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Thermal exchange guide

Air conditioning systems


















Themal exchange guide






Air conditioning systems





Chapter 1 : Definitions
Chapter 2 : All-air systems
Chapter 3 : All-water systems
Chapter 4 : Air-water systems
Chapter 5 : Direct-expansion systems
Chapter 6 : Computer room systems
Chapter 7 : Energy storage











21July 2006


Page 1/1

Thermal exchange guide
Version 1.0
Preamble
Having been informed of the type of problem to be solved and after analysis of the consequences,
the designer will try to outline the type of installation which will guarantee the best results.
In order to carry out the air handling installation, the designer has at his disposal some basic
elements to be used alone or in association with others.
However the choice or implementation of these various elements will take into account the
following factors :

Nature of the enquiry :
room cooling,
comfort air conditioning,
precision air conditioning
. Nature and use of spaces to be treated :
new or existing,
number and respective locations
Presence or absence of equipments which could be used :
Heating generator,
Cooling generator,
Distribution networks
Summer-winter thermal reports concerning spaces to be treated.
This appraisal determines the choice of a system.




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Air conditioning systems Page 1/37 Definitions

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
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Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0

Contents
Introduction............................................................................................................... 3
Space cooling ........................................................................................................... 4
Definition..................................................................................................................... 4
Aim ............................................................................................................................. 4
Parameters taken into account ................................................................................... 4
Fields of application .................................................................................................... 4
Comment .................................................................................................................... 4
Comfort air conditioning.......................................................................................... 5
Definition..................................................................................................................... 5
Aim ............................................................................................................................. 5
Parameters taken into account ................................................................................... 5
Fields of application .................................................................................................... 5
Air conditioning ........................................................................................................ 6
Definition..................................................................................................................... 6
Aim ............................................................................................................................. 6
Parameters taken into account ................................................................................... 6
Fields of application .................................................................................................... 7
Systems..................................................................................................................... 8
Definition..................................................................................................................... 8
Potential system components..................................................................................... 9
System identification................................................................................................. 10
Method 1: Local systems .......................................................................................... 11
Method 1: Central systems ....................................................................................... 12
Heating and refrigeration equipment .................................................................... 13
Definition................................................................................................................... 13
Heating equipment.................................................................................................... 13
Refrigeration equipment............................................................................................ 16
Fresh-air conditioning............................................................................................ 21
Definition................................................................................................................... 21
Heat recovery units................................................................................................... 26

21July 2006



Air conditioning systems Page 3/37 Definitions

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Introduction
This chapter defines the various terms used in the industry to address the field of
air handling:
space cooling,
comfort air conditioning,
air conditioning.
It also defines what is meant by a system and its components, and identifies the
criteria for categorising systems.
The types of heating and refrigeration equipment are also redefined.
Last but not least, it discusses fresh-air conditioning and examines the energy
savings afforded by various aspects of heat recovery.

21July 2006



Air conditioning systems Page 4/37 Definitions

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Space cooling
Definition Cooling is the simplified conditioning of ambient air in order to lower the
temperature by a few degrees.

Aim Provide a feeling of coolness in the summer.

Parameters taken
into account
Only temperature is taken into account. The system must maintain it two or
three degrees lower than the outdoor air (for calculations at least).
Note:
Relative humidity is not taken into account. Occupants may therefore
occasionally experience a feeling of discomfort.

Fields of
application
They remain rather varied in cases where cost outweighs technical aspects.

Comment This conditioning method must be used with precaution. It is not suitable for
sites where significant amounts of moisture are released.



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Air conditioning systems Page 5/37 Definitions

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Comfort air conditioning
Definition The term comfort air conditioning encompasses all the conditioning processes
applied to ambient air to obtain an indoor environment that is comfortable in
terms of temperature and relative humidity.

Aim Obtain, all year round, conditions that are favourable to occupants, their health
and well-being or even improve their conditions.
Comfort can mean two things:
In homes, comfort targets the well-being of occupants,
In businesses, it targets:
improved worker productivity,
increased customer satisfaction.

Parameters taken
into account
Air conditioning takes into account the following parameters:
temperature,
relative humidity,
air cleanliness (impurities, odours),
noise level,
quality of diffusion (air motion, velocity).

Fields of
application
Comfort air conditioning applies to:
single-family and multi-family housing,
businesses (shops, offices, public buildings).

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Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Air conditioning
Definition Air conditioning encompasses all the processes applied to the air in a space to
obtain specific temperature and humidity levels for:
an activity,
a process,
product storage conditions.

Aim Obtain specific, constant and reliable conditions all year round for the activity
or process being carried out in the space.
Example:
Abattoir cutting room:
temperature of +12C,
dew point temperature: +4C to prevent moisture forming on carcasses
taken out of coolers at +4/+5C,
Operating theatre:
highly efficient filtration (HEPA filter), no return air,
temperatures of +20C to +22C (or even 18C),
relative humidity greater than 50% (static electricity).

Parameters taken
into account
The parameters vary by activity:
air cleanliness (impurities, odours),
temperature,
relative or absolute humidity,
drying (or dehumidification) capacity.
In most cases, more or less stringent requirements must be met to maintain these
parameters:
result accuracy:
temperature C C (e.g. 25C 1C),
humidity % % (50% RH 10%),
result stability:
over time,
in the space,
controlled atmosphere:
cleanrooms.

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Air conditioning systems Page 7/37 Definitions

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Air conditioning (continued)
Fields of
application
Air conditioning is used in:
industries:
microelectronics,
avionics,
optics,
clockmaking,
micromechanics,
automotive,
paints,
biology:
food processing: beverages, dairy products, meat products,
pharmaceuticals and cosmetics,
biotechnology: research laboratories,
hospitals: operating theatres, sterile rooms,
high-tech industries:
fine chemicals,
space (miniaturisation),
packaging,
glassware,
plastics.


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Air conditioning systems Page 8/37 Definitions

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Systems
Definition Whether used for comfort or process applications, the air conditioning system
is the backbone or flow chart connecting all the basic components used to
solve the problem at hand.
The components listed in detail on the following page are divided into four main
categories:
energy production,
air conditioning,
coolant supply (air, water, refrigerant),
air diffusion.


water
chiller
recycling
fan
chilled water
coil
filter
filter
energy recovery
device
heating coil
hot water
generator
CIATCOOLER
humidifier
fan





In the example opposite:
Cooling and heating energy is generated by a
water chiller and a water boiler,
Air, distributed by a system of ducts, is used as
the coolant,
The air is conditioned in an air handling unit
(filter, recovery unit, cooling coil, heating coil,
humidifier, forced-draught fan),
The air flows out of ceiling registers,
And is drawn out of the space by the exhaust fan.



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Air conditioning systems Page 9/37 Definitions

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Systems (continued)
Potential system
components
The potential components of a system are the basic elements:
hot water production:
independent boiler,
exchanger (from a distribution system),
heat pump,
heat transfer cooling unit (heat recovery condenser),
chilled water production:
independent chiller,
exchanger (from a distribution system),
direct-expansion refrigeration:
packaged,
split,
multisplit,
air conditioning:
air handling unit,
terminal units,
ductwork:
distribution,
return,
supply of fresh air,
removal of stale air,
air diffusion equipment:
supply registers,
return grilles.



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Air conditioning systems Page 10/37 Definitions

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Systems (continued)
System
identification
Depending on the criteria used, there are two methods of categorising air
conditioning systems (see note):
Method 1:
The cooling of one or more spaces is the main criterion. It does not take into
account the type of system:
individual air conditioning, or local system,
shared air conditioning, or central system,
Method 2:
The main coolant is the main criterion.


If Then
the system is an all-AIR system air is the coolant
the system is an all-WATER system water is the coolant
the system is an AIR-WATER system both water and air are used
the system is a DIRECT EXPANSION system the refrigerant is the coolant

Note:
These two categorisation methods are the most common.











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Air conditioning systems Page 11/37 Definitions

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Systems (continued)
Method 1:
Local systems


Definition Each space is served by self-contained equipment containing:
a refrigeration and/or heating unit,
air conditioning and diffusion components.
Generally, the equipment is either packaged or split, low or medium capacity,
and direct expansion.

INDOOR UNIT
HEAT EXCHANGER
REFRIGERANT/INDOOR AIR
EXPANSION VALVE
REFRIGERANT LINE
OUTDOOR UNIT
COMPRESSOR
HEAT EXCHANGER
REFRIGERANT/OUTDOOR AIR OR WATER


Use Local systems are generally used in existing single-family homes and small
businesses.

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Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Systems (continued)
Method 1: Central
systems

Definition Each space is supplied with air conditioned in a central unit containing:
an air handling unit (AHU),
heating equipment (+),
refrigeration equipment (-),
the necessary ductwork
Exhaust air
Fresh air
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A H U
Ductwork
Air handling unit
Water boiler
Water chiller


Use As old buildings were not designed with air conditioning in mind, this type of
system is found more often in new or recent buildings. A buildings design takes
into account the entire system, i.e. mechanical room and duct runs.

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Air conditioning systems Page 13/37 Definitions

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Heating and refrigeration equipment
Definition The following equipment is needed in order for air to be conditioned:
water (coolant, humidifier),
electricity (to power the motors),
heating equipment,
refrigeration equipment.
This section will discuss local heating and refrigeration equipment.

Heating
equipment
The term encompasses a number of items of equipment:
boiler,
heat exchanger,
heat pump,
transfer unit.

Boiler A self-contained vessel used to heat water. Electricity, gas or fuel oil may be
used as a heating source. The temperature of the hot water can vary from 50 to
80C.

SUPPLY
BOILER
RETURN
SUPPLY
RETURN




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Air conditioning systems Page 14/37 Definitions

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Heating and refrigeration equipment (continued)
Heating
equipment
(continued)

Heat exchanger Actual production is centralised (district heating or the boiler room in a factory
or for a group of buildings),
A heat exchanger is used locally to raise the hot fluid to the desired temperature.
The operating temperature can vary from 50 to 80C.


EXCHANGER
SUPPLY
RETURN
DISTRICT HEATING

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Air conditioning systems Page 15/37 Definitions

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Heating and refrigeration equipment (continued)
Heating
equipment
(continued)

Heat pump Heat pumps draw heat from a cold source and transmit it to a heat source.
The cold source may be:
Water: ground water, river, lake, sea, process cooling water,
Air: outside air, exhaust air (buildings, processes).
The temperature of the hot water (heat source) is between 40 and 55C.


SUPPLY
RETURN
WATER - WATER
DISCHARGE
HEAT PUMP
SUPPLY
RETURN
AIR - WATER
air



Transfer unit Transfer units are found on cooling systems that operate all year long (process
cooling).
The refrigeration circuit may be equipped with an additional water-cooled
condenser known as a heat recovery condenser.
No heat is produced unless refrigeration is also produced. The temperature of
the hot water is between 40 and 50C.

SUPPLY
RETURN
WATER-cooled heat
recovery condenser
AIR-cooled
condenser
Evaporator


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Air conditioning systems Page 16/37 Definitions

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Heating and refrigeration equipment (continued)
Refrigeration
equipment
The term covers a number of items of equipment:
water chiller,
direct-expansion refrigeration unit,
heat exchanger,
cooling tower,
drycooler.

Water chiller A water chiller is a machine that cools water, which is used as a refrigerant.


Temperature of the chilled water:
5 to 12C depending on the operating conditions,
mean inlet/outlet temperature difference: 5C,
Freezing temperatures:
An antifreeze such as glycol or similar is added to the water.





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Air conditioning systems Page 17/37 Definitions

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Heating and refrigeration equipment (continued)
Refrigeration
equipment
(continued)

Direct-
expansion
refrigeration
unit
The evaporator is removed from the central system and placed inside the air
handling unit, where it cools the air that will be supplied to each space.

Direct expansion coil
Thermostatic
expansion valve
Air flow
Water-cooled condenser
(or air-cooled)
Motor compressor


Heat exchanger Actual production is centralised (district cooling or factory system).
More and more large cities are turning to chilled water district cooling systems.
In industry, heat exchangers are used in applications requiring water at
temperatures different from that in the distribution system.


EXCHANGER
SUPPLY
RETURN
DISTRICT HEATING

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Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Heating and refrigeration equipment (continued)
Refrigeration
equipment
(continued)

Cooling tower A cooling tower is a specific type of cooling device. It uses humidified ambient
air to produce chilled water. The air is cooled to its wet bulb temperature.
Example: Air at a temperature of 30C with 40% RH is cooled to its wet bulb
temperature of +20C. It serves as a refrigerant.
There are two types of cooling tower:
Closed-circuit towers, in which heat is exchanged between air and water by a
sprayed heat exchange coil. The air and the water in the condenser circuit
do not enter into contact.






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Air conditioning systems Page 19/37 Definitions

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Heating and refrigeration equipment (continued)
Refrigeration
equipment
(continued)

Cooling tower
(continued)
Open-circuit towers, in which air and water come into direct contact. Drops
of water run along a distribution pan over which air flows. The water in the
condenser circuit and the air are in direct contact with each other.

The diagram below shows a water chiller operating on an open-circuit cooling
tower.

Fan
Spray nozzle
Air inlet
Drain pan
Wet deck
Gutter
Droplet separator
Cleaning tap
Makeup
water
Bypass
valve
pump
Treated makeup water inlet
Overflow
Screen filter
Drain
Water-cooled condenser


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Air conditioning systems Page 20/37 Definitions

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Heating and refrigeration equipment (continued)
Refrigeration
equipment
(continued)

Drycooler A drycooler is a type of cooling device that uses dry air as a refrigerant.
Example: When the air temperature is 30C with 40% RH, the temperature taken
into account is +30C (not +20C, as in the case of the cooling tower). Heat is
transferred from water to air by a dry heat exchanger.
As with a closed-circuit cooling tower, the water in the condenser circuit of a
drycooler never enters into contact with the air.
This eliminates the risk of spreading Legionellosis.



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Air conditioning systems Page 21/37 Definitions

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Fresh-air conditioning
Definition Before discussing the subject of fresh-air handling, one should understand what
is meant by the following terms:
pollution,
removal of stale air,
supply of fresh air,
fresh-air handling,
heat recovery units.

Pollution People, their health and activities, as well as processes are all sources of
pollution:
dust,
germs,
water vapour,
carbon dioxide, etc.
The concentration of contaminants that can endanger health and adversely affect
processes rises quickly in enclosed rooms.

Removal of
stale air
The concentration of contaminants must be reduced to a safe level. This is
accomplished by extracting all or part of the stale air.

Supply of fresh
air
The extracted air is replaced with air from the outside. This air is often referred
to as fresh air. This outside air is assumed to be of better quality than the
extracted air. This is not always the case however. This is why fresh air must be
conditioned before it is introduced into a space.


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Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Fresh-air conditioning (continued)
Definition
(continued)

Fresh-air
conditioning
Fresh air is conditioned in a number of ways:
It is filtered to ensure the right level of cleanliness,
It is heated or cooled to ensure the right temperature,
It is either humidified or dehumidified to ensure the correct level of humidity.
These processes are energy consuming.

Fresh air
+32C
Stale air
discharge
Forced-draught fan
-10C
+20C
or
+25C
Extraction
fan Filters
Preheating or precooling coil
or both if need be
to
Winter : ambient +20C
air supply +30C
Summer : ambient +25C
air supply +15C
ENERGY-
CONSUMING
SYSTEM

Fresh air can be conditioned:
For specific environmental conditions. In this case it is not used to heat or
cool the space,
For specific air flow conditions in a space. In this case a portion is used
for heating and cooling. As the volume of fresh air is small, it is simply
an addition.

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Air conditioning systems Page 23/37 Definitions

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Fresh-air conditioning (continued)
Definition
(continued)

Heat recovery
units
The phenomenon is most flagrant in winter. Fresh air drawn in from outdoors is
at low temperature (e.g. -10C) and stale air discharged outdoors is at high
temperature (+20C at comfort levels).
A heat recovery unit is a device used to transfer heat without any direct contact
between both types of air. More specifically, a portion of the heat in the exhaust
air is transferred to the supply air. This exchange of heat results in lower energy
consumption.

Exhaust
air
Fresh
air
Outdoors
-10C/90%
32C/40%
Air-conditioned
space
20C/50% (winter)
25C/50% (summer)
Energy recovery
system
A H U




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Air conditioning systems Page 24/37 Definitions

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Fresh-air conditioning (continued)
Air purification:
the No concept
The No concept is based on the combination of an adsorbent such as
activated carbon and photocatalysis.

Polluted air
mineralization by
photocatalysis
Contaminant retention Purified air
NEO operation principle
Contaminant removal
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desorption absorption


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Air conditioning systems Page 25/37 Definitions

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Fresh-air conditioning (continued)
Air purification:
the No concept
(continued)
The activated carbon [Navarri et al., 2001] absorbs large quantities of
contaminants along its surface (it has a specific surface area of
approx. 1000 m/g). These contaminants are trapped by low-intensity
electrostatic forces, called van der Waals bonds, with interaction energies of
5 to 40 kJ/mol. The main drawback of this kind of filter is the saturation
point of activated carbon. Known as the breakthrough point, this threshold
is very difficult to predict in cases where concentrations and flow rates vary.
Once this point is reached, the filter can no longer achieve the desired
concentration efficiency. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) photocatalysis in the gas
phase [Nguyen, 2001] is a heterogeneous catalysis process in which the
solid catalyst is activated only by ultraviolet radiation. Under certain
conditions, the heterogeneous photocatalysis process is capable of
mineralising pollutants completely. It is split into five phases:
transfer of gaseous reagents to the photocatalytic surface,
adsorption of the gaseous reagents on the photocatalytic surface,
photochemical reaction between the adsorbed gaseous reagents and the
photocatalytic surface; mineralisation of organic compounds,
desorption of gaseous photocatalytic reaction products,
diffusion of the gaseous products off the photocatalytic surface.
The main drawback of photocatalysis used on its own is the low adsorption
capacity of the catalyst (titanium dioxide) which prevents it driving down
high pollution levels. Pollutants are thus only partially mineralised when
concentrations and/or flow rates are high. Combining a filter containing an
adsorbent such as activated carbon with a photocatalysis system eliminates
the drawbacks inherent to each process and also significantly cuts down on
maintenance.





21July 2006



Air conditioning systems Page 26/37 Definitions

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Fresh-air conditioning (continued)
Heat recovery
units
The term heat recovery unit, or HRU, covers various types of equipment:
dual-coil recovery units,
plate heat exchangers,
heat pipes,
heat recovery wheel.

Dual-coil
recovery units
As is implied by its name, a dual-coil recovery unit consists of two standard
finned coils connected by a circuit through which refrigerant (antifreeze if
necessary) is circulated by a circulator pump.
One coil is placed in the exhaust air circuit and the other in the supply air circuit.
The air and water circuits are arranged for counter-current circulation.

Safety valve
HEAT
RECOVERY
COIL
HEAT
RECOVERY
COIL
Circulator
+20C
50%
-10C
90%
Drain
Circuit
filling
P
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fre
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Expansion
vessel
F
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C
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t a
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Drain valve



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Air conditioning systems Page 27/37 Definitions

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Fresh-air conditioning (continued)
Heat recovery
units (continued)

Dual-coil
recovery units
(continued)
This system allows for much flexibility, and the coils can be integrated inside the
air handling unit.

Water
Exhaust
air
Fresh
air
Outdoors
AHU
+/-
+/-
Return air
Supply
air
Air-conditioned
space

In more complex cases where an air extraction system cannot be installed in the
same space as a fresh-air conditioning system, both can be connected
hydraulically.

Forced-draught
fan
Extraction
fan
Conditioned
supply air
Pump
Glycol/water heat transfer circuit
Air
extrait
Fresh
air
Exhaust
air
Water



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Air conditioning systems Page 28/37 Definitions

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Fresh-air conditioning (continued)
Heat recovery
units (continued)

Heat pipe A heat pipe is a metal tube usually with fins on its outside and containing a fluid
in the form of two balanced phases:
a liquid phase,
a gas phase.
It transfers heat through a cycle of evaporation and condensation.
1. The fluid evaporates in the hot end (evaporator).
2. The vapour thus formed condenses on the cold end (condenser).
3. The fluid from the cold end returns to the hot end:
By gravity, in which case the condenser section must be above the
evaporator section,
Via a capillary (or wick) structure lining the inside wall of the tube. The
heat pipe can also operate horizontally in this case; a slight angle of 7-8
will promote movement.

HORIZONTAL HEAT PIPE
Liquid
Vapor
Liquid
Evaporation section Condensation section
Capillary
structure
Extracted warm
air enters
Warmed
air exits
Cooled air
exits
Cool fresh
air enters
(cold source)
Partition
Heat transfer
(hot source)
Heat
recovery





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Air conditioning systems Page 29/37 Definitions

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Fresh-air conditioning (continued)
Heat recovery
units (continued)

Heat pipe
(continued)
Condensed
liquid
Heat transfer
(hot source)
Heat
recovery
Vapour
Capillary
structure
Extracted
warm air
enters
Cooled air
exits
Warmed
air exits
Cool fresh
air enters
(cold source)

The pipes are arranged in arrays split into two by a sealed partition separating the
two streams of air.
The evaporation and condensation temperatures are highly similar and the
operation is virtually isothermal. The transfer occurs only through the latent heat
of the change in state.


gravity causes liquid
to flow back down
condensation
vaporisation
vapour

Warmed
air exists
Liquid
Extracted warmed
air enters
C
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E
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s
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Heat
recovery
Cooled
air exits
Cool fresh
air enters
(cold source)
Heat transfer
(hot source)
VERTICAL HEAT PIPE
Vapor

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Air conditioning systems Page 30/37 Definitions

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Fresh-air conditioning (continued)
Heat recovery
units (continued)

Heat pipe
(continued)
partition
heat pipe
c
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a
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w
a
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m

a
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w
a
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m
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a
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c
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a
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The figure below illustrates a constant-flow model of a ClimaCIAT dual-flow
AHU with heat pipes:

Exhaust air
Fresh air-10C
Exhaust air
+20C
Air supply


The figure below illustrates a ClimaCIAT dual-flow AHU with variable-flow
heat pipes and a mixing box:
Fresh
air
-10C
Exhaust
air
+20C
Exhaust
air
Air
supply

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Air conditioning systems Page 31/37 Definitions

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Fresh-air conditioning (continued)
Heat recovery
units (continued)

Plate heat
exchanger
In this type of heat exchanger, horizontal and vertical streams of air flow
between thin plates stacked in parallel:


The exhaust air transfers its heat to the air flowing between the plates.
There are two types of flow arrangement:
cross-flow,
counter-flow.









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Air conditioning systems Page 32/37 Definitions

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Fresh-air conditioning (continued)
Heat recovery
units (continued)

Plate heat
exchanger (con
tinued)

Cross-flow
exchanger
Counter-flow
exchanger
Exhaust
air
Fresh air
Exhaust
air
Cooled
exhaust
air
Inside
Outside
Fresh air
Preheated
fresh air
Plate
thickness
Gap
This figure illustrates a ClimaCIAT dual-flow AHU with a plate heat exchanger
but no mixing box:
constant flow of exhaust air,
constant flow of fresh air.
Fresh air
-10C
Exhaust
air
+20C
Exhaust air
Air supply


21July 2006



Air conditioning systems Page 33/37 Definitions

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Fresh-air conditioning (continued)
Heat recovery
units (continued)


Plate heat
exchanger
(continued)
The figure below illustrates a ClimaCIAT dual-flow AHU with a plate heat
exchanger and a mixing box. The flow of air over the plate heat exchanger can
be adjusted.
exhaust air
+20C
exhaust air
fresh air-10C
supply air


Example of an air handling process: fresh air in with recovery of heat from
exhaust air by a plate exchanger.

