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Clase 1
Introducing Yourself
CORRECT NOT CORRECT
Hi, Im John. I called John. X
Hello, my names Jennifer.
{NOTE: possessive adjective my}
Me name Jennifer. X
Hey, the names Ben.
(more informal)
The name Ben. X
Pronunciation Tip
The letter h is not silent in English. It is pronounced by exhaling slightly.
Asking Someones Name
CORRECT
NOT CORRECT
Whats your name?
{NOTE: possessive adjective your}
How is your name? X
What is you name? X
What your name? X
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Responses to - Asking Someones Name
CORRECT
NOT CORRECT
Nice to meet you Nice meet you X
Very nice to meet you
Pleased to meet you
Ways to Ask How a Person Is
PRONUNCIATION NOTE
How are you? We often remove the letters and connect the
words when we speak fast and informally...
HOWER you
How are things? HOWER things
Hows it going? HOWZITGOIN
How are you doing? HOWER you doing
Whats happening?
How do you do?
(VERY formal)
Whats up? Note: we answer this in a slightly different
way, a typical response to this would be not
much/not a lot/nothing. We use it more as a
greeting.
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Responses to - Ways to Ask How a Person Is
+ Choose One + Choose One Choose One
Im

Fantastic / great /
good / OK / ne /
not bad / not too
good / bad /
terrible
thank you /
thanks /
thanks for
asking
And you? / What about
you? / How about you? /
You? (INFORMAL)
Example Dialogues
ERICA - Hi, Brian, how are you?
BRIAN - Im ne, thanks. And you?
ERICA - Im OK.
BRAD - Hey man, hows it goin?
JOHN - Great! How about you?
BRAD - Not too good.
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Greetings
Hi / Hey / Hello
(Also Yo but very informal and often sounds silly)
Hi there / Hey there / Hello there
Good morning / Good afternoon / Good evening
(NOT: Good night X)
PRESENT SIMPLE to be (+)
Form: to be (am/is/are)
+ verb
FULL FORM SUBJECT TO BE VERB
I am I m happy
You are You re pretty
He / She / It is He / She / It s tired
We are We re hungry
You are (plural) You (plural) re thirsty
They are They re sad
Notes on To Be, Contractions and Subject Pronouns
The verb to be is very important in English and we use it in many
different ways
Sometimes we use contractions in English. This means we connect
two words together using an apostrophe. The pronunciation changes
when we do this. It is very common to do this when we speak and
when we write informally.
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In English, we must use the subject pronoun with the verb. So, it is
NOT possible to say Am French. Instead, we say I am French OR
Im French. This also the case when we describe things.
e.g. 1. APPLE Its a type of fruit / It is a type of fruit.
NOT Is a type of fruit. X
e.g. 2. Describing the weather
Its cold today / It is cold today.
NOT Is cold today. X

We also use the same word for 2


nd
person singular and 2
nd
person
plural. There is no polite form in English. It is usually possible to
distinguish meaning from the context.
Pronunciation Tip
Its important to close your mouth completely to pronounce Im. If not,
it sounds like I and is therefore incorrect. This can be a problem for
Spanish speakers.
Asking How to Say a Word:
How do you say libro in English?
NOT How you say libro in English? X
NOT How is say libro in English? X
NOT How to say libro in English? X
Numbers 1 - 10
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
one two three four ve six seven eight nine ten
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Farewells

Good bye

Bye

See you + later / soon / tomorrow / next week

See ya (INFORMAL)

Later

Take it easy

Good night (USE at night)

Im out (VERY INFORMAL)


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Clase 2
PRESENT SIMPLE to be (-, ?) Negative Form
FULL FORM SUBJECT TO BE VERB
I am not I m not happy
You are not You arent pretty
He / She / It is not He / She / It isnt tired
We are not We arent hungry
You are not (plural) You (plural) arent thirsty
They are not They arent sad
Note: In English we can contract to be in the negative form also.
To do this, we attach the - n to the end of the word, remove the letter o and
place the apostrophe between the n and t (nt).
However, with the verb to be, we cannot do this for 1
st
person singular.
I am not = Im not
NOT I amnt hungry. X
NOT I no hungry. X
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Forming a Questions with To Be
In English we form a question by inverting the subject and the verb.
QUESTION RESPONSE (YES) RESPONSE (NO)
Am I American ? Yes, I am No, Im not
Are you Irish? Yes, you are No, you arent
Is he / she / it Chinese? Yes, he / she / it is No, he / she /it isnt
Are we lazy? Yes, we are No, we arent
Are you (plural) nice? Yes, you are No, you
Are they (plural) evil? Yes, they are No, they arent

