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1

CHNG 4 ANTEN MNG ....................................................................................................... 2


4.1 M U ....................................................................................................................... 2
4.2 MNG NG NHT MT CHIU ........................................................................... 4
4.3 MNG NG NHT HAI CHIU ........................................................................... 11
4.4 TNG HP KIU MNG ......................................................................................... 14
4.4.1 Phng php chui Fourier ................................................................................. 14
4.4.2 Mng Chebyshev ................................................................................................. 18
4.5 MNG CP IN CHO MNG ............................................................................... 24
4.6 MNG K SINH........................................................................................................ 27

2

CHNG 4 ANTEN MNG

4.1 M U
Trong chng trc, mt s loi Anten dipole tiu biu c gii thiu v phn tch.
Cc anten u l cc anten n phn t c cu trc n gin. Tuy nhin cc anten n
ny u c h s nh hng thp. Trong nhiu ng dng c bit l cc h thng thng
tin Point-to-point i hi anten phi c tnh nh hng cao. Mt phng php hiu qu
lm tng tnh nh hng ca anten l t hp cc anten n gin theo mt trt t nht
nh to thnh mt anten mng gm nhiu anten phn t.
Trng tng ca anten mng c xc nh bng phng php cng vector ca cc
trng bc x t cc anten thnh phn. y b qua tc ng tng h gia cc anten
phn t. Trong mt mng gm cc anten phn t ging nhau c t nht nm yu t quan
trng nh hng n kiu bc x ca anten mng:
1. Cch sp xp cc phn t ( xp xp theo ng thng, ng trn, tam
gic....)
2. Khong cch gia phn t
3. Bin dng c kch thch trn cc phn t
4. Pha ca dng c kch thch trn cc phn t
5. Kiu bc x ca cc phn t
Xt mt mng gm N anten ging nhau, c t cng mt hng trong khng gian
c kch thch vi bin C
i
v pha
i
i vi anten phn t th i. V tr ca phn t i
c xc nh bi vector
i
r .
Trng bc x ca mt anten chun t ti gc ta c kch thch vi bin 1 v
pha bng 0 c dng:
r
e
f r E
r jk


4
) , ( ) (
0

= (4.1)
khu xa rr
i
, cc tia t cc anten phn t n im kho st c th xem l song song
vi nhau do khong cch t phn t th i n im kho st c tnh nh sau:
i r i
r a r R =
Trng to bi phn t th i s chm pha mt lng
i r
r a k
0
so vi anten chun t ti
gc ta . i vi bin ta s dng r R
i
.
Trng tng c dng:
i r i
r a jk j
N
i
i
r jk
e C
r
e
f r E
+
=

=
0
0
1
4
) , ( ) (

(4.2)
3



Biu thc (4.2) c th c vit di dng:
r
e
f F r E
r jk


4
) , ( ) , ( ) (
0

=
i r i
r a jk j
N
i
i
e C F
+
=

=
0
1
) , (

(4.3)
Vi F(,) l hm phng hng ca mng.
H s nh hng t l vi

2
o h s nh hng ca mng c dng:
2
2
) , ( ) , ( ) , ( F f D = (4.4)
Nguyn tc nhn gin phng hng: hm phng hng ca mng c xc nh
bng hm phng hng ca mt anten phn t nhn vi hm phng hng c trng
ca mng. y b qua tc ng tng h gia cc phn t trong mng.


Hnh 4. 1 Anten mng gmN phn t


z
x
y
i r
r a
r
a
i
r
N
r
1
r
2
r
1
R
i
R
N
R
1
R
Anten
phn t
4

4.2 MNG NG NHT MT CHIU

Xt mt mng gm N +1 phn t dipole na sng t cch nhau mt khong d, c
kch thch bi cc dng c cng bin C=I
0
lch pha lin tip mt lng d v do
n=nd.

Hnh 4. 2 Anten mng gmN+1 dipole na sng
H s mng c tnh bi cng thc (4.3):

=
+
=
N
i
nd jk d jn
e I F
0
cos
0
0
) , (


(4.5)

Vi l gc gia vector

v trc ca mng, trong trng hp ny l trc x.


Bin i biu thc (4.5) c h s mng F (kiu ca trng bc x) c dng:
( )
( ) 2 / cos sin
cos
2
1
sin
0
0
0
d k
d k
N
I F


+
)
`

+
+
= (4.6)
tin li cho vic tm hiu kiu bc x ca mng, t:
cos
0
d k u = (4.7)
d u =
0
(4.8)


z
x
y
r
a
r

0
1
2
i
N
5

H s ca mng c dng v c biu din trn hnh (4.3):
( )
( ) 2 / sin
2
1
sin
0
0
0
u u
u u
N
I F
+
)
`

+
+
= (4.9)
Cc i ca tia chnh xy ra khi u= u
0

Khong cch gia im cc i ca tia chnh v im cc i ca tia ph u tin:
1
3
+
=
N
u


Khi N8 th t s gia bin tia ph u tin v tia chnh c gi tr 2/(3 ) (hay 0.21).
C N-1 tia ph gia hai tia chnh. Kiu mng tun hon vi chu k 2 theo bin u.
V d k d k u d k
0 0 0
cos = do ch c mt khong ca u vi c ngha vt l gi
l vng kh kin (visible region): d k u d k
0 0
.