Dual-flow AHU
exhaust
air
AIR-TO-AIR
heat exchanger
frost protection dampers
fresh
air
supply
air
exhaust
air
R

21July 2006



Air conditioning systems Page 34/37 Definitions

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Fresh-air conditioning (continued)
Heat recovery
units (continued)

Heat recovery
wheel

A heat recovery wheel is a low-speed wheel (10-20 rpm) with many small
channels through which air passes. A little less than half the front surface is
connected to the exhaust air circuit. A little less than half the surface is
connected to the supply air circuit. A small surface is used as the purge sector.
As the wheel rotates, the section heated by the warm air gives up its heat to the
stream of cool air flowing through it.
The two air streams thus flow through the channels alternately.


motor
f
r
e
s
h

a
i
r
e
x
h
a
u
s
t
a
i
r
purge sector
drive belt




21July 2006



Air conditioning systems Page 35/37 Definitions

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Fresh-air conditioning (continued)
Heat recovery
units (continued)

Heat recovery
wheel
(continued)
A purge sector is usually built over the wheel to minimise carryover from the
exhaust air. To facilitate this, the pressure of the exhaust air must be lower than
that of the supply air.
direction of
rotation
purge sector
P4
P1
P1>P4
exhaust air
fresh air


duct exhaust air
exhaust air
supply air fresh air
seal
purge sector
purge stream
whell
direction of
rotation



21July 2006



Air conditioning systems Page 36/37 Definitions

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Fresh-air conditioning (continued)
Heat recovery
units (continued)

Heat recovery
wheel
(continued)
The figure below illustrates a ClimaCIAT dual-flow AHU with a rotary heat
exchanger without a mixing box bypass:
constant flow of exhaust air,
constant flow of fresh air.


fresh air
-10C
exhaust
air
exhaust air
+20C
supply
air


The figure below illustrates a ClimaCIAT dual-flow AHU with a rotary heat
exchanger, mixing box and adjustable air flow:

fresh air
-10C
supply air
exhaust air
+20C
exhaust air


21July 2006



Air conditioning systems Page 37/37 Definitions

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Fresh-air conditioning (continued)
Heat recovery
(continued)

Important
information
Choosing the right fresh-air conditioning method is part of the design process.
It depends on the type of air handling equipment that will be used:
When the air in a large number of spaces is to be handled by standard
terminal units (e.g. fan coil units), fresh air should be handled completely by
one central unit,
When the air in a space is handled by an AHU, a single or double mixing box
may be added to help to condition fresh air.





21 July 2006



Air conditioning systems Page 1/29 All-air systems

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
C
C
C
h
h
h
a
a
a
p
p
p
t
t
t
e
e
e
r
r
r


2
2
2
:
:
:


A
A
A
l
l
l
l
l
l
-
-
-
a
a
a
i
i
i
r
r
r


s
s
s
y
y
y
s
s
s
t
t
t
e
e
e
m
m
m
s
s
s




21 July 2006



Air conditioning systems Page 2/29 All-air systems

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Contents
Contents .................................................................................................................... 2
Basic concept ........................................................................................................... 3
Definition..................................................................................................................... 3
Air handling unit .......................................................................................................... 5
Possible solutions ....................................................................................................... 6
Local air handling unit.............................................................................................. 7
Concept ...................................................................................................................... 7
Operation.................................................................................................................... 8
Mollier chart ................................................................................................................ 9
Single-zone air handling unit................................................................................. 10
Concept .................................................................................................................... 10
Operation.................................................................................................................. 11
Mollier chart .............................................................................................................. 13
Field of application.................................................................................................... 14
Dual-duct AHU ........................................................................................................ 15
Concept .................................................................................................................... 15
Operation.................................................................................................................. 16
Mollier chart .............................................................................................................. 17
Field of application.................................................................................................... 17
Multizone unit.......................................................................................................... 18
Concept .................................................................................................................... 18
Operation.................................................................................................................. 19
Mollier chart .............................................................................................................. 21
Field of application.................................................................................................... 21
Air handling unit with variable-volume diffusion boxes for each space ........... 22
Concept .................................................................................................................... 22
Operation.................................................................................................................. 23
Field of application.................................................................................................... 25
Impulsair ................................................................................................................... 25

21 July 2006



Air conditioning systems Page 3/29 All-air systems

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Basic concept
Definition Air is preconditioned by an air handling unit then supplied to a space via a duct.
All the heat needed to cool a space is carried by air:
Air conditioning is generally centralised,
The mechanical room contains:
refrigeration equipment,
heating equipment,
an air handling unit in which air, including fresh air, is conditioned,
The ductwork contains:
return ducts running from each space,
stale air exhaust ducts,
fresh air supply ducts,
supply ducts running to each space.




21 July 2006



Air conditioning systems Page 4/29 All-air systems

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Basic concept (continued)
Definition
(continued)
The drawing below illustrates the basic design of an all-air system.

exhaust air
fresh air
h
o
t

w
a
t
e
r
c
h
i
l
l
e
d

w
a
t
e
r
s
u
p
p
l
y

a
i
r
r
e
t
r
u
r
n

a
i
r
A.H.U.
ductwork
air handling unit
water boiler
water chiller




21 July 2006



Air conditioning systems Page 5/29 All-air systems

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Basic concept (continued)
Air handling unit The flow of the air handled by the unit is determined by:
thermal loads,
the acceptable t between the supply and return air (see comfort air
conditioning and air handling).
For obvious reasons of economy, the supply of fresh air is limited (unless
required otherwise for safety) to minimum healthy levels set out by regulations.
The type of handling needed is defined by the influencer, who then builds the air
handling unit to fit the needs of the space.
For example, the AHU below contains the following equipment:

1
return air fan,
2
exhaust air/recirculated air mixing
dampers,
3
prefilter,
4
cooling coil and heating coil,
5
humidifier,
6
forced-draught fan,
7
f inal filter.


exhaust air
return air
fresh air
1
2
3
supply air
4
5
6
7


In some cases (such as cleanrooms; see our document on filtration) the final filter
may be placed at the entrance to a space instead of inside the AHU to allow
for potential pollution from ductwork.

21 July 2006



Air conditioning systems Page 6/29 All-air systems

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Basic concept (continued)
Air handling unit
(continued)
The drawing below shows an air handling system with a heat recovery unit
installed on the fresh air/exhaust air circuits.
heat recovery unit on exhaust air circuit

exhaust
air
return air from
served spaces
supply air
fresh
air
1
2 8
4 3 5 6 7
mixes exhaust air and
recirculated air

Possible solutions The solutions depend on the type of space and changes in loads, as well as
investment possibilities and the requirements for each space.

The most common solutions include:
individual space equipment: a separate AHU and ducts for each space,
multispace equipment: a unit with ducts for a series of spaces,
a single unit connected to two ducts, one for hot air and the other for cool air.
A mixing box ensures the adequate mix of air for each space,
a multizone AHU with separate ducts for each space,
basic equipment (air handling unit) with, for each space, a variable-volume
air diffusion box.

21 July 2006



Air conditioning systems Page 7/29 All-air systems

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Local air handling unit
Concept Each space is supplied with conditioned air by its own specific unit:
constant flow of air,
fresh air (suction) is usually conditioned in the AHU which also extracts stale
air,
the components (filter, cooling and heating coils, humidifier) are determined
based on the requirements of each space.
Heating and refrigeration equipment is with the unit in the mechanical room or
outside (cooling system with air-cooled condenser).


exhaust
air
Example of a unit with electric heating coil and chilled-water
cooling coil with temperature control only
fresh
air
volume = constant
T = f (space requirement)
R

21 July 2006



Air conditioning systems Page 8/29 All-air systems

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Local air handling unit (continued)
Operation The unit adjusts conditions based on the space loads. It:
regulates the temperature (summer and winter),
regulates the humidity (winter),
and, in certain cases, dehumidifies the air (summer).
In the drawing below, regulation occurs with the following sequences:

Sensors Effect on
Temperature

cooling coil (chilled water) (1)
heating coil (hot water) (2)
Relative humidity cooling coil (chilled water) (1)
humidifier (3)
Occupancy fresh air damper
Outdoor temperature free cooling (energy savings)
room
supply air
A
exhaust
air
extraction air
T : Temperature sensor
H : Humidiy sensor
O : Occupancy meter
O
T
T
S
E
F M C
H
fresh
air
(1) and (2) 2-way or 3-way modulating or on/off valve
(3) 2-way on/off valve
(1) (2) (3)
R

21 July 2006



Air conditioning systems Page 9/29 All-air systems

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Local air handling unit (continued)
Mollier chart Changes in air temperature and humidity are plotted in the following manner on
what is called a Mollier chart.


O
M
t
w
q
'
H M
space line
segment
summer operation
O : outdoor air
I : indoor environment
M : mixing
S : supply air
C : supply from cooling coil
H : supply from heating coil

S

summer line segment

H

winter line segment
winter operation
S
I
I
S


S

W
C
1
0
0
%
O
H

Field of
application
This type of system is generally used for:
large-volume spaces,
low-tolerance environmental controls,
spaces with heavy load conditions that vary,
meeting rooms,
theatres and concert halls.





21 July 2006



Air conditioning systems Page 10/29 All-air systems

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Single-zone air handling unit
Concept Air is supplied to several spaces by a single air handling unit:
the air flow for each individual space is constant and calculated based on its
maximum heat load,
fresh air (suction/extraction) is generally conditioned in the AHU before
being supplied to all the spaces,
the components (filter, cooling and heating coils, humidifier, etc.) are
determined based on the needs of each space,
heating and refrigeration equipment is generally located in the mechanical
room,
detection devices (temperature and humidity sensors) are arranged in a
control room.
exhaust air
fresh air
h
o
t

w
a
t
e
r
c
h
i
l
l
e
d

w
a
t
e
r
s
u
p
p
l
y

a
i
r
r
e
t
u
r
n

a
i
r
A.H.U.
ductwork
air handling
unit
water boiler
water chiller


This type of system is also called a simplified all-air system.


21 July 2006



Air conditioning systems Page 11/29 All-air systems

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Single-zone air handling unit (continued)
Operation
This system is used for spaces where the following loads are identical:
distribution of sensible heat and latent heat,
changes and variations in the same direction and proportions,
The properties of the air supplied to each space are the same,
Fresh air is distributed based on the total load, not on the density of occupants
in the space.
The control devices and temperature and humidity sensors may be installed:

In a control room (e.g.
A
1
)
The other spaces (A
2
, A
3
etc.) are governed by the A
1

law.
In the main return air
section
All the spaces (A
1
, A
2
, A
3
etc.) are governed by the
law of averages.


Space conditions cannot be adjusted to personal preferences,
As a matter of fact, spaces rarely experience the same changes in heat.
Deviations occur in environment parameters on account of the fact that the air
supply conditions are the same for all spaces. The system would not be an
adequate choice for precision air conditioning.



21 July 2006



Air conditioning systems Page 12/29 All-air systems

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Single-zone air handling unit (continued)
Operation
(continued)
The figure below shows an installed single-zone air handling unit.
S
A
3
A
2
A
1
S
(1) and (2) 2-way or 3-way modulating or on/off valve
(3) 2-way on/off valve
S
(1) (2) (3)
T
T H
exhaust
air
fresh
air
R


21 July 2006



Air conditioning systems Page 13/29 All-air systems

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Single-zone air handling unit (continued)
Mollier chart Changes in the air supplied to the spaces are plotted on the Mollier chart.

S

2
A
3
A
1
=A
A
2


1
t
w
q
'


This diagram does not show the various handling/conditioning processes the air
undergoes in the unit. It shows changes in the air in each space based on
sensible and latent heat.

1
,
2
, and
3
are the

line segments. A is the space setpoint. When the same
amount of air S is distributed to all the spaces, it is clear that the space
conditions A cannot be controlled when their loads are different,
the space line segments
1
,
2
,
3
are rarely completely identical,
all pass by the same supply air point.
The indoor environment A
1
, A
2
, A
3
, should have the same value A, but as the
loads are not really identical, the value of A is controlled only for the space
where the sensors are installed (i.e. space A
1
for which A
1
will equal A).

21 July 2006



Air conditioning systems Page 14/29 All-air systems

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Single-zone air handling unit (continued)
Mollier chart
(continued)
To sum up:
The simplified all-air system is adequate only if the thermal loads in each zone
are identical and vary in the same direction and proportions,
The balance and stability of the air flows are deceptive for branched or
lengthy systems.

fresh air
zone 1 zone 2 zone 3 zone 4
return air
duct
supply air
duct
no means of
regulation
supply air conditions are
the same for every zone



Field of
application
Because it is economic, the system may be used for spaces with identical thermal
loads and where conditions do not need to be adjusted to personal preferences.


21 July 2006



Air conditioning systems Page 15/29 All-air systems

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Dual-duct AHU
Concept This system offers the following features:
A single air handling unit that is simplified for air preconditioning. It is made
up of:
a mixing box,
a preheating coil for winter,
The supply air duct leaving the AHU is split in two:
warm air duct with preheating coil and humidifier,
cool air duct with cooling coil,
Three ducts are routed to and from spaces:
cool air supply duct,
warm air supply duct,
extraction duct.
The unit is generally operated at high speed (V > 6 m/s) for reasons of space.
Each space contains a motorised mixing box controlled by the space sensor.
The supply air is delivered at a constant rate but the proportions of cool and
warm air vary.
C
F
S
space
sensor




21 July 2006



Air conditioning systems Page 16/29 All-air systems

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Dual-duct AHU (continued)
Operation Contrary to what might be thought, the system is not particularly energy
consuming:
Most often (in spring and autumn, amongst other periods) only one of the
ducts (heating or cooling) is supplied with air that has been conditioned
simply by mixing the outdoor air with the recirculated air,
When both ducts are needed, the hot water is delivered by the condenser in the
water chiller unit (the condenser then becomes a heat transfer unit).
Fresh air is introduced when the outdoor temperature drops below room
temperature and cooling is needed.
A
3
S
3
A
2
A
1
T
T
exhaust
air
fresh
air
S
2
T
S
1
T
(1) and (2) 2-way modulating or on/off valve
(3) 2-way on/off valve
(2) (2) (1) (3)
R


21 July 2006



Air conditioning systems Page 17/29 All-air systems

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Dual-duct AHU (continued)
Mollier chart Changes in air temperature and humidity are plotted on the Mollier chart.
O
M
H
C
t
w
q
'
C
M
I
I
S

S

W
C
E
S
O : outdoor air
I : indoor air
M : mixing
H : warm air stream properties
S : supply air
C : cool air stream properties

S

summer line segment

W

winter line segment


Field of
application
This system is advantageous for handling the air in spaces with heavy load
conditions that vary.
It is often used with laminar-flow ceilings:
business spaces,
exhibition halls,
upscale spaces: large glazed surfaces subject to varying loads.

21 July 2006



Air conditioning systems Page 18/29 All-air systems

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Multizone unit
Concept This system offers the following features:
The conditions of the supply air are adjusted by mixing the cool and warm air,
Both air types are mixed inside the unit and occupants in each space (or zone)
choose the level they want,
Each space has its own separate supply air duct:
constant air flow,
variable supply air temperature,
The return air ducts may be shared.
The AHU has a different design.

recirculated
air
filter fan
thermostat
heating
coil
cooling coil
fresh
air
warm air
cool air
zone 3 (H)
zone 2 (H)
zone 1 (H)
zone 3 (C)
zone 2 (C)
zone 1 (C)
R
(1) and (2) 2-way or 3-way modulating or on/off valve
(1)
(2)
outdoor sensor
R
R
outdoor sensor



The heating and cooling coils are installed in parallel (not in series) on the air
circuit. This creates a stream of warm air and a stream of cool air,
The fan is installed upline and blows air on the coils,
Two rows of dampers downline of the coils (one on the warm stream, the
other on the cool stream) are used to mix warm air and cool air,
Vertical barrier walls are used to divide the free areas (i.e. volumes of air) and
create zones inside the unit. The air flows at work are a function of the thermal
balances. A unit is typically split into no more than four or five zones.

21 July 2006



Air conditioning systems Page 19/29 All-air systems

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Multizone unit (continued)
Operation The figure below shows a multizone unit.

recirculated air
return air A
fresh
air
limit swich for : 3 rooms
3 zones
3 air supply ducts
the return air duct may be shared
A
3
A
2
A
1
T
1
T
2
T
3
S
1
S
2
S
3
T
exhaust
air
M
3
M
2
M
1
M
3
M
2
M
1
C
F
The sets of dampers are used to mix air in all types of proportions possible for each zone :
Warmed air (H) mixed with conditioned air (M) by the mixing box in winter
Cooled air (C) mixed with conditioned air (M) by the mixing box in summer
M
(2)
(1)
(1) and (2) 2-way or 3-way modulating or on/off valve
R



21 July 2006



Air conditioning systems Page 20/29 All-air systems

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Multizone unit (continued)
Operation
(continued)
the coils ensure constant cool-air and warm-air temperatures,
servomotors controlled by the space thermostat adjust the dampers for
adequate air mixing:
a detection unit measures the outdoor air temperature and controls the
mixing box servomotor (free cooling),
limit switches (servomotors zone) also participate in regulating air flows.
Closing all the zones during heating will cause the heating coil supply to
close.
Note:
as stated previously, the energy-efficient operation described below is
frequently observed:
only one coil (cooling C or heating H) is supplied and the air delivered by
the mixing box (M = mix of fresh air and recirculated air) is divided
between the supplied coil and the unsupplied one.
this gives a new mix:
C + M or H + M depending on the need,
when adjusted correctly, this type of system is relatively energy efficient,
by using refrigeration equipment such as a heat transfer unit, heat from the
condenser can be used in cases where both cooling and heating are necessary.

21 July 2006



Air conditioning systems Page 21/29 All-air systems

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Multizone unit (continued)
Mollier chart Changes in the air supplied to a given space are plotted on the Mollier chart.

O
O
M
H
M
C
t
w
q
'
C C

S


W
S
1
I
1
S
1
I
1
O : outdoor air
I : indoor air
M : mixing
H : supply from heating coil
S : supply air
C : supply from cooling coil

S

summer line segment

H

winter line segment

Field of
application
The systems advantage lies in its quick responsiveness and the ability to adjust
spaces to individual needs:
Groups of spaces with load conditions that vary quickly,
Series of spaces, each with occupancy loads that are never the same or vary
from zone to zone (this makes it possible to lower the total installed capacity).
It is therefore well-suited to spaces such as:
company canteens, dining halls, homes (day zone, night zone).


21 July 2006



Air conditioning systems Page 22/29 All-air systems

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Air handling unit with variable-volume diffusion boxes for each
space
Concept This system offers the following features:
variations in thermal loads are handled by adjusting the flow of conditioned
air supplied to each space,
a single air handling unit for all spaces,
the AHU may be equipped with a flow control system (suction deflectors or
speed control),
it may be constant volume; if so, each space is equipped with a bypass.

variable-volume
box
variable-speed
forced-draught fan
variable-speed
return air fan
air handling
unit
return air
exhaust air fresh air
air outlet
return air
grille
System with variable volumes of air per zone
Unit equipped with a flow controller

21 July 2006



Air conditioning systems Page 23/29 All-air systems

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Air handling with variable-volume diffusion boxes for each
space (continued)
Operation How the system operates:
air is regulated in the air handling unit to ensure a constant supply air
temperature. The AHU operates in either heating or cooling mode; differing
needs cannot be met,
the flow of supply air to each space is modulated by the space sensor based on
the heat load.
In the example below:
Air is delivered to Type A spaces by the variable air volume system; the return
air flows along passageways (halls),
Type B spaces are equipped with their own individual units. Stale air is drawn
out by a separate extraction unit.

A B
T
T
exhaust air
return air
discharge
outside outside hall
distribution of
conditioned air
bypass
fresh air
T
(1) and (2) 2-way or 3-way modulating or on/off valve
(3) 2-way on/off valve
(1) (2) (3)
window
fan coil unit with fresh air inlet
Constant-volume unit with
space bypasses
H
R

21 July 2006



Air conditioning systems Page 24/29 All-air systems

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Air handling with variable-volume diffusion boxes for each
space (continued)
Mollier chart Changes in the air in the AHU are plotted as follows on the Mollier chart.
O :outdoor air
I : indoor air
M : mixing
S : supply air

S

summer line
segment
O
M
t
w
q
'

S
S
I

Air is conditioned in the conventional manner inside the unit. The regulation
system ensures that the temperature and humidity of the supply air are at
particular levels. However, the amount of air delivered to each space is adjusted
as needed.

Issues and
precautions for
use
Variations in flow in a given space should not disrupt the balance of the whole
or the flows delivered to the other spaces.
A system is needed to control and maintain the pressure in the distribution
circuits.
High variations and significant drops in flow rates may cause the geometry of
the air stream introduced and its range to create uncomfortable conditions for
occupants.
As regards air change, a number of problems may arise:
The fresh air is conditioned entirely inside the unit.
Each space receives the required amount of fresh air under full load
conditions.
Losses (e.g. insulation) may cause heat load variations in the space
whereas the occupant density (i.e. the need for fresh air) stays even. The
modulation of the flow of supply air in turn modulates the amount of fresh
air introduced.
Adjusting flow and pressure may be tricky; an adjusting device may need to
be installed to maintain the pressure inside the ducts at a constant level.
Installing ceiling registers specially designed to keep air streams horizontal is
recommended.

21 July 2006



Air conditioning systems Page 25/29 All-air systems

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Air handling with variable-volume diffusion boxes for each
space (continued)
Field of
application
This system, quite rate in France, may be used in:
office buildings,
hotels.

Impulsair The impulsair is a variable-air-volume adjustment system used in the 1970s.

The Coanda
effect
The operation of the impulsair is based on a well-known aerodynamic
phenomenon known as the Coanda effect, or the extremely odd tendency of air
to adhere to the surface along which it is flowing.
Henri Coanda discovered this phenomenon in 1928 when he noticed that hot
gases from his experimental jet-propelled aircraft hugged the sides of the
fuselage, damaging the tail unit.
On closer look at this phenomenon, it can be seen that a fluid will stay attached
to a surface, even a convex one, as is moves along it.

Coanda effect
stream of fluid



21 July 2006



Air conditioning systems Page 26/29 All-air systems

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Air handling with variable-volume diffusion boxes for each
space (continued)
Impulsair
(continued)

Concept A stream of air directed towards a Y-duct can be deflected to either branch if two
lateral openings A and B are placed just before the Y-duct.
Opening A and closing B will direct all the air to the right branch. Conversely,
closing A and opening B will direct all the air to the left branch.

A B A B


Variable-volume impulsair systems have the following main features:

constant supply air velocity resulting in even space temperature,
air flows are adjusted without the means of moving components such as
dampers or motors (zero breakdowns or servicing),
constant volume in the air handling units,
air is supplied to spaces intermittently. The supply time, not the volume
supplied, is modulated.



