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Unit 2 Political Culture: Study Guide

1. Read out all 10 characteristics of American political culture (A!".

E.)Civic Duty
F.)Distrust of Government
G.)Political Efficacy
.)Political !olerance
I.) Pra"matism
2. #ame the first t$o features related to e%uality.
$!%e first t&o features related to equality are equality of
o''ortunity more t%an equality of result and( Political equality
more t%an economic equality.
&. 'hat historical e(ent especially )rou*ht out Americans distrust for
$!%e %istorical event t%at brou"%t Americans distrusts &as t%e
im'act of t%e )ietnam *ar.
,. 'hy do you thin- .political tolerance/ as a characteristic is more
.a)stract than concrete+/ 'hat is political tolerance+
$ Political tolerance is more abstract because Americans %ave many
'oints of vie&. +ost 'eo'le vie& t%emselves as tolerant &%ile
ot%ers may feel t%ey are intolerant.
0. Accordin* to the (ie$point of classic 11
Century thin-ers includin*
our 2oundin* 2athers3 $hat is the role of *o(ernment+
$Accordin" to t%e ,-
century t%e role of "overnment &as to 'rotect
'ro'erty ri"%ts.
4. #ame four characteristics of modern 20
Century li)eralism (read out
1 to ,"
$E.'and role Government
$Cor'orations seen as c%ief t%reat to liberty
$/eed for a stron" "overnment
$ 0ole of "overnment to 'rotect t%e 'eo'le
5. 'ho are the .neoli)erals/ and $hat are their )eliefs+
$!%e neoliberals are less bi" on "ov and t%ey believe t%at are less
li1ely to rely u'on "ov as a solution to 'roblems( "ov certainly %as
some role to 'lay( but not t%e main role.
1. Under .Conser(ati(es/ read num)ers 4 6 5 out loud.
Em'%asis today is on t%e 'rivate sector to solve 'roblems.
2tron" su''ort for lar"e ta. cuts.
7. 'hy do you thin- 8)ama is )ein* called a socialist+
$is detractors see %im as a 'ro'onent of lar"e "overnment$run
'ro"rams li1e %ealt%care 3called 45bamacare6).
10. 'hat is libertarianism+
$Libertarianism is A.) !%ere is an e.treme em'%asis on individual
liberty. B.) E.treme cutbac1 on t%e role of t%e "overnment.
11. 'hat are the & characteristics of .elites+/
$3,) Elites don7t believe in t%e class system( 38) !%ey believe t%ey
are t%e most ca'able of settin" t%e national a"enda( 39) !%ey
believe t%at t%ey s%ould be t%e ones to influence t%e resolution of
12. 'hat are three $ays in $hich pu)lic opinion are measured+
$ +easurements are c%aracteri:ed as; stable( fluid( latent( salient(
consensus and( 'olari:ed.
1&. #e9t pa*e3 $hat is the .horse race mentality+/
$t%e %orse race mentality is su'erficiality of t%e cam'ai"n itself.
!%e media tends to focus on &%o7s &innin" in t%e cam'ai"n and
ot%er su'erficial matters as o''osed to t%e actual issues. !%e
American 'ublic 'refers t%is 4%orse race6 covera"e( by t%e &ay.
1,. :o$ did the ;lection of 2000 demonstrate pro)lems related to e9it
$!%e election of 8<<< related to 'olls &%ere t%e early
'ro=ections in Florida for Gore and t%en Bus% ended u' &innin" t%e
10. :o$ $ell a$are are Americans $ith its political process+
$Americans are not muc% a&are of t%e 'olitical 'rocess.
14. 'hat is .political sociali<ation+/
$Political sociali:ation is %o& you develo' 'olitical vie&'oints based
u'on influences suc% as family( socio$economic status( race( and
ot%er demo"ra'%ics>
15. 'hat is the stron*est a*ent of political sociali<ation+
$!%e stron"est a"ent 'olitical sociali:ation is t%e correlation bet&een
a 'arents7 'arty affiliation and t%e c%ild7s 'arty affiliation.
11. :o$ are schools a*ents of political sociali<ation+
$Early sc%ool years em'%asi:e 'atriotism and 'artici'ation? colle"e
tends to %ave a 4liberali:in"6 effect on students.