Hnh 4. 3 H s mng ca mng ng nht

Thc t thng ch yu cu c mt tia chnh trong vng kh kin iu ny i hi chn
khong cch nh vng kh kin ch cha mt tia chnh nh biu din trong hnh
4.3. C hai trng hp chnh di y:
1. Trng hp =0 ( mng ng pha):
Khi u
0
=0, cc i ca tia chnh xy ra khi: u =0 hay cos =0 v =/2. Nh vy
cc i ca tia chnh xy ra ti mt phng vung gc vi trc ca mng.
Nu chn khong cch gia cc phn t d<0, s ch c mt tia chnh xut hin trong
vng kh kin.
Tia chnh
F
Tia ph
u tin
Vngkh kin
u
BW
d k
0

0
u
u=0
2
0
u
d k
0
6

rng tia chnh BW( beam width- gc gia hai im khng ca tia chnh) c xc
nh t diu kin :
=
+
cos
2
1
0
d k
N

d N d k N ) 1 ( ) 1 (
2
cos
0
0
+

=
+

=


Khi N c gi tr rt ln, cos c gi tr rt nh. Lc c th xem
2

=
2
, ta c

= sin )
2
cos( do rng ca tia chnh:
L d N
BW
0 0
2
) 1 (
2
2

=
+
= = (4.10)
Vi d N L ) 1 ( + = l chiu di ca mng.
Nh vy rng ca tia chnh t l nghch vi chiu di ca mng. tn s cao, c th
to mng ng nht ng pha vi bp sng hp.
V d: Mt anten mng c chiu di L=20
0
, c rng tia chnh BW =0.1 rad =6
o
. Nu
anten hot ng tn s 30GHz (
0
=1cm), th chiu di ca mng l 20cm. Tuy nhin
nu bc sng vo khong 1MHz (
0
=300m), chiu di ca mng l 6km khng kh
thi.
Vic tnh chnh xc h s nh hng ca mng l rt kh. Trong trng hp ang xt l
mng ng pha gm N+1 dipole na sng th phi tnh cng sut bc x ton phn bng
cch tnh tch phn sau:


d d
d k
d k
N
sin
) cos sin
2
sin(
) cos sin
2
1
sin(
sin
) cos
2
cos(
2
2
0 0
0
0

(
(
(

+

Cng c th tnh gn ng h s nh hng cc i ca mng bng cng thc:

H E A
HPBW HPBW
D

=
4 4
0
(4.11)
Vi
A
l gc c chim bi chm tia chnh, HPBW
E
l gc na cng sut trong mt
phng E, trng hp ny l gc na cng sut ca dipole na sng c gi tr 78
0
(1.36
rad). L gc na cng sut trong mt phng H; trong trng hp ny chnh l gc na
cng sut xc nh bi h s mng:
7

d N d k N
HPBW
H

) 1 (
65 . 2
) 1 (
65 . 2 2
2
0
0
2 / 1
+
=
+

= = (4.12)
Nh vy h s nh hng cc i ca mt mng ng pha gm N+1 dipole na sng
c tnh bi cng thc:
0
0
) 1 (
48 . 5
36 . 1 2
4

d N
HPBW
D
H
+
=

(4.13)
Tha s 2 mu s tnh cho 2 tia.
Nu phn t mng l anten v hng th kiu bc x s c tnh i xng trc quanh trc
ca mng, khi h s nh hng cc i c tnh bi cng thc:
0
0
) 1 (
37 . 2
2
4

d N
HPBW
D
H
+
=

(4.14)
V d: Tnh h s nh hng cc i D
0
ca mt mng ng nht gm 10 anen v
hng c t cch nhau mt khong bng bc sng v c kch thch ng pha.
dB
d N
D 72 . 7 ) 925 . 5 ( log 10 925 . 5
4 / 10
37 . 2
) 1 (
37 . 2
10
0
0
0
0
= = = =
+
=




8


Hnh 4. 4 (a) Kiu mng ca mng ng pha (b) Kiu bc x ca dipole na sng
(c) Kiu bc x tng hp ca mng gmcc dipole na sng ng pha
2. Trng hp mng c pha ca dng in bin i theo qui lut sng chy
(mng End-fire):
Trng hp chn d k u
0 0
= , bp sng chnh t cc i khi:
0 cos
0 0 0
= = = = d k d k u u
Hng bc x cc i chnh l hng +x. Nu chn d k u
0 0
= , hng bc x cc i s
c hng x.
iu kin ch c mt tia chnh trong vng kh kin: d <0/2.
H s mng c dng:
)
`


)
`


+
=
) 1 (cos
2
sin
) 1 (cos
2
1
sin
0
0
0

d k
d k
N
I F
(4.15)
z
x
y
(a)
z
x
y
(b)
(c)
z
x
y
9

Kiu mng c tnh i xng quanh trc ca mng nh biu din trn hnh 4.5.
Tia chnh bng 0 khi:
=
+
) 1 (cos
2
1
0
d k
N

Khi N rt ln, ca ti im 0 ca tia chnh c gi tr rt nh do c th thc hin
php tnh gn ng: 2 / ) ( 1 cos
2
.
d k N
0
2
) 1 (
2
2
) (
+
=


rng tia chnh:
2 / 1
0
2 / 1
0
2
2
1
/ 2
2 2
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
.
|

