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HC VIN CNG NGH BU CHNH VIN THNG


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Lu Thanh Huy
NGHIN CU CNG NGH MNG QUANG TH NG
G PON V XUT CC DCH V CUNG CP TI
KHCH HNG TRN MNG G PON VNPT H NI

Chuyn ngnh: K thut in t
M s: 60.52.70
Ngi hng dn khoa hc: TS V TUN LM

TM TT LUN VN THC S


H NI - 2012
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LI NI U
Trong nhng nm gn y, cc dch v ng dng trn
Internet ngy cng phong ph v pht trin vi tc nhanh
chng nh cc dch v mua bn trc tuyn, ngn hng, cc
dch v o to t xa, game trc tuyn, truyn hnh theo yu
cu, dch v lu tr d liu t xa c bit nhu cu v cc
loi dch v gia tng tch hp thoi, hnh nh v d liu ang
ngy cng tng. S pht trin ca cc loi hnh dch v mi,
i hi h tng mng truy nhp phi p ng cc yu cu v
bng thng rng, tc truy nhp cao. H tng mng truy
nhp cp ng s dng cng ngh xDSL gp phi nhng hn
ch v c ly v tc khng p ng c yu cu dch
v.
VNPT v c th l VNPT H Ni trong nhng nm gn
y pht trin rt mnh mng cp quang FTTx p ng
nhu cu s dng. Doanh thu t c t cc dch v bng rng
s dng cp quang hin nay ngy cng cao v dn chim t
trng ch yu. Tuy nhin hin nay, vic pht trin mng cp
quang thu bao FTTx ng ngha vi vic phi thi cng rt
nhiu tuyn cp quang dung lng ln. Vi c s h tng ca
TP H Ni nh hin nay th vic thi cng cp quang ngy cng
kh khn do h tng cng b bu in ngm ht dung
lng, vic m rng rt kh khn do phi xin php o ng,
vic ko treo cp quang l khng thc hin c do c quy
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nh v ngm ha ca thnh ph. V vy, yu cu t ra l
phi p dng cng ngh mi gim thiu vic s dng dung
lng cp quang ng trc, tn dng ti a h thng mng
sn c nhng vn phi p ng yu cu v cung cp dch v
Cng ngh truy nhp quang th ng G-PON c
ITU chun ha, hin nay l mt trong nhng cng ngh c
u tin la chn cho trin khai mng truy nhp ti nhiu nc
trn th gii. G-PON l cng ngh hng ti cung cp dch v
mng y , tch hp thoi, hnh nh v s liu vi bng
thng ln tc cao. Mng PON ngoi vic gii quyt cc vn
v bng thng, n cn c u im l chi ph lp t thp do
n tn dng c nhng si quang trong mng c t trc.
PON cng d dng v thun tin trong vic ghp thm cc
thit b kt cui mng theo yu cu ca cc dch v, trong khi
vic thit lp thm cc nt trong mng tch cc kh phc
tp do vic cp ngun ti mi nt mng, v trong mi nt
mng u cn c cc b pht li. G-PON s l cng ngh truy
nhp la chn trin khai hin ti v tng lai. GPON chnh l
gii php ph hp nht i vi h tng mng hin ti ca
VNPT H Ni.
Vi nh hng pht trin mng truy nhp s dng
cng ngh G-PON, hin nay VNPT H Ni v ang bt u
trin khai thc hin. Lun vn Nghin cu cng ngh mng
quang th ng G-PON. Phn tch v xut cc dch v
c cung cp ti khch hng trn mng c hc vin
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nghin cu tm hiu nhng c im k thut c bn ca cng
ngh GPON, phn tch hin trng mng G-PON ca VNPT H
Ni bao gm cu hnh mng, chng loi, tnh nng, kh nng
p ng ca thit b c s dng trn mng G-PON, nhu cu
s dng dch v ca thu bao, hiu qu kinh doanh v trn c
s xut cc dch v c trin khai cung cp ti khch
hng trn mng quang G-PON ca VNPT H Ni.
Cu trc lun vn bao gm:
Chng 1: Tng quan v mng G - PON
Chng 2: Gii php cng ngh mng G-PON
Chng 3: Phn tch, xut cc dch v cung cp ti
khch hng trn mng G PON VNPT H Ni

