
101
530 UB 92.4
82.0
460 UB 82.1
74.6
67.1
410 UB 59.7
53.7
360 UB 56.7
50.7
44.7
310 UB 46.2
40.4
32.0
250 UB 37.3
31.4
25.7
200 UB 29.8
25.4
22.3
18.2
180 UB 22.2

250

200
180

+
Design load-carrying capacity, wmax = (Mcv + 0.85 Mbv ) 8L2 (kN/m)

160
140
120

100
90
80
70
60

18.1
16.1
150 UB 18.0
14.0

50
45
40
35

1
+
m

30

= 1

fyr = 500 MPa


yr = 40 mm

25

f = 25 MPa
c
b1 2150 mm
20

b2 2150 mm
Dc = 120 mm

15
6

10

12

14

16

18

20

Span, L (m)

Continuous Composite Beams


DB2.1Design of Continuous Composite Beams with Rigid Connections for Strength

Edition 1.0 February 2001

155

OneSteel Market Mills


Composite Structures Design Manual

Chart H2.3

=1

wmax (kN/m)

Continuous Beams

pr=0.75%

350
610 UB 125
113
101
530 UB 92.4
82.0
460 UB 82.1
74.6
67.1
410 UB 59.7
53.7
360 UB 56.7
50.7
44.7
310 UB 46.2
40.4
32.0
250 UB 37.3
31.4
25.7
200 UB 29.8
25.4
22.3
18.2
180 UB 22.2

300

250

200

+
Design load-carrying capacity, wmax = (Mbv + Mbv ) 8L2 (kN/m)

180
160
140

120

100
90
80
70

18.1
16.1
150 UB 18.0
14.0

60

50
Ffp Fr
45

1
+
m

40

= 1

fyr = 500 MPa

35

yr = 40 mm
f = 25 MPa
c

30

b1 2150 mm
b2 2150 mm

25

Dc = 120 mm

20
6

10

12

14

16

18

20

Span, L (m)

DB2.1-156

Continuous Composite Beams


Edition 1.0 February 2001
Design of Continuous Composite Beams with Rigid Connections for Strength

OneSteel Market Mills


Composite Structures Design Manual

Chart H2.4

=1

wmax (kN/m)

Continuous Beams

pr=1.50%

350
610 UB 125
113
101
530 UB 92.4
82.0
460 UB 82.1
74.6
67.1
410 UB 59.7
53.7
360 UB 56.7
50.7
44.7
310 UB 46.2
40.4
32.0
250 UB 37.3
31.4
25.7
200 UB 29.8
25.4
22.3
18.2
180 UB 22.2

300

250

200

+
Design load-carrying capacity, wmax = (Mbv + Mbv ) 8L2 (kN/m)

180
160
140

120

100
90
80
70

18.1
16.1
150 UB 18.0
14.0

60

50
Ffp Fr
45

1
+
m

40

= 1

fyr = 500 MPa

35

yr = 40 mm
f = 25 MPa
c

30

b1 2150 mm
b2 2150 mm

25

Dc = 120 mm

20
6

10

12

14

16

18

20

Span, L (m)

Continuous Composite Beams


DB2.1Design of Continuous Composite Beams with Rigid Connections for Strength

Edition 1.0 February 2001

157

OneSteel Market Mills


Composite Structures Design Manual

Table H3.1

Semi-Continuous Beams

Steel section
610 UB 125
113
101
530 UB 92.4
82.0
460 UB 82.1
74.6
67.1
410 UB 59.7
53.7
360 UB 56.7
50.7
44.7
310 UB 46.2
40.4
32.0
250 UB 37.3
31.4
25.7
200 UB 29.8
25.4
22.3
18.2
180 UB 22.2
18.1
16.1
150 UB 18.0
14.0

Table H3.2

4
1239
1145
1114
928
844
745
693
641
539
513
471
436
411
367
343
292
292
263
225
226
202
185
160
173
151
139
142
119