17. :o$ is reli*ion an a*ent of political sociali<ation+
$It is often related to more Conservative 'olitical vie&'oints 3ie.
Abortion( %omose.uality( t%e deat% 'enalty.) !%e vie&'oint of a
c%urc% %as a stron" influence on 'artici'ants. 2ome c%urc%es suc%
as @nitarians are more liberal. !%e Cat%olic C%urc% may also %old
some moderately liberal stances on certain issues.
20. ;(an*elicals traditionally support the Conservative party+
-Due to their opposition to abortion and other issues with more
emphasis on family traditions and etc.
21. 'hy ha(e Catholics supported )oth Repu)licans and =emocrats+
$Cat%olics su''ort bot% 0e'ublicans and Democrats because youn"
"enerations are more liberal but older 'eo'le are more
conservative. Also "eo"ra'%ically( Cuban Cat%olics are far more
22. !e$s typically (ote for the Democratic party+
!%e #e&is% fait% stron"ly su''orts t%e Democratic Party due to
t%eir 'ro"ressive 'ositions on 'ersonal ri"%ts( anti$deat% 'enalty(
belief in "overnment involvement in 'eo'le7s lives and etc.
2&. 'hich *roup is the stron*est supporter of the =emocratic party+
$ !%e Democratic 'arty7s stron"est su''orters are African$
Americans. !%e Civil 0i"%ts( )otin" 0i"%ts Act &ere led by
Democratic 'residents. 0eali"nment of t%e 2out%ern 2tates
to&ards t%e 0e'ublican Party are anot%er reason &%y African$
Americans identify &it% t%e Democratic Party.
2,. Persons $ith hi*her incomes support $hich party+ 'ith lo$er
$Persons &it% %i"%er income su''ort 0e'ublicans( and &it% lo&er
incomes Democrats.
20. 'hat $as si*nificant a)out 1772 and the .>ear of the 'oman/ in
terms of Con*ressional representation+
$ ,AA8 &as si"nificant because many more &omen t%an any ot%er
time in @2 %istory &ere elected to Con"ress.
24. 'hat are some .conflictin* elements/ related to one?s political
$Colle"e versus 'rofession( +ale 30e'ublican) Female 3Democrat)(
Economic status.
25. 'hat are the se(en historical %ualifications of suffra*e (letters A to
A.) 0eli"ion
B.) Pro'erty
C.) 0ace
D.) 2e.
E.) Income
F.) Literacy
G.) +inimum A"e
21. :o$ $as the income %ualification turned )ac-$hich amendment
and $hat $as )anned+
$!%e income qualification &as turned bac1 t%rou"% t%e 8B

Amendment &%ic% banned t%e 'oll ta..
27. :o$ $as the literacy %ualification turned )ac-+
$!%e literacy qualification &as turned bac1 t%rou"% t%e )otin" 0i"%ts
Act of ,ACD.
&0. Read aloud ho$ the US (oter turnout compares $ith forei*n nations.
$!%e rate of voter turnout is far lo&er in t%e @2 3less t%an D<EF)
com'ared to ot%er industriali:ed countries.
&1. Read aloud the si9 .institutional )arriers/ related to lo$ US (oter
$0e"istration( ballot fati"ue( e.cessive numbers of elections( ty'es
of elections( "eneral election difficulties( 4voter fati"ue.6
&2. 'hich .types/ of elections ha(e the hi*hest (oter turnout in the US+
$Presidential elections in t%e @2 %ave t%e %i"%est rate of voter
&&. 'hat a*e *roup of Americans ha(e the lo$est turnout+
$!%e lo&est turnout are in t%e a"es of ,-$8B.
&,. 'hat $as the 24
Amendment+ =id it help increase (oter turnout+
$It "ave ,- year olds t%e franc%ise. It %ad no a''reciable affect
on national voter turnout.
&0. 'hat are the four *eneral reasons Americans from a political
standpoint don?t tend to (ote.
3,) !%e lac1 of 'olitical efficacy 3etc. African$Americans)( 38)
Dissatisfaction &it% t%e candidates( 39) !%e lac1 of stron" t%ird
'arties$t%e t&o 'arty system( 3B) !%e &ea1ness of 'arties.