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CHNG 1. Tng quan v mng G PON
1.1. M u
Hin nay trn th gii hn 2 t ngi ang s dng
dch v internet v ti cc nc pht trin v ang pht trin.
Thu bao bng rng (hu tuyn) tng trng mnh, trong
c Vit Nam. Theo Tng cc Thng k, s thu bao Internet
bng rng trn c nc tnh n cui thng 11/2011 c tnh
t 4,2 triu thu bao, tng 16,3% so vi cng thi im
nm trc v hin vn tng trng u n.
Vi s pht trin, bng n ca cc dch v trc tuyn
nh trong lnh vc ngn hng, gii tr, gio dc,.. c th ni
internet bng rng l nhu cu tt yu ca x hi pht trin
ngy nay.
Mng vin thng thng c cu thnh bi ba mng
chnh: mng ng trc, mng pha khch hng v mng truy
nhp. Trong nhng nm gn y, mng ng trc c nhng
bc pht trin nhy vt do s xut hin ca cc cng ngh
mi, nh cng ngh ghp knh theo bc sng (WDM). Mng
ni ht (LAN) hin cng t n tc 1Gb/s, thm ch cc
sn phm Ethernet 10 Gb/s cng c cung cp trn th
trng. iu ny dn n mt s chnh lch rt ln v
bng thng gia mt bn l mng LAN tc cao v mng
ng trc v mt bn l mng truy nhp tc thp, m
chng ta vn thng gi l nt c chai (bottleneck) trong
mng vin thng. Vic bng n lu lng Internet trong thi
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gian va qua cng lm trm trng thm cc vn ca mng
truy nhp tc thp. Lu lng d liu ngy cng tng mnh
khi s lng ngi s dng dch v trc tuyn ngy cng gia
tng. Xu hng ny vn s cn tip tc trong tng lai, tc l
cng ngy s cng c nhiu ngi s dng trc tuyn v
nhng ngi s dng trc tuyn th thi gian trc tuyn s
cng nhiu hn, do vy nhu cu v bng thng li cng tng
ln. ng trc tnh hnh , mt s cng ngh mi c
a ra nhm p ng nhng i hi v bng tn.
Mng quang th ng (PON) c th nh ngha mt
cch ngn gn nh sau: Mng quang th ng (PON) l mt
mng quang khng c cc phn t in hay cc thit b quang
in t.
Vi khi nim ny, mng PON s khng cha bt k
mt phn t tch cc no m cn phi c s chuyn i in -
quang. Thay vo , PON s ch bao gm: si quang, cc b
chia, b kt hp, b ghp nh hng, thu knh, b lc,...
iu ny gip cho PON c mt s u im nh: khng cn
ngun in cung cp nn khng b nh hng bi li ngun,
c tin cy cao v khng cn phi bo dng do tn hiu
khng b suy hao nhiu nh i vi cc phn t tch cc.
Mng PON ngoi vic gii quyt cc vn v bng
thng, n cn c u im l chi ph lp t thp do n tn
dng c nhng si quang trong mng c t trc. PON
cng d dng v thun tin trong vic ghp thm cc ONU
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theo yu cu ca cc dch v, trong khi vic thit lp thm
cc nt trong mng tch cc kh phc tp do vic cp ngun
ti mi nt mng, v trong mi nt mng u cn c cc b
pht li.
PON c th hot ng vi ch khng i xng.
Chng hn, mt mng PON c th truyn dn theo lung OC-
12 (622 Mbits/s) ng xung v truy nhp theo lung OC-
3 (155 Mbits/s) ng ln. Mt mng khng i xng nh
vy s gip cho chi ph ca cc ONU gim i rt nhiu, do ch
phi s dng cc b thu pht gi thnh thp hn.
PON cn c kh nng chng li cao (cao hn
SONET/SDH). Do cc nt ca mng PON nm bn ngoi
mng, nn tn hao nng lng trn cc nt ny khng gy nh
hng g n cc nt khc. Kh nng mt nt mt nng lng
m khng lm ngt mng l rt quan trng i vi mng truy
nhp, do cc nh cung cp khng th m bo c nng
lng d phng cho tt c cc u cui xa.
Vi nhng l do nh trn, cng ngh PON c th c
coi l mt gii php hng u cho mng truy nhp. PON cng
cho php tng thch vi cc giao din SONET/SDH v c
th c s dng nh mt vng thu quang thay th cho cc
tuyn truyn dn ngn trong mng th hay mch vng
SONET/SDH ng trc.
1.2. Kin trc mng PON
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Cc phn t th ng ca PON u nm trong mng phn
b quang (hay cn gi l mng ngoi vi) bao gm cc phn t
nh si quang, cc b tch/ghp quang th ng (spliter), cc
u ni v cc mi hn quang. Cc phn t tch cc nh OLT
v cc ONU u nm u cui ca PON. Tn hiu trong
PON c th c phn ra v truyn i theo nhiu si quang
hoc c kt hp li v truyn trn mt si quang thng qua
b ghp quang, ph thuc vo tn hiu l i theo hng ln
hay hng xung ca PON. PON thng c trin khai trn
si quang n mode, vi cu hnh cy l ph bin. PON cng
c th c trin khai theo cu hnh vng ring cho cc khu
thng mi hoc theo cu hnh bus khi trin khai trong cc
khu trng s,...

M hnh mng quang th ng




Bng cch s dng cc b tch/ghp quang, PON c th
trin khai theo bt c cu hnh no trong cc cu hnh trn.
Ngoi ra, PON cn c th thu gn li thnh cc vng ring kp,
hay hnh cy, hay mt nhnh ca cy. Tt c cc tuyn truyn
dn trong PON u c thc hin gia OLT v ONU. OLT
Mng quang
Mng v tuyn
Mng IP
Mng ATM
Hthng qun l
EMS

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nm CO v kt ni mng truy nhp quang vi mng th
(MAN) hay mng din rng (WAN), c bit n nh l
nhng mng ng trc. ONU nm ti v tr u cui ngi s
dng (FTTH hay FTTB hoc FTTC).

Cc kiu kin trc ca PON.