6
926
856
825
692
634
564
528
492
418
399
368
341
321
290
273
230
231
207
179
178
159
147
126
136
118
106
111
87

8
753
700
676
572
526
470
440
410
349
333
308
286
269
244
229
193
195
174
150
150
134
119
97
113
91
81
86
66

Semi-Continuous Beams

Steel section
610 UB 125
113
101
530 UB 92.4
82.0
460 UB 82.1
74.6
67.1
410 UB 59.7
53.7
360 UB 56.7
50.7
44.7
310 UB 46.2
40.4
32.0
250 UB 37.3
31.4
25.7
200 UB 29.8
25.4
22.3
18.2
180 UB 22.2
18.1
16.1
150 UB 18.0
14.0

DB2.1-158

4
1340
1245
1212
1023
943
838
782
729
617
592
546
508
481
429
405
343
347
314
266
271
241
212
178
208
169
150
164
127

6
1064
993
962
815
756
672
635
598
515
495
455
427
403
363
341
275
291
254
205
216
181
156
128
148
120
106
113
87

8
891
837
812
694
647
577
546
514
441
422
390
363
335
308
282
210
232
194
156
165
138
119
97
113
91
81
86
66

=1

Pmax (kN)
Beam span, L (m)
10
12
648
575
603
536
584
518
495
440
456
406
408
364
382
341
357
319
304
273
291
261
269
241
250
224
235
210
213
192
201
181
167
142
171
153
152
131
125
105
131
112
111
93
96
80
78
65
91
76
74
62
65
54
69
58
53
44

14
514
479
464
395
365
327
308
288
247
236
218
203
190
173
163
122
135
113
90
96
80
69
56
65
53
47
50
38

=1

Pmax (kN)
Beam span, L (m)
10
12
785
711
740
669
718
648
615
555
571
513
512
461
483
433
452
399
386
328
364
306
338
285
302
254
271
228
250
210
228
192
170
142
188
158
157
131
125
105
134
112
111
93
96
80
78
65
91
76
74
62
65
54
69
58
53
44

16
467
437
423
361
335
300
282
264
226
216
200
185
171
158
144
107
118
99
79
84
70
60
49
57
46
41
43
33

14
647
607
587
502
463
416
380
342
281
262
244
217
195
180
164
122
135
113
90
96
80
69
56
65
53
47
50
38

16
594
556
538
459
407
365
332
299
246
229
213
190
171
158
144
107
118
99
79
84
70
60
49
57
46
41
43
33

pr=0.75%
18
424
397
385
328
304
271
256
239
204
195
181
167
152
140
128
95
105
88
70
75
62
53
44
51
41
36
39
29

20
381
357
347
295
274
244
230
215
184
176
163
150
137
126
115
85
95
79
63
67
56
48
39
46
37
33
35
27

pr=1.50%
18
541
506
489
408
361
325
295
266
218
204
190
169
152
140
128
95
105
88
70
75
62
53
44
51
41
36
39
29

20
487
455
440
367
325
292
266
239
197
183
171
152
137
126
115
85
95
79
63
67
56
48
39
46
37
33
35
27

Continuous Composite Beams


Edition 1.0 February 2001
Design of Continuous Composite Beams with Rigid Connections for Strength

OneSteel Market Mills


Composite Structures Design Manual

Table H3.3
Steel section
610 UB 125
113
101
530 UB 92.4
82.0
460 UB 82.1
74.6
67.1
410 UB 59.7
53.7
360 UB 56.7
50.7
44.7
310 UB 46.2
40.4
32.0
250 UB 37.3
31.4
25.7
200 UB 29.8
25.4
22.3
18.2
180 UB 22.2
18.1
16.1
150 UB 18.0
14.0

Table H3.4

4
1906
1741
1681
1422
1283
1164
1067
975
815
770
720
653
600
546
504
405
425
372
309
318
277
247
210
236
199
179
190
154