More examples...
CORRECT INCORRECT
Are you tired? You are tired? X
Is it closed? It is closed? X
Are they naked? They are naked? X
Short Answers (Yes / No Questions)
In English, it is considered more polite to answer a Yes / No question by
responding also with the subject and verb. It is not necessary to do this in
an informal situation.
QUESTIONS RESPONSE
(YES)
RESPONSE
(NO)
FORMAL /
POLITE
Excuse me, are you
the manager?
Yes, I am. No, Im not.
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QUESTIONS RESPONSE
(YES)
RESPONSE
(NO)
INFORMAL /
CASUAL
Hey, man. Are you
ready?
Yeah, sure. Nah, one minute.
QUESTION WORDS (Wh- words)
Question
Word
Used for.. Examples
What things (unlimited
number/open)
Whats your name?
Whats your favorite color?
What time is it?
Who people Whos at the door?
Whos that man?
Why reason / cause Why are you naked?
Where place Where are you from?
Where are your pants?
When time Whens your birthday?
When are your exams?
Which things (limited
number / closed)
Which is your coat? The blue or the
red one?
Which team is the best? Barcelona, AC
Milan or Manchester City?
Whose possession Whose phone is this?
Whose shirt is that?
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Question
Word
Used for.. Examples
How How much -
quantity
(uncountable)
How much are the tickets? (money -
uncountable)
How many -
quantity (countable)
How many people are at the party?
(people - countable)
How long - time /
duration
How long is this class?
How far - distance How far is the bar from your house?
CORRECT INCORRECT
How old are you? How much years you have? X
Im 25 (years old). I have 25 years. X
Language Tip
There are no masculine/feminine forms in English. Easy!
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NATIONALITIES
To ask about nationality / country we say
Where are you from?
There are 2 ways to answer this question
1 - to be + from + COUNTRY
TO BE FROM COUNTRY
Im from Japan
Shes from Peru
Theyre from Canada
NOT Im of Mexico. X
NOT Im Mexicano. X
2 - to be + NATIONALITY (adjective)
TO BE NATIONALITY
Im Japanese
Shes Peruvian
Theyre Canadian
Nationality / People:
For most countries, the adjective ends in - ian or - an.
Argentina ! Argentine Australia ! Australian
Austria ! Austrian Belgium ! Belgian
Bolivia ! Bolivian Brazil ! Brazilian
Bulgaria ! Bulgarian Canada ! Canadian
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Chile ! Chilean Colombia ! Colombian
Egypt ! Egyptian Germany ! German
Hungary ! Hungarian India ! Indian
Italy ! Italian Jamaica ! Jamaican
Kenya ! Kenyan Korea ! Korean
Libya ! Libyan Mexico ! Mexican
Nigeria ! Nigerian Paraguay ! Paraguayan
Peru ! Peruvian Russia ! Russian
South Africa ! South African Uruguay ! Uruguayan
USA ! American Venezuela ! Venezuelan
Some countries end in -ese
China ! Chinese Japan ! Japanese
Portugal ! Portuguese Vietnam ! Vietnamese
Some countries end in sh
Britain ! British Denmark ! Danish
England ! English Finland ! Finnish
Ireland ! Irish Poland ! Polish
Scotland ! Scottish Spain ! Spanish
Sweden ! Swedish Turkey ! Turkish
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Others (the exceptions!)
France ! French Greece ! Greek
Holland/Netherlands ! Dutch Iceland ! Icelandic
Iraq ! Iraqi Israel ! Israeli
Switzerland ! Swiss Thailand ! Thai
Language Tip
There are no plural adjectives in English.
If there is a plural noun, the adjective will be the same.
Hes English AND Theyre English
They are both CORRECT.
Sometimes, a nationality word can be both an adjective and a noun.
Usually, when a nationality word ends with the letter n, we can do this.
Shes Brazilian (adjective) AND Shes a Brazilian (noun)
However, when the word end in ch/sh/ese, it is not possible.
Instead, we use the adjective with a noun word, for example, man /
woman / person.
Hes Irish AND Hes an Irish man NOT Hes an Irish X
Shes English AND Shes an English woman NOT Shes an English X
Asking how to spell a word
How do you spell American? NOT How you spell American? X
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The Alphabet
The English alphabet can be grouped into 6 different vowel sounds.
A H J K B C D E G P T V F L M N X S V O Q U W R
The letters b and v are particularly difcult for Spanish speakers.
For the letter b, we close the mouth completely.
For the letter v, the lips dont touch. Instead, we make the sound by placing
the front teeth on the bottom lip.
This will be covered again in later units.
VOCABULARY - Character and Appearance Adjectives
annoying arrogant clever cool
crazy drivers dangerous dumb efcient
evil fat fun / fun-loving grumpy
hairy horny loud macho
mean nice obnoxious pretty
quiet shy sexy sensible
sensitive ugly violent wild
Giving opinions
Opinion Example 1 Example 2
I think... I think American people
are loud and obnoxious.
I think English girls are
nice.
For me... For me, Mexican people
are crazy drivers.
For me, Italians are
arrogant.
In my
opinion...
In my opinion Bolivians
are shy.
In my opinion Finnish
guys are shy.
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Clase 3
VOCABULARY - Colors
black white red
green purple blue
orange pink yellow
Adjectives
In English the adjective goes BEFORE the noun, not after.
What is that?
One blue bag NOT One bag blue X
What are you wearing?
A red dress NOT A dress red X
Which coat is yours?
The black coat NOT The coat black X
Jobs, a / an
When we ask about someones occupation/profession, we say
What do you do? (or sometimes Whats your job?)
When we answer we use the indenite article (a / an) + JOB
Im a student
Youre a teacher.
Hes a musician.
We use an when the noun starts with a vowel (a,e,i,o,u)
Shes an engineer NOT Shes a engineer X
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Youre an actress NOT Youre a actress X
We dont use the article when we speak about more than one person
Theyre students (no a) NOT Theyre a students X
Were lawyers NOT Were a lawyers X
EXAMPLES...
What do you do?
Im a teacher NOT Im teacher X
Youre a driver NOT Youre driver X
Im a student NOT Im student X
Im an athlete NOT Im athlete X
Whats his job?
Hes a doctor NOT Hes doctor X
Hes a banker NOT Hes banker X
Whats her job?
Shes an accountant NOT She a accountant X
Shes an engineer NOT Shes a engineer X
Exceptions: to be + ADJECTIVE (NO a/an)
Hes unemployed NOT Hes an unemployed X
Shes retired NOT Shes a retired X
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VOCABULARY - Jobs / Professions
an actor (male) an actress
(female)
a barber a hairdresser
a dentist a doctor an engineer a journalist
a cop (a police
ofcer)
a reghter / a
reman
a waitress
(female)
a housewife / a
homemaker
a teacher a manager a mechanic a musician
a nurse an optician a pilot a professor
a politician a receptionist a lawyer a secretary
a salesperson a student a shop assistant a waiter (male)
VOCABULARY - Descriptive Adjectives
fun interesting boring
exciting serious stressful
well-paid low-paid easy
VOCABULARY - Adjectives
POSITIVE NEGATIVE
good bad
great terrible
fantastic awful
excellent horrible
amazing it sucks (INFORMAL)
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Numbers
11 eleven 40 forty
12 twelve 47 forty seven
13 thirteen 50 fty
14 fourteen 58 fty eight
15 fteen 60 sixty
16 sixteen 69 sixty nine
17 seventeen 70 seventy
18 eighteen 76 seventy six
19 nineteen 80 eighty
20 twenty 87 eighty seven
21 twenty one 90 ninety
22 twenty two 100 one hundred
23 twenty three 101 one hundred and one
29 twenty nine 124 one hundred and twenty four
30 thirty 278 two hundred and seventy eight
35 thirty ve 592 ve hundred and ninety two
Common Mistakes with numbers
NOT twenty and one X
NOT two hundreds X
NOT ve hundreds seventy and eight X
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Polite language
(So you can talk to the Queen of England, the President of the United
States or, your girlfriends parents!)
!
Excuse me to get someones attention/to apologize
!
(Im) sorry to apologize
!
Pardon? to show you havent heard what a person said
!
Please after requests
!
Thanks / thank you (very much) - gratitude
!
Youre welcome / No problem response to thank you
BECAUSE
We use the word because to answer Why questions:
I think this teacher does a terrible job because it is very boring.
I think being a student is fun because I learn new things.
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Clase 4
GRAMMAR: Possessive Adjectives
We use possessive adjectives before a noun to express possession.
In classes 1 and 2, we saw
My name is Miguel - to mean of me.
Whats your name? - to mean of you.
I YOU HE / SHE / IT WE THEY
MY YOUR HIS / HER / ITS OUR THEIR
Uses and examples of Possessive Adjectives
POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVE PRONUNCIATION NOTE
Im from Mexico My names Miguel
Youre crazy Your hair is green Note: youre and your -
same pronunciation but
different meanings
Hes a snob His family is very rich
Shes
embarrassed
Her boyfriend is drunk again
Its a big country Its ag is red, white and blueNote: Its and its - same
pronunciation but different
meanings
Were late Our boss is angry
Theyre my
friends
Their names are Paul and
Mary
Note: theyre and their -
same pronunciation but
different meanings
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Common Mistakes with Possessive Adjectives
Translating su in Spanish to you for 3
rd
person
His name is Pablo NOT You name is Pablo X
Confusing youre and your
Youre American (You are) NOT Your American X
Youre from Sweden NOT Your from Sweden X
Confusing its and its
Its function is clear NOT Its function is clear X
It is my favorite! NOT Its my favorite X
Possessive adjectives never change form for plural nouns
Their kids are shy NOT Theirs kids are shy X
Your cats are friendly NOT Yours cats are friendly X
Possessive S
When we talk about possession but we use the name of a noun instead of
a possessive adjective, we use an apostrophe after the noun/name
followed by s (s)
The friend of John is late = Johns friend is late
The mother of my friend is pretty = My friends mother is pretty
The cat of my cousin is crazy = My cousins cat is crazy
Plural Nouns and Possessive S
When we use a plural noun (regular), we put the apostrophe AFTER the s
My parents house is up for sale NOT My parents house is up for sale X
Both my cats whiskers are long NOT Both my cats whiskers are long X
The owers petals are dry NOT The owers petals are dry X
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EXCEPTIONS
For irregular plural nouns (men, women, children, people), we follow the
same rule as singular nouns.
Wheres the mens bathroom? NOT Wheres the mens
bathroom? X
Shes my childrens teacher NOT Shes my childrens teacherX
Note: Dont confuse the Possessive S with the to be contraction!
The teachers hot (to be - The teacher is smart)
The teachers nose is huge (possession - Her nose is huge)
PRONUNCIATION - hes VS his
To many people learning English, these two sounds seem the exact same.
To an English speaker there is a noticeable difference.
To make the vowel sound in the word his we open the mouth slightly more
than we do for hes. The vowel sound in his is also shorter than hes
A good way to practice this is to smile a little when you say the word. The
sound should automatically change.
GRAMMAR: To Have
To use the verb to have in the present simple, we use the same form
for I, you, we, they but we change the form for he / she / it.
SUBJECT TO HAVE
I Have a sister.
You have brown hair.
He / She / It has two dogs.
We have a hamburger.
They have fat legs.
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Common Error with To Have
Using have form for 3
rd
person singular
She has three children NOT She have three children X
He has a big family NOT He have a big family X
Some word combinations with to have (More in later units!)
I have an idea.
Do you have a light?
She has a problem.
Have fun!
Have a good time!
GRAMMAR: Have Got
We can use have got to talk about possessions.
This is very common in spoken English. The meaning is the same.
SUBJECT CONTRACTION
FULL FORM
I ve got a sister I have got a sister.
You ve got brown hair You have got brown hair.
He / She / It s got two dogs She has got two dogs.
We ve got a hamburger We have got a hamburger.
They ve got fat legs They have got fat legs.
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VOCABULARY - FAMILY
mother (mom) father (dad) husband wife
brother sister children son
daughter grandmother grandfather grandchildren
grandson granddaughter aunt uncle
niece nephew cousin (male) cousin (female)
VOCABULARY - COMMON POSSESSIONS
car bike skateboard phone computer
cat dog snake sh rabbit
house book magazine dictionary newspaper
glasses money credit card cigarettes pen
pencil wallet purse umbrella book
VOCABULARY - FRIENDS
friend buddy best friend
mate
(UK & Australia)
bff
(best friend forever)
fuck-buddy
(SLANG)
girlfriend partner boyfriend
Note: A girl can call her female friend a girlfriend to mean a friend. If a guy
calls his male friend boyfriend, it means sexual partner -- not just a friend.
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Clase 5
VOCABULARY - Common Verbs / Verb Phrases
to like to love to hate to go
to come to make to do to live
to work to play to eat to drink
to wear to listen to read to drive
GRAMMAR: Present Simple
We use the present simple to talk about
things which are always or generally true (states)
I live in California.
I have a son.
I work at a shop.
habitual actions/routines
You come to class every day.
They drink beer every Friday.
We use the base form of the verb (the innitive without to) for I/you/we/
they More on He / She / It in a later class.
Afrmative Form of Present Simple
SUBJECT VERB
I speak English
You drive fast
We hate Mondays
They like spicy food
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Negative Form of Present Simple
To make a negative sentence, we must use the auxiliary verb to do.
This is a very important part of English because its very different
from other languages.
Note: We use contractions here also (dont = do not)
SUBJECT AUXILIARY INFINITIVE
I do not (dont) speak Russian
You do not (dont) listen
We do not (dont) have children
They do not (dont) cook
VOCABULARY - Days of the Week
Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday
Friday Saturday Sunday the weekend
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Clase 6
Telling The Time
In English we can ask the time in the following ways:
Whats the time? What time is it?
Do you have the time? Have you got the time?
When we tell the time, we use Its + TIME
TIME ALTERNATIVE
7:00 Its seven oclock Its seven
7:05 Its seven oh ve Its ve past seven / Its ve after seven
7:10 Its seven ten Its ten past seven / Its ten after seven
7:15 Its seven fteen Its quarter past seven / Its quarter after
seven
7:20 Its seven twenty Its twenty past seven / Its twenty after
seven
7:25 Its seven twenty
ve
Its twenty ve past seven / Its twenty
ve after seven
7:30 Its seven thirty Its half past seven
7:35 Its seven thirty ve Its twenty ve to eight
7:40 Its seven forty Its twenty to eight
7:45 Its seven forty ve Its quarter to eight
7:50 Its seven fty Its ten to eight
7:55 Its seven fty ve Its ve to eight
Note: Most English-speaking countries dont use the 24 hour clock as in
some countries.
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So the times could be for am (morning) or pm (afternoon or night).
We use at to talk about WHEN we do something:
I have breakfast at seven thirty.
My class is at eight oclock.
He gets home at quarter to six.
We go to school at quarter to nine.
VOCABULARY - DAILY ROUTINE / VERB PHRASES
wake up get up take a shower get dressed
brush my teeth have breakfast have lunch check emails
arrive at school /
work
talk on the
phone
go to school /
work
go home (NOT
go to home)
arrive home watch TV listen to music study
meet friends have dinner go for a drink go to bed
GRAMMAR: PRESENT SIMPLE
We also use the auxiliary verb to do to make questions in the present
simple and to give short answers.
Yes / No Questions
AUXILIARY SUBJECT
INFINITIVE SHORT
ANSWER
(positive)
SHORT
ANSWER
(negative)
Do I know you? Yes, I do No, I dont
Do you live here? Yes, you do No, you dont
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AUXILIARY SUBJECT
INFINITIVE SHORT
ANSWER
(positive)
SHORT
ANSWER
(negative)
Do we have class now? Yes, we do No, we dont
Do they work hard? Yes, they do No, they dont
Common Mistakes with the Present Simple
Forgetting the auxiliary
Do you know this band? NOT Know you this band? X
Do you have money? NOT Have you money? X
Do they need help? NOT Need they help? X
We also use the auxiliary verb with open questions.
Question Word Auxiliary Subject Innitive
Where do I sit?
What time do you start work?
When do we nish class?
Who do they like?
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Clase 7
GRAMMAR: Present Simple (3rd person - he / she / it)
When we use the 3
rd
person singular (he / she / it) in the present simple
afrmative, we ALWAYS put the letter s at the end of the primary verb.
She rides her bike.
John smokes in the kitchen.
It makes loud noises.
Spelling rules ( s, x, ch, sh, o, y)
Verbs ending in s, x, ch, sh, o we add es
Verbs ending in y we add ies
S X CH SH O Y
to kiss
she kisses
to x
he xes
to catch
he catches
to push
it pushes
to do
she does
to carry
he carries
to pass
he passes
to mix
she mixes
to watch
he watches
to brush
she brushes
to go
he goes
to marry
she marries