1.3. Cc h thng PON ang c trin khai
1.3.1. APON/BPON
FSAN pht trin mt tiu ch cho mng truy nhp PON s
dng cng ngh ATM v giao thc lp 2 ca n. H thng ny
c gi l APON (vit tt ca ATM PON). Ci tn APON
sau c thay th bng BPON vi din t PON bng
rng. H thng BPON c kh nng cung cp nhiu dch v
bng rng nh Ethernet, Video, ng ring o (VPL), knh
thu ring, v.v Nm 1997 nhm FSAN a cc xut ch
tiu BPON ln ITU-T thng qua chnh thc. T , cc tiu
chun ITU G.983.x cho mng BPON ln lt c thng qua
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H thng BPON h tr tc khng i xng 155 Mbps
hng ln v 622 Mbps hng xung hoc tc i xng
622 Mbps. Cc h thng BPON c s dng nhiu
nhiu ni, tp trung Bc M, Nht Bn v mt phn Chu
u.
1.3.2. GPON
Do c tnh cu trc ca BPON kh c th nng cp ln tc
cao hn 622 Mbps v mng PON trn c s nn ATM khng
ti u i vi lu lng IP, nhm FSAN pht trin mt h
thng mng PON mi t nm 2001 vi tc 1Gbps h tr c
lu lng ATM v IP. Da trn cc khuyn ngh ca FSAN,
t nm 2003-2004, ITU-T chun ha mt lot cc tiu
chun cho mng PON Gigabit (GPON) bao gm
G.984.1,G.984.2 v G.984.3.
1.3.3. EPON
Ethernet PON (EPON) l mng trn c s PON mang lu
lng d liu gi trong cc khung Ethernet c chun ha
theo IEEE 802.3, hot ng vi tc 1Gbps.
1.3.4. WDM-PON
Cng ngh mng quang th ng s dng ghp knh phn
chia theo bc sng Wavelength Division Multiplexing
Passive Optical Network (WDM PON) l th h k tip ca
mng truy nhp quang v cho bng thng ln nht. TDMPON
(bao gm BPON, GPON v GEPON) s dng cc b chia
cng sut quang th ng, hng xung l qung b v ONU
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nhn d liu ca mnh thng qua nhn a ch nhng, hng
ln s dng ghp knh trong min thi gian. WDMPON s
dng cc b ghp sng WDM th ng, hng xung mi
ONU nhn d liu trn mt bc sng, hng ln cc bc
sng khc nhau c ghp thng qua b ghp sng WDM ti
ONU. Do s dng mt bc sng cho mi ONU nn
WDMPON c tnh bo mt v tnh mm do tt hn. Cng
ngh WDMPON s l s la chn ca tng lai v l bc
pht trin k tip cho cc cng ngh mng truy nhp quang
PON.
1.3.5. Nhn xt
Hin nay mng APON/BPON khng c quan tm pht trin
do ch h tr dch v ATM v tc truy nhp thp hn nhiu
so vi cc cng ngh hin hu khc nh GPON hay EPON.
EPON ch cung cp tc truyn l 1,25 Gbit/s trong khi
GPON li cho php t ti tc 2.448 Gbit/s. Vi hiu sut
t 50% 70%, bng thng ca GEPON b gii hn trong
khong 600Mbps n 900Mbps, trong khi GPON vi vic
tn dng bng thng ti a n c th cho php cc nh cung
cp dch v phn phi vi bng thng ln n 2300 Mbps vi
hiu sut mng c th t ti 93%.
Hiu sut ln, rng bng tn ln, GPON ha hn mang li
nhiu li nhun cho cc nh cung cp dch v. Bn cnh
trong khi EPON ch h tr duy nht mt tc truyn dn i
xng 1,25/1,25 Gbps. GPON linh hot v bin i c hn
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nhiu hn, cho php cc tc hng xung 1,25 v 2,5
Gbps, hng ln cho php 155 Mbps, 622 Mbps hay 1,25 v
2,5 Gbps.
T nhng so snh trn c th thy rng GPON thch hp hn
so vi EPON trong vic lp t cc h thng mng cung
cp cc kh nng d phng cn thit h tr cho O&M, kh
nng tng thch cng nh l bo mt. y l nhng iu kin
cn thit iu hnh mt mng kch c ln.
1.4. Kt lun
PON l mng truy nhp c nhiu u im trin khai cc
dch v bng rng (thoi, d liu, video) gia cc khi kt
cui ng dy xa (ONUs) v kt cui mng (OLT). Khng
nh mng quang tch cc AON, chng hn nh mng
SONET/SDH, cn cc b chuyn i quang in ti mi nt,
mng quang th ng PON s dng cc b tch/ghp quang
th ng phn b lu lng quang. Mt mng PON c th
tp trung lu lng t 64 ONU n mt OLT c t tng
i trung tm (CO) theo kin trc hnh cy, bus, hoc vng
ring chng li.
Ging nh mng SONET/SDH, PON l cng ngh truyn ti
ca lp mt. T trc n nay, hu ht cc vng ring quang
trong mng vin thng u s dng cc thit b truyn dn
SONET/SDH. Cc vng ring ny u s dng cc b pht li
ti mi nt, vi khong cch gia cc nt c ti u ho
cho mng ng trc hay mng th. Tuy nhin, y khng
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phi l s la chn tt nht cho mng truy nhp ni ht. Mng
PON ngoi vic gii quyt cc vn v bng thng, n cn
c u im l chi ph lp t thp do n tn dng c nhng
si quang trong mng c t trc. PON cng d dng v
thun tin trong vic ghp thm cc ONU theo yu cu ca
cc dch v, trong khi vic thit lp thm cc nt trong
mng tch cc kh phc tp do vic cp ngun ti mi nt
mng, v trong mi nt mng u cn c cc b pht li.
Khng ging nh trong mng tch cc SONET/SDH, PON c
th hot ng vi ch khng i xng. Chng hn, mt
mng PON c th truyn dn theo lung OC-12 (622 Mbits/s)
ng xung v truy nhp theo lung OC-3 (155 Mbits/s)
ng ln. Mt mng khng i xng nh vy s gip cho chi
ph ca cc ONU gim i rt nhiu, do ch phi s dng cc b
thu pht gi thnh thp hn. Cn i vi mng SONET/SDH
l i xng, do trong vng ring OC-12, tt c cc card ni
vi cc ADM u phi c giao din OC-12.
Ngoi ra, mt gc no PON cn c kh nng
chng li cao hn SONET/SDH. Do cc nt ca mng PON
nm bn ngoi mng, nn tn hao nng lng trn cc nt
ny khng gy nh hng g n cc nt khc. iu ny l
khng th i vi mng SONET/SDH, do qu trnh pht li
mi nt mng. Kh nng mt nt mt nng lng m khng
lm ngt mng l rt quan trng i vi mng truy nhp, do
cc nh cung cp khng th m bo c nng lng d
phng cho tt c cc u cui xa.
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Vi nhng l do nh trn, cng ngh PON c coi l mt
gii php y ha hn gii quyt vn tc nghn bng
thng trong mng truy nhp, cho php trin khai cc dch v
bng rng v c tnh tng tc. Trong thi gian ngn trc
mt, ng dng ca cng ngh PON c th l nh cung cp cho
cc cng ty in thoi, mng cp TV, v cho cc nh cung cp
dch v mng v tuyn. Vi vic a ra mt gii php vi gi
thnh h, bng tn cao, c kh nng chng li, cng ngh
PON s l gii php tt nht cho mng th h sau, cng nh
cho mng truy nhp bng rng.