6
1529
1401
1354
1139
1032
928
854
784
654
620
577
524
485
436
403
328
339
298
249
254
222
199
170
189
161
144
152
118

8
1292
1187
1149
965
878
785
724
666
555
526
486
444
410
369
342
280
287
251
214
214
187
167
135
157
126
111
117
89

Steel section
610 UB 125
113
101
530 UB 92.4
82.0
460 UB 82.1
74.6
67.1
410 UB 59.7
53.7
360 UB 56.7
50.7
44.7
310 UB 46.2
40.4
32.0
250 UB 37.3
31.4
25.7
200 UB 29.8
25.4
22.3
18.2
180 UB 22.2
18.1
16.1
150 UB 18.0
14.0

6
1626
1497
1449
1228
1119
1009
934
863
728
690
645
587
541
492
454
360
385
334
268
284
240
207
172
201
163
144
155
118

Beam span, L (m)


10
12
1114
966
1022
886
979
849
819
712
740
644
662
577
613
535
563
492
472
414
447
392
413
362
377
332
350
308
318
280
297
262
242
205
247
219
217
188
179
150
184
158
156
131
134
112
109
91
126
106
102
85
90
75
95
79
72
60

14
850
781
749
629
570
511
474
437
369
350
323
297
277
251
236
176
194
161
128
135
112
96
78
91
73
64
68
52

8
1396
1290
1251
1060
969
871
808
746
628
598
556
509
470
424
386
298
321
274
220
232
194
167
135
157
126
111
117
89

Beam span, L (m)


10
12
1239
1108
1148
1027
1114
989
944
838
864
769
773
688
722
645
671
594
565
485
536
452
498
418
444
372
398
334
362
306
329
278
245
205
270
226
224
188
179
150
188
158
156
131
134
112
109
91
126
106
102
85
90
75
95
79
72
60

16
761
701
673
566
515
461
429
396
335
319
294
271
250
229
209
154
170
141
112
118
98
84
68
79
64
56
59
45

=1

Pmax (kN)

Continuous Beams

4
1991
1825
1763
1500
1360
1237
1139
1046
882
837
784
715
661
603
560
444
477
414
341
359
308
268
224
264
213
189
206
160

=1

Pmax (kN)

Continuous Beams

14
992
922
889
755
695
622
567
509
416
387
359
319
286
262
239
176
194
161
128
135
112
96
78
91
73
64
68
52

16
903
842
812
692
611
547
496
446
364
339
314
279
250
229
209
154
170
141
112
118
98
84
68
79
64
56
59
45

pr=0.75%
18
686
632
607
511
465
415
387
358
302
287
265
245
222
204
186
137
151
125
100
105
87
75
61
71
57
50
53
40

pr=1.50%
18
822
767
740
615
543
486
441
396
323
301
279
248
222
204
186
137
151
125
100
105
87
75
61
71
57
50
53
40

Continuous Composite Beams


DB2.1Design of Continuous Composite Beams with Rigid Connections for Strength

Edition 1.0 February 2001

20
617
569
546
459
418
374
348
322
272
259
239
220
200
183
167
123
136
113
90
95
78
67
55
63
51
45
47
36

20
740
690
666
553
489
437
397
357
291
271
251
223
200
183
167
123
136
113
90
95
78
67
55
63
51
45
47
36

159

OneSteel Market Mills


Composite Structures Design Manual

Chart H3.1

=1

Pmax (kN)

Semi-Continuous Beams

pr=0.75%

1000
610 UB 125
113
101
530 UB 92.4
82.0
460 UB 82.1
74.6
67.1
410 UB 59.7
53.7
360 UB 56.7
50.7
44.7
310 UB 46.2
40.4
32.0
250 UB 37.3
31.4
25.7
200 UB 29.8
25.4
22.3
18.2
180 UB 22.2

900
800
700

+
Design load-carrying capacity, Pmax = (Mcv + 0.85 Mbv ) 4L (kN)