When we use the 3
rd
person singular (he / she / it) in the negative, we
change the AUXILIARY by adding es and use the innitive form for
the primary verb.
(Note: you can use contractions here as well)
SUBJECT AUXILIARY (does + not)
Maria doesnt (does not) take out the trash
He doesnt (does not) like vegetables
She doesnt (does not) have a car
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We also use the form does in questions and short answers.
AUXILIARY SUBJECT SHORT
ANSWER
(positive)
SHORT
ANSWER
(negative)
Does your brother live
here?
Yes, he does No, he
doesnt
Does he like
vegetables?
Yes, he does No, he
doesnt
Does she have a car? Yes, she does No, she
doesnt
Does this phone work? Yes, it does No, it
doesnt
QUESTION
WORD
AUXILIARY SUBJECT INFINITIVE
Where does your cousin go to school?
Why does she hate me?
How does it work?
What does John do?
Pronunciation Tip
There is only one syllable in does. We pronounce it like DUZ.
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Adverbs of Frequency
We use adverbs of frequency when we want to talk about how frequently
something happens.
We use adverbs of frequency when we answer the question.
How often?
We put the adverb AFTER to be and BEFORE primary verbs.
Adverb of
Frequency
Used AFTER to be Used BEFORE primary
verb
100% always Youre always late for
class
Studying always makes
me tired
usually She is usually hungry I usually smoke at night
often They are often dancing He often forgets to wear
underwear
50% sometimes I am sometimes at
home
We sometimes have
arguments
hardly ever We are hardly ever
relaxing
She hardly ever cleans up
0% never It is never a bad day They never take drugs
Common Mistakes
Hardly ever is an afrmative verb.
She hardly ever cleans up NOT She doesnt hardly ever clean up X
He hardly ever eats NOT He doesnt hardly ever eat X
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Never is an afrmative verb
They never take drugs NOT They dont never take drugs X
We never stay out late NOT We dont never stay out late X
VOCABULARY - Adjectives (negative traits)
rude annoying mean ignorant lazy
arrogant inconsiderate bossy bitchy dirty
untidy (messy) disgusting smelly fake weird
Reacting with Surprise
Johns really weird. He sometimes cooks naked.
Oh my God!
Hes very rude and he always farts.
Youre kidding!
Melissas kinda dirty. She hardly ever takes a shower.
Get outta here!
Shes inconsiderate and she usually blocks the toilet in the morning.
No way!
She often picks her nose and eats it. Its disgusting.
I dont believe you! Thats gross!
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Clase 8
OBJECT PRONOUNS
Object pronouns are pronouns that replace nouns.
In earlier units, we saw subject pronouns such as:
Jane is American. She works in a bank.
Harry is tall. He plays basketball.
Subject pronouns do the action and they go BEFORE the verb.
Object pronouns receive the action and they go AFTER the verb.
SUBJECT
PRONOUNS
OBJECT
PRONOUNS
EXAMPLES
I me She kisses me
You you They dont know you
He him Do you live with him?
She her He doesnt love her
It it I need it
We us They like us
They them We hate them
Note: The object pronoun also goes after the preposition.
Do you live with him?
WORD ORDER
The word order in English when we use proper nouns and common nouns
is Subject Verb Object (SVO).
When we use object pronouns, this does NOT change!
SUBJECT VERB OBJECT SUBJECT VERB OBJECT
Jane loves John ! She loves him
He forgets his key ! He forgets it
My parents read books ! My parents read them
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Common Mistakes
Using the subject pronoun
He meets her NOT He meets she X
You dont help us NOT You dont help we X
Putting the pronoun before the verb (as in Spanish)
I love you NOT I you love X
She knows him NOT She him knows X
Reacting with Interest
When we are interested in what a person is saying, we react with
expressions to show we want the person to continue speaking:
I speak ve languages.
Really?
Yeah, I speak English, Spanish, Dutch, Chinese, and Russian.
Wow. Thats really interesting
Chinese is really difcult.
I see.
The pronunciation is really different.
Go on.
But I prefer Spanish.
Right.
Its a beautiful language.
Yeah, I agree.
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VOCABULARY - MONTHS
January February March April
May June July August
September October November December
Birthdays
To ask about a persons birthday we say:
Whens your birthday?
The response can be:
My birthday is in January.
OR
My birthday is on the third of June.
PRONUNCIATION
The pronunciation of the letter j in English is very different to Spanish. It is a
hard consonant sound and the middle of the tongue touches the roof of the
mouth when we make it. We sometimes make the same sound when we
use the letters g, gg and dj.
All the letters in bold have the same sound.
January large June suggest July badge
Confusing Words - Homonyms
Sometimes we use the same word in different ways.
For example,
What does it mean? and Hes very mean.
The word mean in English is a homonym. This means the spelling
and sound are the same, but the meaning is different.
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HOMONYM
MEANING EXAMPLE 1 EXAMPLE 2
kind type AND
nice / friendly
What kind of sports
do you like?
She is a kind lady
can canister AND
verb for ability
I want a can of Coke I can run fast
light not heavy AND
ame / torch
A feather is light Would you light the
re?
train method of transport
AND verb to practice
The train is faster
than walking
You must train in
football to be the
best
play verb AND
theatre performance
I like play tennis My grandson is in
the school play
lie to be horizontal AND
not to tell the truth
She wants to lie on
her bed
She lied about
going to school
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Clase 9
VOCABULARY - Rooms
bathroom bedroom living room dining room
ofce garage loft hall
kitchen garden yard study
VOCABULARY - Furniture & Household Items
toilet sink shower bath
shelves bedside table lamp mirror
carpet sofa light bed
stereo armchair coffee table closet
television / TV window replace table
telephone stairs fridge chairs
forks spoons knives plant
cups plates bowls rug
frying pan saucepan pot cooker
oven dishwasher washing machine clock
computer desk picture wall
oor CD player wardrobe cupboard
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GRAMMAR - Prepositions of Place
When we describe the position of location of things we use prepositions of
place
in next to / besides on in front of behind
at between under over opposite
GRAMMAR: there is / there are
To describe a place and to talk about what it contains, we use there is
(singular) and there are (plural).
SINGULAR - There is (theres) / There is not (isnt)
POSITIVE NEGATIVE
Theres an armchair in the living room There isnt a telephone in the kitchen
Theres a magazine on the coffee table There isnt a mirror in the bedroom
Theres a toilet in the bathroom There isnt a TV under the table
Forming Questions with There is
QUESTIONS ANSWER
(POSITIVE)
ANSWER
NEGATIVE
Is there a rug in the hall? Yes, there is No, there isnt
Is there a TV in the kitchen? Yes, there is No, there isnt
Note:
We use the article a/an with there is
We use contractions
We put the verb rst with questions
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Plural - There are / There are not (arent)
POSITIVE NEGATIVE
There are some chairs in the dining
room
There arent any pictures on the wall
There are some cups in the cupboard There arent any windows in the
bathroom
There are three beds in the bedrooms There arent any plants on the table
Forming Questions with There are
QUESTIONS ANSWER
(POSITIVE)
ANSWER
NEGATIVE
Are there any glasses on the table? Yes, there are No, there arent
Are there any cupboards in the kitchen? Yes, there are No, there arent
Note:
We use some for positive sentences. Some means more than one/not an
exact number
We use any for negatives and questions
We can also use there is/there are to describe situations/things
examples Theres a problem with my computer.
Theres a strange man in the garden.
Theres a concert on tonight.
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Common Mistakes
Using the verb to have instead of there is / there are
Theres a sofa in my living room.
NOT Have a sofa in my living room. X
There are some clothes on the bed.
NOT Have some clothes on the bed. X
There arent any windows in the bathroom.
NOT Dont have any windows in the bathroom. X
Using one instead of a / an
Theres a TV in the living room.
NOT Theres one TV in the living room. X
Theres a sink in the kitchen.
NOT Theres one sink in the kitchen. X
Using any in positive sentences
There are eggs in the fridge.
NOT There are any eggs in the fridge. X
Using a double negative
There isnt a telephone in the ofce.
NOT Theres isnt no telephone in the ofce. X
There arent any plates in the kitchen.
NOT There arent no plates in the kitchen. X
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HOMOPHONES
There and their are homophones. This means they SOUND the same
but have a different SPELLING and MEANING. We can usually tell
the difference through the context.
WORD EXAMPLE 1 EXAMPLE 2 EXAMPLE 3
there / their There is a bed in the
bedroom
Their son is ve years
old
band / banned I play guitar in the
music band
It is banned to smoke
in restaurants
buy / bye / by I buy food at the
shop
It is sad to say bye to
friends
The cat is
sitting by the
door
cell / sell I talk on my cell
phone everyday
They sell fruit at the
market
its / its Its a beautiful day
today (it is)
Its ngers are on its
hand
meat / meet I like to eat meat at
dinner
It was nice to meet the
new neighbors
peace / piece I want to live in a
world of peace not
war
At birthdays I eat a
piece of birthday cake
These are just a few examples. There are many homophones in English.
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GRAMMAR - HAVE GOT
In English, we use has got / have got in a similar way to there is / there are.
We saw before that have got is used to express possession.
Ive got a really old car.
We can also use it to mean contains.
My living room has got a replace.
My bedroom has got a bed.
This is very similar to
Theres a replace in my living room.
Theres a bed in my bedroom.
When we make questions with have got we do not use do /does.
Instead, we say
TO HAVE SUBJECT GOT INFINITIVE
Has your wife got a brother?
Has your living room got a replace?
Have you got any children?
Has she got a car?
Have we got money?

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Clase 10
VOCABULARY: MUSIC
song CD album mp3 lyrics
rock pop reggae reggaeton rap
punk techno house classical hip hop
heavy metal country band artist singer
guitarist pianist drummer composer rapper
guitar bass piano drums saxophone
trumpet ute keyboard violin microphone
Music verbs and phrases
listen to music
listen to a song
play music
play guitar / play the drums / play the violin
download a song
download an album
POSITIVE
(like / love + noun)
NEGATIVE
(hate / cant stand + noun)
What sort of music are you
interested in?
I like Madonna I cant stand Lady GaGa
What kind of music are you
interested in?
I love rap I hate Shakira
What type of music are you
interested in?
I like country music I hate reggaeton
What instrument do you play? I play the drums I dont play the violin
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VOCABULARY : FILM
action thriller horror comedy
sci- (science ction) drama western musical
chick-ick (SLANG -
romantic comedy)
actor (male) actress
(female)
director
producer writer movie star celebrity
Film Verbs and Phrases
to watch a movie
I watch movies with my friends.
to see a movie
I want to see that movie. NOT I want to look at a movie. X
to go to the movies
We go to the movies every Tuesday night.
to check out a new movie
I want to check out that new Tom Cruise movie.
to see whats on at the movies
I check the newspaper to see whats on at the movies.
PRONUNCIATION: ITS vs EATS and IT vs EAT
Its my favorite movie. NOT Eats my favorite movie. X
The difference between it and eat & its and eats is the same as the
difference between his and hes (Clase 4).
Its very important to practice the two sounds because to an English-
speaker, they sound quite different.
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Remember, for his, it, its, we open the mouth more and the sound is
shorter.
For hes, eat, eats, we dont open the mouth as much and the sound is
longer.
GRAMMAR: Possessive pronouns
In English, we use whose to ask about possession.
Note: do not confuse with Whos (Who is).
To answer we can use possessive adjective + NOUN
QUESTION POSITIVE NEGATIVE
Whose pen is this? Its my pen It isnt my pen
Whose dog is this? Its their dog It isnt their dog
Whose house is this? Its our house It isnt our house
We can also use a possessive pronoun to answer.
Remember: we use pronouns to replace nouns.
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We can also use possessive pronouns to replace possessive
adjective + NOUN.
POSSESSIVE
ADJECTIVE
NOUN NOUN POSSESSIVE
PRONOUN
POSSESSIVE
PRONOUN
My car car ! mine mine
Your house house ! yours yours
His shoe shoe ! his his
Her stereo stereo ! hers hers
Our children children ! ours ours
Their room room ! theirs theirs
QUESTION QUESTION POSITIVE POSITIVE POSITIVE NEGATIVE NEGATIVE
Whose pen is this? Whose pen is this? Its my pen / Its mine Its my pen / Its mine Its my pen / Its mine It isnt my pen / It isnt
mine
It isnt my pen / It isnt
mine
Whose dog is this? Whose dog is this? Its their dog / Its
theirs
Its their dog / Its
theirs
Its their dog / Its
theirs
It isnt their dog / It isnt
theirs
It isnt their dog / It isnt
theirs
Whose house is
this?
Whose house is
this?
Its our house / Its
ours
Its our house / Its
ours
Its our house / Its
ours
It isnt our house / It
isnt ours
It isnt our house / It
isnt ours
More Examples
Thats not your phone. Its mine! (mine = my phone)
Whose gloves are these? Theyre hers. (hers = her gloves)
Who owns the guitar Its his. (his = his guitar)
The books on the table are ours. (ours = our books)
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Common Mistakes
Using possessive pronoun + plural noun
Theyre mine or Theyre my magazines
NOT Theyre mines magazines. X
Where are our microphones?
NOT Where are ours microphones? X
Using subject pronoun + s
That bike is hers.
NOT That bike is shes. X
Is this pen yours?
NOT Is this pen yous? X
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Clase 11
GRAMMAR: Can / Cant
We use the word can to express ability.
Can is a modal auxiliary verb. We use modals to express modality (mood,
sense or function) of main verbs and ability, advice, permission.
Modals are auxiliary verbs so we also use them to make a question or to
make a negative statement.
We do not use them with other auxiliary verbs, e.g. do/does.
Modal auxiliaries are different to primary auxiliaries because they do not
also exist as main verbs (e.g. to do What do you do?).
Afrmative Form of CAN
SUBJECT CAN VERB
I can swim
You can jump
He / She / It can sing
We can dance
They can run
Negative Form of CAN = cannot (cant)
SUBJECT CANNOT (cant) VERB
I cant swim
You cant jump
He / She / It cant sing
We cant dance
They cant run
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Forming Questions with CAN
CAN SUBJECT VERB Positive ANSWER Negative ANSWER
Can I swim? Yes, I can No, I cant
Can you jump? Yes, you can No, you cant
Can he / she / it sing? Yes, he / she / it can No, he / she / it cant
Can we dance? Yes, we can No, we cant
Can they run? Yes, they can No, they cant
Notes:
!
We use can for positive, negative and questions
!
We use the innitive after can (without to!)
"
We use the same form for ALL persons so we dont add s for he/
she/it
"
We use contractions
"
We use not to make negatives (NOT: dont / doesnt!)
"
We can also use be able to instead of can
o
e.g. Im able to play the piano.
Common Mistake with CAN
He can play football.
NOT He cans play football. X (no s is added to he / she / it with can)
She can sing very high notes.
NOT She cans sing very high notes. X
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I cant play the piano.
NOT I dont can play the piano. X (no auxiliary do)
We cant go to the park today.
NOT We dont can go to the park today. X
Can you sing?
NOT Do you can sing? X (no auxiliary do)
Can you reach the shelf?
NOT Do you can reach the shelf? X
We can speak English.
NOT We can to speak English. X (no to)
You can drive the car.
NOT You can to drive the car. X
Pronunciation Tip
There is a small difference between the ways we pronounce can and cant.
When we use can, we usually put the stress on the main verb. The can
sound, therefore, is shorter (similar to kin).
I can play the piano - more stress on play than can
When we use cant, we usually put the stress on the modal auxiliary. The
sound is longer and emphasized.
I cant speak Portuguese - more stress on cant than speak
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Other uses of CAN
We use can to say that something is possible (POSSIBILITY).
You can park your car there.
I can meet you later.
We can cook lasagna.
And we use can to say that that something is not possible.
I cant help you.
We cant go to the party.
We use cant to say that something is not allowed (PROHIBITION).
You cant smoke here.
Women cant vote in that country.
We use can to ask for things (REQUESTS).
Can I have a coffee?
Can you help me?
VOCABULARY: Action verbs & Activities
VERB VERB IN USE 1 VERB IN USE 2
to walk to walk to work to walk home
to run to run fast to run a race
to play to play sports to play an instrument
to swim to swim in a pool to swim in the sea
to jump to jump over a wall to jump up and down
to punch to punch the air to punch a person
to throw to throw a ball to throw a party
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VERB VERB IN USE 1 VERB IN USE 2
to pick up to pick up the trash to pick up a girl (SLANG)
to smile to smile happily to smile at someone
to laugh to laugh at a joke to laugh out loud
to cry to cry for someone to cry at a movie
to call to call a taxi to call on the phone
to shout to shout out loud to shout a drink (SLANG)
to give to give someone a hand to give a gift
to look for to look for your keys to look for a job
to take to take a bath to take your time
to tell to tell a joke to tell the truth
to travel to travel by bus to travel overseas
to use to use a computer to use someone
to ride to ride a bike to ride a horse
to speak to speak English to speak to someone
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Phrases to show you are not interested
Mark : I can run really fast, and I can speak three
languages.
Susan: Yeah. Sure.
Mark: And I can sing and dance really well.
Susan: Whatever
Mark: And I can tell funny jokes and play every sport
really well.
Susan: Blah, blah, blah...
Mark: And I can y a plane.
Susan: I dont care!
Mark: And I have a swimming pool at my house.
Susan: I couldnt care less!
GRAMMAR : TO GET
In English, we use the verb get in many different ways.
USE EXAMPLE
with a preposition to get up
to buy something to get a coffee
to arrive to get to work
to understand English, get It?
to put clothes on to get dressed
to take to get the bus
to receive to get mail
to become to get old
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Clase 12
GRAMMAR: Can & Could
In English we use could to say can in the past tense.
Could is also a modal verb so the rules about how to use it are the same
as all modal verbs.
"
positive / negative / questions
"
innitive main verb without to
"
same form for ALL subjects
"
contractions
"
use could not (couldnt) for negatives
Afrmative Form of COULD
SUBJECT COULD VERB
I could swim
You could jump
He / She / It could sing
We could dance
They could run
Negative Form of COULD = could not (couldnt)
SUBJECT COULD NOT
(couldnt)
VERB
I couldnt swim
You couldnt jump
He / She / It couldnt sing
We couldnt dance
They couldnt run
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Forming Questions with COULD
COULD
SUBJECT VERB Positive ANSWER Negative ANSWER
Could I swim? Yes, I could No, I couldnt
Could you jump? Yes, you could No, you couldnt
Could he / she / it sing? Yes, he / she / it
could
No, he / she / it
couldnt
Could we dance? Yes, we could No, we couldnt
Could they run? Yes, they could No, they couldnt
Notes:
We can also use could to speculate about the future
It could rain later.
He could show up.
We could go to the store later.
We can make requests sound a little bit more polite when we use could
Could I have a coffee, please?
Could you please help me with this?
Could you lower the volume?
We vary use of the past of to be in the same sentence with could when
we talk about past ability.
When I was young, I could touch my toes.
When you were 10, you could swim a lot faster.
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Pronunciation Tip
For some people, could is a difcult word to pronounce. This is because it
LOOKS difcult. The letter l is completely silent and it sounds the same as
good, wood, hood.
GRAMMAR : was & were (Past Simple: to be)
In English we use was / were to say to be in the past tense.
Afrmative Form of Was / Were
SUBJECT TO BE (past tense) VERB
I was happy
You were sad
He / She / It was fast
We were hungry
They were smart
Negative Form of Was / Were
SUBJECT TO BE (past tense)
I wasnt (was not) happy
You werent (were not) sad
He / She / It wasnt (was not) fast
We werent (were not) hungry
They werent (were not) smart
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Forming Questions with Was / Were
TO BE
(past
tense)
SUBJECT Positive ANSWER Negative ANSWER
Was I happy? Yes, I was No, I wasnt
Were you sad? Yes, you were No, you werent
Was he / she / it fast? Yes, he / she / it was No, he / she / it
wasnt
Were we hungry? Yes, we were No, we werent
Were they smart? Yes, they were No, they werent
Notes:

We use one form for I / he / she / it (WAS) and another for plural
we / you / they (WERE)

We use contractions

We put the verb rst with questions


Pronunciation Tip
1. We do not pronounce was in the same way as cat, that or back.
Instead, we pronounce it like WOZ.
2. There is only one syllable in were. The second e is like a silent letter.
The pronunciation is similar to her, fur, sir.
Common Mistakes with WAS / WERE

Grouping I in with we / you / they (as in present simple aux. to do)


I was in Tokyo last year. NOT I were in Tokyo last year. X
I was very happy there. NOT I were very happy there. X
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I was also sometimes sad. NOT I were also sometimes sad.X

Using was for all singular forms


You were late yesterday. NOT You was late yesterday. X
You were here too. NOT You was here too. X
You were so pretty! NOT You was so pretty! X

Using was after PERSON + I


John and I were very drunk. NOT John and I was very drunk. X
She and I were together. NOT She and I was together. X
He and I were in class. NOT He and I was in class. X
VOCABULARY: Time Expressions
PAST PRESENT
today yesterday
tonight yesterday morning
this year last year
this March last March
now then
BEFORE NOW = ago
ten years ago = ten years before now
one minute ago = one minute before now
When - to mean at that time
We also use when as a time conjunction to mean at that time
When he was at college, he was in the basketball team.
When I was a baby, I had blond hair.
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Homophones - but & butt
These 2 words (but and butt) are homophones. They sound the same but
the spelling is different and the meaning is COMPLETELY different
We use but as linking word to show contrast
I like football, but I hate tennis.
I want to help you, but I cant.
We use butt is another word for bottom
She has a huge butt.
I like big butts.
Expressions to use when somebody doesnt believe you
I promise! I swear! I swear to God! Its the truth!
Honest to God! Honestly! Really! Believe me!
Seriously! Cross my heart! Its true! Really!
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Clase 13
GRAMMAR: Past Simple (regular verbs)
We use the past simple to talk about nished past actions.
We usually use a time expression to say when the action happened.
It really is simple!
All afrmative regular verbs in the simple past tense end in ed
We use the SAME form for all persons. This means we dont use s for 3
rd

person singular (he / she / it) as we do in the present simple.
For all subjects, just add -ed.
Past Simple - Afrmative
SUBJECT PAST SIMPLE INFINITIVE
I worked last weekend
You talked during class
He / She / It smoked at the party
We cleaned yesterday
They jumped all day
Past Simple - Negative
We use the past form of the auxiliary to do to make negative sentences
and questions.
To do in the past = did. Did in negative form is did not (didnt).
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SUBJECT To Do (past form
negative)
VERB INFINITIVE
I didnt work last weekend
You didnt talk during class
He / She / It didnt smoke at the party
We didnt clean yesterday
They didnt jump all day
Forming Questions with the Past Simple
To Do
(past
form)
SUBJECT VERB Positive ANSWER Negative ANSWER
Did I work? Yes, I did No, I didnt
Did you talk? Yes, you did No, you didnt
Did he / she / it smoke? Yes, he / she / it did No, he / she / it didnt
Did we clean? Yes, we did No, we didnt
Did they jump? Yes, they did No, they didnt
Forming OPEN Questions with the Past Simple
Question word DID SUBJECT VERB
Where did I work?
When did you talk?
Why did he / she / it smoke?
How did we clean?
What did they jump?
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Past Simple Spelling Rules
Verbs ending in e add d (NOT ed)
live ! lived NOT liveed X
smile ! smiled NOT smileed X
Verbs ending in y change y to ied
carry ! carried NOT carryed X
marry ! married NOT marryed X
Some short verbs with one syllable, double the consonant
stop ! stopped
hop ! hopped
Common Mistakes with Past Simple
Using -ed ending in negatives and questions
He didnt like the movie. NOT He didnt liked the movie. X
We didnt live there. NOT We didnt lived there. X
Why didnt she work? NOT Why didnt she worked? X
Using did in positive sentences
I watched the movie. NOT I did watch a movie. X
I worked hard. NOT I did work hard. X
He yelled at me. NOT He did yell at me. X
Omitting the auxiliary
We didnt work last Sunday. NOT We no worked last Saturday. X
I didnt nish my project. NOT I no nished my project. X
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She didnt cook dinner. NOT She no cooked dinner. X
Using 3
rd
person s
She didnt help me. NOT She didnt helps me. X
He didnt ask. NOT He didnt asks. X
She didnt invite him. NOT She didnt invites him. X
VOCABULARY: Common Regular Verbs
arrive ask change check
decide enjoy fart cook
love hate nish invite
like look move own
listen show stay pass
reach talk travel turn
try view wait watch
walk want work study
Pronunciation Tip: -ed endings
Although the ending is the same for all verbs in the past simple positive,
there are 3 different ways to pronounce it.
When the innitive ends in an unvoiced consonant sound, we make a t
sound for the ed and we do not add an extra syllable.
kiss (ss is unvoiced like a snake)
Past: kissed sounds like KIST 1 syllable (NOT: kiss-ed)
nish (sh is unvoiced like be quiet!)
Past: nished sounds like FINISHT
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When the innitive ends in a voiced consonant sound, we make a d sound
for the ed and we do not add an extra syllable.
listen (n is voiced)
Past: listened sounds like LISTEND
travel (l is voiced)
Past: travelled sounds like TRAVELD
When the nal consonant in the innitive is t OR d, we make a ID sound for
the ed and we add an extra syllable. This comes naturally because its the
only possible sound after the letters t or d.
wait waited (2 syllables)
decide decided (3 syllables)
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Clase 14
GRAMMAR: Past Simple Irregular Verbs
Some verbs in English are irregular in the past simple when we make
positive sentences.
!
We only use the irregular form in POSITIVE sentences
!
We use the same form for ALL persons (I, you, we, etc.)
!
We follow the same rule as regular verbs with negative sentences
and questions. We use the auxiliary did/didnt and the INFINITIVE
"
Irregular verb forms can vary. Sometimes they change completely
(go went), sometimes they stay the same (put put) and
sometimes the root or stem of the verb changes (give gave). It
can be difcult to tell by looking at a verb which rule to follow.
Past Tense Afrmative - To Go
to go ! went
SUBJECT TO GO (past tense) INFINITIVE
I went home last weekend
You went to the party on Saturday
He / She / It went to school in the morning
We went to work yesterday
They went to the cinema in January
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Past Tense Negative - To Go
SUBJECT DIDNT GO INFINITIVE
I didnt go home last weekend
You didnt go to the party on Saturday
He / She / It didnt go to school in the morning
We didnt go to work yesterday
They didnt go to the cinema in January
Forming Questions with the Past Simple TO GO
To Do
(past
form)
Subject GO INFINITIVE Positive
ANSWER
Negative
ANSWER
Did I go to the toilet? Yes, I did No, I didnt
Did you go on vacation last
year?
Yes, you did No, you didnt
Did he / she /
it
go go to work? Yes, he / she /
it did
No, he / she / it
didnt
Did we go go to their house? Yes, we did No, we didnt
Did they go go to the party? Yes, they did No, they didnt
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Forming OPEN Questions with the Past Simple
Question
word
DID SUBJECT GO VERB
Where did I go last night?
When did you go yesterday?
Why did he / she / it go to her house?
Where did we go with them?
What did they go for?
Common Mistakes with the Past Simple Irregular Verbs
Applying regular rule to irregular verbs
I gave him my money. NOT I gived him my money. X
He put it on the table. NOT He putted it on the table. X
She made a cake. NOT She maked a cake. X
Applying s to 3
rd
person singular
She got a job. NOT She gots a job. X
The boy grew up. NOT The boy grews up. X
Peter found his keys. NOT Peter founds his keys. X
Using irregular past form in negatives and questions
I didnt see that movie. NOT I didnt saw that movie. X
Did Paul drive over? NOT Did Paul drove over? X
Omitting auxiliary
We didnt eat at lunch. NOT We no eat at lunch. X
They didnt go to the store. NOT They no go to the store. X
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Using did in positive sentences
She ran with me. NOT She did run with me. X
We went to the park. NOT We did go to the park. X
VOCABULARY: Common Irregular Verbs
INFINITIVE PAST SIMPLE INFINITIVE PAST SIMPLE
to be was / were begin began
become became break broke
build built buy bought
catch caught choose chose
come came cost cost* (no -ed)
cut cut* (no -ed) do did
drink drank drive drove
eat ate fall fell
feel felt ght fought
nd found y ew
forget forgot get got
give gave go went
grow grew have had
hear heard hit hit* (no -ed)
keep kept know knew
leave left lose lost
make made meet met
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INFINITIVE PAST SIMPLE INFINITIVE PAST SIMPLE
pay paid put put* (no -ed)
read read
(pronounced
red)
ride rode
run ran say said
sell sold send sent
shut shut* (no -ed) sing sang
sit sat sleep slept
speak spoke spend spent
stand stood steal stole
swim swam take took
tell told think thought
think thought understand understood
wake woke wear wore
win won write wrote
VOCABULARY: Seasons:
spring summer fall / autumn winter
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The Date: Ordinal Numbers
1st rst 13th thirteenth
2nd second 14th fourteenth
3rd third 15th fteenth
4th fourth 16th sixteenth
5th fth 17th seventeenth
6th sixth 18th eighteenth
7th seventh 19th nineteenth
8th eighth 20th twentieth
9th ninth 21st twenty rst
10th tenth 22nd twenty second
11th eleventh 23rd twenty third
12th twelfth 24th twenty fourth
The Date - Years:
1998 nineteen ninety-eight
2000 two thousand
2011 two thousand eleven
We can say the date in the following ways:

Its October the fourteenth

Its the fourteenth of October


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GRAMMAR - Prepositions of time:
IN
We use in with parts of the day (but not night!), months, seasons, years.

in the morning

in the afternoon

in the evening

in June

in the spring

in 2004
ON
We use on for days of the week, specic days, dates
on Wednesday
on Saturday afternoon
on Christmas Day
on the 4
th
of July
AT
We use at for times/times of the day, night, the weekend, and festivals.

at seven thirty

at lunchtime

at night

at the weekend

at Christmas (the period/festival, not the day)


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Verb phrases (growing up/life story)
!
grow up in
!
go to elementary school
!
go to high school
!
go to college/university
!
get good/bad grades
!
pass with ying colors
!
graduate
!
drop out
!
unk
!
make friends
!
move house
!
get a driving license
!
buy/get a car/house
!
get into a relationship with someone
!
have a relationship with someone
!
dump someone
!
get dumped by someone
!
know a place like the back off your hand
!
get married
!
have children
!
bring up children
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Clase 15
VOCABULARY: - Social Activities / Lifestyle
wear fashionable/trendy
clothes
throw up take away
save money do/take drugs meet up with friends
go out to a bar get a cab home hook up with somebody
go out to a club/go
clubbing
stay out all night get laid
get drunk eat out sleep with someone
get wasted order in sleep over
get pregnant sleep around have sex before
marriage
get knocked up practice safe sex waste money
TIME - Decades:
To talk about a decade, we use the plural noun form.
1960-1969 = the sixties
1970-1979 = the seventies
1980-1989 = the eighties
1990 -1999 = the nineties
2000 2010 = currently there is no universally accepted term
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Contrast Expressions
We can express contrast in a number of ways. The most common and
easiest to use is but. When we dont want to use but all the time, we can
use other words and expressions.
"
whereas
In the sixties people got married very young, whereas now they dont.
The French football team is unpredictable, whereas the German team is
more reliable.
"
although
People now are more open about sex, although they were more private in
the past.
The global population is more connected, although they had different ways
of communicating before.
"
however (new sentence)
Life is very fast and hectic. However, in the past it was more relaxed.
Divorce is more probable now. However, divorce is a fairly new concept
compared to marriage.
"
on the other hand
Today people make a lot of money. On the other hand, they are very
stressed.
Companies have much more power in politics now. On the other hand, that
is not necessarily a good thing.
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Pronunciation Tip - Irregular past forms
Verbs that sound like LOT/NOT
bought fought got
thought caught forgot
Verbs that sound like DOOR/MORE:
wore
Verbs that sound like HEAD/LEFT:
read slept met
said kept fell
Verbs that sound like WORD/BIRD:
heard
Verbs that sound like NAME/RAIN:
came gave paid
became made ate
Verbs that sound like TOWN:
found
Verbs that sound like SMOKE:
broke drove stole woke
chose spoke told wrote
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Clase 16
VOCABULARY: Places in a city - Shops / retail
store bank department store
grocery store pharmacy supermarket
liquor store mall book store
VOCABULARY: Places in a city - Getting around
road river block
street bridge intersection
VOCABULARY: Places in a city - Entertainment/ Leisure
movie theatre/cinema museum caf/coffee shop
theatre bowling alley bar
art gallery restaurant nightclub
VOCABULARY: Places in a city - Public Places/ Services/ Facilities
hospital university church
police station sports centre bus station/stop
post ofce gym train station
city hall square subway station
school park stadium
VOCABULARY: Places in a city - Areas
neighborhood slum projects
district downtown city centre
suburb ghetto gated community
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VOCABULARY: Adjectives to Describe Places
big small overcrowded
old young busy
beautiful picturesque hectic
pretty quiet safe
ugly noisy dangerous
interesting boring exciting
dull / dead lively famous
expensive cheap happening
VOCABULARY: Other expressions
Its dope Its a shit hole
Theres a good atmosphere Its a mess
Theres a good vibe Dont go there
Note:
!
To describe location and proximity, we use prepositions of place. We
also use near to and far from. (More about this in the next unit)
Common Mistakes Describing Places
There are beautiful restaurants in my neighborhood.
NOT There is beautiful restaurants in my neighborhood. X
Its got/It has/there is an beautiful museum.
NOT Have one beautiful museum. X
It is an exciting city.
NOT There is an exciting city. X
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VOCABULARY - Weather
sun cloud wind thunder
rain snow fog lightning
Describing the Weather:
TO BE + Adjective
Its sunny Its cloudy Its windy
Its rainy Its snowy Its foggy
*There is thunder and lightning
Weather Verbs
to rain - It rains a lot in my city.
to snow - It always snows at Christmas.
to shine - The sun shines all day long.
English in Use - The Weather
We say, Whats the weather like? to ask about weather.
We dont say Its a nice weather. X
Instead, we say: The weather is nice. Its nice weather.
VOCABULARY: Describing Climate/ Conditions
warm chilly wet a storm
hot cold dry a hurricane
boiling freezing humid a tornado
a downpour a heat wave fresh tropical
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Clase 17
English In Use - Asking for Directions
We can ask for directions in a number of ways. Normally, because we dont
know the people were talking to, we use polite forms.
"
Excuse me, do you know where the train station is?
"
Excuse me, could you tell me how to get to the stadium?
"
Excuse me, could you help me, please? I think Im lost. I need to get
to city hall.
"
Excuse me, is the subway around here?
"
Excuse me, does the bus go near here?
"
Excuse me, can you show me on the map how to get to Young
Street.
When we arent looking for a specic address or location, we ask using
there is/there are + a/an (NOT: the).
Excuse me, is there a bank near here?
Excuse me, could you tell me if there is a pharmacy around here?
Asking how far:
How far is it?
Is it far from here?
Is it near here?
Is it in walking distance?
Is it nearby?
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Giving Directions
When we give directions, we usually use the imperative form. To form the
imperative, we use the innitive without to.

Go straight ahead/on

Go past the train station

Go two or three blocks

Go around the corner

Take a left/right

Take the rst or second right

Turn left at the trafc lights

Turn the corner


Describing location

Its on 42
nd
street

Its next to the bank

Its on the corner

Its in Soho

Its opposite the museum

Its behind the church

Its in front of the school

Its near the university

It is far from the park

Its a 10-minute walk


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Very often, when we ask for directions, we need the person to repeat what
he or she said because we cant remember all the information, or because
he or she speaks very fast or has a different accent. We can ask for
repetition or clarication in the following ways.
Asking for Repetition/ Clarication

Could you repeat that, please?

Could you say that again, please?

Could you say that one more time, please?

Could you speak slowly, please?

Im sorry, I dont understand

Sorry, I didnt catch all of that

Sorry, Im not following you, do you mean.?


Of course, every conversation is different. Here are some sample dialogues
to show natural responses.
Sample Dialogues:
No.1
A: Excuse me, could you help me, please? I think Im lost.
B: Sure, no problem. Where do you want to go?
A: I need to get to Queen Street. Is it far from here?
B: No, not really. Its about a 15-minute walk, I think. Take the next left and
then walk about 3 blocks. Turn right at the trafc lights and go straight
ahead.
A: Sorry, I didnt catch that last bit.
B: Turn right at the trafc lights, yes?
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A: Yeah.
B: Then go straight. Its on the right, opposite the sport centre.
A: Thanks!
B: No problem.
No. 2
A: Excuse me, could you tell me how to get to the stadium?
B: Sorry, I dont know.
No. 3
A: Excuse me, do you know the way to the park?
B: Im not sure. I think its that way. Go past the subway station and take a
left. After that I think its about four or ve blocks.
A: Could you repeat that please?
B: What? No, Im in a rush.
No. 4
A: Excuse me, is there a bank near here?
B: Yeah, theres one on Main Street.
A: Is that in walking distance?
B: Its not far.
A: Can you show me on the map?
B: Sure thing.
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Clase 18
GRAMMAR : PRESENT CONTINUOUS
We use the present continuous to talk about actions happening now/at this
moment/currently. Sometimes the action can be at the moment of speaking
or happening around now. We very often use this tense to describe what
we can see.
Form: To Be (am/ is/ are) + VERB-ing
SUBJECT To Be VERB + ing
I m working
You re shopping
He / She / It s dancing
We re walking
You (plural) re running
They re eating
Negative Form: To Be (am/ is/ are) + not + VERB-ing
SUBJECT To Be negative VERB + ing
I m not working
You arent shopping
He / She / It isnt dancing
We arent walking
You arent running
They arent eating
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Question Form:
To Be Subject Verb + ing Positive
Response
Negative
Response
Am I working ? Yes, I am No, Im not
Are You shopping ? Yes, you are No, you arent
Is He / She / It dancing ? Yes, he is No, she isnt
Are We walking? Yes, we are No, we arent
Are You running ? Yes, you are No, you arent
Are They eating ? Yes, they are No, they arent
Notes:
!
We use the auxiliary verb to be (NOT: do/does) positive, negative,
question
!
We use the ing form of the main verb (the gerund)
!
We use contractions
!
Sometimes we add a consonant to the main verb (spelling rule see
example stopping)
Examples of How we Use the Present Continuous
Its raining at the moment. NOW
The phone is ringing. NOW
Hes taking a shower. NOW
Im feeling drunk. NOW
Whos that knocking at the door? NOW
Where are you staying? - In a hostel with some friends. NOW
Are you having fun? - Yes, we are! NOW
Wheres she going? - Shes running to catch the bus. NOW
Whats happening over there? - Theyre ghting. NOW
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Whats she wearing? - Shes wearing a T-shirt. NOW
Im exercising more these days. AROUND NOW
Shes eating healthily at the moment. AROUND NOW
The government is increasing taxes. AROUND NOW
Common Mistakes
Omitting auxiliary
We are going to the club NOT We going to the club. X
Where are you going NOT Where you going? X
Form of to be
They are waiting now NOT They is waiting now. X
Using incorrect auxiliary
Im not using it NOT I dont using it. X
She isnt staying here NOT She doesnt staying here. X
Incorrect negatives
She isnt doing work NOT She no doing work. X
We arent talking NOT We no are talking. X
Mixing tense
Im listening to music NOT I listen to music now. X
He is eating at the moment NOT He eats at the moment. X
Pronunciation Tip
Its important to close your mouth completely when you say Im. When you
dont do this, it sounds like I and makes the sentence incorrect.
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VOCABULARY - Clothes/ Fashion/ Accessories
Words that use wear and have got on
hat tee/t-shirt tie jeans sandals
cap blouse belt tights ip-ops
scarf top dress skirt high-heels
hood vest jacket shorts stilettos
bandana tank-top coat socks boots
sweater sneakers
(trainers UK)
pants
(trousers UK)
pajamas contact
lenses
shirt watch ring earrings suit
bracelet necklace jewelry glasses shoes
Examples:
Hes wearing a green sweater and blue jeans.
Shes got a red dress on.
Theyre wearing the same t-shirts.
Were wearing sunglasses.
Shes wearing black stilettos.
Ive got on a winter coat.
VOCABULARY - Clothes/ Fashion/ Accessories
Words that use carry
umbrella suitcase briefcase
backpack owers handbag
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Examples:
The guy is wearing a suit and hes carrying owers.
Most kids carry a backpack to school.
Im carrying an umbrella.
Shes the woman carrying a handbag.
Paul is carrying a briefcase of money.
VOCABULARY - Phrasal Verbs/ Verb Phrases
put on get dressed get naked
take off get undressed throw something on
try on strip
VOCABULARY - Appearance - Hair
black blonde shaved
brown red-head tight
blond(e) straight dreadlocks
fair wavy afro
red curly greasy
grey short bald
brunette long thinning
comb over dyed bleached
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VOCABULARY - Appearance - Eyes
blue brown green hazel
Has/has got + COLOR + eyes
Shes got blue eyes. They have brown eyes.
To be + COLOR-eyed
Shes blue-eyed. Were hazel-eyed.
VOCABULARY - Appearance - Size / Height / Shape
short average build skinny
medium-height stocky slim
tall well-built fat
lanky muscular overweight
tiny thick curvy
voluptuous beer-belly obese
VOCABULARY - Appearance - Opinion
good-looking hot easy on the eyes
handsome sexy ugly
pretty attractive repulsive
beautiful fetching gross
gorgeous glamorous hideous
drop-dead gorgeous hunky not much to look at
cute stunning butt-ugly
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Clase 19
GRAMMAR: Countable/ Uncountable Nouns
Countable nouns are things we can count. We see them as individual
things or units and because we can count them, they can be singular or
plural.
o
an apple three apples
o
a box ten boxes
o
a girl four girls
o
a guitar seven guitars
Uncountable nouns are different. We dont see them as individual units (for
example, liquids). Because we dont count them in the same way as
countable nouns, we dont put numbers in front of them. Instead, we use
the word some.
o
some butter
o
some sand
o
some grass
o
some water
a / an some / any
We use a/an with singular countable nouns in positive/negative/question
structures.
I ate a banana for breakfast. POSITIVE
We ate a cake at the birthday party. POSITIVE
I didnt eat a hot dog at the concert. NEGATIVE
You didnt eat a burger last night. NEGATIVE
Did you eat an egg this morning? QUESTION
Did you guys eat a pie at the fair? QUESTION
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We use some/any with:
Plural Countable Nouns
o some with positive statements (some is more than one or
inexact amount)
i. There are some tomatoes in the fridge.
ii. We have some pineapples in the kitchen.
a. any with negative statements
i.There werent any potatoes in the store.
ii.They didnt have any carrots either.
iii.NOT: Theres werent no potatoes. X
iv.NOT: They didnt have no carrots either. X
a.any with questions
!
Are there any oranges for tomorrow?
!
Do we have any kiwis left?
!
Did you buy any lemons yesterday?