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CHNG 2. Gii php cng ngh mng G PON
2.1. Gii thiu chung
GPON (Gigabit Passive Optical Network) c nh ngha
theo chun ITU-T G.984. Phng thc ng gi GPON -
GEM (GPON Encapsulation Method) cho php ng gi lu
lng ngi dng rt hiu qu, vi s phn on khung cho
php cht lng dch v QoS (Quality of Service) cao hn
phc v lu lng nhy cm nh truyn thoi v video.
GPON h tr tc cao hn, tng cng bo mt, iu cho
php GPON phn phi thm cc dch v ti nhiu thu bao
hn vi chi ph thp hn cng nh cho php kh nng tng
thch ln hn gia cc nh cung cp thit b.
2.2. Chun ha GPON
GPON c ITU-T chun ha theo chun G.984 bt u t
nm 2003, m rng t chun BPON G.983.
ITU-T G.984.1 ( 03/2003) G-PON: General characteristics:
cung cp cc giao din mng ngi dng (UNI), giao din nt
dch v (SNI) v mt s dch v. Chun ny k tha h thng
G.982 (APON) v G.983.x (BPON) bng vic xem xt li dch
v h tr, chnh sch bo mt, tc bit danh nh.
ITU-T G.984.2 (03/2003) G-PON: PMD layer specification:
ch ra cc yu cu cho lp vt l v cc chi tit k thut cho
lp PMD. N bao gm cc h thng c tc hng xung
1244.160 Mbit/s, 2488.320 Mbit/s v hng ln 155.520
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Mbit/s, 622.080 Mbit/s, 1244.160 Mbit/s, 2488.320 Mbit/s.
M t c h thng GPON i xng v bt i xng.
ITU-T G.984.2 Adm 1 (02/2006): thm ph lc cho ITU-T
G.984.2, cc xc minh v kh nng chp nhn gi thnh sn
xut cng nghip i vi h thng G-PON 2.488/1.244 Gbit/s
ITU-T G.984.3 (02/2004) G-PON: TC layer specification:
m t lp hi t truyn dn (Transmission convergence TC)
cho cc mng G-PON bao gm nh dng khung, phng thc
iu khin truy nhp mi trng, phng thc ranging, chc
nng OAM v bo mt.
ITU-T G.984.3 Adm1 (07/2005): ci tin ch tiu k thut lp
TC, sa i hiu chnh v t ng G.984.3.
ITU-T G.984.3 Adm2 (03/2006): thm thng tin phn ph lc
ITU-T G.984.3 cho phn k thut v nh dng tn hiu hng
xung.
ITU-T G.984.3 Adm3 (12/2006): sng t v c ng ni dung
ITU-T G.984.3.
ITU-T G.984.4 (06/2004) G-PON: ONT management and
control interface specification: cung cp ch tiu k thut
giao din iu khin (OMCI) v qun l ONT cc h thng
GPON
ITU-T G.984.4 Adm1 (06/2005): sa i b sung ITU-T
G.984.4.
17

ITU-T G.984.4 Adm2 (03/2006) : sa i b sung ITU-T
G.984.4.
ITU-T G.984.4 Adm3 (03/2006): lm r ngha cho phn G-
OMCI, m t cc mc cnh bo, gii hn tc cc cng
Ethernet, OMCI cho OMCI, vn chuyn lu lng
pseudowire.
2.3. Kin trc GPON
H thng G-PON bao gm OLT, cc ONU, mt b chia
quang v cc si quang. Si quang c kt ni ti cc nhnh
OLT ti b chia quang ra 64 si khc v cc si phn nhnh
c kt ni ti ONU.