600

500
450
400
350

300

250

18.1
16.1
150 UB 18.0
14.0

200
180
160
140

1
120

+
m

= 1

fyr = 500 MPa


yr = 40 mm

100

f = 25 MPa
c
b1 2150 mm
80

b2 2150 mm
Dc = 120 mm

10

12

14

16

18

20

Span, L (m)

DB2.1-160

Continuous Composite Beams


Edition 1.0 February 2001
Design of Continuous Composite Beams with Rigid Connections for Strength

OneSteel Market Mills


Composite Structures Design Manual

Chart H3.2

=1

Pmax (kN)

Semi-Continuous Beams

pr=1.50%

1000
610 UB 125
113
101
530 UB 92.4
82.0
460 UB 82.1
74.6
67.1
410 UB 59.7
53.7
360 UB 56.7
50.7
44.7
310 UB 46.2
40.4
32.0
250 UB 37.3
31.4
25.7
200 UB 29.8
25.4
22.3
18.2
180 UB 22.2

900
800
700

+
Design load-carrying capacity, Pmax = (Mcv + 0.85 Mbv ) 4L (kN)

600

500
450
400
350

300

250

18.1
16.1
150 UB 18.0
14.0

200
180
160
140

1
120

+
m

= 1

fyr = 500 MPa


yr = 40 mm

100

f = 25 MPa
c
b1 2150 mm
80

b2 2150 mm
Dc = 120 mm

10

12

14

16

18

20

Span, L (m)

Continuous Composite Beams


DB2.1Design of Continuous Composite Beams with Rigid Connections for Strength

Edition 1.0 February 2001

161

OneSteel Market Mills


Composite Structures Design Manual

Chart H3.3

=1

Pmax (kN)

Continuous Beams

pr=0.75%

1600
610 UB 125
113
101
530 UB 92.4
82.0
460 UB 82.1
74.6
67.1
410 UB 59.7
53.7
360 UB 56.7
50.7
44.7
310 UB 46.2
40.4
32.0
250 UB 37.3
31.4
25.7
200 UB 29.8
25.4
22.3
18.2
180 UB 22.2

1400
1200

1000
900

+
Design load-carrying capacity, Pmax = (Mbv + Mbv ) 4L (kN)

800
700
600

500
450
400
350
300

18.1
16.1
150 UB 18.0
14.0

250

200

Ffp Fr
1

180

+
m

160

= 1

fyr = 500 MPa


140

yr = 40 mm
f = 25 MPa
c

120

b1 2150 mm
b2 2150 mm

100

Dc = 120 mm

80
6

10

12

14

16

18

20

Span, L (m)

DB2.1-162

Continuous Composite Beams


Edition 1.0 February 2001
Design of Continuous Composite Beams with Rigid Connections for Strength

OneSteel Market Mills


Composite Structures Design Manual

Chart H3.4

=1

Pmax (kN)

Continuous Beams

pr=1.50%

1600
610 UB 125
113
101
530 UB 92.4
82.0
460 UB 82.1
74.6
67.1
410 UB 59.7
53.7
360 UB 56.7
50.7
44.7
310 UB 46.2
40.4
32.0
250 UB 37.3
31.4
25.7
200 UB 29.8
25.4
22.3
18.2
180 UB 22.2

1400
1200

1000
900

+
Design load-carrying capacity, Pmax = (Mbv + Mbv ) 4L (kN)

800
700
600

500
450
400
350
300

18.1
16.1
150 UB 18.0
14.0

250

200

Ffp Fr
1

180

+
m

160

= 1

fyr = 500 MPa


140

yr = 40 mm
f = 25 MPa
c

120

b1 2150 mm
b2 2150 mm

100

Dc = 120 mm

80
6

10

12

14

16

18

20

Span, L (m)

Continuous Composite Beams


DB2.1Design of Continuous Composite Beams with Rigid Connections for Strength

Edition 1.0 February 2001

163