Uncountable Nouns
o
some with positive statements
!
We need some milk.
!
You bought some vegetable oil.
!
I have some water in the refrigerator.
o
any with negative statements
!
We havent got any coffee.
!
I dont have any sugar.
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!
NOT: We havent got no coffee. X
!
NOT: I dont have no sugar. X
o
any with questions
!
Have you got any pasta?
!
Do we need any cheese?
!
Did you buy any our?
Note: It is sometimes possible to use container words with uncountable
nouns.
Examples:

a cup of coffee ! a coffee

a bottle of water

a slice of cheese

a loaf of bread

a chicken (a whole chicken)

a glass of beer ! a beer


Note: When we offer things, it is possible to use some in questions.
Would you like some tea?
Do you want some ice cream?
Can we have some salt and pepper?
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VOCABULARY - Food and Drink - Breakfast
U - indicates uncountable noun / C - indicates countable noun
coffee U jam U sugar U
tea U butter U an egg/eggs C
milk U cheese U bacon U
bread U cereal U ham U
toast U orange juice U pancakes C
VOCABULARY - Food and Drink - Lunch & Dinner
steak U salad C/U (French) fries U
chicken U rice U sauce U
sh U pasta U a sandwich/sandwiches C
VOCABULARY - Food and Drink - Fruit (the word fruit is uncountable)
an apple / apples C a banana/ bananas
C
a grape / grapes C a lime / limes C
an orange/ oranges
C
a strawberry/
strawberries C
a lemon / lemons C a grapefruit/
grapefruits C
VOCABULARY - Food and Drink - Vegetables (the word vegetable is
countable)
a potato / potatoes C a tomato / tomatoes C a pepper/ peppers C
a carrot / carrots C an onion / onions C a mushroom/ mushrooms C
VOCABULARY - Food and Drink - Snacks, Candy, and Junk Food
(Junk Food is Unhealthy Food)
chocolate U chips C a hotdog/ hotdogs C
ice cream U a hamburger/hamburgers C candy U
a biscuit / biscuits C pizza U dessert U
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Pronunciation Tip
The letter v can be very difcult to pronounce for Spanish speakers as it
is the same as b in Spanish. In English, it is quite different. We make the
sound in the same way as the letter f (f is unvoiced and v voiced). To
make the v sound, place your front teeth on your bottom lip, exhale and
use your voice. A good way to practice this is to repeat very berry very
berry. Not easy!
QUANTITY:
To ask about quantity, we say
How much.. for UNCOUNTABLE NOUNS

How much coffee do you drink?

How much milk would you like in your coffee?

How much water do you want?


How many. for COUNTABLE NOUNS

How many eggs did you buy?

How many potatoes did you bring?

How many kiwis did you eat?


GRAMMAR - QUANTIFIERS
To express quantity, we use quantiers:
Quantiers - UNCOUNTABLE NOUNS

Big quantity:
I drink a lot of coffee OR a lot (short answer)

Medium:
I drink quite a lot of coffee OR quite a lot

Small quantity:
I dont drink much coffee (NEGATIVE VERB!) OR not much
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Zero:
I dont drink any coffee (NEGATIVE VERB!) OR none
Quantiers - COUNTABLE NOUNS

Big quantity:
I bought a lot of eggs OR a lot (short answer)

Medium:
I bought quite a lot of eggs OR quite a lot

Small quantity:
I didnt buy many eggs (NEGATIVE VERB!) OR not many

Zero:
I didnt buy any eggs (NEGATIVE VERB!) OR none
Common Mistakes with Quantiers

Using much/many in positive sentences


I drink a lot of coffee NOT I drink much coffee. X
He ate a lot of cake NOT He ate many cake. X

Using double negatives/incorrect use of none


She doesnt have any NOT She doesnt have none. X
We dont have any pasta NOT We dont have none pasta. X
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Clase 20
GRAMMAR : Comparatives
When we describe nouns, we use ADJECTIVES. When we want to
compare 2 nouns, we use comparative adjectives.
My brother is tall. (Describes one noun my brother)
My brother is taller than my sister. (Compares 2 nouns my
brother and my sister)
We use than after the comparative adjective.
To form comparative adjectives:
"
One syllable adjectives ! add er
old older
young younger
small smaller
cold - colder
nice nicer
kind kinder
cheap - cheaper
"
When an adjective ends in 1 vowel and 1 consonant -, we add an
extra consonant (similar to the rule for ing verbs).
big bigger
thin thinner
fat fatter
hot hotter
t tter
!
When an adjective ends in y, we remover the y and add ier
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funny funnier
crazy crazier
healthy healthier
wealthy wealthier
happy happier
noisy noisier
easy easier
pretty prettier
ugly - uglier
!
Two or more syllables ! more + ADJECTIVE + than
interesting more interesting
famous more famous
expensive more expensive
dangerous more dangerous
exciting more exciting
comfortable more comfortable
fascinating more fascinating
boring more boring
enjoyable more enjoyable
"
Exception: Irregular Adjectives
o
good better
o
bad worse
o
far farther
o
fun more fun
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Note:
"
To say 2 things are the same, we can say
as + ADJECTIVE + as
London is as expensive as New York.
The pasta is as delicious as the rice.
My grandma is as old as my grandpa.
We also use this structure with quantities:
I drink as much beer as you.
I run as fast as you.
Peter eats as much as John.
"
To say 2 things are NOT the same, we can say
not as + ADJECTIVE + as
Santiago is not as expensive as Rio.
(Santiago is cheaper than Rio.)
She doesnt drink as much as me.
(She drinks less than me.)
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Common Mistakes: Comparative
!
Omitting than or using an incorrect word
That movie was more interesting than this movie.
NOT That movie was more interesting this movie. X
She is kinder than him.
NOT She is kinder that him. X
!
Applying more to short one syllable adjectives
My house is bigger than your house
NOT My house is more big than your house. X
Bolivia is smaller than Argentina
NOT Bolivia is more small than Argentina. X
Superlatives:
When we want to compare 1 noun with 2 or more other nouns (number 1 in
a group), we use superlative adjectives.
My brother is tall (Describes one noun my brother)
My brother is taller than my sister (Compares 2 nouns my brother
and my sister)
My father is the tallest in my family (the number 1 in a group -
taller than my brother and my sister)
We use the + superlative adjective
To form superlative adjectives, we take
"
One syllable adjectives ! add est
old the oldest
young the youngest
small the smallest
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cold the coldest
nice the nicest
kind the kindest
cheap the cheapest
"
When an adjective ends in 1 vowel and 1 consonant -, we add an
extra consonant (similar to the rule for ing verbs)
big the biggest
thin the thinnest
fat the fattest
hot the hottest
t the ttest
!
When an adjective ends in y, we remover the y and add iest
funny the funniest
crazy the craziest
healthy the healthiest
wealthy the wealthiest
happy the happiest
noisy the noisiest
easy the easiest
pretty the prettiest
ugly the ugliest
!
Two or more syllables ! the most + ADJECTIVE
interesting the most interesting
famous the most famous
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expensive the most expensive
dangerous the most dangerous
exciting the most exciting
comfortable the most comfortable
fascinating the most fascinating
boring the most boring
enjoyable the most enjoyable
"
Exception: Irregular Adjectives
o
good the best
o
bad the worst
o
far the farthest
o
fun the most fun
Note:
!
We very often use in + GROUP after superlatives
o
Theyre the best football team in the world
o
Shes the fattest in the class
Common Mistakes:
!
Omitting the
She is the kindest. NOT She is kindest.X
Today is the hottest. NOT Today is hottest.X
!
Using more instead of most
My house is the biggest. NOT My house is the more big. X
Bolivia is the cheapest. NOT Bolivia is the more cheap. X

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Clase 21
VOCABULARY: Photos - Verb phrases
take a photo/picture/ick/snap save photos to your computer
look at photos zoom in
delete a photo record a video
VOCABULARY: Photos - Nouns
a photo / a photograph photography
a photographer a camera
VOCABULARY: Social Networks - Verb Phrases
upload photos add a friend send/get a message
tag somebody in a photo post a comment chat with friends
VOCABULARY: Social Networks - Nouns
status update prole account
GRAMMAR - PAST CONTINUOUS
We use the past continuous in the following ways:
"
to describe an action in progress at a specic time in the past
When he took the photo, I was dancing with my friends.
"
to describe one action interrupting another action
She was walking down the street when the car hit her.
"
to describe the background when we are telling a story
On New Years Eve, I was staying with friends in Chicago. It
was really cold and we were walking down the street
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POSITIVE Form - was / were + Verb - ing
SUBJECT was / were VERB + ing
I was staying with friends
You were laughing a lot
He / She / It was dancing at the disco
We were talking with her
They were eating cake
NEGATIVE Form - was / were + not + Verb-ing
SUBJECT (was / were) + not VERB + ing
I wasnt staying with friends
You werent laughing a lot
He / She / It wasnt dancing at the disco
We werent talking with her
They werent eating cake
QUESTION Form: Was / were + subject + verb-ing ?
(was / were) +
not
SUBJECT VERB + ing ?
Wasnt I staying with friends ?
Werent you laughing a lot ?
Wasnt he / she / it dancing at the disco ?
Werent we talking with her ?
Werent they eating cake ?
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Short Answers Replies
Positive Negative
Yes SUBJECT was /
were
No SUBJECT (was / were) + not
Yes I was No I wasnt
Yes You were No You werent
Yes He / She / It was No He / She / It wasnt
Yes We were No We werent
Yes They were No They werent
Notes:
!
We very often use the past continuous together with the past simple.
(The past simple is for completed single actions.)
"
Past Simple + Past Simple is different to
past continuous + past simple
o
When she came home, I cleaned the kitchen.
(2 consecutive actions)
o
When she came home, I was cleaning the kitchen. (interrupted
action/action in progress)
!
We can also use just as and while
o
just as at the same time as/at the very moment
!
She called me just as I was leaving.
!
He rang the bell just as I was cooking dinner.
o
while longer actions
!
The postman arrived while I was taking a bath.
!
The dog ran out while I was looking for his leash.
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VOCABULARY - Making Excuses/ Clarifying a Misunderstanding
Youve got it all wrong Thats not it at all
Youve got the wrong idea Its not like that
VOCABULARY - Sightseeing / Vacation
go on vacation have fun go clubbing
stay in a hotel/hostel visit museums relax
spend money go sightseeing go to the beach
VOCABULARY - Scenery/Landscape Vocabulary
coast ocean valleys
cliffs bay forest
beach mountains countryside
seaside hills lake
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Clase 22
GRAMMAR : Present Perfect (simple)
We use the present perfect to talk about something that happened at some
time before now. We do not specify when exactly. Instead, we emphasize
the experience. We are more interested in the action/event itself, rather
than when it happened.
We very often use the present perfect with the adverbs ever/never when
we ask questions. Ever means in your life.
In the above example, the question means:
At any time in your life, from the day you were born until now, were
you in a helicopter?
The perfect aspect is a very important part of English, and it can be quite
difcult at rst. When we use a perfect tense, we want to express that an
action happened before another time. The present perfect shows that
something happened at some time before now.
Present Perfect Form:
have/has + PAST PARTICIPLE
Positive
Subject have / has past participle
I ve been to Africa
You ve eaten spiders
He / She / It s bought lunch
We ve paid him
They ve seen that movie
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Negative
Subject have / has + not past participle
I havent been to Africa
You havent eaten spiders
He / She / It hasnt bought lunch
We havent paid him
They havent seen that movie
Question Form
Have / Has Subject past participle ?
Have I been to Africa ?
Have You eaten spiders ?
Has He / She / It bought lunch ?
Have We paid him ?
Have They seen that movie ?
Notes:
!
We use the auxiliary verb to have in positives, negatives, and
questions
!
We use contractions (*In English, s can mean is OR has)
!
We use the past participle (not innitive or past form!)
!
gone to = go without returning VS been to = go and return
!
PRESENT PERFECT vs PAST SIMPLE
o
We use the present perfect to talk about a general experience
at an indenite/unspecied time in the past
!
Ive seen that movie.
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We use past simple to talk about something that happened at a
denite/specic time in the past. We use it with past time
expressions (e.g. yesterday, last week)
o I saw that movie last month.
Common Mistakes:

Using innitive/past form


o
I have go to England.
o
I have went to England.