\
|
+
= =
L N
d
BW


Vi L l chiu di ca mng.
Nh vy rng tia chnh t l nghch vi cn bc hai ca chiu di mng tnh theo
bc sng.
H s nh hng cc i c tnh gn ng bng rng tia na cng sut.
2 / 1
0
2 / 1
) 1 (
63 . 1 2 2
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
= =
N d
HPBW

(4.16)

Gc c gii hn bi chm tia na cng sut:
2
2 / 1 2 / 1
2
0 0
) ( ) cos 1 ( 2 sin
2 / 1


= =

d d

H s nh hng cc i:
0
0
) 1 (
73 . 4
4

d N
D
+
=

= (4.17)
V d: H s nh hng cc i ca mng end-fire gm 10 phn t t cch nhau mt
khong bng bc sng:
dB
d N
D 728 . 10 ) 825 . 11 ( log 10 825 . 11
4 / 10
73 . 4
) 1 (
73 . 4
10
0
0
0
0
= = = =
+
=


10


Hnh 4. 5 H s mng v kiu bc x ca mng End-fire

iu kin Hansen-Woodyard: tng tnh nh hng ca mng
N
d k u d

= =
0 0
(4.18)
Cc i ca tia chnh xy ra khi:
N
d k u u

+ = =
0 0
(4.19)
1 cos
cos
0 0
>
+ = =

N
d k d k u

Nh vy cc i ca chm tia chnh xy ra ngoi vng kh kin do th ca |F(u)|
b dch sang pha tri mt on /N. So vi mng thng thng th bp sng chnh b
thu hp v cc i chnh t gi tr nh hn. Tuy nhin do cng sut bc x ton phn
gim do h s nh hng tng.
Vngkh kin
u u=0
=
d k
0
F
0
0 0
=
=

u d k
Tia ph u tin
z
y
x
(a)
(b)
11



Hnh 4. 6 H s mng ca mng end-fire vi iu kin Hansen-Woodyard


4.3 MNG NG NHT HAI CHIU

Xt mt mng gm (N +1)(M+1) phn t dipole na sng t song song vi trc z trong
mt phng xOz nh biu din trong hnh v 4.7. Cc anten phn t c kch thch bi
cc dng c cng bin C=I
0
, phn b pha c dng
d jm d jn
e
+
tng ng vi v tr
(n,m).
C th xem h l mt mng gm (M+1) mng mt chiu c (N +1) phn t. S dng
nguyn tc nhn gin phng hng, h s ca mng hai chiu bng tch ca h s
mng ca mng gm (M+1) phn t vi h s mng ca mng gm (N +1) phn t.
Ta c: cos sin =
x r
a a v cos =
r z
a a , do h s mng ca mng hai chiu
c biu din nh sau:
( )
( ) { }
( )
( ) { } 2 / cos sin
cos
2
1
sin
2 / cos sin sin
cos sin
2
1
sin
) , (
0
0
0
0
0
d k
d d k
M
d k
d d k
N
I F





+
)
`

+
+

+
)
`

+
+
=

(4.20)
n gin ta t:
d v d k v
d u d k u


= =
= =
0 0
0 0
, cos
, cos sin

Cc i
F
Vngkh kin
u
d k
0
0 = u
0
) 1 ( I N +
d k
0
0
u
N

12

H s ca mng c vit li thnh:
( ) ( )
( ) { } ( ) { } 2 / sin 2 / sin
2
1
sin
2
1
sin
0 0
0 0
0
v v u u
v v
M
u u
N
I F
+ +
)
`

+
+
)
`

+
+
=
(4.21)

Hnh 4. 7 Mng hai chiu

Hng bc x cc i chnh c xc nh t iu kin:

=
=
0
0
v v
u u

Nu cc phn t ca mng c kch thch ng pha, 0 = = th hng bc x cc
i chnh vung gc vi mt phng ca mng. Trong trng hp ny mt phng ca
mng l mt phng xOz nn hng bc x cc i chnh l hng y. Bng cch chn
cc gi tr v thch hp c th iu khin hng bc x cc i theo mt hng ty
(mng pha).
Trong trng hp mng c kch thch ng pha, rng tia chnh trong mt phng xy
v xz c xc nh bi cc iu kin sau:

=
+
=
+

v
M
u
N
2
1
2
1


z
x
y r
a
r
d
i
d
M+1
phn t
N+1
phn t
13

Tng t vi mng mt chiu, rng tia chnh:

+
=
+
=
d M
BW
d N
BW
yz
xy
) 1 (
2
) (
) 1 (
2
) (
0
0

(4.22)
Gc na cng sut c xc nh:

+
=
+
=
d M
HPBW
d N
HPBW
yz
xy

) 1 (
65 . 2
) (
) 1 (
65 . 2
) (
0
0
(4.23)
H s nh hng cc i c tnh gn ng nh sau:
2
0
2
0
2
0
33 . 8
) 1 )( 1 (
33 . 8
) ( ) ( 2
4

A d M N
HPBW HPBW
D
yz xy
=
+ +
=

(4.24)
Vi
2
) 1 )( 1 ( d M N A + + = l din tch ca mng.
Nh vy h s nh hng cc i t l thun vi din tch o theo n v bnh phng
bc sng. y l c trng cho tt c cc loi anten.
Khi tia chnh lch khi trc ca mng rng ca tia chnh s thay i. Gi s
0 0
cos , 0 d k d = = , tia chnh nm trong mt phng xy v lch so vi trc x mt gc