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Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Air handling with variable-volume diffusion boxes for each
space (continued)
Impulsair
(continued)

Concept
(continued)

If Then
Space cooling under full load is
required.
The control damper is maintained in a position set by the
thermostat while the main damper directs the entire volume of air
to the space.
The temperature in the space
decreases, as does the need for cool
air.
The thermostat controls the impulsair. The air from the unit is
directed to either the space or the recirculation duct. At the start,
the supply time is longer than the recycling time.
Cooling requirements continue to
decrease.
The impulsair responds by gradually shortening the supply time
and extends the recycling time.

suspended ceiling
diffuser
damper
damper
damper
return air
supply air
return air grille
ceiling
T
impulsair

Operation Note:
Although it is theoretically conceivable that the entire volume of air be
recycled and that no more air be directed to the space, this possibility should be
excluded in a well-designed system. Firstly, lighting and people are a basic
cooling load. By carefully selecting the supply air temperature, however, a high
rate of air can be obtained even if the heat gain is minimal.
What occurs between 100% supply air and 100% recycling is depicted in the
figure on the following page. The surfaces at the top show the air flows
delivered to the space. The surfaces at the bottom show the flow rates of
recirculated air.

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Air conditioning systems Page 28/29 All-air systems

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Air handling with variable-volume diffusion boxes for each
space (continued)
Impulsair
(continued)

Operation
(continued)

100% constant-volume air stream
time in seconds
spaces
100
100
return
p
e
r
c
e
n
t
a
g
e

o
f

v
e
l
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c
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t
y
spaces
100
25
0
100
return
p
e
r
c
e
n
t
a
g
e

o
f

f
l
o
w
2 HZ (max.frequency)
2 54 56 52 48 50 46 42 44 40 36 38 34 32 30 26 28 24 20 22 18 14 16 12 8 10 6 4 0
AIR VELOCITY
AIR FLOW




21 July 2006



Air conditioning systems Page 29/29 All-air systems

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Air handling with variable-volume diffusion boxes for each
space (continued)
Impulsair
(continued)

Operation
(continued)
The figure below shows an installed system with impulsair units.
return air grille
impulsair
diffuser
diffuser
forced-draught fan
return air fan
a
ir h
a
n
d
lin
g
u
n
it


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Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
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Air conditioning systems Page 2/33 All-water systems

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0

Contents
Contents .................................................................................................................... 2
Basic concept ........................................................................................................... 3
Definition of an all-water system................................................................................................ 3
Possible solutions........................................................................................................................ 4
Fan coil units............................................................................................................. 5
Basic concept ............................................................................................................................... 5
Two-pipe fan coil unit .................................................................................................................. 7
Four-pipe fan coil unit.................................................................................................................. 9
Two-pipe, two-wire fan coil unit................................................................................................ 11
Air-change fan coil unit.............................................................................................................. 13
Non self-contained air-handling terminal units.................................................... 15
Basic concept ............................................................................................................................. 15
Equipment type .......................................................................................................................... 15
Fan coil units .............................................................................................................................. 15
Mini air handling units ............................................................................................................... 20
Individual water-loop heat pumps......................................................................... 29
Basic concept ............................................................................................................................. 29
Advantages................................................................................................................................. 29
Heating and refrigeration equipment........................................................................................ 30
Heat pumps................................................................................................................................. 32
Field of application..................................................................................................................... 33

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Air conditioning systems Page 3/33 All-water systems

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Basic concept
Definition of an
all-water system
An all-water system offers the following features:
The space is equipped with a terminal unit supplied with hot and/or cold
water by pipes (water loop).
The pipes transfer energy between the central plant (refrigeration and
heating equipment) and the terminals.
All the energy needed to cool a space is carried by water.

Note: With this type of system, fresh air may be conditioned inside the terminal
unit or introduced directly in the space without being conditioned (see fan coil
unit, air change).

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Air conditioning systems Page 4/33 All-water systems

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Basic concept (continued)
Possible solutions The solutions generally depend on the type of space, as well as investment
possibilities and the requirements for each space.
The most common solutions include:
A fan coil unit that can also be used in a number of versions (two-pipe,
four-pipe, two-pipe/two-wire).
Cassette or mini non self-contained air-handling terminal units.
Individual water-loop heat pumps.
Each of these solutions will be discussed in detail in this chapter.


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Air conditioning systems Page 5/33 All-water systems

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Fan coil units
Basic concept A fan coil unit is a terminal unit with:
a heat exchange coil,
a fan motor,
a filter,
a condensate drain pan.











Fan coil units can be in cased or uncased configurations, vertical or horizontal,
and with or without fresh air inlet.

Ceiling-
mounted
horizontal
uncased fan
coil unit
Fresh air inlet with mixing dampers fitted in a suspended ceiling.




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Air conditioning systems Page 6/33 All-water systems

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Fan coil units (continued)
Basic concept
(continued)

Vertical cased
fan coil unit
with fresh air
inlet
Fresh air inlet with mixing dampers attached to a partition wall.



Horizontal
cased fan coil
unit
An horizontal cased fan coil unit is also called a ceiling unit.






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Air conditioning systems Page 7/33 All-water systems

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Fan coil units (continued)
Two-pipe fan coil
unit

Operation The unit has just one coil supplied by two pipes (supply and return).
The coil operates as follows:
The circuit is supplied with warm water for winter heating,
And with chilled water for summer cooling.
The term changeover refers to the changing from heating to cooling and vice
versa.



The output power is adjusted by:
Turning the fan on and off on ultra-simple systems (for economical reasons).
Opening or closing an electric on/off valve on the water circuit.
Modulating valve that varies progressively the rate of water supplied to the
coil.

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Air conditioning systems Page 8/33 All-water systems

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Fan coil units (continued)
Two-pipe fan coil
unit (continued)

Operation
(continued)
Two-pipe fan coil units
coil :
air/water
exchanger
fan
filter
central plant :
hot water / cold water
Principle



Energy
production
Heating and cooling energy is produced in a central plant consisting of:
water heating equipment (e.g. furnace or exchanger),
water chilling equipment (water chiller).
An air-to-water or water-to-water heat pump can also be used to produce hot
or chilled water depending on the season.

Field of
application
This system is used for divided spaces, such as offices and hotels, where needs
fluctuate but are of the same type.
It does not satisfy simultaneous heating and cooling needs; heating is provided
in the winter, and cooling in the summer.



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Air conditioning systems Page 9/33 All-water systems

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Fan coil units (continued)
Four-pipe fan coil
unit

Operation The unit consists of two coils, one connected to a hot water loop, the other to a
cold water loop.
Both water loops are necessary. The flow of water is usually regulated by valves
(on/off or modulating) on each water circuit.



Energy
production
Energy may be provided by a:
Water boiler and a water chiller.
Heat pump providing hot and cold water simultaneously.
Transfer unit that recovers heat from the condenser during cooling.



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Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Fan coil units (continued)
Four-pipe fan coil
unit (continued)

Field of
application
This system is used for offices, hotels and other spaces with significant heating
and cooling needs that fluctuate and are not of the same type.
It delivers heating and cooling at the same time.


or
Four-pipe fan coil units
heating
coil
filter
cooling
coil
fan
Principle




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Air conditioning systems Page 11/33 All-water systems

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Fan coil units (continued)
Fan coil units
Two-pipe, two-wire
fan coil unit

Operation The unit has two coils: a two-pipe water coil and a two-wire electric heater.
Under conventional operation, the water coil is connected to the chilled water
circuit to provide cooling. There is no hot water circuit; the electric heater
serves as a heating battery.



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Air conditioning systems Page 12/33 All-water systems

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Fan coil units (continued)
Fan coil units
Two-pipe,
two-wire fan coil
unit (continued)

Energy
production
A water chiller is located in the mechanical room.
A reversible water chiller could be installed in order to have chilled water in the
summer and hot water in the winter. In this case the unit serves as a
low-temperature hot water coil and back-up electric heater in the winter, when
no cooling is needed.

or
Two-pipe, two-wire fan coil units
electric
heater
filter
cooling or
heating
coil
fan
Principle



Field of
application
This system is advantageous for heavily insulated modern buildings, such as
offices and hotels, where heating needs are reduced.



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Air conditioning systems Page 13/33 All-water systems

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Fan coil units (continued)
Air-change fan coil
unit

Concept Although there are fan coil units with fresh air inlets, in most cases the air in
spaces is changed by independent, central equipment:
single-flow ventilation,
dual-flow ventilation.

Single-flow
ventilation
Single-flow ventilation generally consists of using a roof ventilator (T) to expel a
portion of the air from a building with passageways and spaces containing
specific pollutants. Fresh air is introduced via inlets along the exterior walls.
Although inexpensive, this type of ventilation has the drawback of being unable
to adequately control air change in each separate room. Nothing guarantees that
fresh air will actually enter through the inlets and in the expected proportions. As
a result, some spaces could be under-ventilated while draughts could be created
in others.
Furthermore, the inlets along the outer walls also allow outside noise to enter
indoor spaces. This technique is therefore to be avoided in noisy environments.
It should also be avoided in polluted environments.


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Air conditioning systems Page 14/33 All-water systems

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Fan coil units (continued)
Air-change fan
coil unit
(continued)

Dual-flow
ventilation
Dual-flow ventilation makes it possible to avoid these risks:
The desired amount of fresh air is filtered (and warmed in the winter) by an air
handling unit before being introduced into each space. This conditioned fresh
air is carried through ducts:
Directly to served spaces .
Or to the return air section of terminal units . This solution makes it
possible to limit the risks of occupants being bothered by air draughts. It
also allows fresh air to be warmed at lower temperatures (energy savings in
spring and autumn). On the other hand, the fans in the terminal units must
be left on occupancy periods.
Stale indoor air is expelled outside by an exhaust fan.
Fresh air conditioning and air extraction may be accomplished inside a single
dual-flow air handling unit. A heat recovery unit, or HRU, can also be installed
to recover heat from exhaust air.


Comment: A chilled water coil can be added to cool incoming fresh air slightly
in the summer. The aim here is not to chill the indoor air, but rather to avoid
supplying fresh air at too high of a temperature in the summer (this is not a true
chilled dual-ventilation system, which is much more elaborate).

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Air conditioning systems Page 15/33 All-water systems

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Non self-contained air-handling terminal units
Basic concept These units have the same components as conventional fan coil units (heat
exchange coil, fan motor, filter, condensate drain pan), but are designed
specifically for installation in ceilings, suspended ceilings and raised floors.

Equipment type There are two types of such terminal units: fan coil units and mini air handling
units.
Fan coil units are designed for installation in suspended ceilings. They both
supply air to and recirculate the air in spaces directly. They have no available
pressure and cannot be connected to ductwork.
Mini air handling units can be installed in false ceilings or raised floors
(uncased models) or directly in spaces (cased ceiling or vertical models).
They can be connected to a mini-duct system (available static pressure).

Fan coil units There are two models of cassette type fan coil unit:
Melody fan coil units, designed specifically for installation in the centre of a
space, far from walls.
Coadis fan coil units, designed for easy installation near walls.

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Air conditioning systems Page 16/33 All-water systems

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Non self-contained air-handling terminal units (continued)
Fan coil units
(continued)

Melody type fan
coil units

The composite drawing below shows the components of a cassette type fan coil
unit:

6 5 1 1 1
7 3 2 1 4
A Melody cassette type fan coil unit discharges air laterally in four directions.
It contains the following components:
Directional supply louvers.
Heat exchange coil in three possible versions: two-pipe, four-pipe,
or two-pipe/two-wire.
Condensate drain pan with draining pump.
Fan motor assembly.
Cleanable filter.
Centre air inlet.
Electrical panel.

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Air conditioning systems Page 17/33 All-water systems

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Non self-contained air-handling terminal units (continued)
Fan coil units
(continued)

Melody type fan
coil units
(continued)




Coadis type fan
coil units



Coadis cassette type units are specifically designed for installation near walls in
the corners of spaces.

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Air conditioning systems Page 18/33 All-water systems

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Non self-contained air-handling terminal units (continued)
Fan coil units
(continued)

Coadis type fan
coil units
(continued)
5
8
4 6 7
1 2 3 directions of diffusion jets



A Coadis cassette type unit contains the following components:
1
High-induction, directional air diffusion jets .
2
Inlet grille with parallel louvers.
3
Cleanable filter behind panel: visible side.
4
Wiring panel.
5
Heat exchange coil in three possible versions: two-pipe, four-pipe,
or two-pipe/two-wire.
6
Condensate drain pan.
7
The control system can be integrated.
8
Elastic suspension system.
Note:
The fan motor assembly is not shown in the drawing.

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Air conditioning systems Page 19/33 All-water systems

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Non self-contained air-handling terminal units (continued)
Fan coil units
(continued)

Coadis type fan
coil units
(continued)
This type of unit can be installed in the corner of a space.

fresh air
water
condensates
cassette UTA
suspended ceiling
office


Cassette
controls type
fan coil unit
The hot water and chilled water supplies are located in a central mechanical
room. They have their own control systems and deliver water at a particular
temperature setpoint.
Water is supplied to each space by supply pipes (two- or four-pipe). Several
types of regulation systems are possible and are summarised in the table below:

Electric on/off valves Simplified control
Very average precision
Electric modulating valves Progressive control
Good precision
System V 2000: control of
modulating valves and fan speeds
Optimisation of unit configuration
parameters
Optimum comfort
Field of
application
This system can be used in:
Divided spaces (offices, small businesses in shopping centres).
Large spaces such as reception halls, airports and meeting rooms.

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Air conditioning systems Page 20/33 All-water systems

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Non self-contained air-handling terminal units (continued)
Mini air handling
units

Coadis Slim Coadis Slim is specially designed to meet the requirements of heavy commercial
applications in which noise levels must be kept to a minimum.
Its slim size makes it ideal for installation in buildings with low ceiling void
depths.




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Air conditioning systems Page 21/33 All-water systems

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Non self-contained air-handling terminal units (continued)
Mini air handling
units (continued)

Coadis Comfort Coadis Comfort is an air-conditioning terminal unit that makes use of the Coanda
effect. It is specially designed for the hotel and catering industry and the
healthcare sector (hospitals, clinics, retirement homes, etc.).
Compact and discreet, it features an exclusive all-in-one diffusion system that
allows it to be hidden in a suspended ceiling in hallways leading to bedrooms.

Two models are available:
LY: supply air delivered by one or more circular
collars in the distribution plenum

LI: supply air delivered through a rectangular sleeve
directly on the supply grille


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Air conditioning systems Page 22/33 All-water systems

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Non self-contained air-handling terminal units (continued)
Mini air handling
(continued)

UTA air
handling unit
UTA units are compact mini air handling units similar to fan coil units with
available pressure on the air circuit. Available uncased only, they are designed to
be concealed in suspended ceilings or raised floors and can be connected to a
mini-duct system.



Suction or discharge plenums can be added for connection with various duct
systems:




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Air conditioning systems Page 23/33 All-water systems

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Non self-contained air-handling terminal units (continued)
Mini air handling
(continued)

UTA air
handling unit
(continued)
The compact UTA is smaller in size than the standard UTA.
The supply and return duct connections are built in.





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Air conditioning systems Page 24/33 All-water systems

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Non self-contained air-handling terminal units (continued)
Mini air handling
(continued)

UTA air
handling unit
(continued)
The figure below shows an installed standard system and an installed compact
system:





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Air conditioning systems Page 25/33 All-water systems

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Non self-contained air-handling terminal units (continued)
Mini air handling
(continued)

Residenciat
system
The Residenciat system heats and cools entire flats of up to six rooms.
It consists of:
A UTA compact ducted terminal unit per flat and equipped with a multizone
PI controller.
Wall terminal units with displays (one master and up to five slaves).
Motorised dampers (one per room).
A Coanda effect supply air/return air distribution system with grille.
A central plant per building or group of buildings.


living room
bedroom 3
bedroom 1
bedroom 2
bathroom
WC
kitchen



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Air conditioning systems Page 26/33 All-water systems

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Non self-contained air-handling terminal units (continued)
Mini air handling
(continued)

ClimaCIAT Club This is a small double-skinned air handling unit. It is designed for connection to
ductwork.
ClimaCIAT Club is available as an horizontal version (for installation on floors
or ceilings) and a vertical version (for installation on walls).
It features components typically found in air handling units:
regenerative filter,
water heating coil,
water cooling coil,
electric heater (optional),
fan motor assembly.






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Air conditioning systems Page 27/33 All-water systems

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Non self-contained air-handling terminal units (continued)
Mini air handling
(continued)

ClimaCIAT Club
(continued)
Accessories such as a straight plenum, elbow plenum, multiple-outlet plenum
and mixing box can be added.


Air handling
module
An air handling module (AHM) is a compact version of a fan coil unit.

Each space in a building is connected to its own AHM (usually located in a
mechanical room with other AHMs) by return and supply air ducts.
There are several versions of AHM:
two-pipe,
four-pipe,
two-pipe, two-wire.

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Air conditioning systems Page 28/33 All-water systems

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Non self-contained air-handling terminal units (continued)
Mini air handling
(continued)

How they work These mini air handling units lend themselves particularly well to multizone air
conditioning:
Heating and refrigeration equipment is located together in a mechanical room.
Hot water and cold water are circulated throughout the building(s).
Terminal units connected by ducts to the spaces they serve are located in individual
mechanical rooms.
Heating and refrigeration equipment can be installed near each terminal unit instead
of together in a single room. Fresh air can be conditioned separately and delivered by
ducts to the right of each terminal unit.

Field of
application
Mini air handling units are designed for use in divided spaces such as hotels and
offices (with, possibly, one mechanical room per floor). The advantage of these units
is that all technical equipment is located in a single room, making maintenance
easier. Buildings must be specifically designed (with mechanical rooms and
suspended ceilings for routing ducts) for their installation.


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Air conditioning systems Page 29/33 All-water systems

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Individual water-loop heat pumps
Basic concept Each space is equipped with an air-to-water reversible heat pump.
A heat pump operates by moving heat to or from a space. In the figure below,
the heat pumps in the building are interconnected via a water loop.



Advantages Heat pumps are extremely efficient in recovering and transferring heat:
In the summer, a space heat pump rejects heat from the condenser to the water
loop,
In the winter, it extracts heat from the water loop.
The water loop temperature therefore fluctuates based on whether heat is added
to it or taken from it.


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Air conditioning systems Page 30/33 All-water systems

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Individual water-loop heat pumps (continued)
Heating and
refrigeration
equipment
The water circuit temperature must, however, be maintained between a low limit
and a high limit compatible with the operating range of the heat pumps.

This is the job of central heating and refrigeration equipment.



The figure below illustrates a typical system:
(1) cooling,
(2) heating,
(3) off.
The graph shows temperature fluctuations between +16C and +32C.

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Air conditioning systems Page 31/33 All-water systems

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Individual water-loop heat pumps (continued)
Heating and
refrigeration
equipment
(continued)
The water circuit has a maximum temperature of between 30C and 40C and a
minimum temperature of 16C.

Based on this temperature range, the following heating and refrigeration
equipment may be used:


Heating Cooling
Boiler (fuel oil, gas, electric)
Electric boiler and hot-water
cylinder
Water-to-water heat pump
Air-to-water heat pump with
backup
Heat exchanger (district heating)
Cooling tower
Chiller unit
Reversible heat pump
Cooling system with latent heat
storage
Heat exchanger (well water)
Heat exchanger (district cooling)



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Air conditioning systems Page 32/33 All-water systems

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Individual water-loop heat pumps (continued)
Heat pumps Each space is equipped with a heat pump controlled by a space thermostat.

Concept The heat pump is an air/water heat pump with reversing valve. The pumps
cooling circuit is illustrated in the figure below:



1
Compressor,
2
Control unit,
3
Coil (refrigerant/air heat exchanger),
4
Thermostat,
5
Fan,
6
Motor,
7
Refrigerant reversing valve,
8
Refrigerant/water heat exchanger (connected to water loop).



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Air conditioning systems Page 33/33 All-water systems

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Individual water-loop heat pumps (continued)
Heat pumps
(continued)

Concept
(continued)
This heat pump looks like a standard horizontal or vertical cased air conditioner.

control unit
electrical
compartment
refrigerant water
heat exchanger
4 way valve
compressor
return air
supply air
refrigerant-to-air
heat exchanger
condensate
drain pan
fan
electrical
connection
hydraulic
connection
condensate
drain outlet


Operation This system is completely identical to an individual air conditioner with
water-cooled condenser and reversing valve.
The water loop and the units ability to recover heat are what make this
residential system interesting and novel.

Field of
application
This type of system is generally installed in new and extensively renovated
commercial buildings where both heating and cooling are required:
Transfer between exterior walls.
Central zone without outer walls.
Zones with specific gains (processes, computer equipment).
Offices, hotels, businesses in glass buildings and oriented in multiple
directions (e.g. east-west).


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Air conditioning systems Page 1/27 Air-water systems

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
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Air conditioning systems Page 2/27 Air-water systems

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0

Contents
Contents .................................................................................................................... 2
Basic concept ........................................................................................................... 3
Definition..................................................................................................................... 3
Air handling unit .......................................................................................................... 3
Possible solutions ....................................................................................................... 4
Central air handling unit with local adjustments ................................................... 5
Concept ...................................................................................................................... 5
System components ................................................................................................... 5
Control ........................................................................................................................ 5
Operation.................................................................................................................... 6
Operation space by space .......................................................................................... 9
Air handling unit with induction units .................................................................. 17
Concept .................................................................................................................... 17
Operation.................................................................................................................. 18
Mollier chart .............................................................................................................. 21
Field of application.................................................................................................... 21
Fresh-air handling unit and fan coil unit............................................................... 22
Concept .................................................................................................................... 22
Mollier chart .............................................................................................................. 25
Area of use ............................................................................................................... 27

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Air conditioning systems Page 3/27 Air-water systems

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Basic concept
Definition An air-water (or hydronic) system consists of:
A shared, common air-handling unit that conditions air under average
temperature and humidity conditions and supplies it to all spaces in a
building.
Ducts leading to and from each space served.
Individual terminal units that recondition the incoming air to the specific
temperature and humidity needs of the space.
A portion of the energy needed is carried by air (ducts) while the rest is carried
by water (to the terminal units).

Air handling unit

While the air handling unit itself is conventional in design, its components vary
depending on the air quality desired and the type of space.
It can be:
Basic: single or dual-flow mixing box, filter, cooling coil, heating coil,
humidifier,

exhaust
air
exhaust
air
in this system, exhaust air is conditioned by an independant system
(roof ventilator, ventilation system)
the mixing box exhausts stale air and supplies fresh air
recirculated air
fresh
air
fresh
air
supply
air
supply
air


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Air conditioning systems Page 4/27 Air-water systems

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Basic concept (continued)
Air handling unit
(continued)
Or more elaborate by adding, for example, a recovery unit on the exhaust
air/fresh air circuits.
exhaust
air
fresh
air
exhaust
air
fresh
air
with plate heat exchanger and
mixing box
with heat pipe and mixing box
supply
air exhaust
air
exhaust
air
supply
air

Possible solutions The most common solutions include:
Common air handling unit with local adjustments,
Common air handling with induction units,
common fresh-air conditioning unit and fan coil units.

21 July 2006



Air conditioning systems Page 5/27 Air-water systems

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Central air handling unit with local adjustments
Concept In a common air handling unit, air is conditioned then distributed to a group of
spaces.
Where necessary, terminal units in each space adjust the properties of the air
before it enters the space.