OLT (Optical Line Terminal): thit b kt cui cp
quang tch cc lp t ti pha nh cung cp dch v
thng c t ti cc i trm.
ONT (Optical Network Terminal): thit b kt cui
mng cp quang tch cc, kt ni OLT thng qua mng

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phn phi quang (ODN) dng cho trng hp cung cp
kt ni quang ti nh thu bao (FTTH)
ONU (Optical Network Unit): thit b kt cui mng
cp quang tch cc, kt ni vi OLT thng qua mng
phn phi quang (ODN) thng dng cho trng hp
kt ni ti buiding hoc ti cc va h, cabin (FTTB,
FTTC, FTTCab)
B tch/ghp quang th ng (Splitter): Dng
chia/ghp th ng tn hiu quang t nh cung cp dch
v n khch hng v ngc li, gip tn dng hiu
qu si quang vt l. Splitter thng c t ti cc
im phn phi quang (DP) v cc im truy nhp
quang (AP). B tch/ghp quang c t ti cc cc
t hp kiu indoor thng t ti nh trm vin thng),
t trong cc t hp outdoor (trn va h, ngoi ng)
hoc trong cc mng xng.
FDC - Fiber Distribution Cabinet: T phn phi quang
FDB - Fiber Distribution Box: Hp phn phi quang
loi nh.
2.3.1 Kt cui ng quang OLT
OLT bao gm ba phn chnh:
Giao din mng phn tn quang (PON core shell)
Chc nng kt ni cho (Cross-connect shell)
Chc nng giao din cng dch v (Service shell)
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Cc khi OLT chnh c m t trong hnh sau:





Cc khi chc nng ca OLT
2.3.2 Khi mng quang ONU
Cc khi chc nng ca GPON ONU hu ht u ging
nh ca OLT. V ONU hot ng ch vi mt giao din PON
n (hoc nhiu nht l hai giao din vi mc ch bo v),
chc nng kt ni cho c th b b i. Tuy nhin, thay cho
chc nng ny, chc nng dch v MUX v DEMUX c h
tr x l lu lng.
2.3.3 Mng phn phi quang ODN
Mng phn phi quang kt ni gia mt OLT vi mt
hoc nhiu ONU s dng thit b tch/ghp quang v mng
cp quang thu bao.
2.4. Thng s k thut
Cc thng s k thut c bn ca mng GPON:
Tc truyn dn:
0,15552 Gbps ng ln; 1,24416 Gbps ng xung.
0,62208 Gbps ng ln; 1,24416 Gbps ng xung.
1,24416 Gbps ng ln; 1,24416 Gbps ng xung.

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0,15552 Gbps ng ln; 2,48832 Gbps ng xung.
0,62208 Gbps ng ln; 2,48832 Gbps ng xung.
1,24416 Gbps ng ln; 2,48832 Gbps ng xung.
2,48832 Gbps ng ln; 2,48832 Gbps ng xung.
Cc thng s k thut khc:
Bc sng: 1260-1360nm ng ln; 1480-1500nm
ng xung
a truy nhp hng ln: TDMA
Cp pht bng thng ng DBA (Dynamic Bandwith
Allocation)
Loi lu lng: d liu s
Khung truyn dn: GEM
Dch v: dch v y (Ethernet, TDM, POTS)
T l chia ca b chia th ng: ti a 1:128
Gi tr BER ln nht: 10
-12

Phm vi cng sut s dng lung xung: -3 n +2 dBm
(10km ODN) hoc +2 n +7 (20Km ODN)
Phm vi cng sut s dng lung ln: -1 n +4 dBm
(10Km v 20Km ODN)
Loi cp: tiu chun ITU-T Rec. G.652
Suy hao ti a gia cc ONU:15dB
C ly cp ti a: 20Km vi DFB laser lung ln, 10Km
vi Fabry-Perot
21

2.5. K thut truy nhp v phng thc ghp knh
2.5.1. K thut truy nhp
K thut truy nhp c s dng ph bin trong cc h thng
GPON hin nay l a truy nhp phn chia theo thi gian
(TDMA).
TDMA l k thut phn chia bng tn truyn dn thnh nhng
khe thi gian k tip nhau. Nhng khe thi gian ny c th
c n nh trc cho mi khch hng hoc c th phn theo
yu cu tu thuc vo phng thc chuyn giao ang s dng.
Mi thu bao c php gi s liu ng ln trong khe thi
gian ring bit. B tch knh sp xp s liu n theo v tr
khe thi gian ca n hoc thng tin c gi trong bn thn
khe thi gian. S liu ng xung cng c gi trong
nhng khe thi gian xc nh. Mt c tnh quan trng ca
GPON s dng TDMA l yu cu bt buc v ng b ca
lu lng ng ln trnh xung t s liu.
2.5.2. Phng thc ghp knh
Phng thc ghp knh trong GPON l ghp knh song
hng. Cc h thng GPON hin nay s dng phng thc
ghp knh phn chia khng gian. N c thc hin nh s
dng nhng si ring bit cho truyn dn ng ln v xung.
Vic s dng hai si quang lm cho vic thit k mng mm
do hn v lm tng kh dng bi v chng ta c th m
rng mng bng cch s dng nhng b ghp knh theo bc
sng trn mt hoc hai si.
22