0
. S dng php khai trin Taylor c th vit:
) )( sin ( ) cos (cos
0 0 0 0 0
d k d k
rng tia chnh c xc nh bi biu thc:
0
0
0
0 0 0
0
sin ) 1 (
2
2 2 ) (
) )( sin (
2
1
) (
2
1

d N
BW
d k
N
u u
N
xy
+
= = =
=
+

= +
+

(4.25)
14

Nh vy rng tia chnh trong mt phng xy tng t l vi 1/sin
0
. Ta nhn thy
0
sin ) 1 ( d N + chnh l di ca mng chiu ln hng vung gc vi hng bc x
cc i, v di ca hnh chiu th bao gi cng nh hn di thc do rng tia
chnh c m rng.


4.4 TNG HP KIU MNG

Trong phn trc chng ta tm hiu v mng ng nht. Mng ng nht c th to
ra kiu bc x vi bp sng hp bng cch phn b phn b pha thch hp cho cc dng
c kch thch trn cc phn t. Bng cch iu khin phn b pha gia cc phn t
bc x c th thay i hng bc x ca tia chnh.
Nu thay i phn b ca cc dng kch thch, ta c th iu khin hnh dng v d rng
ca bp sng chnh cng nh v tr v ln ca cc bp sng ph. Do c th to ra
mt kiu bc x gn ging vi kiu bc x cho trc. y chnh l bi ton tng hp
kiu mng hay c th gi n gin l tng hp mng.
C rt nhiu phng php khc nhau c nghin cu v pht trin tng hp kiu
mng, trong phn ny ch gii hn mt s phng php tiu biu. Trong phn ny
chng ta ch cp n vic tng hp kiu mng cho mng mt chiu. Tuy nhin cc
phng php ny hon ton c th ng dng cho mng hai chiu da trn nguyn tc
nhn gin phng hng.
4.4.1 Phng php chui Fourier
Xt mt mng gm 2N+1 phn t v mt mng gm 2N phn t c kch thch ng
pha nh biu din trong hnh 4.8 vi gc ta trng vi tm ca mng.

Hnh 4. 8 (a) Mng mt chiu vi 2N+1 phn t; (b) Mng mt chiu vi 2N phn t

d
z
y
x
-N
N
1
-1
r

d
z
y
x
-N
N
1
-1
r

(a) (b)
15

(a) Trng hp mng c s phn t l, 2N+1 phn t:

=
= =
N
N n
jnu
n
e C u F F ) ( ) (
(4.26a)


(b) Trng hp mng c s phn t l s chn, 2N phn t

=

=
+
+ = =
N
n
u n j
n
N n
u n j
n
e C e C u F F
1
] 2 / ) 1 2 [(
1
] 2 / ) 1 2 [(
) ( ) (
(4.26b)
Vi cos
0
d k u = .
Ch : V 0 , do d k u d k
0 0
ng vi vng kh kin.
Nu mng c tnh i xng, C
n
=C
-n
, h s mng c th vit li thnh:
(a) Mng c 2N+1 phn t:


=
=

=
+ =
+ + = = =
N
n
n
N
n
jnu jnu
n
N
N n
jnu
n
nu C C u F
e e C C e C u F F
1
0
1
0
cos 2 ) (
) ( ) ( ) (
(4.27a)

(b) Mng c 2N phn t:


=

=

=
+
+ =
+ = =
N
n
u n j u n j
n
N
n
u n j
n
N n
u n j
n
e e C
e C e C u F F
1
] 2 / ) 1 2 [( ] 2 / ) 1 2 [(
1
] 2 / ) 1 2 [(
1
] 2 / ) 1 2 [(
) (
) ( ) (

=
N
n
n
u
n
C u F
1
)
2
1 2
cos( 2 ) (
(4.27b)

Bng cch kch thch cc phn t mng vi bin C
n
thch hp c th to c mt
mng c h s mng gn ng vi h s mng F
d
(u) cho trc. C
n
chnh l h s ca
chui Fourier v c tnh bng cng thc di y:
(c) Mng c 2N+1 phn t:

N n du e u F C C
jnu
d n n
= =


0 , ) (
2
1

(4.28a)
(d) Mng c 2N phn t:
N n du e u F C C
u
n
j
d n n
= =


1 , ) (
2
1
2
1 2

(4.28b)

16

V d: Dng phng php bin i Fourier thit k mng i xng c 7 phn
t t cch nhau d=
0
/2 c kiu mng nh sau:

< < < <



=
0 0 0
0 0
180 120 , 60 0 0
120 60 1
) (

d
F
Bi gii:

= = = =
= = = =
2
60 cos
2
2
cos 60
2
120 cos
2
2
cos 120
0 0
0
0
0
0 0
0
0
0


d k u
d k u

S dng 4.28a tnh bin dng c kch thch trn tng phn t:
2 / 1
2
1
) (
2
1
2 /
2 /
0
= = =


du du u F C
d


2
sin
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
) (
2
1
2 / 2 /
2 /
2 /
2 /
2 /

n
n
C
j
e e
n jn
e
du e du e u F C
n
jn jn jnu
jnu jnu
d n
=

=
(

= = =

1
2
sin
1
1 1
= = =

C C 0
2
2
sin
2
1
2 2
= = =

C C

3
1
2
3
sin
3
1
3 3
= = =

C C
Bin dng trn cc phn t:
3
1
, 0 ,
1
,
2
1
3 2 1 0
= = = =

C C C C
H s mng:

u u u F
nu C C u F
N
n
n
3 cos
3
2
cos
2
2
1
) (
cos 2 ) (
1
0

+ =
+ = =

=

) cos 3 cos(
3
2
) cos cos(
2
2
1
) (

+ = F

Kiu mng c biu din trn hnh 4.9.
Nu s lng phn t tng ln kiu bc x ca mng s c gi tr gn ng hn
vi kiu mng cho trc. Ngc li nu mng nh, ch vi vi phn t bi ton
tng hp kiu mng s cho kt qu c sai s ln so vi kiu mng cho trc v
s phn t ca chui Fourier t.
17


Hnh 4. 9 Kiu mng cho trc v kiu mng tng hp bng phng php chui Fourier vi 7 phn t






-0.5
0
0.5
1
1.5
-4 4
d k
0
d k
0

2
0
d k
2
0
d k

) (u F
d
u u u F 3 cos
3
2
cos
2
2
1
) (

+ =
u
-0.5
0
0.5
1
1.5
0 30 60 90 120 150 180
) (u F
d
) ( F

(a)
(b)
18

V d 2: Lp li bi ton trn vi mng c 6 phn t:
V mng c tnh i xng do :
)
2 2
1 2
sin(
) 1 2 (
2
2 ) 1 2 (
2
2
1 2
2
1
2
1
) (
2
1
2 2
1 2
2 2
1 2
2 /
2 /
2
1 2
2 /
2 /
2
1 2
2
1 2

=
(
(
(

= = = =


n
n j
e e
n
n
j
e
du e du e u F C C
n
j
n
j
u
n
j
u
n
j u
n
j
d n n

Bin dng kch thch trn cc phn t:

2
)
4
sin(
2
)
2 2
1 1 2
sin(
) 1 1 2 (
2
1
= =


=

3
2
)
4
3
sin(
3
2
)
2 2
1 2 2
sin(
) 1 2 2 (
2
2
= =


=

5
2
)
4
5
sin(
5
2
)
2 2
1 3 2
sin(
) 1 3 2 (
2
3
= =


=

C
Kiu mng:
)
2
5
cos(
5
2 2
)
2
3
cos(
3
2 2
)
2
1
cos(
2 2
) ( u u u u F

+ =
) cos
2
5
cos(
5
2 2
) cos
2
3
cos(
3
2 2
) cos
2
cos(
2 2
) (

+ = F

4.4.2 Mng Chebyshev

Mng Chebyshev c tng hp bng nh s dng a thc Chebyshev. Phng php
ny c p ng thit k mng vi rng nh nht ng vi mt mc ph cho
trc hoc ngc li mt mc ph nh nht vi rng ca mng cho trc. a thc
Chebyshev c s dng tm ra phn b dng ph hp vi mc tiu thit k. Phng
php ny c xut u tin bi C.L. Dolph do mng loi ny cn c gi l
mng Dolph-Chebyshev.

19



Cc tnh cht c bn ca a thc Chebyshev:
+nh ngha:
, 1 ) (
0
= x T

x x T = ) (
1

1 2 ) (
2
2
= x x T
x x x T 3 4 ) (
3
3
=
1 8 8 ) (
2 4
4
+ = x x x T
x x x x T 5 20 16 ) (
3 5
5
+ =

1 18 48 32 ) (
2 4 6
6
+ = x x x x T

x x x x x T 7 56 112 64 ) (
3 5 7
7
+ =

1 32 160 256 128 ) (
2 4 6 8
8
+ + = x x x x x T

x x x x x x T 9 120 432 276 256 ) (
3 5 7 9
9
+ + =
2 1
2 ) (

=
n n n
T xT x T
(4.29)

) (x T
n
dao ng trong khong 1 khi x dao ng trong khong 1 v c n nghim trong
khong 1. Khi , 1 > x ) (x T
n
tng n iu nh biu din trong hnh 4. 10.
Nghim ca ) (x T
n
c cho bi:
1 ..., , 2 , 1 , 0 ,
2
2 1
cos cos =
+
= = n m
n
m
x
m m
(4.30)
Gi tr ca a thc c th c tnh theo cng thc di y:
1 )] ( cosh cosh[ ) (
1 1 )] ( cos cos[ ) (
1
1
> =
< < =

x x n x T
x x n x T
n
n
(4.31)

20



Hnh 4. 11 Da thc Chebyshev

Xt mng ng pha i xng c 2N v 2N+1 nh biu din trong hnh 4. 12.

Hnh 4. 12 Mng Chebyshev vi 2N+1 phn t v 2N phn t
H s ca mng c dng (s dng 4.27):


= =
= =
+
=

=
= + =
N
n
n
N
n
n N
N
n
n
N
n
n N
v n C u
n
C F
nv C nu C C F
1 1
2
0 1
0 1 2
] ) 1 2 cos[( 2 )
2
1 2
cos( 2
2 cos 2 cos 2 2

T
1
T
2
1
T
n
(x)
-1
x
-1
1
d
z
y
x
2C
0
r

C
1
C
1
C
N
C
N
C
1
C
1
C
N
C
N
d
z
y
x
r

(a) (b)
21

H s chun ha ca mng c dng:

=
=
+
=
=
N
n
n N
N
n
n N
v n C F
nv C F
1
2
0
1 2
] ) 1 2 cos[(
2 cos
(4.32)
Vi

cos cos
2
1
2 /
0
0
d
d k u v = = = .
Nh vy h s mng ca mt mng ng pha i xng c dng chi cosin hu hn v
c dng ging vi a thc Chebyshev. Phn b bin C
n
ca cc phn t c th c
xc nh bng cch ng dng trin khai a thc Chebyshev thch hp. Ch bc ca a
thc bng s phn t ca mng tr i mt.