System
components
Air is conditioned inside a central air-handling unit serving all the spaces in a
building. Although the components vary with the results to be obtained, a unit is
generally made up of:
a mixing box (single- or dual-effect),
filters,
heating and refrigeration coils,
a humidifier,
a forced-draught fan (or an exhaust fan).
The conditioned air is distributed to each space by a system of ducts.
Terminal units defined and sized depending on the loads of each space are
supplied by a system of pipes:
hot water,
chilled water.
They condition the air one last time just before it enters a space.

Control The common central air handling unit houses a control system that operates
based on:
the environment in a reference room,
the properties of the return air (mix of air flows from all spaces).
Located in the stream of air at the entrance to each space, the terminal units are
controlled based on the parameters of each space (temperature and humidity) and
variations in heat loads.




21 July 2006



Air conditioning systems Page 6/27 Air-water systems

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Central air handling unit with local adjustments (continued)
Operation In order to describe how such a unit operates, let us look at a group of spaces
located in a single area. The loads in most of these spaces are relatively identical
and generally change in the same way.
Consider the change, at a given moment in time, in four spaces (L
1
, L
2
, L
3
, L
4
)
with different thermal loads (sensible heat and latent heat).
The same environment is to be maintained in all four:
A
1
= A
2
= A
3
= A
4
=A (e.g. 27C, 50% RH).
Although the line segments (
1
,
2
,
3
,
4
) have different values, all converge at
the same point, which corresponds to the environment (27C, 50% RH).
The supply air conditions (S
1
, S
2
, S
3
, S
4
) determined as a function of the thermal
loads are also different.
L
1
is the reference space.

42 41 40C 39 37 36 35 34 33 32 31 30C 29 28 27 26 25C 24 23 22 21 20 18 17 16 15C 14 13 12 11 10C 9 8 7 6 5C 4 3 2 1 0C - 1 - 2 - 3 - 4 -5C - 6 7
0,890 0,880 0,870 0,860 0,850 0,840 0,830 0,820 0,810 0,800 0,790 0,780 0,770 0,760
3
3
0
0
3
2
0
0
3
1
0
0
3
0
0
0
2
9
0
0
2
8
0
0
2
7
0
0
2
6
0
0
2
5
0
0
2
4
0
0
2
3
0
0
2
2
0
0
2
1
0
0
2
0
0
0
1
9
0
0
1
8
0
0
1
7
0
0
1
6
0
0
- 5
5
20
25

=
1
0
0

=
9
0

=
8
0

=
7
0

=
6
0

=
3
0
=
10
10
8
0
7
5
7
0
6
5
6
0
5
5
5
0
4
5
3
5
3
0
2
5
2
0
1
5

=
4
0
15

=
5
0
0

=
2
0
4
0
19 38
S
2

3

2

4

1
S
3
S
4
S
1
= S
A = 27C-50%

21 July 2006



Air conditioning systems Page 7/27 Air-water systems

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Central air handling unit with local adjustments (continued)
Operation
(continued)

Control At this given moment in time, the control system acts in the following way:

Space or central unit Heat-transfer equipment used Control
Central air handling unit Cooling coil The control system adjusts the
properties of the supply air,
which correspond to the supply
air conditions S
1
in the reference
space L
1
, based on the
temperature and humidity
measured by the sensors in L
1

L
1
N/A The control system regulates the
central unit
L
2
Heating coil
Steam humidifier

L
3
Cooling coil
Heating coil

L
4
Cooling coil










The control system (temperature
and humidity) regulates the
terminal units

21 July 2006



Air conditioning systems Page 8/27 Air-water systems

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Central air handling unit with local adjustments (continued)
Operation
(continued)

Schematic
diagram
The figure below shows an example of an installed system.
S
3
L
3
L
2
C
2
L
1
S
2
S
1
= S
S
S
S
T
T H
T H
exhaust
air
reference space
fresh
air
T H
F
3
S
4
L
4
T H
S
(1) (2)
(1) and (2) 2-way modulating or on/off valve
(3) 2-way on/off valve
(3)
R
(2) (3) (1)
(2) (3) (1)
(2) (3) (1)


21 July 2006



Air conditioning systems Page 9/27 Air-water systems

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Central air handling unit with local adjustments (continued)
Operation space
by space
This section describes how the system operates in each space.
Space L
1
This is the reference space; it controls the central air handling unit. Changes in
the thermal loads (sensible heat and latent heat) in this space will have an effect
on the conditions of the supply air (S) delivered by the central unit.
The properties of the air delivered to the space S
1
are the same as those of the
supply air S.
No terminal equipment is installed in space L
1
.

L
1
S
1
= S
S
T
T H
exhaust
air
reference space
fresh
air
R



21 July 2006



Air conditioning systems Page 10/27 Air-water systems

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Central air handling unit with local adjustments (continued)
Operation space
by space
(continued)

Space L
1
(continued)

45C 44 43 42 41 40C 39 37 36 35 34 33 32 31 30C 29 28 27 26 25C 24 23 22 21 20 18 17 16 15C 14 13 12 11 10C 9 8 7 6 5C 4 3 2 1 0C - 1 - 2 - 3 - 4
0,900 0,890 0,880 0,870 0,860 0,850 0,840 0,830 0,820 0,810 0,800 0,790 0,780 0,770
3
2
0
0
3
1
0
0
3
0
0
0
2
9
0
0
2
8
0
0
2
7
0
0
2
6
0
0
2
5
0
0
2
4
0
0
2
3
0
0
2
2
0
0
2
1
0
0
2
0
0
0
1
9
0
0
1
8
0
0
1
7
0
0
1
6
0
0
1
5
0
0
5
20
25

=
1
0
0

=
9
0

=
8
0

=
7
0

=
6
0

=
3
0
=
10
10
8
0
7
5
7
0
6
5
6
0
5
5
5
0
4
5
3
5
3
0
2
5

=
4
0
15

=
5
0
0

=
2
0
4
0
19 38

1
S
1
= S
A
1
= A = 27C-50%


1
= space line segment
S = primary air supply (from AHU)
S
1
= S = supply air conditions
I
1
= desired indoor environment = I
S
1
I
1
= change in the air in the space


21 July 2006



Air conditioning systems Page 11/27 Air-water systems

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Central air handling unit with local adjustments (continued)
Operation space
by space
(continued)

Space L
2
At this given moment there is little sensible heat and no humidity in this space.
The space will be warmed (heating coil) and humidified.
The terminal units (heating coil and humidifier) are controlled by the
temperature and humidity sensors in space A
2
.
This type of system, in which air that has been cooled and dehumidified is
warmed and rehumidified, is not ideal and should be used in exceptional cases
only.
L
2
C
2
L
1
S
2
S
1
= S
S
S
T
T H
T H
exhaust
air
reference space
fresh
air
S
(2) (3) (1)
R


21 July 2006



Air conditioning systems Page 12/27 Air-water systems

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Central air handling unit with local adjustments (continued)
Operation space
by space
(continued)

Space L
2

(continued)

46 45C 44 43 42 41 40C 39 37 36 35 34 33 32 31 30C 29 28 27 26 25C 24 23 22 21 20 18 17 16 15C 14 13 12 11 10C 9 8 7 6 5C 4 3 2 1 0C - 1 - 2 - 3 4
0,900 0,890 0,880 0,870 0,860 0,850 0,840 0,830 0,820 0,810 0,800 0,790 0,780 0,770
3
2
0
0
3
1
0
0
3
0
0
0
2
9
0
0
2
8
0
0
2
7
0
0
2
6
0
0
2
5
0
0
2
4
0
0
2
3
0
0
2
2
0
0
2
1
0
0
2
0
0
0
1
9
0
0
1
8
0
0
1
7
0
0
1
6
0
0
1
5
0
0
5
20

=
1
0
0

=
9
0

=
8
0

=
7
0

=
6
0

=
3
0
=
10
10
5
5
5
0
4
5
3
5
3
0
2
5

=
4
0
15

=
5
0
0

=
2
0
4
0
19 38

2
S
2
S
C
2
A
2
= A = 27C-50%


2
= space line segment
S = primary air supply (from AHU)
H
2
= supply conditions from additional heating coil (warming S H2)
S
2
= supply air conditions (humidification H2 S2)
I
2
= desired indoor environment = I
S
2
I
2
= change in the air in the space


21 July 2006



Air conditioning systems Page 13/27 Air-water systems

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Central air handling unit with local adjustments (continued)
Operation space
by space
(continued)

Space L
3
The humidity in this space is high at this particular moment in time. The air thus
needs to be cooled to condense the moisture in it, then warmed in order to obtain
a correct supply air temperature.
The humidity sensor controls the cooling coil (cooling with dehumidification
SC
3
) and the temperature sensor controls the heating coil (warming C
3
S
3
).
S
3
L
3
L
2
C
2
L
1
S
2
S
1
= S
S
S
S
T
T H
T H
exhaust
air
reference spaces
fresh
air
T H
F
3
S
R
(2) (3) (1)
(2) (3) (1)


21 July 2006



Air conditioning systems Page 14/27 Air-water systems

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Central air handling unit with local adjustments (continued)
Operation space
by space
(continued)

Space L
3

(continued)

46 45C 44 43 42 41 40C 39 37 36 35 34 33 32 31 30C 29 28 27 26 25C 24 23 22 21 20 18 17 16 15C 14 13 12 11 10C 9 8 7 6 5C 4 3 2 1 0C - 1 - 2 - 3
0,900 0,890 0,880 0,870 0,860 0,850 0,840 0,830 0,820 0,810 0,800 0,790 0,780 0,770
3
2
0
0
3
1
0
0
3
0
0
0
2
9
0
0
2
8
0
0
2
7
0
0
2
6
0
0
2
5
0
0
2
4
0
0
2
3
0
0
2
2
0
0
2
1
0
0
2
0
0
0
1
9
0
0
1
8
0
0
1
7
0
0
1
6
0
0
1
5
0
0
5
20
25

=
1
0
0

=
9
0

=
8
0

=
7
0

=
6
0

=
3
0
=
10
10
8
0
7
5
7
0
6
5
6
0
5
5
5
0
4
5
3
5
3
0
2
5

=
4
0
15

=
5
0
0

=
2
0
4
0
19 38

3
A
3
= A = 27C-50%
S
3
10
F
3
S


3
= line segment
S = primary air supply (from AHU)
C
3
= supply conditions from additional cooling coil (cooling and
dehumidification = SC3)
S
3
= supply conditions from additional heating coil (warming C3 S3)
S
3
= supply air conditions
I
3
= desired indoor environment = I
I
3
I
3
= change in the air in the space

21 July 2006



Air conditioning systems Page 15/27 Air-water systems

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Central air handling unit with local adjustments (continued)
Operation space
by space
(continued)

Space L
4
The sensible load and humidity in this space are high at this particular moment in
time. Low-temperature air may be supplied, as the space is unoccupied.
The control system will regulate the cooling coil based on the temperature and
humidity levels measured.

S
3
L
3
L
2
C
2
L
1
S
2
S
1
= S
S
S
S
S
T
T H
T H
exhaust
air
reference space
fresh
air
T H
F
3
S
4
L
4
T H
S
R
(2) (3) (1)
(2) (3) (1)
(2) (3) (1)


21 July 2006



Air conditioning systems Page 16/27 Air-water systems

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Central air handling unit with local adjustments (continued)
Operation space
by space
(continued)

Space L
4

(continued)

46 45C 44 43 42 41 40C 39 37 36 35 34 33 32 31 30C 29 28 27 26 25C 24 23 22 21 20 18 17 16 15C 14 13 12 11 10C 9 8 7 6 5C 4 3 2 1 0C - 1 - 2 - 3
0,900 0,890 0,880 0,870 0,860 0,850 0,840 0,830 0,820 0,810 0,800 0,790 0,780 0,770
3
2
0
0
3
1
0
0
3
0
0
0
2
9
0
0
2
8
0
0
2
7
0
0
2
6
0
0
2
5
0
0
2
4
0
0
2
3
0
0
2
2
0
0
2
1
0
0
2
0
0
0
1
9
0
0
1
8
0
0
1
7
0
0
1
6
0
0
1
5
0
0
5
20
25

=
1
0
0

=
9
0

=
8
0

=
7
0

=
6
0

=
3
0
=
10
10
8
0
7
5
7
0
6
5
6
0
5
5
5
0
4
5
3
5
3
0
2
5

=
4
0
15

=
5
0
0

=
2
0
4
0
19 38
A
4
= A = 27C-50%

4 F
4
S
4
S


4
= line segment
S = supply of primary air from AHU
F
4
= S
4
= supply conditions from additional cooling coil (cooling)
S
4
= supply air conditions
I
4
= desired indoor environment = I
S
4
I
4
= change in the air in the space


21 July 2006



Air conditioning systems Page 17/27 Air-water systems

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Air handling unit with induction units
Concept This system, which combines a central air handling unit and induction units, is
mentioned simply as a reminder. Used widely in large building complexes
starting in the mid-1960s, it was abruptly abandoned in 1973, when the world
faced its first oil crisis.
What makes this system different is that it makes use of fanless terminal units:
primary air is injected through an array of nozzles at high velocity, creating an
induction effect that pulls space air through an induction unit coil,
only fresh air is fed into the central air handling unit. The air must be fully
conditioned, i.e. warmed, cooled, dehumidified or humidified. The air velocity
is relatively high, and represents two to three times the volume of the space.
The primary air is distributed at high velocity (HP) for efficient induction. On
the one hand, this decreases the dimensions of the ducts. On the other, it
increases fan power and noise levels.



21 July 2006



Air conditioning systems Page 18/27 Air-water systems

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Central unit with induction units (continued)
Operation
Air handling
unit
While the air handling unit itself is conventional in design, its components vary
depending on the type of conditioning desired.
The fan inside the unit must be designed to deliver air at high velocity and high
pressure.




21 July 2006



Air conditioning systems Page 19/27 Air-water systems

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Central unit with induction units (continued)
Operation
(continued)

Induction unit Primary air is injected into the space at high velocity by nozzles. Space air
(secondary air) is pulled into the unit by induction. The volume of the secondary
air may be up to six times greater than that of the primary air.
The temperature of the primary air can be raised or lowered
by the induction unit coils.
The secondary air is conditioned by these coils, which may be two-pipe,
four-pipe or two-pipe/two-wire.






21 July 2006



Air conditioning systems Page 20/27 Air-water systems

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Central unit with induction units (continued)
Operation
(continued)

Induction unit
(continued)
A thermostat in each space controls the induction unit coils to produce the
necessary space conditions.


fresh
air
only
C or F
Induction unit in space
primary air distributed
at high pressure
conditioning of primary air
(dew point process)
T
antifreeze protection necessary
(glycol/water mix or preheating coil)

21 July 2006



Air conditioning systems Page 21/27 Air-water systems

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Central unit with induction units (continued)
Mollier chart Primary air (PA) conditioned in the fresh-air handling unit is mixed with space
air (secondary air) that has been conditioned by the induction unit.

: space line segment
PA : primary air (from nozzles)
I : indoor environment (properties of
secondary air prior to conditioning)
C : supply from cooling coil (properties of
secondary air after passing over cooling coil)
S : supply = mix of primary air and secondary air
SA : change in the air in the space
C
S
PA
I


Field of
application
This system lends itself to use in office buildings, where there is a need for air
that is tailored to individual needs.

21 July 2006



Air conditioning systems Page 22/27 Air-water systems

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Central fresh-air handling unit and fan coil unit
Concept In most cases, a fan-coil air-conditioning system is installed with a separate
fresh-air handling unit.
There are two types of fresh-air handling:
Exhaust: single-flow mechanical ventilation,
Exhaust and supply: dual-flow mechanical ventilation.

Single-flow
mechanical
ventilation
Fresh air is introduced into a space through self-adjusting outdoor air inlets
located near the ceiling, leading to uneven temperatures (uncontrollable streams
of warm or cool air) which are unpleasant.
Fresh air can also be introduced directly into the fan coil unit.

discharge
hallway office
hallway office
service shaft
fan coil units with single-flow ventilation

21 July 2006



Air conditioning systems Page 23/27 Air-water systems

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Central fresh-air handling unit and fan coil unit (continued)
Concept
(continued)

Dual-flow
mechanical
ventilation
A special air handling unit that both supplies and extracts air as well as
conditions fresh air.
If fresh air is conditioned by the unit (cooling-heating-humidification), an
air-water system can be added.
In this case fresh air is carried to the space and delivered:
directly in the served space,
or to the intake on the fan coil unit.

office
office
service
shaft
fan coil units and with dual-flow ventilation
hallway
hallway
T
exhaust
air
fresh
air
(1) (2) (3)
H
R


21 July 2006



Air conditioning systems Page 24/27 Air-water systems

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Central fresh-air handling unit and fan coil unit (continued)
Concept
(continued)

Dual-flow
mechanical
ventilation
(continued)
The figure below illustrates a system installed in a hotel room.
hallway
stale air in extracted in the bathroom and the toilets
fresh air
bedroom
bedroom
room entrance airlock
room entrance
airlock
air extraction
supply of fresh air
hallway



21 July 2006



Air conditioning systems Page 25/27 Air-water systems

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Central fresh-air handling unit and fan coil unit (continued)
Mollier chart Several scenarios can be compared. The indoor and outdoor conditions are the
same in each case. The thermal loads remain the same and the space line
segment is constant.
The air is handled differently by the fan coil unit.

Unconditioned
fresh air
Introduced at top of space:
I
I
O
O
S'
S'
S
S

E
: space line segment
O : properties of the outdoor air
I : properties of the indoor air
S' : properties of the conditioned air
(supply from cooling coil on fan coil unit)
S : mix of fresh air (O) et de l'air
trait (S')
SA : change in the air in the environment
unconditioned fresh air introduced
at the top of the space
Introduced in fan coil unit:
O : properties of the outdoor air
I : properties of the indoor environment
M : mix of fresh air/recirculated air
S : properties of the supply air
(supply from cooling coil on fan coil unit)
SA : change in the air in the environment

E
: space line segment
unconditioned fresh air introduced
in the fan coil unit
I
M
S
O
I
O
S

E

21 July 2006



Air conditioning systems Page 26/27 Air-water systems

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Central fresh-air handling unit and fan coil unit (continued)
Mollier chart
(continued)

Conditioned
fresh air
(Cooled air) introduced at top of space:

I
I
O
S'
S'
S
S
N
N

E
: space line segment
O : properties of the outdoor air
I : properties of the indoor environment
N : properties of the cooled fresh air
S' : properties of the conditioned air
(supply from cooling coil on fan coil unit)
S : mix of fresh air (O) and conditioned air (S')
SA : change in the air in the environment
cooled fresh air introduced at
the top of the space

(Cooled air) introduced in fan coil unit:
I
I
O
N
M
S
S
N
M

E
: space line segment
O : properties of the outdoor air
I : properties of the indoor environment
N : properties of the cooled fresh air
M : properties of the fresh air (N)
recirculated air (I) mix
S : supply air conditions (supply from
cooling coil on fan coil unit)
SA : change in the air in the environment
cooled fresh air introduced in the fan
coil unit


21 July 2006



Air conditioning systems Page 27/27 Air-water systems

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Central fresh-air handling unit and fan coil unit (continued)
Area of use This system (fan coil unit with separate distribution of preconditioned fresh air)
is satisfactory for use in:
office buildings,
classrooms,
hotel rooms,
small computer rooms.
The adjustable fan speed and temperature settings are positive points.




21 July 2006



Air conditioning systems Page 1/32 Direct-expansion systems

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
C
C
C
h
h
h
a
a
a
p
p
p
t
t
t
e
e
e
r
r
r


5
5
5


:
:
:


D
D
D
i
i
i
r
r
r
e
e
e
c
c
c
t
t
t
-
-
-
e
e
e
x
x
x
p
p
p
a
a
a
n
n
n
s
s
s
i
i
i
o
o
o
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Air conditioning systems Page 2/32 Direct-expansion systems

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Contents
Basic concept ........................................................................................................... 3
Definition....................................................................................................................................... 3
Refrigeration unit ......................................................................................................................... 3
Packaged rooftop air conditioners or self-contained rooftop units..................... 7
Definition....................................................................................................................................... 7
Concept ......................................................................................................................................... 8
Locations of components.......................................................................................................... 10
Gas heating module................................................................................................................... 11
Operation .................................................................................................................................... 12
Use............................................................................................................................................... 15
Control and communication...................................................................................................... 17
Field of application..................................................................................................................... 19
Vertical self-contained air conditioning units ...................................................... 20
Concept ....................................................................................................................................... 20
Operation .................................................................................................................................... 21
Use............................................................................................................................................... 24
Field of application..................................................................................................................... 27
Self-contained air conditioners ............................................................................. 28
Concept ....................................................................................................................................... 28
Operation .................................................................................................................................... 28
Categories of air conditioner..................................................................................................... 31
Variable refrigerant flow......................................................................................... 32
Concept ....................................................................................................................................... 32
Main applications ....................................................................................................................... 32

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Air conditioning systems Page 3/32 Direct-expansion systems

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Basic concept
Definition A direct-expansion system makes use of the phenomenon of the change in state
of a fluid known as a refrigerant.


In order to
vaporise
a liquid absorbs heat
In order to
condense
a gas must give up heat (be
cooled)

Refrigeration unit The concept of direct expansion is related to the concept of refrigeration units.
A direct-expansion system is any type of system that directly uses a
refrigeration unit to cool the air in a space:
packaged rooftop air conditioners or self-contained rooftop units.
vertical self-contained air conditioning units,
vertical self-contained units for computer rooms,
self-contained air conditioners,
variable refrigerant flow systems.

Components In addition to its accessories, a refrigeration unit contains four components, each
with a particular role of its own:
evaporator
expansion valve
compressor
condenser


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Air conditioning systems Page 4/32 Direct-expansion systems

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Basic concept (continued)
Refrigeration unit
(continued)

Components
(continued)
The following table describes the changes that refrigerant undergoes in each of
the four components as well as its effect on air or water:

Component Change in refrigerant Effect on air
or water
State Temperature Pressure
Evaporator changes from liquid
to vapour
constant
temperature
constant pressure:
low pressure
cooling
Compressor stays a vapour rise in temperature
rise in pressure:
low to high pressure
N/A
Condenser changes from vapour
to liquid
constant
temperature
constant pressure:
high pressure
warming
Expansion
valve
vaporises partially drop in
temperature
drop in pressure:
high to low pressure
(liquid)
N/A

Note: the change in state at constant temperature and pressure occurs only with
refrigerants that are:
single-compound (R-22, R-134a),
azeotropic blends (R-502).
In the case of non-azeotropic refrigerants (such as R-407c and R-410a), the
change in state occurs with a change in temperature and pressure throughout the
exchanger (evaporator and condenser).


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Air conditioning systems Page 5/32 Direct-expansion systems

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Basic concept (continued)
Refrigeration unit
(continued)

Refrigeration
and heating

Experience shows that a refrigeration unit automatically creates heat.
This heat is recoverable and it is perfectly feasible to use a condenser as a
heating coil.

compressor
LP HP
air warming
air cooling
condenser evaporator
expansion valve





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Air conditioning systems Page 6/32 Direct-expansion systems

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Basic concept (continued)
Refrigeration unit
(continued)

Circuit
reversibility
A refrigeration unit uses an evaporator to cool indoor air when the weather is
warm.
This cycle can be reversed to make the evaporator work like a condenser so that
it warms indoor air in cool weather.
This is achieved by a four-way reversing valve.
In this case, the unit is referred to as a heat pump or a reversible air conditioner.