2.6. Phng thc ng gi d liu
GPON nh ngha hai phng thc ng gi ATM v GEM
(GPON Encapsulation Method). Cc ONU v OLT c th h
tr c T-CONT (Transmission Containers) nn ATM hoc
GEM.
GEM s dng ng gi d liu qua mng GPON. GEM
cung cp kh nng thng tin kt ni nh hng tng t
ATM. GPON cho php h tr nhiu loi hnh dch v khch
hng khc nhau. Khch hng ATM c sp xp trong sut
vo khung GEM trn c hai hng. Khch hng TDM c
sp xp vo khung GEM s dng th tc ng gi GEM. Cc
gi d liu bao gm c cc khung Ethernet cng c sp xp
s dng th tc ng gi GEM. GEM cng h tr vic phn
mnh hoc chia nh cc khung ln thnh cc phn mnh nh
v ghp li u thu nhm gim tr cho cc lu lng thi
gian thc. Lu lng d liu bao gm cc khung Ethernet, cc
gi tin IP, IPTV, VoIP v cc loi khc gip cho truyn dn
khung GEM hiu qu v n gin. GPON s dng GEM
mang li hiu qu cao trong truyn dn ti tin IP nh s dng
ti 95% bng thng cho php trn knh truyn dn
2.7. nh c v phn nh bng tn ng:
2.7.1 Th tc nh c (Ranging):
mt ONU c th vn hnh trong mng PON n phi c
ranging (xc nh c ly gia ONU l OLT). C ly ranging ti
a ca mng PON hin quy nh l 20km.
23

2.7.2 Phng thc cp pht bng thng:
Hng ln GPON s dng phng thc cp pht bng thng
ng DBA (Dynamic Bandwidth Assignment).
2.8. Bo mt v m ha sa li
Cng ngh GPON s dng bo mt hng xung vi chun
mt m tin tin AES (Advanced Encrytion Standard) v sa
li tin FEC (Forward Error Correction).
2.9. Kh nng cung cp bng thng
2.9.1. Hng xung:
Tc hng xung ca GPON =2,488 Mbit/s.
2.9.2. Hng ln:
Hng ln GPON c thng lng n 1,25 Gbits/s.
2.9.3. Bng thng hu ch:
Cng ngh GPON h tr tc ln ti 1,25 Gbit/s hoc 2,5
Gbit/s hng xung, v hng ln, h tr nhiu mc tc
trong khong t 155 Mbit/s n 2,5 Gbit/s. Hiu sut s dng
bng thng t trn 90%.
2.10. Kh nng cung cp dch v
GPON c ng dng ch yu trong cc mng sau:
GPON c ng dng trong cc mng truy nhp quang
FTTx cung cp cc dch v nh IPTV, VoD, RF Video,
Internet tc cao, VoIP, Voice TDM vi tc d liu/ thu
bao c th t 1000Mbps, h tr QoS y .
24

Gii tr - CATV, HDTV, PPV, PDVR, IPTV H thng
ng ln Video hon thin cho modem DOCSIS v dch v
Video tng tc, truyn hnh v tinh; tt c cc dch v trn
cp quang GPON.
Thng tin lin lc Cc ng thoi, thng tin lin lc,
Truy cp internet, intranet tc cao, Truy cp internet khng
dy ti nhng a im cng cng, ng bng thng ln
(BPLL) v lm backhaul cho mng khng dy
Bo mt - Camera, Bo chy, bo t nhp, Bo ng an
ninh, trung tm iu khin 24/7 vi kh nng gim st, backup
d liu, SAN
2.11. Mt s vn cn quan tm trong tnh ton thit k
mng GPON
Vic tnh ton, thit k i vi mng GPON cn quan tm ti
mt s vn sau:
m bo cc iu kin v thng s k thut cng ngh.
m bo cc c tnh k thut c bn lp vt l.
Bng tn hot ng: i vi hng xung, OLT phn
phi cc gi d liu ti mi ONU trong di bc sng t 1480
ti 1500 nm, thng thng cc thit b hin ti s dng bc
sng 1490 nm. Cc ONU gi d liu ng ln OLT trong di
bc sng 1260 nm n 1360 nm, thng thng cc thit b
hin ti s dng bc sng 1310 nm.
Xc nh t l phn tch (hin ti s dng ph bin 2 loi
l 1:32 v 1:64).
25