Cc bc thit k mng Chebyshev:
1. Xc nh dng ca h s mng da theo biu thc (4.32)
2. Khai trin h s mng da vo cng thc khai trin a thc Chebyshev(4.29)
3. Xc nh gi tr x =x
1
sao cho T
m
(x
1
) =R vi R l t s gia mc chnh v mc
ph. Hoc xc nh x
1
da vo rng tia chnh.
)] ( cosh
1
cosh[
1
1
R
n
x

=

Hoc
z
z
v
x
x
cos
1
=
4. Thay
1
cos
x
x
v = (4.33)

vo biu thc trin khai ca h s mng bc 2.
5. S dng biu thc khai trin ca h s mng sau khi thay (4.33) vo v so
snh vi biu thc khai trin ca T
m
(x). Vi m c gi tr nh hn s phn t
mng l 1. So snh h s ca cc s hng cng bc tm h s C
n
.
6. Dng cc h s tm c chun ha theo h s ca phn t ngoi cng biu
din h s mng.

V d1: Thit k mng Chebyshev vi t s mc chnh ph cho trc
Hy thit k mt mng i xng ng pha vi 5 phn t t cch nhau d=0/2 c t s
gia mc chnh ph R=20dB.


22

Bi gii:
1. H s mng ca mng ng pha gm 5 phn t c biu din di dng:

=
=
+
=
2
0
1 2
2 cos
N
n
n N
nv C F
Vi

cos
2
cos
0
= =
d
v
2. Bin i h s mng:
v C v C C C C C
v v C v C C
v C v C C F
4
2
2
2 1 2 1 0
2 4
2
2
1 0
2 1 0 5
cos 8 cos ) 8 2 ( ) (
) 1 cos 8 cos 8 ( ) 1 cos 2 (
4 cos 2 cos
+ + + =
+ + + =
+ + =

3. Xc nh x
1

10 10 20
20 / 20
= = = R dB R
T (4.31),ta c :
293 . 1 )] 10 ( cosh
4
1
cosh[
10 )] ( cosh 4 cosh[ ) (
1
1
1
1
1 4
= =
= = =

x
R x x T

4. Thay
1
cos
x
x
v = vo h s mng:

4 2
4
4
1
4
2
2
1
2
2 1 2 1 0 5
8 8 1 ) (
8 ) 8 2 ( ) (
x x x T
x
x
C
x
x
C C C C C F
+ = =
+ + + =

ng nht cc h s tng ng, ta c h phng trnh:

=
=
=

+ =
=
=

= +
=
=
7 . 2
5 . 4
8 . 2
4 3 1
4 4
1
8
8 2
8
8
0
1
2
2
1
4
1 0
2
1
4
1 1
4
1 2
2 1 0
2
1
2
2
1
1
4
1
2
C
C
C
x x C
x x C
x C
C C C
x
C
x
C
x
C



5. Cc h s chun ha :

=
=
=
97 . 0
61 . 1
1
0
1
2
C
C
C

6. H s mng chun ha:

cos
2
4 cos 2 cos 61 . 1 97 . 0
5
=
+ + =
v
v v F

23

Bin dng c kch thch trn cc phn t ln lt l: 1.94I
0
cho phn t
trung tm ca mng, 1.61 I
0
i vi phn t v tr 1, v I
0
i vi hai
phn t v tr 2, v tr ngoi cng ca mng.

rng tia chnh:
im 0 ca tia chnh chnh l nghim u tin ca a thc T
4
(x):

924 . 0 ) 8 / cos(
2
1
cos = = =
n
x
z

0 1
1
43 . 60 054 . 1 ) / 775 . 0 2 ( cos
775 . 0 cos
2
714 . 0
293 . 1
924 . 0
) cos
2
cos( cos
= = =
= =
= = = =

rad
v
x
x
v
z
z z
z
z z


rng tia chnh: BW=2(90-60.43)=59.13
0


V d 2: Thit k mng Chebyshev vi rng tia chnh cho trc.
Hy thit k mt mng i xng ng pha vi nm phn t t cch nhau d=0/2 c
rng tia chnh bng 40
0
.
Gii:
Cc bc 1, 2, 4, 5 v 6 lm tng t v d 1, ch khc bc th 2, xc nh x
1
,
3. Xc nh x
1
v t s gia mc chnh v ph:
im khng ca tia chnh xc nh bi:
924 . 0 ) 8 / cos(
2
1
cos = = =
n
x
z

859 . 0 537 . 0 cos cos
537 . 0 cos
2
20 40 90 2 / 90
0
= =
= =
= = =
z
z z
z
v
v
BW