&4. 'hat are the fi(e characteristics of those US citi<ens most li-ely to
3,) Levels of education( 38) Income( 39) A"e( 3B) 0ace( and 3D)
&1. Amon* the fi(e3 $hat is the *reatest predictor of (otin*+
$Level of education.
&7. 'hat are the si9 other forms of political participation distinct from
A.) demonstrations
B.) rallies
C.) local 'arty meetin"s
D.) ma1in" cam'ai"ns contributions
,0. 'hat is the .Solid South+/
$2out%ern voters &%o %ave since t%e ,AG<7s( voted uniformly for t%e
0e'ublican Party 3e.ce't for Clinton and 5bama)
,1. 'hat are .reali*nin*/ elections+ 'hat are some years of these and
$hat e(ents influenced them+
$Lon" term c%an"e in 'olitical ali"nment 3ie. 5bama7s 'residency).
,2. 'hat is the stron*est predictor of (otin* )eha(ior+
$Political Party Identification
,&. 'ho are the .@ndependents+/ :o$ stron* are they in politics+
-Individuals who dont identify with either major party in US. They tend
to vote more on specific issues that interest them.
44. 'hat are .closed elections/
5nly re"istered 'arty members can vote for 'artisan offices( no
crossin" of 'arty lines.
,0. Reelection consideration. 'hat is the *reatest factor to influence
the outcome of con*ressional elections+
$!%e "reatest of influence of t%e outcome of a con"ressional
candidates c%ances is incumbency.
,4. 'hat is the reelection a(era*e of incum)ents for :8R3 for the
$!%e re$election 'ercenta"e for incumbents is A< for Con"ress? -<E
for 2enators.
,5. Read aloud 1 ad(anta*es of incum)ents
$Incumbent cam'ai"ns( &ea1 c%allen"er cam'ai"ns( stron" c%allen"er
cam'ai"ns( o'en seat cam'ai"ns( %ouse of senate( mid term
,1. 'hat has )een the trend of presidential primaries o(er the past &0
$!%e beauty contest 'rimary( dele"ate selection 'rimary(and t%e
4front loadin"6 trend.
,7. 'hat is .)alancin* the tic-et+/
$Balancin" t%e tic1et is selection of ).P nominee based u'on t%e
number of votes t%e 'otential )P can attract for t%e 'resident.
Balancin" considerations include "eo"ra'%ic location of t%e
'otential )P 3ie. #o%nson and t%e 2out% for Hennedy).
00. 'hat are the characteristics of (oters $ho are li-ely to participate in
presidential primaries+
$!%e c%aracteristics of voters &%o vote in 'residential 'rimaries
tend to be more educated and more affluent t%an t%ose in "eneral
01. 'hat are the characteristics of those $ho participate in caucuses
and con(entions+
$!%ey tend to be unre'resentative of t%e country as a &%ole( more
ideolo"ical( more activist( and more educated. !%ey also tend to
be less moderate( and muc% &ealt%ier.
02. #e9t pa*e on Ahe ;lectoral Colle*e: 'hat is a .$inner ta-e all
$Candidates &it% most 'o'ular votes &in all of t%e state7s electoral
0&. 'here do presidential candidates tend to concentrate their
$!%ey tend to concentrate t%eir cam'ai"ns in lar"e com'etitive
0,. :o$ many electoral (otes are needed in order for a candidate to $in
the presidential election+
$ 8G< electoral votes are required to &in t%e election. !%e first
candidate &%o reac%es t%is 4ma"ic number6 &ins t%e election.
00. 'hat mi*ht influence a presidential candidate to $in the election )y
plurality rather than maBority+
$Presidents can be elected &it% only a 'lurality( !%ird 'arty
candidates can lead to a 'resident &innin" by 'lurality.
04. =urin* a presidential election3 ho$ are small states
$2mall states 'ro'ortionally over re'resented( e.". *yomin" &it%
about D<<(<<< 'eo'le( %as 9 electoral votes( or about , vote 'er
,CC(CCC 'eo'le.
05. :o$ does a .$inner ta-e all system/ discoura*e the chances of
third party candidates+3
$A &inner ta1e a system discoura"es t%ird 'arty candidates by
denyin" t%em electoral colle"e votes. Fifty$one 'ercent of any
candidate 4loc1s u'6 all electoral colle"e votes for a state.