1
Indoor coil operates as an evaporator in the summer and a condenser in the
winter.
2
Compressor.
3
Outdoor coil operates as a condenser in the summer and an evaporator in the
winter.
4
Thermostatic expansion valve.



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Air conditioning systems Page 7/32 Direct-expansion systems

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Packaged rooftop air conditioners or self-contained rooftop
units
Definition This type of air conditioning unit is used to meet the following needs:
cooling,
heating,
filtration,
ventilation,
air change (fresh air in, stale air out).
It is called self-contained because the cooling section and heating section are
housed inside the same enclosure. The enclosure is a one-piece unit designed
specifically for installation on building rooftops.



The air distribution system is connected to ductwork via a base, or roof curb,
that can be levelled to accommodate a slightly sloped roof. Once this base is
installed, it is connected to ducts that run throughout the building. It is then
sealed and the air conditioners are delivered.


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Air conditioning systems Page 8/32 Direct-expansion systems

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Packaged rooftop air conditioners or self-contained rooftop
units (continued)
Concept A rooftop air conditioner is divided into two separate compartments:
air handling,
reverse cooling and heating.
Note:
In a gas-fired unit, the gas heating module is located in the air stream in the
air handling compartment.
In a hot-water unit, the boiler is not located inside.

outdoor fan
metal filter
for fresh air
.
mixing box
control
dampers
EU4 filters mounted
on racks
outdoor heat exchanger,
condenser or evaporator
with reversing valve

centrifugal fan
motor
smoke detector

additional hot water
or electric heating coil
exhaust air
(if discharged)
hermetic centrifugal
compressor
location of gas module
(gas-fired unit)
refrigerant coil


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Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Packaged rooftop air conditioners or self-contained rooftop
units (continued)
Concept
(continued)

Air handling
compartment
The components and their features are described in the following table:
Components Features
Fresh air/recirculated air mixing
box (motorisable)
Free cooling possible
Filtration
Low-efficiency filtration on fresh air
Medium-efficiency filtration on mixed
air
Direct-expansion cooling coil Can be reversed to run as a heating coil
(reverse-cycle heat pump version)
Heating coil
or
Built-in gas burner
Hot water
Electric
Gas-fired
Centrifugal fan motor assembly Air moved vertically through the bottom of
the unit
Axial fan motor assembly
(options)
Air extraction

Energy
production
compartment
This is a refrigeration unit that can be equipped with a reversing valve.
Components Features
Hermetic compressor motor
assembly
In units with two compressors
One or two compressors depending on the
capacity
Two refrigerant lines
Condensation coil Can be reversed to run as an evaporator
(reverse-cycle heat pump version)
Four-way valve Reverses direction of refrigerant flow
Axial fan motor assembly Circulates air through the condensation coil
Electrical panel Power, automation and control equipment

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Air conditioning systems Page 10/32 Direct-expansion systems

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Packaged rooftop air conditioners or self-contained rooftop
units (continued)
Locations of
components
The figure below shows the locations of the various components in their
individual compartments.




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Air conditioning systems Page 11/32 Direct-expansion systems

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Packaged rooftop air conditioners or self-contained rooftop
units (continued)
Locations of
components
(continued)
The figure below shows the locations of the various components in their
individual compartments.



Gas heating
module


Components Features
High-efficiency atmospheric burners combined with
a tubular heat exchanger with high-efficiency
turbulators
Two-speed control
Control unit and electronic safety Controls the ignition of each burner by ionisation
electrodes
Combustion circuit Designed to prevent flue gases being recirculated in
the air stream
Smoke exhaust fans Circulates the necessary amount of air to the
burners

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Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Packaged rooftop air conditioners or self-contained rooftop
units (continued)
Operation Self-contained rooftop units were initially designed for use in large commercial
spaces open to the public, as the amount of fresh air introduced can be adjusted
to the number of people present. The mixing box is usually motorised and the
amount of fresh air introduced into the circuit can be varied.

Minimum fresh
air control
Minimum fresh air control is used for both indoor cooling (when the outdoor
temperature is higher than the indoor temperature) and indoor heating needs.
The diagram below shows standard summer or winter operation with a minimum
amount of fresh air introduced for a reversible heat-pump system.


return air
supply
air
fresh air

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Air conditioning systems Page 13/32 Direct-expansion systems

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Packaged rooftop air conditioners or self-contained rooftop
units (continued)
Operation
(continued)

Free cooling
(economiser)
During mild weather the outdoor temperature can at times be lower than the
indoor temperature. However, the indoor loads may occasionally be high enough
to necessitate cooling. In such cases the economic option would be to use the
cooling capacity of fresh air from outdoors.
This is called free cooling: outdoor air that is lower in temperature than the
indoor air is used for cooling.




The flow of air is adjusted by the control system and the compressors stop.
If the cooling demand is higher than the supply of cool fresh air, then:
The dampers move to the all fresh air position.
The compressors are turned on and off as needed by the control system.





fresh air

return air

supply air


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Air conditioning systems Page 14/32 Direct-expansion systems

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Packaged rooftop air conditioners or self-contained rooftop
units (continued)
Operation
(continued)


Configurations A number of configurations are possible:
standard case without air extraction.
Air is returned and supplied at the bottom of the rooftop unit and passes through
a mixing for:
Partial recirculation with a minimum of clean fresh air.
Economiser operation.
fresh air
return air
supply air
gas
or


With air extraction.
In this case the mixing box operates as described above:
Air is exhausted by a fan.
fresh air
return air
supply air
exhaust air
gas
or


Other configurations allow air to be supplied and returned horizontally.


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Air conditioning systems Page 15/32 Direct-expansion systems

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Packaged rooftop air conditioners or self-contained rooftop
units (continued)
Use Self-contained rooftop units are delivered ready for use and simply require
connection to a buildings electrical, hot water, gas and duct systems.
In most cases, many units will be installed on the roof of a building at the same
time. Full coordination may prove difficult on account of manufacturing times
and how quickly heavy and light construction work is completed.
This is where the benefit of the roof curb, which is delivered in a matter of days,
can be easily seen.

Role of the roof
curb
The roof curb is an adjustable base that connects the rooftop unit to the roof of a
building and has the following features:
Can be levelled to accommodate a roof slope of up to 6%.
Protected by aluminium-covered thermal and acoustic insulation.
Designed for easy connection to ducts and hydraulic lines and routing of
electrical wiring.
Is sealed with gaskets and flashing.



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Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Packaged rooftop air conditioners or self-contained rooftop
units (continued)
Use (continued)
Role of the roof
curb
(continued)
Rooftop units are airlifted onto roofs by helicopter.





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Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Packaged rooftop air conditioners or self-contained rooftop
units (continued)
Control and
communication

Control The MRS2 or pCOc control and display module performs the following
functions:
Checks temperatures via a thermistor (return or ambient air, supply air,
outdoor air, mixed air, coil refrigerant).
Monitors all safety parameters (hot-water antifreeze, overheating of electric
resistance heaters, HP, LP, smoke detection, filter fouling, low air flow,
motor thermal cut-outs).
Optimises refrigeration and heating and controls the cooling and heating
stages.
Manages the various functions: startup priority, short-cycle protection,
defrosting, load shedding, unoccupied mode.



Remote control A remote control with display, setpoint change keys, controls (on/off, heating,
cooling, ventilation) and operation and fault lights can be used.




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Air conditioning systems Page 18/32 Direct-expansion systems

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Packaged rooftop air conditioners or self-contained rooftop
units (continued)
Control and
communication
(continued)

Communication
with a BMS
All rooftop air conditioners installed on the same building are series connected
by a communication bus (two-wire phone cable) to a compatible or standalone
microcomputer. The system is controlled by a user-friendly software program
that can be used in particular to program on-off times and zone-by-zone load
shedding.
This computerised communication system offers the following benefits:
flexibility,
quick action,
remote maintenance monitoring.


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Air conditioning systems Page 19/32 Direct-expansion systems

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Packaged rooftop air conditioners or self-contained rooftop
units (continued)
Field of
application
Rooftop units are designed for large volumes of air with high thermal loads and
relatively slow variations.
Indoor thermal loads predominate over outdoor loads in the following types of
space:
superstores (hyper- and supermarkets),
speciality stores,
workshops.



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Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Vertical self-contained air conditioning units
Concept
Water version A vertical water-cooled self-contained air conditioner houses air handling and
refrigeration components in the same enclosure:
The one-piece cabinet houses a water-cooled condenser, among other
components.
The air handling fan allows the unit to be connected to ductwork (possible
pressure loss of 100-150 Pa).
A distribution plenum and grilles with directional louvres may be added to
blow air directly in spaces.
A heating coil (water or electric) may be installed inside the unit.
Return air is drawn in either through the front (unit inside space and direct
return) or the rear (unit in a mechanical room and ductwork).



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Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Vertical self-contained air conditioning units (continued)
Concept
(continued)

Air version In units with a separate air-cooled condenser, the compressors remain inside the
air conditioner (indoor section). The air-cooled condenser is equipped with axial
fans and designed for installation outdoors (outdoor section).





Operation
Water version A vertical water-cooled self-contained air conditioner has its own control
system, in the form of a two-stage thermostat, and a two-way water regulating
valve.

Note:
If the unit is connected to a cooling tower circuit (hence with a circulation
pump), a bypass with a relief valve must be installed in order to control
condensation pressure.




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Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Vertical self-contained air conditioning units (continued)
Operation
(continued)

Water version
(continued)
The diagrams below illustrate the various connections for a vertical water-cooled
self-contained air conditioning unit :
vertical AC connected to a
municipal water supply system
fresh air inlet
conditioned
air
return air
filter
compressor
evaporator
fan
space
water-cooled
condenser
fresh air inlet
conditioned
air
return air
filter
evaporator
compressor
fan
space
water-cooled
condenser
Vertical AC with
water-cooled condenser
fan
water spray
cleaning tap
air inlet
collection basin
wet deck
overflow
screen filter
pump
treated makeup
water inlet
vertical AC connected to a cooling
tower water circuit


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Air conditioning systems Page 23/32 Direct-expansion systems

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Vertical self-contained air conditioning units (continued)
Operation
(continued)

Air version Refrigerant is supplied to and from the indoor unit and the air-cooled condenser
through precharged lines measuring a maximum of 15 metres in length.
These lines are fitted with frangible-diaphragm couplings.

fresh air inlet
vertical AC with
water-cooled condenser
conditioned
air
return air
filter
compressor
evaporator
fan


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Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Vertical self-contained air conditioning units (continued)
Use A vertical self-contained air conditioner is a complete (packaged or split) unit.
Relatively simple to use, it should not pose any problems.
A number of precautions are nevertheless necessary.

Selection Balances are usually calculated for extreme conditions, i.e. maximum outdoor
temperatures, exposure to extreme sunlight, maximum space loads.
Direct expansion lacks flexibility:
one stage for one compressor (0-100%),
two stages for two compressors (0-50-100%).
It is therefore wise to avoid oversizing.
The heating coil should be at least of the same size as the cooling coil to avoid
any risk of temperature drift.

Location and
distribution of
air
Noise emitted by the air conditioning is transmitted in two ways:
it is radiated by the entire enclosure,
it is carried by the stream of air.
It is therefore clear that location and the air distribution method play an
important role.
The three examples on the following pages illustrate this design aspect.



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Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Vertical self-contained air conditioning units (continued)
Use (continued)
Location and
distribution of
air (continued)
Example 1: Direct supply and return air:
The enclosure is located in the space:
When air is supplied and returned directly, noise is carried directly into the
space by the air stream.
Nothing can be done to address the problem.
This noise adds to noise radiated by the enclosure.
The result will depend greatly on whether the space is reverberating,
semi-reverberating or noise-absorbing.
Important:
Remember to consider the effect the air-cooled condenser will have on the
outdoor environment.

fresh air inlet
Vertical AC, separate air-cooled condenser, direct air
supply via plenum, direct return




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Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Vertical self-contained air conditioning units (continued)
Use (continued)
Location and
distribution of
air (continued)
Example 2: ducted supply air:
The enclosure is located in the space:
Part of the problem may be addressed by installing sound insulation inside the
supply air duct.
Noise at the direct return and radiated noise must be addressed.
The quality of the space will also play a major role.


fresh air inlet
possible sound insulation
Vertical AC, air-cooled condenser, ducted supply air, direct retrurn
space




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Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Vertical self-contained air conditioning units (continued)
Use (continued)
Location and
distribution of
air (continued)
Example 3: ducted supply and return air:
The enclosure is located in an adjacent mechanical room:
noise is radiated into the mechanical room. The partition wall may be
sufficiently thick to prevent noise leaching into the space,
sound attenuators can be added or ducts lined with insulation.

Vertical AC, water-cooled condenser, ducted supply and return air
space
sound
attenuators


Field of
application
Vertical self-contained air conditioners are generally designed for use in
medium-size commercial and industrial spaces with high heat gains:
laboratories,
shops,
offices,
small meeting rooms.


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Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Self-contained air conditioners
Concept A self-contained air conditioner is a refrigeration unit made up two sets of
equipment:
refrigeration equipment,
cool air distribution equipment.

Refrigeration equipment Cool air distribution equipment
Compressor
Air-cooled condenser with fan
(or water-cooled condenser)
Control and automation panel
Air filter
Air distribution fan
Evaporator coil

Expansion valve

Structure Both sets of equipment can be housed together in single unit to form a
packaged air conditioner.
Or each set can be housed in its own enclosure to form a split air conditioner.

Purpose These types of air conditioner can be equipped with a heating coil (hot water or
electric) to provide heating during cold weather.
An air conditioner equipped with a refrigerant reversing valve is called reversible
and can be used to produce heat.
A self-contained air conditioner is generally a unitary system ready for
installation. It is designed more for comfort air conditioning than for precision
air conditioning.

Operation
Self-contained air conditioners are especially designed for individual air
conditioning of small spaces.
Its control is usually simple. The compressor is turned on and off by a thermostat
either built into or outside the air conditioner.
Some models allow the air-handling fan speed to be controlled automatically or
manually (1, 2 or 3 speeds) for quick warm-up times and quite temperature
holding.

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Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Self-contained air conditioners (continued)
Operation
(continued)
The figure below illustrates an installed space air conditioner.

INDOOR UNIT
HEAT EXCHANGER
REFRIGERANT/INDOOR AIR
EXPANSION VALVE
REFRIGERANT LINE
OUTDOOR UNIT
COMPRESSOR
HEAT EXCHANGER
REFRIGERANT/OUTDOOR
AIR OR WATER
CIAT


More sophisticated models are controlled by a microprocessor to adjust
performance levels specifically to indoor and outdoor conditions and feature
programmable operating modes.





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Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Self-contained air conditioners (continued)
Operation
(continued)





Self-contained air conditioners have several modes:
Reversible (summer/winter).
Sleep: the air flow and temperature are adjusted during sleeping times.
Frost protection: when absent for long periods of time (holidays, weekends).
Economy: adjusts the space temperature based on the outdoor temperature.
Programming: weekly or automatic.



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Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Self-contained air conditioners (continued)
Operation
(continued)

Operating mode Selected in Illustration
Weekly program daily sequence




Programme 1
PROGRAM
Off
M T W Th F Sa Su
Off
On

hourly sequence





Programme 2
PROGRAM
Off
M
0 6 12 18 24
hours
T W Th F Sa Su
Off
On

Automatic mode setpoint displayed and
information sent by
equipment sensors
Heating Cooling
AUTOMATIC MODE
Ventilation
Setpoint Ambient temp.

Categories of air
conditioner
All air conditioners are designed using the same refrigeration principle. They are
categorised by type of operation:
air-cooled condenser (axial or centrifugal),
water-cooled condenser,
packaged or split (single or multisplit),
stationary or portable,
wall or ceiling-mounted (with or without available pressure),
cassette.


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Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Variable refrigerant flow
Concept In the direct-expansion system illustrated below, each outdoor unit serves
several indoor units via three refrigerant lines:
HP gas,
LP gas,
HP liquid.

Operation Depending on the requirement (cooling or heating) in each served space, each
indoor unit taps onto the two lines needed and operates as either an evaporator or
a condenser.

Need
Lines used
Cooling HP liquid after expansion
LP gas
Heating HP gas
HP liquid

Main applications These types of unit are used in:
offices and hotels,
small and medium-size buildings.
They are well suited for use in existing buildings.


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Air conditioning systems Page 1/24 Computer room systems

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
C
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Air conditioning systems Page 2/24 Computer room systems

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0

Contents
Contents .................................................................................................................... 2
Specific features of computer rooms ..................................................................... 3
General .......................................................................................................................................... 3
Requirements ............................................................................................................................... 3
Room design................................................................................................................................. 5
Air conditioning systems for computer rooms.................................................... 16
General ........................................................................................................................................ 16
Local systems............................................................................................................................. 16
Central systems.......................................................................................................................... 20

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Air conditioning systems Page 3/24 Computer room systems

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Specific features of computer rooms
General Demands imposed by computer systems are what gave rise to new concepts in:
spaces containing computers,
air handling equipment (consoles or computer cabinets),
maintenance and security.
Computer systems are very tough customers.
The design and building of a high-level computer room require the concerted
effort of a team made up of:
the building designer,
the user,
the computer system vendor,
the air conditioning specialist.

Requirements
Filtration Dust is certainly one the worst enemies of any computer system.
In his book La filtration de lair, Jean-Yves Rault gives the example of the read
head in a computer hard drive, which flies at about m above the disk surface.
The figure below shows the size of a read/write head compared to conventional
types of dust.


Requirements in terms of filtration, building design and access conditions must
therefore be met.


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Air conditioning systems Page 4/24 Computer room systems

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Specific features of computer rooms (continued)
Requirements
(continued)

Climatic
conditions
As a safety measure, computer manufacturers will specify or confirm the
optimum operating conditions for their equipment. The average values currently
allowed for computers while operating are given in the table below.

Environmental factor Contractually binding
value
Degree of accuracy
requested
temperature +22C 1C
humidity 50% 10%
The temperature may drift slightly during periods of non-use. Only the
manufacturer may provide the low limit value. This value is what determines the
risk of internal condensation specific to each item of electronic equipment
(mean value +17C).

Reminder When a body heats up, it tends to take up (or absorb) moisture from the
surrounding air.
When a computer is turned off, its internal components cool down and return this
moisture (or desorb) back to the air. Desorption causes the humidity to rise
locally and drives the dew point higher than that of the ambient air.



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Air conditioning systems Page 5/24 Computer room systems

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Specific features of computer rooms (continued)
Requirements
(continued)

Current trend As computers are becoming less sensitive, the number of space conditioning
requirements is also diminishing and accuracy is no longer a matter of concern.
The rate at which conditions vary must, however, remain low.

Security Given the important roles computer systems play in running a companys
processes or services, security is a factor of prime consideration. A backup is
therefore a requirement for computer rooms.

Room design Logic implies that issues surrounding computer systems be taken into
consideration when designing spaces (new buildings) or selecting them
(retrofitted buildings).

Issue to be solved is stated and defined

Computer system approach is created

Hardware is selected

Hardware is laid out for optimum performance

Dimensions of ideal space defined

For obvious economic reasons, this process, when followed to the letter, does not
always result in the ideal space.
A few factors that make up the ideal space are given on the following pages.

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Air conditioning systems Page 6/24 Computer room systems

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Specific features of computer rooms (continued)
Room design
(continued)

Floor plan
dimensions
They depend on how the equipment will be placed to accommodate the
requirements of each technician.
This implies a concerted design effort from all trades involved.

Type of
equipment to be
installed
Factors to be taken into
consideration
Comments
Computer
Must be located logically and
operationally close together
Length of interconnection cables
How the equipment will be used
Maintenance (locations of inside
access points)
Some components
are particularly
polluting
(printers) or noisy
Electrical
Locations of electrical cabinets
Motor generator sets (if any)

Air conditioning
Locations of units
Access points for maintenance

Alarms and security
Locations of cabinets
Access points for maintenance





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Air conditioning systems Page 7/24 Computer room systems

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Specific features of computer rooms (continued)
Room design
(continued)

Floor plan
dimensions
(continued)
Various layouts are possible, for example:
emergency exit
R R
R
= return air fan or air handling unit
anteroom
-ramp
access
R

In small rooms, equipment can be arranged in two parallel rows with a centre
aisle. Here, air handling units and return air fans are located at intervals between
the computers.

R R R R R
R R R R R
= return air fan or air handling unit R
console
anteroom-ramp
p
r
i
n
t
e
r
s
2
0

m
d
i
s
k
s

a
n
d

t
a
p
e
s
CPU


In the case of large rooms, two particular factors must be taken into account:
CPUs and disk drives release large amounts of heat,
Printers generate both dust and noise.

21 July 2006



Air conditioning systems Page 8/24 Computer room systems

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Specific features of computer rooms (continued)
Room design
(continued)

Height
In addition to the height needed by computers and air conditioners, the aspect of
raised floors and/or suspended ceilings also needs to be considered.

Small rooms Large rooms
Raised floor
Virtually always necessary
Used to conceal power supply cables
Interunit connections
Used to route coaxial cables to hubs
Used to conceal hydraulic
lines for air handling units
or supply/return air ducts

Minimum height: 0.25 m
Used to deliver supply air

Minimum height: 0.50 m
Suspended
ceiling
Not absolutely necessary
May be used for recessed
lighting


Depth: 0.20 m
A must
Lighting wiring (separate
circuitry)
Safety lighting
Supply or return air ducts
Depth: 0.70-1 m
(1 m if air delivered through
ceiling registers)
The usable height between a raised floor and a suspended ceiling is approximately:
2.4-2.6 m in small rooms,
2.6-2.8 m in large rooms.
The minimum total floor-to-ceiling space is:
2.65 m in small rooms without suspended ceilings,
3.90-4.20 m in large rooms with suspended ceilings.

It is therefore clear that a small room can be retrofitted in standard existing spaces
(make sure the floor can withstand the extra weight).
Large rooms require custom spaces with high ceilings.

21 July 2006



Air conditioning systems Page 9/24 Computer room systems

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Specific features of computer rooms (continued)
Room design
(continued)

Height
(continued)
The figure below illustrates an underfloor, or downflow, air distribution system.
The supply air is delivered underneath the raised floor:
either without any ducts (positive-pressure raised floor),
or via ducts.

computer
room
raised floor plenum
computer computer
wall
covering
precision air handling cabinet
CIATRONIC
with reverse forced air


The air in the space is conditioned by a vertical self-contained unit.
Air is delivered either:
into the space,
or directly inside each computer.
The computers release heat into the space and are cooled by the supply air to its
supply temperature.

21 July 2006



Air conditioning systems Page 10/24 Computer room systems

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Specific features of computer rooms (continued)
Room design
(continued)

Height
(continued)
The figure below illustrates an overhead, or upflow, air distribution system.
Air is supplied via ducts concealed in a suspended ceiling.

computer room
flase ceiling
precision air handling cabinet
CIATRONIC
with direct forced air
computer computer
wall covering


The air in the space is conditioned by a vertical self-contained unit.
Air is blown into the space from above.
The computers release all or part of their heat into the space and are cooled by
the supply air to ambient temperature.