m bo c ly gia OLT v ONU/ONT trong gii hn
cho php (<20 km).
2.12. Kt lun
Qua cc nghin cu trn, chng ta c th rt ra mt s c
im c bn ca cng ngh GPON nh sau:
Cng ngh GPON c ITU chun ho trong cc tiu
chun ITU G984.x
K thut truy nhp s dng trong GPON l TDMA.
H tr nhiu loi tc truy nhp ng ln t 155 Mbit/s
n 2,5 Gbit/s, h tr hai tc truy nhp ng xung 1,25
Gbit/s v 2,5 Gbit/s.
Hng ti mng cung cp dch v y , h tr c cc dch
v TDM v Ethernet vi hiu sut s dng bng thng cao.
Vn tc nghn lu lng v nhng vn lin quan ca
mng truy nhp quang tc cao c gii quyt bng cc th
tc nh c v phn nh bng tn ng vi cc phng php
kim xot vng vi chu k thch ng, c ch lp lch quay
vng khng y v c bit l c ch phn nh bng tn s
dng tp thng bo nhiu hng i.
Cc th tc iu khin v bo hiu trong GPON n gin
nhng vn m bo gii quyt cc vn c bn v k thut
ca mng truy nhp bng rng tc cao, p ng cc yu
cu k thut ca dch v, iu khin cho GPON l cng
26

ngh s dng bng thng hiu qu nht trong cc loi cng
ngh PON hin c.
27

CHNG 3. xut cc dch v cung cp ti khch hng
trn mng G PON VNPT H Ni
Phn 1. Mng G-PON VNPT H Ni
3.1. Hin trng mng truy nhp bng rng ca Vin
thng H Ni
3.1.1. Mng MAN E
3.1.2. Mng cp quang
3.2. Cu trc mng G-PON ca Vin thng H Ni
3.2.1. Nguyn tc t chc mng G-PON VNPT H Ni
3.2.2. Cu trc mng G-PON VNPT H Ni
3.3. Cc chng loi thit b GPON trn mng G-PON
ca Vin thng H Ni
3.3.1. Cc ch tiu k thut c bn

Phn 2. Cu trc mng G-PON VNPT H NiPhn
tch, xut cc dch v c cung cp ti khch
hng trn mng G-PON VNPT H Ni
3.4. nh gi nhu cu s dng dch v ca khch hng
trn a bn H Ni
Trn c s s liu v pht trin thu bao ca VNPT H Ni
trong 3 nm gn y, sau khi phn tch, nh gi rt ra nhn
xt : cc dch v internet, truyn s liu bng rng trn cp
quang pht trin vt bc cng vi dch v truyn hnh tng
tc (FiberVNN, MegaVNN, Metronet, MyTV). Trong nhng
nm ti nhu cu s dng cc dch v ny s ngy cng tng
mnh, dch v internet xDSL trn cp ng cng vn pht
28

trin nhng vi tc chm hn nhiu so vi cc dch v cp
quang.
3.5. nh gi hiu qu kinh doanh khi cung cp dch v
Trn c s s liu v doanh thu ca VNPT H Ni trong 3
nm gn y nht v cc loi hnh dch v, sau khi phn tch,
nh gi rt ra kt lun: cc dch v internet, truyn s liu
bng rng trn cp quang pht trin vt bc cng vi dch v
truyn hnh tng tc (FiberVNN, MegaVNN, Metronet,
MyTV). Doanh thu t cc dch v ny s l nhng ngun thu
rt quan trng trong tng lai, b p nhng st gim t in
thoi c nh.
3.6. xut cc dch v cung cp ti khch hng trn
mng G-PON VNPT H Ni
3.6.1. Phm vi cung cp dch v
Cu hnh k thut
Cc dch v xut s c cung cp ti khch hng thu bao
bng rng trn a bn TP H Ni v thuc phn vng cc
trm OLT c trin khai lp t theo cu hnh, dung
lng c VNPT H Ni trin khai. Ti mc ny, s liu chi
tit v dung lng, cu hnh mng GPON c nu ti Bng
s liu dung lng, cu hnh mng GPON VNPT H Ni giai
on 2012-2013 v ti S mng GPON VNPT H Ni giai
on 2012 2013.
D bo s liu thu bao s c cung cp dch
Trn c s cc s liu pht trin thu bao quang v cc thu
bao internet cung cp trn cp ng c cc ph t 1 triu
29

ng/thng tr ln, hc vin tnh ton v a ra s liu d
bo s lng thu bao quang thuc phn vng phc v ca
mng G-PON VNPT H Ni. C th nh sau:
- Phng php tnh ton:
+D bo s lng thu bao quang ht nm 2012:
T s liu thu bao quang FTTx, thu bao Metronet v thu
bao quang cung cp cho mng di ng 2G, 3G ca
Vinaphone (VNP), Mobifone (VMS) tnh n ht thng 5
nm 2012, d bo s lng thu bao G-PON n ht nm
2012 s bng:
{(Thu bao FTTx +Thu bao Metronet +Thu bao quang
cho mng VNP, VMS) x 1,4} + Thu internet cp ng c
cc ph 1 triu ng/thng
Gii thch:
Thu bao FTTx, Metronet v thu bao quang cho mng
VNP, VMS hin, ang c cung cp trc tip t mng
MAN E, sau khi a mng G-PON v s dng, cc thu
bao ny s c chuyn sang u ni vo mng G-PON.
H s 1,4 l h s d bo tng trng da vo s liu 5
thng u nm 2012.
Cc thu bao internet cp ng c cc ph 1 triu
ng/thng s c ch thu bao chuyn sang s dng cp
quang do vi cc ph 1 triu ng/thng hon ton c
th s dng c gi cc cp quang c chi ph r hn,
bng thng ln hn.
+D bo s lng thu bao G-PON n ht 2013:
30