Ta c
dB x T R
x
x x
x
v
z
z
75 . 7 ) 44 . 2 ( log 20 44 . 2 )] 075 . 1 ( cosh 4 cosh[ ) (
075 . 1
859 . 0
924 . 0
859 . 0
924 . 0
cos
10
1
1 4
1
1 1
= = = = =
= =
= =


24

Cc bc cn li lm tng t v d trn ta thu c h s dng kch thch v h
s chun ha nh sau:

=
=
=

=
=
=

+ =
=
=
29 . 0
54 . 0
1
39 . 0
72 . 0
34 . 1
4 3 1
4 4
0
1
2
0
1
2
2
1
4
1 0
2
1
4
1 1
4
1 2
C
C
C
C
C
C
x x C
x x C
x C

H s ca mng c dng:

cos
2
4 cos 2 cos 54 . 10 29 . 0
5
=
+ + =
v
v v F


) cos 2 cos( ) cos cos( 54 . 10 29 . 0 ) ( + + = F



4.5 MNG CP IN CHO MNG

Vn thit k mng ng truyn cung cp cc dng in c bin v pha nh
trc cho mi phn t ca mng rt phc tp v tr khng vo ca mi phn t chu nh
hng ca tr khng tng h vi tt c cc phn t khc. Trng hp dng kch thch
c bin khng ng nht cn s dng mt s mch chia cng sut vi tn hao thp
kch thch cc dng c bin d khc nhau trn mi phn t. Cn phi phi hp tr
khng gia cc anten phn t vi ng truyn cung cp trong di tn cng tc.
Thng thng ta chia mng thnh cc nhm nh hoc vng da trn tnh i xng
ca mng. Cc vng s c cp in vi cc mng cp in i xng.
V d: Mng gm 9 phn t c chia thnh 3 nhm, mi nhm c nui bi mt
ng truyn n ni vi ng truyn chnh nh biu din trong hnh v 4.13. Nh
tnh i xng ca mng cp in s kch thch ca mng s c tnh i xng cao khng
ph thuc vo nh hng ca s phi hp tr khng v tr khng tng h.
25


Hnh 4. 13 Mng gm9 phn t c tnh i xng chia thnh 3 vng
Trong mng biu din trn hnh v, c 3 nhm c cng dng kch thch: (1,3,7,9), (2,8),
(4,6).
Mi phn t c ni vi ng truyn chnh nh mt on ng truyn c di
bng bc sng. Dng in kch thch trn mi anten phn t lin quan trc tip n
pha v bin ca in th trn ng truyn chnh.
t:
Z
f
: tr khng c trng ca ng truyn chnh
Z
a
: tr khng c trng ca on bc sng
Z
a,in
: tr khng vo ca phn t anten
V
f
: in th ti u vo ca on bc sng

Hnh 4. 14 Dipole phn t c cp in bi ng truyn bc sng

Dng v in th ti u vo ca on bc sng:

) (
+
+
+ =
=
a a a f
a a a
I I Z V
I I I
(4.34)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
f
Z
f
V
a
Z

a
I
+
a
I
4
0

26

Vi
+
a
I v

a
I l dng ti v dng phn x. Ti u vo ca mi anten phn t dng in
s b tr pha 90
0
so vi u vo ca on bc sng. Dng ti u vo ca anten phn
t:
f a
a
f
a a
j
a
j
a in
V jY
Z
jV
I I j e I e I I
=

=
+ = =
+ +
) (
2 / 2 /
(4.35)
Vi
a
Y l dn np c trng ca on bc sng.
Nh vy, dng vo ti anten phn t ch ph thuc vo in th ca ng truyn chnh
v tr khng c trng ca on bc sng m khng ph thuc vo tr khng c
trng ca ng truyn chnh cng nh tr khng ca anten phn t.
p dng nguyn tc trn cho ba anten phn t dng kch thch ng pha v bin t l
vi
a
Y ,
b
Y ,
c
Y biu din trong hnh. V in th ti cc u vo ca mi on bc
sng ging nhau do cc u vo ny cch nhau ng bng bc sng
0
trn ng
truyn chnh. Nu mun dng kch thch trn phn t b ngc pha vi dng kch thch
trn hai phn t cn li th khong cch gia u vo ca mi on bc sng trn
ng truyn chnh bng bc sng.

Hnh 4. 15 Mng gm3 anten dipole phn t c cp in bi ng truyn bc sng
Tr khng vo ca c mng chnh bng tr khng tng ng ca mng c ba phn t
vi tr khng c gi tr ln lt l
in c c in b b in a a
Z Z Z Z Z Z
,
2
,
2
,
2
/ , / , / mc song vi nhau. Nu
c s phi hp tr khng hon ton gia on bc sng v cc anten phn t th tr
khng vo ca mng chnh bng tr khng tng ng ca mng c ba phn t vi tr
khng bng tr khng c trng ca mi on bc sng mc song song.



a
Y
b
Y
c
Y
4 /
0

in
Z
ng truyn
cchiu di
0
27

4.6 MNG K SINH

Mng k sinh l mng m khng phi tt c cc phn t ca mng u l phn t tch
cc (phn t c kch thch bi dng nui-driven element). Cc phn t th ng
(nondriven element) c kch thch bi s cm ng vi phn t tch cc cng nh vi
cc phn t th ng khc thng qua tr khng tng h gia chng.
Mng k sinh thng c thit k bng con ng thc nghim bi v rt kh tnh
tr khng tng h, kch thc cc phn t v khong cch thch hp gia cc phn t
do cc phn t tc ng tng h phc tp gia cc phn t.