21 July 2006



Air conditioning systems Page 11/24 Computer room systems

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Specific features of computer rooms (continued)
Room design
(continued)

Access Necessity of anterooms:
To protect computer rooms from dead air, moisture migration, and dust from the
outside (particularly from shoes), anterooms almost always must be installed at
access points for personnel, paper and magnetic tapes:
Doors must open outwards and be fitted with gaskets on their frames and
sweeps at their bottoms.
Doors on anterooms reserved for personnel must be fitted with closers or with
a system that prevents one door opening until the other is closed.
Anterooms for personnel must be long. Their floors must be covered with a
sheet of moist canvas extending 2 meters from the entrance. This moist canvas
must be followed by a sheet of dry canvas. Mats are to be avoided.
Note:
Anterooms are optional in the case of access points reserved for equipment. They
are always kept closed and may be used as emergency exits.
In most cases not all the above criteria are actually met. As a result, air
conditioning systems do not deliver the necessary level of filtration.
Necessity of easy access:
Access to computer rooms must be made by following a route leading from the
outside of the building and which, at all points:
Accommodates the largest computer unit or the largest electrical or air
conditioning equipment.
Withstands the rolling load of the heaviest equipment.




21 July 2006



Air conditioning systems Page 12/24 Computer room systems

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Specific features of computer rooms (continued)
Room design
(continued)

Access
(continued)
The raised floor is reached via a ramp with a maximum slope of 7 degrees to
prevent equipment casters coming off the floor at the top:
If this slope is not possible, the top of the ramp may be rounded off if need be.
A ramp with a slope of more than 5 degrees should be removable to reveal a
set of up to three steps. A guardrail (possibly removable) should be considered
if the height of the removable ramp exceeds 0.20 metres.
In cases where computers use a great deal of paper and magnetic tape, ramps
should be permanent and have a maximum slope of 5 degrees.
All the above are reasons why more and more rooms in new buildings have
sunken floors. The surface of a raised floor installed in such rooms will be at the
same height as the entrance, thus obviating the need for a ramp. Potential
retrofits should, however, be taken into consideration.

Walls The walls in a computer room must meet the following criteria:
They must be easily cleanable and be free of empty corners and angles to
prevent the buildup of dust.
Air supply inlets should therefore never be housed inside bench cabinets as
the joints between the panels may be irregular and thus trap dust.
Surfaces must be the smoothest possible and washable. Where possible,
corners and angles should be rounded. Nowadays companies manufacture
plastic skirting that can be bonded with a dust seal lip to raised floors. This is
an excellent solution, as are rubber seals in window beading.
They must form a tight seal against air and moisture leakage.
They must be made of a non-hygroscopic material or a material with a
minimum moisture absorption coefficient in order to prevent moisture
migrating:
from indoors to outdoors in the winter,
and from outdoors to indoors in the summer.


21 July 2006



Air conditioning systems Page 13/24 Computer room systems

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Specific features of computer rooms (continued)
Room design
(continued)

Surfaces
(continued)
Extra attention should be paid to these last two points, as moisture:

Diffuses very quickly in air, which tries to balance its weight in water
throughout the space.
Migrates easily through materials by osmosis.
The right level of stable humidity is necessary for electronic equipment to
operate correctly. Unless this issue is adequately analysed and dealt with, it will
be impossible to maintain humidity in rooms at minimum levels in winter or
maximum levels in summer.
Therefore:
Materials such as plaster on bare concrete are to be avoided.
Sound insulation batting in suspended ceilings must be encased in sealed bags.
Suspended ceilings with fabric panels are not to be used.
All walls must be painted with two coats of virtually impermeable lacquer or
epoxy resin.
Joints between materials of different types must be protected with beading or
sealing strips.
The integrity of movable partitions must be ensured, particularly in spaces
between panels and window beading, along skirting boards and jacks, and in
suspended ceiling weatherstripping. All insufficiently sealed partition walls
must be rejected.



21 July 2006



Air conditioning systems Page 14/24 Computer room systems

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Specific features of computer rooms (continued)
Room design
(continued)

Thermal
insulation
Computer rooms are subject to the same regulatory requirements as office
buildings.
Heat insulation must be sufficient, thermal bridges included, to prevent
condensation forming on inside surfaces.
The dew point in an indoor space with a temperature of 22C and a relative
humidity of 50% is 11C. The inside surface temperature must therefore be
above 11C.
Therefore:
Perimeter walls must be thermally insulated so that, under the sites inside and
outside base temperatures, their surface temperature is at least 11C.
As the temperature of the supply air in a raised floor may drop to as low as
approx. 15C:
Either avoid locating a computer room along the perimeter of a building or
in a room that is too cold in winter.
Or line the underside of the floor deck and the edges of the raised floor
with high-efficiency insulation.
Suspended ceilings along perimeter walls of a building are regarded as poor
insulators. This is because there are virtually always leaks and they leave a void
that is too large.
Example:
In the Paris area, where the base outdoor temperature is -7C, condensation
forms on the walls of a room where:
K (W/m
2
/C) 3.45 for indoor temperature = 22C,
K (W/m
2
/C) 2.27 for indoor temperature = 17C.
In both cases, condensation forms on 6 mm single-glazed windows, for which K
= 5.7 W/m/C.
During periods of non-use, condensation also forms on double-glazed windows,
for which K = 3.4 W/m/C.
In both cases, condensation always forms on metal frames.
Lowering indoor window blinds in the winter lowers the ambient temperature
between the shades and windows, thus increasing the risk of condensation.
Lowering outdoor window blinds practically has no effect on the risk of
condensation.
In the case of a raised floor in a perimeter room, condensation forms when:
K (W/m
2
/C) 1.07 for indoor temperature = 15C

21 July 2006



Air conditioning systems Page 15/24 Computer room systems

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Specific features of computer rooms (continued)
Room design
(continued)

Thermal
insulation
(continued)
It can therefore be deduced that the following are necessary:
Computers that are shut down at night or on weekends should not be installed
in rooms with windows if the base outdoor temperature is below -7C.
Computers that operate continuously should be installed in rooms with
double-glazed windows if the base outdoor temperature is at least -7C.
Indoor blinds should be raised in the winter and outdoor blinds closed in the
summer.
Install windows in wooden frames, or extremely well insulated metal frames if
need be, with wide internal gutters.
Pay special attention to skylights. If poorly designed, they may leak water into
rooms.
In winter, lower the relative indoor humidity to the low limit value allowed for
the electronic equipment (usually 40%).
All the above will help to save on energy.



21 July 2006



Air conditioning systems Page 16/24 Computer room systems

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Air conditioning systems for computer rooms
General The balance of a computer room consists of three types of thermal load from
different sources:

Load type Source Variation Comments
Exchange via walls Building Varies with outdoor
environment
Computer load
predominates
Heat released inside space Computers
People
Greatly and steadily
Slow and erratic
Higher than via walls
Fresh-air conditioning Filtered,
outdoor air
Varies with outdoor
environment
Latent load related to
fresh air

Given the requirements of computer systems, a computer room should have its own
self-contained air conditioning unit that automatically adjusts space conditions.
Two types of system are possible:

Local system Each space is fitted with one or more self-contained air handling units.
Built-in refrigeration and humidity equipment.
Central system

Each space is equipped with one or more air handling units.
Central refrigeration.
Units connected by pipework.

Local systems
Definition In a local system, spaces are equipped with self-contained air handling units. The
number of units depends on the amount of heat to be removed and the necessary
backups.
These units have their own control systems and are completely self-contained.

Number A single unit can cool a floor area of 80 to 100 m
2
.
For large rooms, N is between the following two values:
N
S
80
1 = + N =
S
100
1 +
This value includes the backup unit.
For small rooms, N = 2 + 1 backup.
Note: These numbers are for guidance only. They depend on the density of units
and the amount of heat they generate.

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Air conditioning systems Page 17/24 Computer room systems

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Air conditioning systems for computer rooms (continued)
Split systems
(continued)

Self-contained
air handling
unit
A self-contained air handling unit is smaller in size for two reasons:
smaller footprint,
easier installation in spaces.

The unit pictured contains the same components as a vertical self-contained unit:
air filter,
direct-expansion cooling coil (one or two circuits),
heating coil (hot water or electric),
steam humidifier,
centrifugal fan,
refrigeration system (one or two compressors),
water-cooled condenser (packaged version),
air-cooled condenser (split version),
electrical protection and automatic operation components,
control system.

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Air conditioning systems Page 18/24 Computer room systems

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Air conditioning systems for computer rooms (continued)
Split systems
(continued)

Self-contained
air handling
unit (continued)
Three designs are possible:



Refrigerant Condenser
type
Design Additional
equipment
Air Air-cooled
condenser
Split unit with
separate
air-cooled
condenser and
axial or
centrifugal fan


Water Water-cooled
condenser
(wastewater)
Packaged unit
with water-cooled
condenser
Pressostatic valve
fitted
Water-cooled
condenser
(recirculated
water)
Packaged unit
with water-cooled
condenser
Drycooler or
cooling tower
Water Water-cooled
condenser
(recirculated
water)
Economiser
*
cycle

Packaged
Water-cooled
condenser
Three-way
pressostatic valve
on heat recovery
coil
Drycooler


* uses outdoor air for cooling.


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Air conditioning systems Page 19/24 Computer room systems

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Air conditioning systems for computer rooms (continued)
Split systems
(continued)

Self-contained
air handling
unit (continued)
The diagram below illustrates a vertical self-contained unit (direct expansion and
recirculated water model) with a water-cooled condenser, drycooler and
economiser cycle.


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Air conditioning systems Page 20/24 Computer room systems

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Air conditioning systems for computer rooms (continued)
Split systems
(continued)

Field of use Local systems are generally used for small facilities that more or less meet the
following values:

Cooling capacity 140 to 210 kW
Computer power 120 to 180 kVA
Computer room floor area 300-600 m
2

Number of air handling units Up to 6

Central systems

Definition Energy production (chilled water, hot water, etc.) is centralised. In a central
system, air is distributed to computer rooms equipped with air handling units or
vertical self-contained chilled water units.
Although central systems are more economical for high-power data centres, it is
a good idea to make a preliminary comparative study.
One after the other, three types of system appeared over the years. Each reflects
the concerns of the period and resulted in a change in technique:
full handling of all loads (single unit),
separate handling units for indoor environments and machines,
separate computer units and fresh-air conditioning units.



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Air conditioning systems Page 21/24 Computer room systems

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Air conditioning systems for computer rooms (continued)
Central systems
(continued)

Single unit A single air handling unit takes care of all loads (gains from walls, space loads,
computers, fresh air) and is backed up by an identical unit.

Although free cooling is possible, the supply air temperature fluctuates and the
humidity is hard to control.
This system was replaced with the separate unit system.

exhaust
return air fan
positive-pressure room
fresh air
f
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c
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l
air handling unit
Air conditioned by a single type of unit with return air fan
supply air
return air


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Air conditioning systems Page 22/24 Computer room systems

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Air conditioning systems for computer rooms (continued)
Central systems
(continued)

Separate units The space unit is designed to handle gains from walls, occupants and lighting. It
also conditions fresh air and raises and lowers humidity levels in the space. Air is
distributed by induction ceiling registers.
The computer unit handles gains from electronic equipment:
Air is delivered at a constant rate and temperature underneath a raised floor.
It does not heat, humidify or dehumidify the air.
The air flow is calculated using the following formula:
Trf)Sh (Ts
Q
R

=
R = rate of flow
Q = heating load generated by the computer
T
s
= space temperature (+22C)
T
rf
= temperature of supply air delivered under raised floor (15-17C)
Sh = specific heat of the air

positive-pressure room

fresh air
f
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space unit
machine unit
air conditoned by two units
one for the indoor space, one for the machines
f
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Air conditioning systems Page 23/24 Computer room systems

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Air conditioning systems for computer rooms (continued)
Central systems
(continued)

Separate units
(continued)
Advantage: If a space is no longer used, the space unit remains in place and set
to that spaces thermal properties.
Drawback: The power and air flow rate of the machine unit must be adjusted (or
the unit replaced) if different equipment is installed in the space.
Backup units must be installed for both units in the event of malfunctions.

Computer units Because computers contain more components and hence generate more heat
than in the past, higher air flow rates are necessary.
Many computers are equipped with exhaust fans that discharge heat into the
space where they are located.
The solution to this is to install a reversible fresh-air conditioning unit that:

In the winter: Warms and humidifies
In the summer: Cools and dehumidifies

Air inside the space is handled by return air fans located at intervals in the space
(or in a utility corridor):
They are designed for floor areas of around 80 m
2
.
They cool the air without condensing.
An additional return air fan is installed as a backup.


21 July 2006



Air conditioning systems Page 24/24 Computer room systems

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Air conditioning systems for computer rooms (continued)
Central systems
(continued)

Computer units
(continued)
Air is conditioned by two types of unit:
One which conditions incoming fresh air.
And another which recirculates the air in the space.

f
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filter
return air fan
fan
cooling
coil
filter
return air fan
fan
cooling
coil
air handling unit
fresh air
p
r
o
t
e
c
t
e
d

f
r
o
m

f
r
o
s
t


Note:
Return air fans do not dehumidify the air. A water chiller should be installed,
as they can operate with water chilled to +10C.
Incoming fresh air should be dehumidified. As the conditioning unit operates
with colder water, a separate water chiller unit (for water chilled to, say, 5C)
should be installed.




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Air conditioning systems Page 1/68 Energy storage

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
C
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Air conditioning systems Page 2/68 Energy storage

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0

Contents
Why store energy?.................................................................................................... 3
Storing energy is a necessity...................................................................................................... 3
Advantage of storing energy....................................................................................................... 3
Storage (charging) processes..................................................................................................... 3
How heat is stored.................................................................................................... 4
Sensible heat ................................................................................................................................ 4
Latent heat of fusion.................................................................................................................... 5
Sensible heat storage............................................................................................... 6
Introduction .................................................................................................................................. 6
Media used.................................................................................................................................... 6
Concept ......................................................................................................................................... 7
Use................................................................................................................................................. 7
Solid storage system: ceramic heater ........................................................................................ 8
Liquid storage system: hot-water storage tank......................................................................... 9
Calculating a sensible heat storage system............................................................................ 12
Latent heat storage................................................................................................. 14
Melting and freezing................................................................................................................... 14
Background ................................................................................................................................ 15
The best type of cold.................................................................................................................. 16
Latent heat: ice storage systems .......................................................................... 17
Various processes ..................................................................................................................... 17
Ice on coil.................................................................................................................................... 18
Ice bank (a static ice production technique)............................................................................ 20
Ice harvester (a dynamic ice production technique) ............................................................... 20
Eutectic mixtures ....................................................................................................................... 22
System design............................................................................................................................ 26
Cristopia nodules ................................................................................................... 32
Overview ..................................................................................................................................... 32
Energy management strategies ................................................................................................ 34
System design............................................................................................................................ 43
Operation of each phase parallel connection....................................................................... 47
Operation of each phase series connection........................................................................ 51
STL sizing ................................................................................................................................... 55
Optimisation and compatibility of transfers ............................................................................ 60
Using the STL ............................................................................................................................. 62


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Air conditioning systems Page 3/68 Energy storage

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Why store energy?
Storing energy is
a necessity
Until recently, it was not known how to store reasonable amounts of heat or cold
for even limited periods. Heating and refrigeration units had to be sized to
maximum power demands.
This method was made possible by advances in power control techniques,
particularly in the field of refrigeration units. Units must be high power and may
be operated only at their nominal rating for a few hours a day and a few days a
year.

Advantage of
storing energy
Storing heat and cold daily makes it possible to downsize units. During off-peak
periods, the available energy is shifted to a storage unit. The energy stored is
then sent to systems during on-peak periods, or when the power demand exceeds
unit capacity.

Storage
(charging)
processes
Thermal energy may be stored using two types of heat:
sensible heat, whereby certain media, particularly water, are used,
latent heat of fusion.


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Air conditioning systems Page 4/68 Energy storage

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
How heat is stored
Sensible heat
Definition In sensible heat storage, energy is stored by changing the temperature of a
storage medium. This medium may be a solid, liquid or gas but it never changes
state.
The energy stored is proportional to:
the change in temperature,
the storage volume,
the specific heat capacity (often just called specific heat) of the medium.
E = M S
h

T

where:
E: : stored energy, in kWh,
M: mass or volume of the storage medium, in kg or m
3
,
S
h
: specific heat of the storage medium, in kWh/kg/K or kWh/m
3
/K,

T
: the change in the temperature of the storage medium between the
start and end of storage.

Solid storage
media
The main solid storage media used are:
stone and brick (e.g. electric ceramic heaters),
metal, for increased process inertia (e.g. stamping dies, moulds).

Liquid storage
media
Water is the main liquid storage medium used. It has a specific heat of
1.16 kWh/m
3
/K and stores more heat per cubic metre than materials such as
stone or metal. Water is most commonly used for two reasons: it is abundant and
can be stored easily in sealed containers.

Gaseous
storage media
Gaseous storage media have low specific heat capacities, making their cost
prohibitive.



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Air conditioning systems Page 5/68 Energy storage

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
How heat is stored (continued)
Sensible heat
(continued)

Cool storage As for refrigerant storage, the current state of the art is limited to operating
temperature gradients of around 5C. This gives maximum storage densities of
around 6 kWh/m
3
.
The cost of storage may become prohibitive if liquid storage media are used at
below-freezing temperatures, as antifreeze will have to added.

Limitations of
sensible heat
storage
Sensible heat storage is limited inasmuch as the storage density drops when the
water stored is not used over a large temperature difference.

Latent heat of
fusion

Definition Latent heat is heat that is either stored or given up when a material undergoes a
change of state. A material may go from solid to liquid or from liquid to gas.

Benefits This change of state occurs at a constant temperature.
The amount of energy required for or released during a change of state (latent
heat) is much greater than that needed to raise or lower a material that does not
undergo a change of state (sensible heat) by a few degrees.
Latent heat storage therefore offers two substantial advantages:
substantial storage densities,
a virtually constant crystallisation and fusion temperature.

Change of state
most
commonly
used
The change of state from solid to liquid and vice versa is used the most. These
changes are called, respectively:
fusion (or melting),
solidification.


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Air conditioning systems Page 6/68 Energy storage

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Sensible heat storage
Introduction In this chapter, storage will be discussed for heating and cooling only.

Media used
Solid Sensible heat is generally stored in solids by heating them.
These media are:
stone or brick,
metal.

Liquid Sensible heat can be stored using liquids:
for heating purposes, also called hot water storage,
for cooling purposes.
Several types of media are used.


Media Use
Hot water Heating
Chilled water Cooling,
Storage at above-freezing
temperatures
Glycol/water mix
Aqueous solution (e.g. brine)
Cooling,
Storage at below-freezing
temperatures
Refrigerant Heating or cooling,
Storage limited by refrigerant
pressure



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Air conditioning systems Page 7/68 Energy storage

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Sensible heat storage (continued)
Concept
Charge
(storage)
The energy to be stored is produced by a source. The temperature of the storage
medium changes as it stores this energy.

Discharge The medium gives up the stored energy:
either directly at the point of use (liquid storage system),
or via an intermediate heat transfer medium (brick-air solid storage system).

Use As seen earlier, a significant temperature difference is required. Stored sensible
heat is generally used for heating.
How stored energy is used depends on its source.


Energy source Stored energy used
Fossil fuels such as coal or fuel
oil
As a backup
Electricity To stop consumption of electricity during
on-peak times.



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Air conditioning systems Page 8/68 Energy storage

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Sensible heat storage (continued)
Solid storage
system: ceramic
heater
A ceramic heater is made up of:
refractory bricks that absorb heat,
electric elements placed between each brick,
a fan that blows ambient air along the bricks then into a space to be heated,
a heavily insulated housing.

insulated housing
fan
warm air
cool air
electric element
brick


Charge The electric elements:
heat the refractory bricks,
absorb heat energy.

Discharge As air is moved along the hot bricks, it heats up.
The bricks cool down and lose their heat energy.



21 July 2006



Air conditioning systems Page 9/68 Energy storage

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Sensible heat storage (continued)
Liquid storage
system: hot-water
storage tank
A hot-water storage tank is made up of:
immersion heaters,
a heavily insulated sealed steel cylinder,
a circulator pump that mixes the water stored in the cylinder to a uniform
temperature.

bleed
drain
control valve
electric
element
insulated tank
circulator
pump
check valve




21 July 2006



Air conditioning systems Page 10/68 Energy storage

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Sensible heat storage (continued)
Liquid storage
system: hot water
storage tank
(continued)

Charge The immersion heaters:
heat the water,
absorb heat energy.
The circulator pump mixes the water so that the temperature throughout the
cylinder is virtually the same and a maximum amount of energy is stored.

If the water was not mixed, the temperature would vary by approx. 1 K per metre
along the height of the cylinder.
A cylinder 10 metres high and with the temperature data in the following
example would lose 10% of its stored energy.


bleed
drain
control valve off
electric
element
insulated tank
circulator
pump on
check valve




21 July 2006



Air conditioning systems Page 11/68 Energy storage

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Sensible heat storage (continued)
Liquid storage
system: hot-water
storage tank
(continued)

Discharge The circulator pump is off to allow the temperature inside the cylinder to stratify:
The hot water rises to the top.
The cold water falls to the bottom.
The control valve varies the flow rate of the water tapped from the cylinder to
meet the heating demand. It mixes a light flow of hot water from the cylinder
with a heavy flow of return water.
Low-temperature return water enters the cylinder at a low flow rate.
The water inside the cylinder is not mixed. The warm water, heavier than the hot
water, stays at the bottom of the cylinder. The temperature of the drawn water is
thus virtually the same during the entire discharge cycle.

bleed
drain
control
valve open
electric
element
off

insulated tank
stratification
40C
95C
95C
45C
40C
40C
circulator
pump off
check valve



21 July 2006



Air conditioning systems Page 12/68 Energy storage

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Sensible heat storage (continued)
Calculating a
sensible heat
storage system

Assumptions Take as an example a workshop that needs to be heated 10 hours a day. The base
losses are 500 kW for heating and 300 kW for frost protection.
Low-temperature heating is required in order to use the storage capacities to their
maximum. Water shall be supplied at 45C and stored at 95C.
Heat will be stored during nighttime off-peak hours, i.e. eight hours a night.

Selecting the
calculation
period
To calculate the storage system, look at the least favourable case:
constant losses all day long at base conditions, or 500 kW,
building warm-up period of 2 hours,
frost protection maintained during non-heating periods.
To simplify the calculation, the energy due to the drop in the ambient
temperature is considered to offset the energy due to the warm-up inertia.
The ambient temperature fluctuates during warm-up and the losses vary from
300 to 500 kW.

Calculation The energy due to maintaining the temperature for 10 hours is:
500 10 5000 kWh =
The energy due to warming up for 2 hours is:

300 500
2
2 800 kWh
+
=
The energy due to maintaining frost protection for 12 hours (24 - 10 - 2) is:
300 12 3600 kWh =
The total energy for a single day is thus:
5000 + 800 + 3600 = 9400 kWh
The volume of the storage cylinder for a temperature difference of 50 K (95 - 45)
is:

3 3
m 160 m 161.7
50
0.86 9400
=


The power of the immersion heaters during the eight hours of storage is:

9400
8
1175 kW =

21 July 2006



Air conditioning systems Page 13/68 Energy storage

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Sensible heat storage (continued)
Calculating a
sensible heat
storage system
(continued)

Expansion
volume
The expansion coefficients are 0.0394 and 0.0079 for water at 95 and 40C,
respectively. Taking the mean of these two values, the expansion volume of the
water in the cylinder during storage is therefore:
3
m 3.78
2
0079 . 0 0394 . 0
160 =

+

Do not overlook expansion during water storage.