Thu bao G-PON n ht 2013 s bng s lng thu bao
G-PON ht nm 2012 nhn vi h s 1,5 (h s d bo tng
trng) v h s 1,4 (h s d phng cho mng G-PON),
chi tit c nu ti Bng s liu thu bao quang (d bo)
n ht 2013 thuc phn vng cung cp dch v ca mng
G - PON
3.6.2. xut cc dch v c cung cp ti khch hng
Nh phn tch, VNPT H Ni u t lp mi, m rng
h thng MAN E, u t h thng thit b G PON cng
pht trin mnh mng cp quang FTTx. n nay, nng lc
mng li cng nh thit b sn sng a vo s dng.
Vi cc thit b mng G PON ca Alcatel Lucent v
Huawei hon ton p ng c cc dch v m hin ang
pht trin rt mnh nh phn tch nu trn bao gm: cc
dch v FiberVNN, MegaVNN, Metronet, MyTV.
Khi a cc thit b G PON vo s dng, hon ton c th
u chuyn cc thu bao hin ang s dng sang mng G
PON, gii phng cp quang, nng cao nng lc mng li, tit
kim tng i ln chi ph u t, tng hiu qu kinh doanh.
T cc phn tch v s liu pht trin thu bao, s liu v
doanh thu ta a ra c kt lun: cn phi tp trung pht
trin mnh cc dch v FiberVNN, MegaVNN, Metronet,
MyTV. Dch v in thoi c nh hin bo ha, tuy nhin
vn l ngun thu ch yu trong cc loi hnh dch v. S
lng thu bao tho hy nhiu nhng s lng thu bao lp
31

mi vn pht trin. Trong nhng thng u nm 2012, thu
bao c nh vn pht trin khi cc khu chung c, vn phng
ang c hon thin a vo s dng nhiu trong nm 2012.
Tuy nhin, nu vn u t mng cp ng phc v pht trin
thu bao c nh th hiu qu u t l khng c v chi ph cp
ng rt cao. V vy, bi ton t ra l phi kt hp cung cp
dch v in thoi c nh cng cc dch v khc trn cp
quang khng phi u t chi ph cho in thoi c nh,
gii phng cp ng phc v pht trin thu bao xDSL hin
vn em li doanh thu cao cho VNPT H Ni.
ng thi, vi nng lc ca cc thit b G PON ca VNPT
H Ni, hon ton c kh nng cung cp cc dch v tch hp
trn cng i cp quang. iu em li tit kim chi ph u
t ti a.
T cc phn tch trn, hc vin xut cc dch v c cung
cp trn mng G PON VNPT H Ni nh sau:
1. Dch v FiberVNN
2. Dch v FiberVNN +MyTV HD
3. Dch v in thoi c nh IMS +FiberVNN
4. Dch v in thoi c nh IMS +FiberVNN +MyTV HD
5. Dch v MegaWAN ni tnh (VPN L3)
6. Dch v MegaWAN lin tnh (VPN L3)
3.6.3. Kt lun
32

Mng truy nhp quang c xem l c s h tng tt nht cho
cc dch v bng rng. Vic nghin cu hnh thi mng truy
nhp quang mi vn ang nhn c s quan tm c bit.
Mc tiu hng ti l mm do, gim gi thnh v nng cao
hiu qu s dng bng tn si quang.
Mng truy nhp quang th ng GPON l gii php hp l
cho c ba mc tiu trn; th nht khng phi thay i cu hnh
hoc xy lp mi tuyn cp quang, ch cn t b chia ti
im tp trung cp; th hai, gim c chi ph nh s chia s
mi trng truyn dn gia nhng ngi s dng; th ba ph
hp vi mi loi hnh chuyn giao thng tin nh bng tn rng
ca si quang. Vi phng thc chuyn giao thng tin mm
do linh hot hiu qu s dng bng tn si quang s tng
ng k, y cng l mt yu t lm gim chi ph.
Cng ngh GPON ra i chnh l nhm mc ch kt hp cc
im mnh ca truyn ti TDM kt hp vi c s h tng l
mng cp si quang chi ph thp, kt ni im-a im, h tr
c dch v TDM v Ethernet. y l cng ngh ha hn s
gii quyt c cc vn tt nghn bng thng, cho php
xy dng mng truy nhp ni ht nh l mt mng s ho,
bng rng v c tnh tng tc cao.
S dng k thut truy nhp TDMA kt hp vi cc phng
thc nh c v phn nh bng tn ng l mt trong nhng
im ni bt ca cng ngh GPON gip gii quyt vn
bng thng, tc nghn trong truyn ti tc cao. GPON s
dng phng thc ng gi d liu GEM h tr cho c cc
33

gi d liu TDM v Ethernet. Cc k thut cho php
GPON h tr nhiu loi hnh dch v khc nhau vi tc
truy nhp v cht lng cao.
Vi cc xut cc loi hnh dch v c cung cp ti khch
hng s tit kim c chi ph u t, em li ngun thu chnh
trong tng lai ca VNPT H Ni.
3.6.4. Hng nghin cu tip theo
Nghin cu thm v cc loi hnh dch v c th cung cp trn
mng G PON nh dch v truyn hnh cp (RF Video). Dch
v CATV c h tr bao gm: video theo yu cu (VOD),
video tng tc cho cc tr chi, v cc dch v tng t t
tiu chun cao v cc knh k thut s,..