Incorrect form for 3


rd
person
o
She have met my friend.
o
He have given me presents.

Using past time expressions


o
Weve been to a great party last night.
o
Ive read that book last year.

Using incorrect auxiliary


o
Did you gone to New York?
o
Did you travelled to Paris?
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VERB LIST
Innitive Past Simple Past Participle
be was / were been
become became become
begin began begun
break broke broken
build built built
buy bought bought
catch caught caught
choose chose chosen
come came come
cost cost cost*
cut cut cut*
do did done
drink drank drunk
drive drove driven
eat ate eaten
fall fell fallen
feel felt felt
ght fought fought
nd found found
y ew own
forget forgot forgotten
get got got
give gave given
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Innitive Past Simple Past Participle
go went gone (+been to)
grow grew grown
have had had
have had had
hear heard heard
hit hit hit*
keep kept kept
know knew known
leave left left
lose lost lost
make made made
meet met met
pay paid paid
put put put*
read read read (pronounce: red)
ride rode ridden
run ran run
say said said
sell sold sold
send sent sent
shut shut shut*
sing sang sung
sit sat sat
sleep slept slept
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Innitive Past Simple Past Participle
speak spoke spoken
spend spent spent
stand stood stood
steal stole stolen
swim swam swum
take took taken
tell told told
think thought thought
understand understood understood
wake woke woken
wear wore worn
win won won
write wrote written
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VOCABULARY - Fame/ Media Vocabulary
be famous make a lot of money be a millionaire
be well-known be a superstar have money to burn
be a household name be in the public eye be on TV
be rich be a media-whore have lots of fans
be wealthy have a mansion be a diva
Criticizing (using enough, too and a little, a few)

We use enough when we want to say something is sufcient we do


not need more

We use too when we want to say more than enough / an excessive


amount
o
We use too + adjective
Im too tired to play football. Hes too sleepy to go to school.
o
We use too much/many + Noun
I ate too much food. She drank too much alcohol last night.

We use a little to talk about a small amount (uncountable nouns)


I have a little money. She has a little sand in her shoes.

We use a few to talk about a small amount (countable nouns)


We drank a few beers. The boy has a few friends.
Possible Example:
Famous superstars have too much money.
Some people in the world dont have enough food.
All you need is a few friends and a little money.
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Clase 23
Future Forms 1
What are your plans? Im going to buy a car.
Going to
We use going to when we talk about future plans and intentions.
POSITIVE Form: to be (am/ is/ are) + going to + INFINITIVE
Subject to be going to
I m going to buy a car soon
You re going to go home
He / She / It s going to make dinner
We re going to the movies
They re going to celebrate
Negative Form: to be + not going to + Innitive
Subject to be + not going to Innitive
I m not going to buy a car soon
You arent going to go home
He / She / It isnt going to make dinner
We arent going to the movies
They arent going to celebrate
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Question Form
to be Subject going to Innitive ?
Am I going to buy a car soon ?
Are You going to go home ?
Is He / She / It going to make dinner ?
Are We going to the movies ?
Are They going to celebrate ?
Notes:

We use the verb to be with this structure (positive, negative,


questions)

We use contractions

We very often use time expressions


o
tomorrow
o
next week
o
in January
o
soon

When we speak, we very often say gonna in place of going to


o
Im gonna look for a job.
o
Were gonna move in together.
o
Shes gonna get t.
Common Mistakes:

Omitting to be
Im going to call you next week NOT I going to call you next week X
She is going to learn English NOT She going to learn English. X
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We are going to eat pizza NOT We going to eat pizza. X

Using aux do/does


Are you going to buy tickets? NOT Do you going to buy tickets? X
Are we going to the bar NOT Do we going to go to the bar? X

Omitting to
Are you going to paint your house? NOT Are you going paint your house? X
Hes going to dump his girlfriend NOT Hes going dump his girlfriend. X
Were going to eat at the restaurant NOT Were going eat at the restaurant. X
GRAMMAR - Present Continuous
We saw in Class 18 how we use the present continuous to describe what is
happening now/around now (its raining).
We can also use the present continuous to talk about future arrangements
and appointments.
The difference between a plan and an arrangement or appointment is that
a plan is an intention (what we hope to do) and an arrangement is more
denite.
The form is exactly the same for present and future uses.
Look at the following examples that show the difference between a plan
and an arrangement.
Im going to travel around South America soon.
o Im thinking about this. Im saving money. I want to do it, but I
dont know when.
Im traveling around South America next month.
o I bought my ticket. I have my passport. I booked my hotel room.
I have time off work.
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Notes:

An arrangement is very often between 2 people (for example, things


we write in a diary/calendar).
o
Im seeing the doctor tomorrow.
o
Shes meeting her mother for lunch on Monday.
o
Were going to the concert on Friday.

Sometimes, there is very little difference between a plan and an


arrangement, so we can use both forms
Homophones
theyre/there/their

These 3 words sound exactly the same. The meaning is completely


different though! (These words cause trouble for English speakers
also.)
o
theyre they are e.g. Theyre meeting us later.
o
there ADVERB (in that place/situation) e.g. I live there.
o
their possessive adjective e.g. Their house is beautiful.
Pronunciation Tip: - th
We pronounce the th in theyre/there/their in the same way as three
but we use our voice also. So, we place the tip of the tongue under the
front teeth, exhale and make a sound.
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Making Suggestions/ Offers:
We can suggest ideas and plans to other people in a number of ways.

Lets + INFINITIVE
o
Lets have a party next Friday.
o
Lets watch the new movie!
o
Lets just stay at home and rest.

How/What about + VERB-ing


o
How about going to the movies?
o
What about going to the bar for drinks?
o
How about visiting Grandma on Sunday?

How about we + INFINITIVE


o
How about we meet up for lunch?
o
How about we cook dinner together tonight?
o
How about we make plans for Saturday?

Why dont we + INFINITIVE


o
Why dont we go for a beer?
o
Why dont we walk to the park?
o
Why dont we drive to the beach this weekend?
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Clase 24
GRAMMAR - Future Forms 2
Predicting:
going to
Look at those grey clouds. Its going to rain.
We saw in Class 23 that we can use going to+ innitive to talk about our
future plans.
We can also use this structure to make predictions. We make a prediction
because of what we see now (current evidence).
Examples:
I dont feel well. Im going to throw up. (I dont feel well = EVIDENCE)
The trafc is terrible. Im going to be late. (The trafc is terrible = EVIDENCE)
*The form is the same for both uses of going to
will
I think theyll (they will) lose the game
We can also use the modal verb will to make predictions. We use will when
the prediction is our personal opinion or expectation, not because of what
we see now.
Positive Form:
Subject Will ( ll) innitive
I ll have fun tomorrow
You ll be the best
He / She / It ll win the game
We ll go on the weekend
They ll drink everything
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Negative Form:
Subject wont
I wont have fun tomorrow
You wont be the best
He / She / It wont win the game
We wont go on the weekend
They wont drink everything
Question Form
Will Subject ?
Will I have fun tomorrow ?
Will You be the best ?
Will He / She / It win the game ?
Will We go on the weekend ?
Will They drink everything ?
Notes:
!
Will is a modal auxiliary verb. So
!
we use the same form for ALL persons
!
we use it to make positives/negatives/questions
"
The negative form is wont. This sounds the same as dont.
"
We use contractions
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"
We very often use I think/I dont think.Im sure.. before we make a
prediction
!
I think shell be very successful in her new job.
!
I dont think John will pay you back.
!
Im sure youll meet lots of new people on your vacation.
Making Promises/ Offers/ Decisions
Ill help you.
It also possible to use will in the following ways:
to make a promise
o Ill always love you!
o She will always be there for him.
o We will always visit you at Christmas.
to make an offer
o Ill help you with your homework.
o Well go to the store for you.
o Ill take you to the game.
to make an instant decision (unplanned)
o A: We wont have any coffee.
B: Ill buy some now.

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VOCABULARY - Science and Technology

use/have a laptop/notebook

use/have a cell phone

use/have a smart phone

use/have a digital camera

play video games/computer games

use household appliances

wi-

IT (Information Technology)

IT skills

internet

surf/use the internet/net

browse

download/upload

communicate

entertainment

research
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Clase 25
Free Time/ Leisure Activities (Verb Phrases)
!
read books/magazines/newspapers
!
watch TV
!
cook a meal
!
meet friends
!
work out
!
listen to music
!
have a party
!
get drunk
!
get high
!
chill out
!
hang out
Phrases with go:
"
go shopping
"
go out
"
go for a meal
"
go to the movies
"
go for a walk
"
go clubbing
"
go on vacation
"
go snowboarding
"
go jogging
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Phrases with do:
"
do yoga
"
do exercise
"
do housework
"
do drugs
Phrases with play:
"
play football
"
play video games
"
play volleyball
"
play tennis
"
play poker
Verb Patterns:
I like playing football.
Id like to learn Portuguese.
In English, we use the ing form (gerund) in the following ways:

After some verbs (see list)


o
I love eating junk food.
o
Do you enjoy traveling alone?
o
I hate going to that noisy restaurant.

After prepositions
o
Im interested in meeting people from other countries.
o
Are you good at saving money?
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o
Youre great at cooking.

As the subject of a sentence


o
Smoking is verb for your health.
o
Learning languages has become very popular.
o
Swimming is my favorite hobby.
We use the innitive form of the verb in the following ways:

After some verbs (see list)


o
She wants to move out.
o
I decided to leave my job.
o
We prefer to see the other movie.

After adjectives
o
Nice to meet you.
o
Its difcult to remember passwords.