21 July 2006



Air conditioning systems Page 14/68 Energy storage

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Latent heat storage
Melting and
freezing

Building blocks All materials are made up of atoms and molecules.
Molecules bond to each other in various arrangements by forces of magnetic
attraction. When they are in a regularly ordered, repeated pattern, they form
crystals.

Molecules
vibrate
Although a crystal's molecules are locked together through magnetic attraction,
each one has its specific place and keeps its ability to produce vibrations. The
speed at which they vibrate known as kinetic energy can be measured by
looking at the heat generated.
Heat is the sum of the vibrations produced by all the molecules in a given body.
It should not be confused with temperature, which is the degree of intensity of
vibrations.

Melting When a body, say ice, is heated, the molecules inside the ice crystals begin to
vibrate more rapidly. The more heat they absorb, the faster they vibrate. When
the vibrations reach their peak, the power of attraction drops to a value that
causes two things to happen:
the molecules break free from their bonds,
and begin moving by themselves or in small groups.
When enough heat has been produced, the molecules move freely inside the
body, which has turned from a solid to a liquid.

In order for a body to melt, it must absorb large amounts of heat.
For example, 333 kJ of heat are needed to turn one kilogram of ice into one
kilogram of water.

Melting point When a body melts, its temperature stays the same until the energy provided is
absorbed by the melting process.
Each medium has its own melting point.
Those used to store latent heat energy are called phase-change materials (PCMs).


21 July 2006



Air conditioning systems Page 15/68 Energy storage

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Latent heat storage (continued)
Melting and
freezing
(continued)

Solidification Likewise, when a body solidifies:
Its molecules come together to form crystals.
The molecules bond together and stop moving.
The temperature of the body stays the same until the energy provided is
absorbed by the solidification process.
The body must give up great amounts of heat.
For example, 333 kJ of heat are needed to turn one kilogram of ice into one
kilogram of water.
Every medium has its own solidification point, which is the same as the
melting point.
Some media can melt at temperatures slightly higher than their solidification
temperature. This is called supercooling.

Background
Ice in the
19th century
The thermal capacities of ice were first put to technical use in the 1800s. Back
then, some country homes had underground ice cellars where ice could be stored
for up to 18 months. The ice would be harvested from nearby ponds and lakes in
the winter.

Sodium acetate
bottles
In 1892, a number of railway companies distributed bottles filled with sodium
acetate to keep passengers warm during long journeys. These bottles, which were
a means of latent heat, did not have to be changed as frequently as typical hot
water bottles.

1973: necessity
is the mother of
invention
Latent heat storage had been long forgotten since the turn of the 20th century.
Researchers interest in latent heat storage was rekindled as a result of the space
programme, and the 1973 oil crisis gave their work further impetus. Many
laboratories around the world developed new compounds that made the
technology more reliable.

21 July 2006



Air conditioning systems Page 16/68 Energy storage

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Latent heat storage (continued)
Background
(continued)

Ice and eutectic
mixtures
Ice has been in use in recent years as a storage medium for latent heat. However,
ice melts at 0C and does not have many usage temperatures.
Eutectic mixtures, on the other hand, have their own individual solid-liquid
phase-change temperatures. The right mixture can be found to provide the
necessary usage temperature.

The best type of
cold
A large temperature difference that makes sensible heat storage possible can be
achieved during heating.
Eutectic mixtures that melt at high temperatures are expensive to manufacture. In
a nutshell, latent heat storage is not financially viable.
Unlike with heating, there is no large temperature difference during cooling.
Sensible heat storage systems are large in scale. Latent heat storage is becoming
cost-effective.
Latent heat is more affordable than the current cost of electricity, particularly for
air conditioning.
The high cost of refrigeration units makes all the power savings offered by latent
heat storage particularly attractive.
Lastly, regulations that limit the use of ozone-destroying refrigerants (such as
HCFCs) are encouraging the use of latent heat storage.


21 July 2006



Air conditioning systems Page 17/68 Energy storage

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Latent heat: ice storage systems
Various
processes
Storage of latent heat contained in a process or air conditioning uses:
water and ice,
an eutectic mixture.
The table below lists the various storage methods in use.


Type Storage medium Storage type Solid-liquid
phase-change
temperature
Storage energy
in kWh/m
3
of
storage
Ice on coil Ice Open tank 0C 31
Ice bank Ice Open tank
(pressurised
primary circuit)
0C 49.7
Ice harvester Ice Open tank 0C 41.4
Eutectic plates Eutectic Open tank 8.5C 27.6
Eutectic cylinders Eutectic Open tank or
pressurised tank
+7 to 70C 30 (at 7C)
Eutectic spheres Eutectic Open tank or
pressurised tank
-33 to +27C 48.4 (at 0C)

Remember:
The latent heat of ice during the solid-liquid phase change is 93 kWh/m
3
.
Sensible storage of water has a specific heat of 1.163 kWh/m
3
K.



21 July 2006



Air conditioning systems Page 18/68 Energy storage

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Latent heat: ice storage systems (continued)
Ice on coil
Concept This technique, which seems to be used the most currently, consists of a
serpentine coil that is submerged in a heavily insulated tank of water.

air pump
refrigerant or
glycol water
chilled water
use
insulated tank


A charging fluid (refrigerant at -15C to 5C or glycol/water solution at -5C) is
circulated through the coil. Ice forms around the outside of the tubes.

refrigerant ice tube
water

The tank is agitated by an air pump so that the ice is distributed evenly on all
sides.



21 July 2006



Air conditioning systems Page 19/68 Energy storage

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Latent heat: ice storage systems (continued)
Ice on coil
(continued)

Drawback Ice is an insulator. Its thermal resistance is directly proportional to its thickness.
As ice is stored in a circle around each tube, its perimeter, and thus its volume,
increases with its diameter.
When ice reaches half its total thickness, approximately one-quarter of its total
volume is ice.
The mean value of the transfer coefficient is low.
In the approach called partial storage, the ice that remains after melting is on the
coil. As soon as the partial storage process begins, the transfer coefficient is low
and falls below the mean value.

discharge charge
storage after
partial discharge
ice at end
of charging
ice ice
water
melted
ice
remaining
ice
reformed
ice
water water



21 July 2006



Air conditioning systems Page 20/68 Energy storage

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Latent heat: ice storage systems (continued)
Ice bank (a static
ice production
technique)
A polypropylene tube heat exchanger is submerged in a heavily insulated
cylindrical tank filled with water.
Glycol/water solution is circulated through the tubes at low temperature (-3.5 to
0C) to freeze the water in the tank.
Discharge is accomplished by circulating warm glycol/water solution to melt the
ice.
The ice around the tubes melts first. During partial storage, the transfer
coefficient is above the mean value.

water
glycol/water header


Ice harvester (a
dynamic ice
production
technique)
This process has been used in industrial processes for many years.
Ice is formed on a flat vertical surface. Refrigerant is circulated at a temperature
of -12 to -15C inside the plates and evaporates.
Water flows over the plates and freezes to a certain thickness (8-10 mm) after a
certain time (usually 15-20 minutes).



21 July 2006



Air conditioning systems Page 21/68 Energy storage

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Latent heat: ice storage systems (continued)
Ice harvester
(continued)
When ice is harvested:
1. Evaporation is stopped.
2. Hot gas refrigerant or is circulated inside the plates or warm water (18C) is
circulated on the opposite side of the plates.
3. The surface of the plates warms to around 5C.
4. The ice falls off the plates into a tank.
The tank is filled with water chilled by the system. This water circulates inside
the tank and is cooled by the falling ice.
Ice production is stopped by a photoelectric cell when the tank is full.


flow
of water
flow
of tepid water
overflow
freezing plate
sheet of ice
water
collection
pump
ice tank
water tank
water channel



21 July 2006



Air conditioning systems Page 22/68 Energy storage

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Latent heat: ice storage systems (continued)
Eutectic mixtures
Types of
capsule
Encapsulated eutectic mixtures come in three shapes:
plates,
cylinders,
spheres.
These capsules must be positioned inside the tank in a matter that allows water to
flow around them and ensure proper performance.
Plates are placed in an open tank usually made of concrete.

glycol water
glycol water
plates




21 July 2006



Air conditioning systems Page 23/68 Energy storage

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Latent heat: ice storage systems (continued)
Eutectic mixtures
(continued)

Types of
capsules
(continued)
Cylinders and spheres are generally used in closed tanks.
C
R
IT
O
P
IA
C
R
IT
O
P
IA
eutectic mixture
sphere cylinder








21 July 2006



Air conditioning systems Page 24/68 Energy storage

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Latent heat: ice storage systems (continued)
Eutectic mixtures
(continued)

Concept Glycol/water mix is circulated around the capsules.
During charging, the temperature of the glycol/water mix is lower than the
solidification point of the eutectic mixture. This mixture crystallises from the
outer edges inward.
During discharge, the temperature of the glycol/water mix is higher than the
melting point of the eutectic mixture. This mixture melts from the outer edges
inward.

charge discharge
glycol water
liquid
solid
thin wall
eutectic mixture
eutectic mixture


Advantages Solid eutectic mixtures are insulators. Their thermal resistance is directly
proportional to their thickness. A solid eutectic mixture:
forms from the wall inward when in contact with the glycol/water mix,
continues inward during storage.
In the case of cylinders and spheres, the perimeter and thus the volume of the
solid eutectic mixture decreases during storage. Thus, when the solid eutectic
mixture reaches half the total thickness:
one-quarter of the total volume of cylinders remains to be solidified,
one-eighth of the total volume of spheres remains to be solidified.
The mean value of the transfer coefficient is higher than with ice-on-coil storage.


21 July 2006



Air conditioning systems Page 25/68 Energy storage

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Latent heat: ice storage systems (continued)
Eutectic mixtures
(continued)

Advantages
(continued)
During partial storage, the solid eutectic mixture that remains after melting is at
the centre while the liquid to be solidified is along the wall of the capsule. The
transfer coefficient is high and above the mean value.

charge after
partial discharge
charge discharge
glycol water
liquid
solid
eutectic mixture
thin
wall
glycol water
solid
eutectic mixture
liquid
eutectic mixture
thin
wall
solid
eutectic mixture
eutectic mixture



21 July 2006



Air conditioning systems Page 26/68 Energy storage

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Latent heat: ice storage systems (continued)
System design Care must be taken when designing an installation in order to:
lower operating costs,
optimise storage capacity,
enhance overall performance.
A number of factors must be taken into consideration:
storage technique (open or pressurised tank),
storage location (outdoors, underground, building basement, etc.),
compressor type,
control system,
circuit design,
relationship between storage capacity and cooling capacity requirements.

Open-tank
storage
techniques
In an open-tank system, it is necessary to either:
place a heat exchanger between the store and the system,
or pressurise the system by installing a pump and pressure control valve.
use
R
R
R
T
T
P
pressure control valve
pressure sensor
chiller
use
temperature
p
l
a
t
e
s

e
x
c
h
a
n
g
e
r
chiller
tank
tank
exchanger


Note: the storage bypass is not shown.

21 July 2006



Air conditioning systems Page 27/68 Energy storage

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Latent heat: ice storage systems (continued)
System design
(continued)

Open-tank
storage
techniques
(continued)
The two solutions mentioned above impair the system's thermodynamic
performance:
Type Drawback
heat exchanger lowers the system's coefficient of
performance (COP)
pressure control valve raises the pump's consumption of
electricity
The result is less savings.

Closed-tank
storage
techniques
Expansion during phase changes should not be overlooked if a closed-tank
system is selected. The expansion vessel should have a large volume.
The amount of glycol/water mix can be reduced by installing a heat exchanger
between the store and the system storage. This will not decrease the COP during
storage.

use
p
l
a
t
e
s

e
x
c
h
a
n
g
e
r
tank
chiller
T
R
expansion vessel
water glycol mix end water end

Note: the position of the chiller will be discussed in the section on circuit design.

21 July 2006



Air conditioning systems Page 28/68 Energy storage

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Latent heat: ice storage systems (continued)
System design
(continued)

Location Underground tanks or tanks installed in a building basement are wisest in terms
of space management.
Aboveground outdoor tanks must be protected from sunlight and be more
heavily insulated to minimise losses.

Compressor
type
Cooling compressors used in latent-heat storage systems are subjected to various
loads and pressures.
These variations are caused by the fact that the compressor is used for two
extremely different operations:
storage (low evaporation temperature),
discharge or direct cooling (higher evaporation temperature).
Only reciprocating and screw compressors are suited to these types of operation.

Control
schemes
The control system must set the priorities between direct cooling and discharge.
The selected system must take into account various economic considerations:
pricing periods:
demand limiting,
reduced consumption during on-peak times.
the storage technique for partial storage and storage with a low transfer
coefficient.
The best solution is found by analysing, in detail, the cooling requirements for
the entire system and for the entire period of use.
This detailed analysis and calculations of the system's cost and consumption may
suggest a less efficient control scheme, but it will be less expensive as well.
Three main strategies should be taken into consideration when designing a
control scheme:
storage priority,
chiller priority,
demand limiting during certain hours (such as on-peak periods).

21 July 2006



Air conditioning systems Page 29/68 Energy storage

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Latent heat: ice storage systems (continued)
System design
(continued)

Control
schemes
(continued)

hours
percentage of peak capacity
chiller
discharge
hours
chiller
discharge
storage priority
hours
chiller
discharge
hours
chiller
discharge
hours
chiller discharge
hours
chiller
chiller
priority
demand
limiting
100 %
100 %
100 % 100 %
100 %
100 %
chiller
chiller
discharge
full storage partial storage
percentage of peak capacity
percentage of peak capacity
percentage of peak capacity
percentage of peak capacity
percentage of peak capacity


21 July 2006



Air conditioning systems Page 30/68 Energy storage

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Latent heat: ice storage systems (continued)
System design
(continued)

Circuit design If refrigerant is used as the storage medium, the two circuits are separate.

strorage tank
c
h
i
l
l
e
r
refrigerant
water
use


If the chiller is to be used during discharge, a second cooling circuit must be
installed in parallel to feed an air coil or water cooler.
Two solutions are possible if a heat-transfer fluid (HTF) such as glycol/water is
used as the storage medium:
The chiller is connected in series with the store.

chiller
s
t
o
r
a
g
e
use
motorised valve
bypass for charge




21 July 2006



Air conditioning systems Page 31/68 Energy storage

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Latent heat: ice storage systems (continued)
System design
(continued)

Circuit design
(continued)
The chiller is connected in parallel with the storage tank.
c
h
i
l
l
e
r
s
t
o
r
a
g
e
use
motorised valve
closed when
chiller off


Relationship
between
storage
capacity and
cooling
capacity
requirements
Optimum economical storage capacity is dictated by:
the type of application:
air conditioning,
process,
backup,
electricity rates,
capacity requirements (bar chart).
The system must also:
allow full storage during the allotted time (capacity exchanged during
storage),
meet peak demand (capacity exchanged during complete discharge or not of
the chiller capacity).



21 July 2006



Air conditioning systems Page 32/68 Energy storage

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Cristopia nodules
Overview
Competitive
advantages
The Cristopia STL latent heat storage system consists of a tank filled with
nodules (balls).
Because of the applications targeted, the system must be installable on air
conditioning or cooling circuits. The operating pressure may exceed 3 bar. The
tank is usually cylindrical in shape and is pressure tested to between 4.5 and
10 bar.
Pipes inside the tank distribute HTF throughout it and increase the exchange
surface.
Phase-change materials (PCMs) are encapsulated in a sphere called a nodule.
This shape was chosen for three reasons:
Round nodules fall automatically into place inside tanks, resulting in lower
site costs.
Round nodules can be mass produced, resulting in lower production costs.
The spherical shape optimises the exchange surface, resulting in tanks of
smaller volume.

STL codes A Cristopia STL system is characterised by:
its phase-change temperature,
its volume, i.e. its storage capacity and its exchange capacity.
These characteristics are indicated by an STL code.
Example: STL . a . b
STL: Cristopia latent heat storage,
a: phase-change temperature:
00: fusion at 0C
N 15: fusion at -15C
C: fusion at 0C; air conditioning nodule,
b: storage volume in m
3
.
Example: the STL. N 15 . 50 is a Cristopia latent heat storage system with a
temperature of -15 and a volume of 50 m
3
.



21 July 2006



Air conditioning systems Page 33/68 Energy storage

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Cristopia nodules (continued)
Overview
(continued)

Nodule Nodules are blown spheres.

sealed cap
air pocket
HDPE shell
eutectic mixture


HDPE is used because of its chemical neutrality towards:
the PCMs used,
commonly used HTFs.
The thickness of the walls prevents migration of HTFs.
Each nodule is filled with an eutectic mixture that allows a storage temperature
range of -33C to +27C.
The typical thermal values of the nodules are brought to the unit of the storage
volume (1 m
3
). They vary slightly depending on the type of eutectic mixture
used.

Characteristics Unit Average values
latent heat kWh/m
3
40 to 50
sensible heat in the solid phase kWh/K/m
3
0.7 to 0.9
sensible heat in the liquid phase kWh/K/m
3
1.05 to 1.25
thermal conductivity during crystallisation kW/K/m
3
1.6 or 1.15 (C nodule)
thermal conductivity during fusion kW/K/m
3
2.2 or 1.85 (C nodule)


21 July 2006



Air conditioning systems Page 34/68 Energy storage

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Cristopia nodules (continued)
Overview
(continued)

Tank Tanks are typically cylindrical in shape, closed and made of insulated steel or
rectangular, open and made of concrete.
Cylindrical tanks may be vertical or horizontal and be installed:
indoors,
outdoors,
underground.
They are fitted with a high-performance distribution system.



Energy
management
strategies
With a Cristopia STL, cooling energy can be managed to meet system design
objectives. A number of strategies are possible:
load-levelling,
partial storage,
demand limiting,
full storage,
backup.



21 July 2006



Air conditioning systems Page 35/68 Energy storage

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Cristopia nodules (continued)
Energy
management
strategies
(continued)

Bar chart A bar chart is used to show the electrical power demand of a thermal energy
system:
over a given period (usually 24 hours),
under the most stringent conditions.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 10
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
hours
peak capacity
capacity in kW
daily energy quantity


Bar charts for cool thermal storage show two types of information in particular:
the maximum cooling load required for the system is plotted along the Y-axis,
the daily energy consumption, i.e. the sum of the capacities needed by the
system over the course of the a day, is plotted along the X-axis.
Without storage, the chiller must be sized to meet peak capacity.



21 July 2006



Air conditioning systems Page 36/68 Energy storage

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Cristopia nodules (continued)
Energy
management
strategies
(continued)

Load-levelling
system
The chiller operates continuously for a full 24 hours:
It stores energy at night.
And provides direct cooling during the day.
Two types of operating strategies are used to provide cooling to the system:
chiller priority and storage priority.

Priority Operation
Chiller Cooling is preferentially provided by the chiller. Supplemental
cooling is provided by the STL system when the cooling load exceeds
the chiller capacity.
Storage Cooling is preferentially provided by the STL system. Supplemental
cooling is provided by the chiller when the cooling load exceeds the
storage capacity.
A more complex control scheme is required so that storage is
discharged consistently and steadily.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 10
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
hours
capacity in kW
discharge
charge
direct cooling
charge
chiller priority



21 July 2006



Air conditioning systems Page 37/68 Energy storage

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Cristopia nodules (continued)
Energy
management
strategies
(continued)

Load-levelling
system
(continued)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 10
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
hours
capacity in kW
discharge storage
direct cooling
storage
Discharge priority


Under storage-priority control, the chiller must have a higher capacity.
Depending on the case, it may be sized to between 30 and 60% of peak capacity.
Chiller-priority control is currently used the most in France.



21 July 2006



Air conditioning systems Page 38/68 Energy storage

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Cristopia nodules (continued)
Energy
management
strategies
(continued)

Partial storage Under chiller-priority control, storage makes up for whatever cooling the chiller
cannot provide.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 10
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
hours
capacity in kW
stockage
direct cooling
discharge
Average capacity required by the system



1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 10
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
hours
capacity in kW
charge
direct cooling
discharge
Low capacity required by the system


21 July 2006



Air conditioning systems Page 39/68 Energy storage

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Cristopia nodules (continued)
Energy
management
strategies
(continued)

Partial storage
(continued)
Under storage-priority control, more electricity is consumed because the chiller
operates rarely during the day.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 10
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
hours
capacity in kW
charge storage tank
allows complete discharge if
allowed by control system
direct
cooling
discharge
Average capacity required by the system



1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 10
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
hours
capacity in kW
charge charge
discharge
direct cooling
Low capacity required by the system


If the control system can detect the remaining stored energy, storage is
discharged completely and the chiller runs even less.


21 July 2006



Air conditioning systems Page 40/68 Energy storage

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Cristopia nodules (continued)
Energy
management
strategies
(continued)

Demand
limiting
When the price per kWh varies over the course of the day, it may be worth
shutting down the chillers when electricity rates are high (on-peak hours).
Cooling is provided by storage during these periods. In the same vein, storage is
charged by the chiller during off-peak times.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 10
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
hours
capacity in kW
storage
direct cooling
storage
d
i
s
c
h
a
r
g
e
Storage for peak periods only


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 10
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
hours
capacity in kW
storage
direct cooling
d
i
s
c
h
a
r
g
e
s
t
o
r
a
g
e
discharge
Storage for peak periods and in addition to direct cooling


21 July 2006



Air conditioning systems Page 41/68 Energy storage

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Cristopia nodules (continued)
Energy
management
strategies
(continued)

Full storage The chillers are shut off during the day and all the cooling required is taken from
storage.
The storage volume and the chillers are larger.
Full storage may be worth considering in cases where there is a large difference
between on-peak and off-peak rates. This, however, is not currently the case in
France.


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 10
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
hours
capacity in kW
storage discharge
storage



21 July 2006



Air conditioning systems Page 42/68 Energy storage

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Cristopia nodules (continued)
Energy
management
strategies
(continued)

Backup The cooling capacity required in certain spaces (telecom equipment rooms,
computer rooms) or for a process may have to be backed up in case of:
chiller breakdowns,
electrical power supply failures.
An STL storage system can meet these constant cooling requirements.
In this case:
The term daily cycle is no longer used,
The probable frequency of breakdowns, and thus the uses of storage, must be
defined.
The necessary capacity and the times at which it will be provided must be
defined.
As stored energy is not systematically used, supplementary cooling must be
provided at set periods to compensate for losses.


0
100
200
300
400
500
600
capacity in kW
storage
d
i
s
c
h
a
r
g
e



21 July 2006



Air conditioning systems Page 43/68 Energy storage

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Cristopia nodules (continued)
System design For the sake of clearness, only the components needed for understanding the
various operating cycles are shown on the diagrams on the following pages.

STL: an
exchanger
An STL system functions like a heat exchanger throughout the entire storage and
discharge cycle. It transfers heat energy with the HTF. The temperature of the
nodules remains constant during storage and discharge.