Hnh 4. 16 (a)Mng k sinh vi 2 phn t (b) Mng k sinh vi 3 phn t
Xt mng k sinh n gin nht vi 2 phn t gm mt phn t tch cc v mt phn t
phn x c biu din trong hnh 4.16a. Ta c th xem mng nh mt mng ca cp
phn t hai u. Vi phn t phn x, do khng c dng nui nn in th bng 0.
Ta c:
2 12 1 11
0 I Z I Z + = (4.36a)
2 22 1 12 2
I Z I Z V + = (4.36b)
Vi Z
11
: tr khng ring ca phn t phn x
Z
22
: l tr khngphn t tch cc
Z
12
: l tr khng tng h gia hai phn t
T (4.36) tnh dng trn cc phn t thu c:
2
22 11
2 12
1
12
Z Z Z
V Z
I

= (4.37a)
d
Phn t
phn x
Phn t
tchcc

(a)
(b)
Phn t
phn x
Phn t
tchcc
Phn t
dn x
Hng ca
tiachnh
28

2
22 11
2 11
2
12
Z Z Z
V Z
I

= (4.37b)
11
12
2
1
Z
Z
I
I
= (4.37c)
Biu din t s gia dng I
1
v dng I
1
di dng:
d j
e
Z
Z
Z
Z
I
I

11
12
11
12
2
1
=

= th h s ca
mng c dng:
cos
11
12 0
1
d jk d j
e
Z
Z
F

= (4.38)
iu kin c hng bc x cc i ti =0 :
= d k d
0
hay

=
0
k
d
iu kin hng = c bc x bng khng:

=
=
1
2 , 0
11
12
0
Z
Z
d k d

Tuy nhin rt kh c
11
12
Z
Z
=1 o ch c th lm cho bc x theo hng = c
gi tr nh nht ch khng th lm cho bc x theo hng ny b trit tiu.
Gc pha ca Z
11
c th thay i bng cch thay i chiu di ca phn t:
Nu : 2 /
11 0 1
Z l < dung khng
: 2 /
11 0 1
Z l > cm khng
Tr khng tng h Z
12
ph thuc vo khong cch d gia hai phn t.
Phn t phn x phi c chiu di ln hn na bc sng v khong cch d phi c gi
tr vo khong 0.15
0
.
iu kin l tng c phn x ton phn:
29

=
=
=
1
2 /
4 /
11
12
0
Z
Z
d
d


(4.39)
Nu phn t k sinh c chiu di nh hn phn t tch cc th phn t k sinh s l
phn t dn x v hng bc x cc i s hng v pha phn t dn x. tng tnh
nh hng ca mng k sinh ta s dng kt hp c phn t phn x v phn t dn x
nh biu din trong hnh 4.16b. y l loi anten Yagi-Uda n gin nht vi 3 phn t.
Mng Yagi-Uda
Nhc im ln ca mng k sinh l in tr bc x nh. Vi phn t tch cc l dipole
na sng in tr bc x c gi tr vo khong 20 khi c mt phn t k sinh.
Nu dng mt dipole gp th in tr bc x tng ln khong 4 ln v c gi tr vo
khong 80.
Di tn cng tc rt hp ch vo khong t 2~3 % do phi thit lp phn t k sinh tht
chnh xc c kt qu ti u.
Mng Yagi-Uda l mt mng end-fire vi mt phn t tch cc, mt phn t phn x v
nhiu phn t dn x nh biu din trong hnh v di y.

Hnh 4. 17 Mng Yagi-Uda
t Z
ii
: tr khng ring ca phn t th i
Z
ij
: l tr khng tng h gia hai phn t th i v j
Ch ngoi phn t tch cc c in th u vo l V
0
, cc phn t cn li c in th
u vo bng 0, ta c h phng trnh sau cho mng Uda-yagi vi N phn t:
Phn t
phn x
Phn t
tchcc
Phn t
dn x
Hng ca
tiachnh
l
1
d
1
V
0
-1 0
1 2 N
30

N NN N N N
N N
N N
I Z I Z I Z I Z
I Z I Z I Z I Z V
I Z I Z I Z I Z
+ + + + =
+ + + + =
+ + + + =



... 0
..... .......... .......... .......... .......... .......... ..........
...
... 0
1 1 0 0 1 1
0 1 01 0 00 1 1 0 0
1 1 11 0 10 1 1 1
(4.40)
Nu c th xc nh c tr khng tng h Z
ij
v dng I
i
trn mi phn t th c th
tnh c trng bc x to bi anten mng.
Yu cu thit k l chn khong cch gia cc phn t v chiu di ca cc phn t
thch hp dng trn cc phn t c pha thch hp tha mn iu kin cng ng pha
v trng bc x theo hng thun (Hng t phn t phn x n phn t tch cc v
phn t dn x). Tuy nhin cc thng s nh hng ln nhau nn rt kh gii bi ton
mt cch chnh xc. Do vic thit k mng Yagi-Uda thng da trn thc nghim.
Mng Yagi-Uda thng gp c t 8 n 10 phn t vi li vo khong 14dB. Mng
c di tn hot ng hp ch khong vi phn trm. Tuy nhin mng c cu trc n
gin nn c s dng rt ph bin.