To say WHY we do something (purpose)


o
I went to the pharmacy to get some aspirin.
o
She came to America to improve her English.
o
He made dinner to impress his girlfriend.
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VERB LIST: Verbs + -ing

like

love

hate

enjoy

cant stand

dont mind

nish

imagine
VERB LIST: Verbs + innitive

want

would like

prefer

agree

forget

promise

learn

choose

decide

hope

help

need

plan
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VERB LIST: Verbs + -ing OR innitive (same meaning)

begin

start

continue

prefer

like

love

hate
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Clase 26
OBLIGATION / NECESSITY
I must study more.
You have to pay taxes.
We can express obligation in the following ways:
MUST + inf.
Must is a modal auxiliary verb. We use it to express personal obligation
(things we feel are important to do) and to impose an obligation on another
person. Consider these two examples:
I must do more exercise.
You must do your homework.
Remember that must is a modal verb, so
We use the same form for all persons
We use the innitive without to
We dont use another auxiliary with it (e.g. do/does)
We use not to make negative statements
When we use must in negative sentences (must not = mustnt), it means
something is prohibited (we can also use cant), such as:
You mustnt smoke in bars here. - You cant smoke in bars here.
We generally dont use must in questions (see below)
There isnt a past form of must (see below)
HAVE TO + inf.
We use have to to express a general obligation. We use it when we talk
about rules, laws, and things that are necessary.
Have to is not a modal auxiliary verb, so we use the auxiliary do/does to
make negative statements and questions.
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Do I have to bring my passport?
Past obligation: I had to go to work.
When we use have to in negative sentences, it means that something is
NOT necessary (no obligation).
We dont have to work on Sundays. Its our day off.
You dont have to pay in enter this club. Its free.
We can also say have got to
Ive got to work tonight.
When we speak fast, we sometimes change have got to to gotta
I gotta work tonight. Im late! I gotta go!
Notes:
MUST and HAVE TO (positive statements) both express obligation.
MUSTNT and DONT HAVE TO are completely different expressions
with different meanings.
You mustnt go home. (PROHIBITED you cant go)
You dont have to go. (NOT NECESSARY you can stay)
Common Mistakes:

Using to after must


I must go home now NOT I must to go home now. X

Using aux. do with must


You mustnt do that! NOT You dont must do that. X

Using s for 3
rd
person singular
She must work hard NOT She musts work hard. X

Using have to as an auxiliary verb


I dont have to work today NOT I havent to work today. X
Do you have to study tonight? NOT Have you to study tonight? X
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Using dont have to to express prohibition


You mustnt smoke here! NOT You dont have to smoke here! X
Pronunciation (Have vs. Have To)

When we use have to, we pronounce it differently from have


o
We use the f sound with have to (HAF) unvoiced
o
We use the v sound with have (HAV) voiced
VOCABULARY (Culture/ Laws/ Rules)
break the law follow the law do something wrong
make a mistake drink and drive drink in public
buy drugs sell drugs drive fast (speeding)
park illegally get a parking ticket get a ne
go to court go to prison police
cops pigs crime
criminals court warnings
lawyer rules jury
laws signs judge
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Clase 27
GRAMMAR : First Conditional
If it rains tomorrow, Ill stay at home.
We use the First Conditional to talk about a possible future situation and its
consequent or result.
In the above example, rain tomorrow is a possible future situation, and
stay at home is the result of that situation coming true.
We use if + present tense in the conditional clause, and will + innitive in
the result clause.
Note:
"
We dont often use will in the conditional clause.
"
The result clause can also come rst, such as
Ill stay at home if it rains tomorrow.
Time Clauses - When / As Soon As
We can use when / as soon as to talk about a denite future situation and
its consequence.
When I nish my exams, Ill have a party.
As soon as I get home, Ill call you.
We use when + present tense in the time clause, and will + innitive in the
result clause.
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MIGHT + innitive
To talk about future possibility, we use the modal auxiliary might.
Might means maybe or perhaps this will happen.
For example,
I might go out tonight. = Maybe Ill go out tonight, but Im not sure.
It might rain later. = Maybe it will rain later. It is possible.
Remember: might is a modal verb, so
oWe use the same form for all persons
oWe use the innitive without to
oWe dont use another auxiliary with it (e.g. do/does)
oWe use not to make negative statements
oIt is more natural to use might than to say maybe/perhaps or will
oWe dont normally make questions with might. Instead, we say

Do you think it will rain tomorrow?

Does he think he will nish his project?


VOCABULARY - At the Bank - Key verbs:
! open (an account a savings account, a checking account)
! pay (bills, a loan)
! check (your balance online)
! apply for (a loan, a credit card)
! withdraw (cash/money)
! deposit (cash/money)
! cash (a check)
! use (an ATM, a credit card)
! transfer (money, funds)
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application form ATM branch
coins check cash
credit credit card debit
debt deposit interest
loan overdraft PIN number
statement teller withdrawal
Expressions and phrases:
! Id like to cash this check, please.
! I want to check my balance.
! Do you accept travelers checks?
! I want to make a withdrawal.
! Id like to deposit some money into my account.
! I want to open an account.
! Is it possible to change money here?
! I lost my credit card.
! Somebody stole my credit card.
! I cant remember my PIN number.
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Clase 28
GRAMMAR : 2nd Conditional
If I had more time, Id help you.
If I were you, I wouldnt do that!
We use the 2nd conditional to talk about an improbable or impossible
present or future situation and its consequent or result. We use this when
we talk about something hypothetical.
In the above example, the reality is
I dont have any time, Im very busy so I cant help you.
We imagine the opposite and talk about the result of that imaginary
situation (Id help you).
We use if + past tense in the conditional clause, and would + innitive in
the result clause.
Note:
!
We dont often use would in the conditional clause
!
The result clause can come rst, such as
Id help you if I had more time.
Youd quit if you had another job.
Wed make dinner if we had ingredients in the house.
!
We are talking about the present or future, but we use the past
tense!
Would is a modal auxiliary verb, so
!
We use the same form for all persons
!
We use the innitive without to
!
We dont use another auxiliary with it (e.g. do/does)
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!
We use not to make negative statements
!
We can use contractions with would
!
We very often use were with I / he / she / it
If I were you, Id go to the doctor.
If she were available, shed help you.
If we were there, wed invite you to dinner.
!
We can also use could in the result clause. (It means would be able
to)
If I were taller, I could touch the ceiling.
If I were taller, I would be able to touch the ceiling.
If we were coworkers, we could help with the work.
If we were coworkers, we would be able to help with the work.
Common Mistakes:
Using incorrect tenses
!
If I had more money I would go on vacation
!
NOT If I have more money, I would go on vacation.
!
If you made the dessert, I would bring the ice cream.
!
NOT If you make the dessert, I would bring the ice cream.
Mixing up conditionals
!
If I see you later, Ill call you
!
NOT If I saw you later, Ill call you. X
!
If we want to go, well let you know
!
NOT If we wanted to go, well let you know X
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Omitting auxiliary
"
If John lost his job, he would move to another country
!
NOT If John lost his job, he moved to another country. X
!
If we found the keys, we would open the door now
!
NOT If we found the keys, we opened the door now X
Using s with 3
rd
person singular
"
If he had more time, he would help you
!
NOT If he had more time, he woulds help you. X
"
If it were cold enough, it would snow
!
NOT If it were cold enough, it woulds snow. X
VOCABULARY - Describing Character (Adjectives / Idioms)
"
as cold as ice no emotion or feelings
"
average joe boring and normal
"
barrel of laughs funny and interesting
"
bold as brass overcondent
"
cry-baby complains and cries easily
"
high-handed arrogant and big-headed
"
out of your mind not rational, behaving in a crazy way
"
two-faced false, says bad things when youre not there
"
a bad egg you cant trust this person
"
fat cat has too much money and power
"
cool as a cucumber relaxed, doesnt care about what
happens
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"
couch potato lazy, spends a lot of time watching TV
"
down to earth realistic and practical
"
a jerk insensitive, selsh, and not a nice person
"
nice as pie very kind and friendly
"
openminded accepts other peoples views and beliefs
"
narrow-minded opposite of openminded
"
like chalk and cheese two people who are very different
I Wish / If Only
I wish I had more money!
If only it was Friday!
We use I wish / if only when we talk about a situation we want to change
but we cant change. We very often use it with hypothetical situations.
In the above examples, the reality is I dont have much money and It isnt
Friday.
Note:
"
We are talking about the present, but we use past tenses!
"
We use if only for more emphasis.
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Clase 29
GRAMMAR : Should / shouldnt + innitive
You should see the doctor.
You shouldnt go there alone.
We use should / shouldnt to offer advice. We use it when we want to say
that we think something is a good/bad idea.
We also use should / shouldnt to give a recommendation.
You should watch that movie. Its really good.
Should is a modal auxiliary verb, so
!
We use the same form for all persons
!
We use the innitive without to
!
We dont use another auxiliary with it (e.g. do/does)
!
We use not to make negative statements
We can also give advice in the following ways:
Ought to (more formal)
"
You ought to see the doctor.
"
We ought to talk about this more.
"
He ought to make a better offer.
If I were you, Id
"
If I were you, Id see the doctor.
"
If I were you, Id try to be more supportive.
"
If I were you, Id take her out to dinner.
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Common Mistakes:
Using to after should
I should go home now NOT I should to go home now. X
We should see that play NOT We should to see that play. X
Using auxiliary do with should
You shouldnt do that NOT You dont should do that. X
Using s for 3
rd
person singular
She should work harder NOT She shoulds work harder. X
It should be warm NOT It shoulds be warm. X
He should bring a towel NOT He shoulds bring a towel. X
VOCABULARY - Make vs. Do
You should make up your mind.
You should do the right thing.
Make and do can be difcult verbs for people learning English because in
some languages they mean the same thing.
We use make in the following ways:
"
to talk about creating, constructing, or preparing
o
make some coffee
o
make dinner
o
make a cake
o
make a mess
o
make a birthday card
o
make something up
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"
with certain xed expressions
o
make up your mind
o
make a choice
o
make a decision
o
make friends
o
make money
o
make a mistake
o
make a phone call
o
make a promise
We use do in the following ways:
"
activities or tasks
o
do some exercise
o
do the dishes
o
do yoga
o
do the laundry
o
do something
o
do nothing
"
to talk about work
o
do homework
o
do housework
o
do a good job
o
do lots of work
o
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"
with certain xed expressions
o
do well/badly
o
do your best
o
do someone a favor
o
do research
o
do drugs
Vocabulary - Communications
face to face whisper send a fax
talk argue send an email
chat make a phone call send a text message
have a conversation call someone text someone
have a word with
someone
send a letter chat online
talk in private Skype Facebook
Using the Phone - Formal / Business:
Making a call
"
Hello, Id like to speak to/with.
"
Hello, can I speak with.
"
Hello, Im calling about .
Taking a call
"
Hello, youre through to Macro Ltd. How can I help you?
"
Can I ask whos speaking, please?
"
Im putting you through now.
"
Im afraid hes not here at the moment.
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"
Can I take a message?
"
Would you like to leave a message?
Informal:
Making a call
"
Hello, is that John?
"
Hello, John?
"
Hi, John, its Andy.
"
Can you talk?
Taking a call
"
Hello?
"
Hi, whats up?
"
I cant talk, can you call back?
"
Hes not here right now.
"
Ill tell her you called.
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Clase 30
GRAMMAR : Present Perfect (just, already, yet)
We saw in Class 22 how we use the present perfect to talk about
something that happened at a time before now.
We can also use it to talk about a past action that has a present result. We
feel the effects of a past action in the present. Very often, these past
actions are recent.
When talking about recent past actions with present results, we use the
following adverbs - just, already and yet
JUST
We use just to say that something happened very recently, moments before
now. For example,
Ive just heard the news! Congratulations!
Shes just lost her bag.
Hes just left.
We use just in positive sentences and we put it before the main verb
ALREADY
We use already to emphasize that something happened before now or
happened earlier than expected.
A: Do you want some breakfast?
B: No, thanks. Ive already eaten.
A: Do your homework!
B: Ive already nished!
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A: Would you like to stay at our hotel?
B: Weve already made a reservation.
We use already in positive sentences and we put it before the main verb.
YET
We use yet to emphasize that something has not happened (we expect it
to happen) and to ask if something has happened (we expect it to happen).
I havent nished my homework yet.
He hasnt heard the news yet.
The mailman hasnt arrived yet.
A: Have you seen that movie yet?
B: No, not yet.
A: Have you made dinner yet?
B No, I havent made it yet.
We use yet in negative statements and in questions. We put yet at the end
of the sentence.
Common Mistakes:
Mixing up adverbs
I havent seen that movie yet NOT Ive seen that movie yet. X
I just spoke to him NOT I havent just spoken to him. X
She hasnt been there NOT She hasnt already been there. X
Word order
I have just cut my nger NOT I just have cut my nger. X
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They have already nished it NOT They already have nished it. X
Have you read this book yet? NOT Have you yet read this book? X
Pronunciation
JUST:
This can be a difcult word for Spanish speakers. The j is a hard consonant
sound and we make it by placing the middle of the tongue on the roof of the
mouth. We make the vowel sound in the same way as up, cup, but (uh).
ALREADY:
The vowel sound at the start of the word is similar to all, ball, call. The
vowel sound in the middle of the word (ea) is the same as head, red, egg.
YET:
We make the y sound in yet by combining ee with eh. When we put the 2
sounds together quickly it becomes y. (similar sound in use, Europe).
English in Use:
Asking and explaining whats wrong:
Whats wrong?
Is everything OK?
You dont seem yourself.
Whats the problem?
Whats the matter?
Responses to someone asking whats wrong
Ive got a problem.
Theres something up.
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The problem is
Ive got some personal stuff.
I dont want to talk about it.
Its none of your business.
Its private.
Expressing sympathy
Im sorry to hear that.
Thats terrible.
You poor thing.
God help you.
Try not to worry about it.
Its not the end of the world.
It could be worse.
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