Phase How the eutectic
reacts
Energy requirement HTF temperature
Charge It crystallises The HTF gives up its
cooling energy to the
nodules
Lower than the phase-
change temperature
Discharge It melts The HTF absorbs the
cooling energy contained
in the nodules
Higher than the phase-
change temperature

How it works Over the course of a storage/discharge cycle, the temperature of the HTF
circulating through the STL changes from a minimum value, corresponding to
the temperature at the end of storage, to a maximum value, corresponding to the
temperature at the end of discharge.
The temperature of the HTF should generally stay constant as it flows to the
system.
The chiller and the STL may be:
parallel connected,
or series connected.



21 July 2006



Air conditioning systems Page 44/68 Energy storage

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Cristopia nodules (continued)
System design
(continued)

Parallel
connection
Parallel connection is most commonly used for daily and backup cooling. The
block diagram below shows two parallel loops.
The primary loop consists of:
a chiller,
an STL,
a chiller pump.
The secondary loop consists of:
a system pump,
a plate exchanger (optional),
the system,
a three-way control valve.

STL
pump
chiller
3-way
valve
pump
to
system
primary loop secondary loop


The flow rate of the primary loop is constant in the chiller. The temperature
varies between storage and discharge. The secondary loop is at a constant supply
temperature. The flow rate may be:
variable, in which case the three-way valve is not necessary in some instances,
constant, in which case the three-way valve is necessary.
In most systems, a constant flow is maintained and a three-way control valve is
used.
The plate exchanger lowers the volume of the HTF when the system operates at
above-freezing temperature (this end may be filled with water).

21 July 2006



Air conditioning systems Page 45/68 Energy storage

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Cristopia nodules (continued)
System design
(continued)

Series
connection
The STL is series connected either upstream or downstream of the chiller.

STL
pump
chiller
on/off valve
to
system
3-way
valve
STL upstream
on/off valve

STL
pump
chiller
on/off
valve
to
system
3-way
valve
STL downstream
on/off
valve
on/off valve


The flow rate is constant in the chiller. The temperature varies between storage
and discharge. The flow rate and supply temperature are constant in the direction
of the system.
The plate exchanger lowers the volume of the HTF when the system operates at
above-freezing temperature (this end may be filled with water).


21 July 2006



Air conditioning systems Page 46/68 Energy storage

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Cristopia nodules (continued)
System design
(continued)

Series or
parallel
connection?
The decision whether to opt for a series- or parallel-connected system depends
mainly on the temperature regime of the chilled water supply. In the case of a
temperature difference of 5C or 6C (i.e. 5C/10C or 6C/12C), it is advisable
to use the STL in parallel and to run the evaporator and the STL along the same
temperature differential.
If the STL is series connected, a larger temperature difference (8C to 12C)
during operation is recommended. The STL and the evaporator both cool the
return temperature in this case. This allows the evaporator to operate with a
conventional temperature difference. For example, in the case of a temperature
difference of 8C with a temperature regime of 4C/12C, the STL and the
evaporator will each provide half of the peak capacity. The STL will thus lower
the return temperature from 12C to 8C and the evaporator will lower it from
8C to 4C.



21 July 2006



Air conditioning systems Page 47/68 Energy storage

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Cristopia nodules (continued)
Operation of each
phase parallel
connection
When the STL is connected in parallel with the chiller, four phases are possible:
storage alone,
storage and direct cooling,
discharge and direct cooling,
discharge alone.

Storage alone Storage alone takes place when no cooling is required by the system, such as in
an office building at night.
The system pump is off and the three-way valve closes port 1 to isolate the
chiller from the system.

STL
chiller
pumpe
chiller
3-way
valve
to
system
on/off valve
open
1 3
2
chiller
thermostat
system
pump
supply
sensor
primary loop


The chiller cools the primary loop with sensible heat until the nodules drop to their
crystallisation temperature. At this point, they begin to change state (i.e. they
crystallise) by absorbing the cooling energy provided by the chiller.
The latent heat load levels off throughout this period. The temperature remains
constant, and a thermodynamic equilibrium is established. At the end of storage,
the temperature of the HTF falls rapidly to the setpoint temperature of the chiller,
shutting it off.
The chiller cools the primary loop with sensible heat. This drop in temperature
signals the end of the storage phase.
The chiller must be:
stopped in one stage,
locked out to prevent it restarting.
It will not be able to restart until the system requires further cooling.

21 July 2006



Air conditioning systems Page 48/68 Energy storage

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Cristopia nodules (continued)
Operation of each
phase parallel
connection
(continued)

Storage and
direct cooling
Storage with direct cooling occurs:
when the cooling capacity required by the system is lower than the cooling
capacity of the chiller (e.g. at the start of day in an office building),
if allowed by the control system (it may be preferable not to store energy
when cooling is required).
The system pump starts up. The control system actuates the three-way valve to
maintain the temperature of the secondary loop near the setpoint temperature.
The flow rate through port 1 of the three-way valve is lower than the chiller
pump flow rate. The supplementary flow circulates through the STL from bottom
to top, charging it.
If the STL is fully charged, the thermostat adjusts the stages in the chiller.

STL
chiller
pumpe
chiller
3-way
valve
to
system
on/off valve
open
1 3
2
chiller
thermostat
system
pump
supply
sensor
primary loop




21 July 2006



Air conditioning systems Page 49/68 Energy storage

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Cristopia nodules (continued)
Operation of each
phase parallel
connection
(continued)

Discharge and
direct cooling
Discharge with direct cooling occurs when the cooling capacity required by the
system is higher than the cooling capacity of the chiller (e.g. an office building
that has reached its maximum heat load). The system and chiller pumps are on
and the three-way valve is controlled as described above.
If the cooling capacity exceed the chiller capacity, the flow rate through port 1 of
the three-way valve is higher than that of the chiller pump. The system return
flow rate splits into three types:
A variable volume (depending on need) flows along port 2 of the three-way
valve.
A constant volume (provided by the chiller pump) is cooled by the chiller.
A variable volume (depending on need) circulates through the STL from top
to bottom and is cooled there.
The chiller runs continuously at full capacity.

STL
chiller
pump
chiller
3-way
valve
to
system
on/off valve
open
1 3
2
chiller thermostat
system
pump
supply
sensor



21 July 2006



Air conditioning systems Page 50/68 Energy storage

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Cristopia nodules (continued)
Operation of each
phase parallel
connection
(continued)

Discharge
alone
Discharge alone takes place when cooling is taken from the STL while the chiller
is off (e.g. demand limiting in the winter, equipment servicing, etc.).
The chiller is controlled by a contact (utility, switch, etc.) that turns the
compressor and its pump on and off. A motorised two-way valve placed
downstream or upstream of the evaporator closes when the chiller pump stops,
forcing all the HTF to circulate through the STL.
The three-way valve is controlled as described above.

STL
chiller
pump off
chiller off
3-way
valve
to
system
on/off
valve closed
1 3
2
system
pump
supply
sensor



21 July 2006



Air conditioning systems Page 51/68 Energy storage

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Cristopia nodules (continued)
Operation of each
phase series
connection
When the STL is connected in series with the chiller, four phases are possible:
storage alone,
direct cooling only,
discharge and direct cooling,
discharge alone.
Only block diagrams with the STL upstream will be shown.

Storage alone Storage alone takes place when no cooling is required by the system, such as in an
office building at night. This is the only phase during which storage is possible.
The two-way supply valve is closed and the STL valve is open. Port 2 of the
three-way valve is closed. The entire flow is routed through the STL.

STL
system
pump
chiller
supply valve off
to
system
1 3
2
supply sensor
STL valve
open
chiller thermostat
3-way valve

The chiller cools the loop with sensible heat until the nodules drop to their
crystallisation temperature. At this point, they begin to change state (i.e. they
crystallise) by absorbing the cooling energy provided by the chiller.
The latent heat load levels off throughout this period. The temperature remains
constant, and a thermodynamic equilibrium is established. At the end of storage,
the temperature of the HTF falls rapidly to the setpoint temperature of the chiller,
shutting it off.
The chiller cools the loop with sensible heat. This drop in temperature signals the
end of the storage phase. The chiller must be:
stopped in one stage,
locked out to prevent it restarting.
It will not be able to restart until the system requires further cooling.

21 July 2006



Air conditioning systems Page 52/68 Energy storage

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Cristopia nodules (continued)
Operation of each
phase series
connection
(continued)

Direct cooling Direct cooling occurs when the cooling capacity required by the system is lower
than the cooling capacity of the chiller (e.g. at the start of day in an office
building).
The two-way supply valve is open and the STL valve is closed. Port 2 of the
three-way valve remains closed. Nothing flows through the STL.

STL
system
pump
chiller
supply valve
open
to
system
1 3
2
supply
sensor
STL valve closed
chiller
thermostat
3-way valve


The supply sensor controls the chiller stages to adjust the supply temperature.
The thermostat functions as a low limit.



21 July 2006



Air conditioning systems Page 53/68 Energy storage

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Cristopia nodules (continued)
Operation of each
phase series
connection
(continued)

Discharge and
direct cooling
Discharge with direct cooling occurs when the cooling capacity required by the
system is higher than the cooling capacity of the chiller (e.g. an office building
that has reached its maximum heat load). The two-way supply valve is open and
the STL valve is closed. The control system actuates the three-way valve to
maintain the supply temperature near the setpoint temperature. The flow rate in
the STL varies.

STL
system
pump
chiller
supply valve
open
to
system
1 3
2
supply
sensor
STL valve
closed
chiller
thermostat
3-way valve



When the system requires peak cooling capacity, all the HTF flows through the
STL.

STL
system
pump
chiller
supply valve
open
to
system
1 3
2
supply
sensor
STL valve
closed
chiller
thermostat
3-way valve


21 July 2006



Air conditioning systems Page 54/68 Energy storage

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Cristopia nodules (continued)
Operation of each
phase series
connection
(continued)

Discharge
alone
Discharge alone takes place when cooling is taken from the STL while the chiller
is off (e.g. demand limiting in the winter, equipment servicing, etc.).
The chiller is controlled by a contact (utility, switch, etc.) that turns the
compressor on and off.
All the other components are in the same position as previously.

STL
system
pump
chiller
off
supply valve
open
to
system
1 3
2
supply
sensor
STL valve
closed
chiller
thermostat
3-way
valve




21 July 2006



Air conditioning systems Page 55/68 Energy storage

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Cristopia nodules (continued)
STL sizing We will use an example to explain how an STL is sized.
The bar chart below is the one used to depict the storage strategies.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 10
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
hours
capacity in kW
250
270
300
330
345
360
400
480
550
600
520
energy produced
daily


This air conditioning system has the following characteristics:
system water temperature of 7/12C,
intermediate plate exchanger,
water on exchanger primary circuit at a temperature of 5/10C,
reciprocating chiller.



21 July 2006



Air conditioning systems Page 56/68 Energy storage

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Cristopia nodules (continued)
Sizing an STL
(continued)

Selecting the
nodules
Selecting nodules consists of choosing a phase-change temperature that is in line
with the operating conditions. This temperature must be at least 4 K lower than
the supply temperature. The inlet temperature of the primary circuit in the
exchanger must be taken into consideration.
This condition is used to select the first type of nodule. Another type may be
selected by selecting a lower phase-change temperature in order to increase the
transfer capacities.
In some instances, this 4 K difference between the phase-change temperature and
the HTF supply temperature may be lowered depending on specific operating
conditions.
When the phase-change temperature is 0C, C-type nodules should be selected as
they are less expensive than S.00-type nodules. However, S.00 nodules may be
more advantageous if the required capacity is especially high (e.g. backup).
In our example, the chilling temperature of the glycol/water mix in the exchanger
primary circuit is 5/10C (storage operating temperature). We therefore will use
C nodules (difference of 5 K).

Calculation of
the daily
energy needed
The bar chart is used to calculate the maximum daily energy required by the
system. It is expressed in kWh.
In our example, the amount of energy is the sum of the capacities required every
hour, or:

Q
d
= C(i) = 4405 kWh

Calculation of
the minimum
chiller capacity
When sizing the chiller, bear in mind that its capacity is a function of the
evaporation temperature. The capacity during charging will therefore be lower
than the direct cooling capacity.
If consumption is spread evenly over 24 hours, the minimum compressor
capacity needed to ensure the level of cooling requested would be:
Q
d
/24 = C
min
in kW
Or, for our example:
kW C 5 . 183
24
4405
min = =
24
i = 1

21 July 2006



Air conditioning systems Page 57/68 Energy storage

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Cristopia nodules (continued)
Sizing an STL
(continued)

Reduction
coefficient
In our example, the glycol/water mix has the following temperatures upon
leaving the chiller:
5C during direct cooling,
-6C during storage.
This corresponds to a drop in temperature at the evaporator of 11 K.
We apply a coefficient for the drop in capacity between storage and direct
cooling. We consider that there is a 3% drop per degree of variation in the
evaporation temperature for units with reciprocating chillers. This gives the
following formula:
f = 1 - 0.03 Difference
In our example: f = 1 - 0.03 11 = 0.67

Calculation of
the actual
chiller capacity
The chiller provides direct cooling for a total of 11 hours (7 am-6 pm) at normal
capacity since the minimum capacity calculated for it is always less than the
required capacity.
Energy is stored for 13 hours (6 pm-7 am) at reduced capacity.
The amount of energy provided over a 24-hour period must be the same as the
daily energy requested.
Or:
Q = storage time C
r
+ discharge time C
n

and C
r
= f Cn
Hence Q = (f storage time + discharge time) C
n

Q = daily energy provided by the unit
C
r
= reduced capacity
C
n
= normal capacity
In our example:
( ) Cn 11 13 0.67 Q + =
Since Q = Q
d

The unit capacity can be determined.
( ) time discharge time storage f
Qj
Cn
+
=

21 July 2006



Air conditioning systems Page 58/68 Energy storage

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Cristopia nodules (continued)
Sizing an STL
(continued)

Calculation of
the actual
chiller capacity
(continued)
In our example:
kW 224 kW 223.5 to rounded
11 13 0.67
4405
Cn =
+
=
kW 150 224 0.67 Cn f Cr = = =
Check:
Stored energy = 13 150 1950 kWh =
Discharged energy = 4405 11 224 1941 kWh =
The values are identical (allowing for rounding differences).
In this example, the normal capacity is always lower than the required capacity.
The chiller runs at full capacity throughout the direct cooling phase.

Storable energy Energy that the STL can store is the same as the sum of:
the cooling energy of the liquid eutectic prior to crystallisation,
the crystallisation energy,
the cooling energy of the solid eutectic after crystallisation.
Es = Q
sl
+ Q
l
+ Q
ss

Where:
Es = storable energy
Q
sl
= cooling energy of liquid eutectic
Q
l
= latent heat of solidification
Q
ss
= cooling energy of solid eutectic.



21 July 2006



Air conditioning systems Page 59/68 Energy storage

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Cristopia nodules (continued)
Sizing an STL
(continued)

Calculation of
the storable
energy
At the end of discharge, the nodules are at the operating temperature of the HTF.
At the start of storage, they cool down to the phase-change temperature. At the
end of storage, they cool down to the temperature of the heat-transfer fluid.
We consider this temperature to be the mean value of the storage temperature
regime.
In our example:
The temperature regime is 5/10C and the temperature of the nodules is 5C
during direct cooling.
Because the flow rate is constant during storage, the temperature difference is
proportional to the capacity, thus equal to 0.67 5 = 3.4C. The temperature
regime is therefore -6/-2.6C.
The mean value is C 4.3
2
2.6 6
=

,
The temperature of the nodules at the end of storage is considered to be
-4.3C.
The cooling energy of the liquid eutectic is therefore:
Q
sl
= H
sl
(5 - 0)
Where H
sl
is the sensible heat in the liquid phase (here, 1.1 kWh/m
3
/K)
The cooling energy of the solid eutectic is therefore:
Q
ss
= H
ss
(0 - (- 4.3))
Where H
ss
is the sensible heat in the solid phase (here, 0.7 kWh/m
3
/K)
The latent heat for our example is 48.4 kWh/m
3
.
The storable energy per m
3
in the STL is:
Es = 1.1 5 + 48.4 + 0.7 4.3 = 56.9 kWh/m
3


Calculation of
the storage
volume
The minimum storage volume is the ratio between the energy to be stored and
the storable energy per unit of volume.
Es
energy stored
V =
In our example:
3
34.3m = =
9 . 56
1950
V

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Air conditioning systems Page 60/68 Energy storage

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Cristopia nodules (continued)
Optimisation and
compatibility of
transfers

Calculation of
transfer
capacities
We have seen that the STL functions like a heat exchanger. It obeys the same
laws which govern conventional heat exchangers. The transfer capacity is
calculated using the following formula:
C = K S LMTD
where:
K = transfer coefficient in kW/m/K
S = exchange surface in m
LMTD = logarithmic mean temperature difference.
It can be converted to:
P = K
v
V LMTD
where:
K
v
= transfer coefficient brought to the unit of volume in kW/m
3
/K
V = storage volume
LMTD = logarithmic mean temperature difference.
The logarithmic mean difference is calculated using the following formula:


=
Tstorage Tout
Tstorage Tin
Ln
Tstorage Tout Tstorage Tin
TD LM
where:
T
in
: temperature of HTF entering tank
T
out
: temperature of HTF exiting tank
T
storage
: phase-change temperature.



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Air conditioning systems Page 61/68 Energy storage

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Cristopia nodules (continued)
Optimisation and
compatibility of
transfers
(continued)

Check of
capacities
transferred
Two things are required in order for a system to be compatible:
The capacity transferred in the tank during storage must be higher than the
reduced capacity provided by the chiller.
The capacity transferred in the tank during discharge plus the normal capacity
provided by the chiller must be higher than capacity required by the system.
In our example:

Phase Kv
in kW/m
3
/K
Capacity transferred in kW Comparison Result
Charge 1.15
160
0 6 . 2
0 6
0 6 . 2 0 6
15 . 1 3 . 34 =





Ln
160 > 150 Compatible
Discharge 1.85
458
0 5
0 10
0 5 0 10
85 . 1 3 . 34 =



Ln

458 + 224 > 600
682 > 600
Compatible

Increase the storage volume if the system is not compatible.

Optimisation The above selection is based on efforts to find the minimum chiller capacity and
the corresponding maximum STL volume to meet our requirements. This process
makes it possible, as a first step, to define the minimum cooling capacity that
may be installed. It does not necessarily correspond, however, to the most
cost-effective solution. There are in fact a multitude of capacities and volumes
that meet requirements.
This is why it is necessary to also take an in-depth look at all the parameters that
can come into play when looking for cost-effective capacity and volume.
For example, one should look at technical aspects, financial aspects, noise,
safety, electrical power connections and the reduction of refrigerants.


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Air conditioning systems Page 62/68 Energy storage

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Cristopia nodules (continued)
Using the STL
Start of filling The tank must be filled one-third full with water so that:
the nodules are cushioned when they are poured in the tank,
the nodules naturally distribute themselves inside the tank.
The tank is filled by pouring bags of nodules through the manhole on top.



At least two people are needed if no water is available.





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Air conditioning systems Page 63/68 Energy storage

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Cristopia nodules (continued)
Using the STL
(continued)

End of filling It is absolutely essential that the tank is filled evenly. There are two reasons for
this:
the volume of the nodules is lower than the design volume,
the HTF will be bypassed, lowering the flow along the nodules.

Because it is essential that the nodules are evenly distributed in the tank, the
filling procedure below must be followed to the letter (especially for horizontal
tanks).
When the tank is half full, one or more people must enter the tank to make sure
the nodules are evenly distributed.


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Air conditioning systems Page 64/68 Energy storage

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Cristopia nodules (continued)
Using the STL
(continued)

End of filling
(continued)
Continue checking the distribution of the nodules until the tank is full. The
nodules must always be grouped near the ends of the tank.

Note:
While filling the tank, make sure no foreign bodies are left inside:
bags,
ties,
etc.


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Air conditioning systems Page 65/68 Energy storage

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Cristopia nodules (continued)
Using the STL
(continued)

Storage curve In order to make sure the STL is operating correctly, the storage curve must be
checked. An example of a typical curve is given below:

B
A
C
T (C)
t (hours)
tank outlet temperature (top)
tank inlet temperature (bottom)
phase-change
temperature

Zone A: Liquid sensible heat is used to cool the nodules from the operating
temperature to the phase-change temperature.
Zone B: The eutectic inside the nodules changes state at a constant temperature.
The temperature of the HTF remains virtually the same throughout this phase.
Zone C: This zone corresponds to cooling of the nodules using solid sensible
heat. The chiller will have to be shut off during this rapid drop in temperature.
The chiller should not be shut off before the STL is charged, otherwise the STL
will be only partically charged. The chiller setpoint must be approx. 2 K lower
than the storage temperature.



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Air conditioning systems Page 66/68 Energy storage

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Cristopia nodules (continued)
Using the STL
(continued)

Discharge
curve
In order to make sure the STL is operating correctly, the discharge curve must be
checked. An example of a typical curve is given below:

E
D
F
t (hours)
T (C)
tank outlet temperature (bottom)
tank inlet temperature (top)
phase-change
temperature


Four things must be done in order to plot the curve:
Shut off the chiller and its pump.
Cut off the supply of fluid to the evaporator circuit.
Turn on the system pump.
Set the water supply temperature control to automatic.
The flow rate in the STL varies based on the control scheme. The difference in
the inlet and outlet temperature varies.
Zone D: The solid sensible energy contained in the nodules and the liquid
sensible energy are lowered to the below-zero temperature of the HTF.
Zone E: The eutectic in the nodules changes state from a solid to a liquid. The
latent energy is discharged from the nodules at a constant temperature (fusion
temperature of the eutectic). This levelling-off is more or less long and more or
less pronounced depending on how much energy is taken from the STL.
Zone F: The sensible energy of the liquid in the STL is discharged. Discharge
ends when the outlet temperature of the STL reaches the distribution setpoint
temperature.

21 July 2006



Air conditioning systems Page 67/68 Energy storage

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Cristopia nodules (continued)
Using the STL
(continued)

Example
schematic
diagram

STL
chiller
pump
chiller
3-way
valve
to
system
1
3
2
system
pump
supply
sensor
limitation
sensor
exchanger
pump
filter
4
expansion
vessel
shut-off valve
control valve
motorised on/off valve
check valve with direction of flow shown
plates
exchanger


The following must be provided:
release valves at all high points,
drain valves at all low points,
a charging valve for the heat transfer fluid.


21 July 2006



Air conditioning systems Page 68/68 Energy storage

Air conditioning systems
Version 1.0
Cristopia nodules (continued)
Using the STL
(continued)

Example
schematic
diagram
(continued)
The role of each component is listed in the table below.

Component Role
Three-way valve Adjusts the supply temperature.
Motorised On/Off STL valve: No. 1 Used to inhibit daytime storage (open during storage, closed during
discharge).
Motorised On/Off STL valve with
bypass: No. 2
Used to inhibit daytime storage and obtain a constant flow through
the chiller (open during discharge, closed during storage).
Motorised On/Off valve at chiller
outlet: No. 3
Used to direct the flow to the control valve to compensate for
pressure drops in the STL (open during storage, closed during
discharge).
Motorised On/Off valve at chiller
inlet: No. 4
Used to cut off the chiller during discharge alone.
Check valve Forces the HTM to circulate in the desired direction.
Supply sensor Adjusts the supply temperature.
Limitation sensor Controls the three-way valve to protect the heat exchanger from
freezing by a too-low inlet temperature.
Expansion vessel Absorbs variations in volume. Its expansion capacity during air
conditioning and at typical pressures must be at least 3% of the
volume of the STL.