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Current and Future Development in

Networks and Communications







Name : ___________________________
Form : 4 Alamanda
Subject : Information and Communication Technology ( ICT )
Teacher :






1.0 Introduction
A computer network is a system of interconnected computers and peripheral devices.
For example, it may connect computers, printers, scanners and cameras.Communications
is about the transfer of information from a sender, across a distance, to a receiver whilst
Computers communicate with digital signals. The older forms ofcommunications
technology, such as telephones and radios, use analog signals and others.

2.0 Mobile Computing
2.1 Definitions
Mobile computing is a generic term describing one's ability to use technology while
moving as opposed to portable computers, which are only practical for use while
deployed in a stationary configuration. Many types of mobile computers have been
introduced since the 1990s, including the:
Wearable computer
Personal digital assistant/Enterprise digital assistant
Smartphone
Ultra-Mobile PC

2.2 Specification, services, and frequencies of Mobile Computing
APPLE iPHONE 4S

Specifications

UMTS/HSDPA/HSUPA,
GSM/EDGE,
CDMA EV-DO Rev. A,
WiFi,
Bluetooth 4.0 wireless technology
Services
Web Browsing,
Camera, Video & Photo,
Mail Attachment Support,
Sensors, Language and keyboard support,
Dictionary support
Frequencies
UMTS/HSDPA/HSUPA (850, 900, 1900, 2100
MHz);
GSM/EDGE (850, 900, 1800, 1900 MHz)
CDMA EV-DO Rev. A (800, 1900 MHz)4
802.11b/g/n Wi-Fi (802.11n 2.4GHz only)

3.0 Internet technology and services
3.1 VoIP
Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) is a general term for a family of transmission
technologies for delivery of voice communications over IP networks such as the Internet
or other packet-switched networks. Other terms frequently encountered and synonymous
with VoIP are IP telephony, Internet telephony, voice over broadband (VoBB),
broadband telephony, and broadband phone.
Internet telephony refers to communications services-voice, facsimile, and voice-
messaging applications-that are transported via the Internet, rather than the public
switched telephone network (PSTN). The basic steps involved in originating an Internet
telephone call are conversion of the analog voice signal to digital format and
compression/translation of the signal into Internet protocol (IP) packets for transmission
over the Internet; the process is reversed at the receiving end. VoIP systems employ
session control protocols to control the set-up and tear-down of calls as well as audio
codes which encode speech allowing transmission over an IP network as digital audio via
an audio stream. Codec use is varied between different implementations of VoIP
(and often a range of codes are used); some implementations rely on narrowband and
compressed speech, while others support high fidelity stereo codes.



3.2 BLOG
A blog is a type of website, usually maintained by an individual with regular
entries of commentary, descriptions of events, or other material such as graphics or video.
Entries are commonly displayed in reverse-chronological order. Many blogs provide
commentary or news on a particular subject; others function as more personal online
diaries. A typical blog combines text, images, and links to other blogs, Web pages, and
other media related to its topic. The ability for readers to leave comments in an
interactive format is an important part of many blogs. Most blogs are primarily textual,
although some focus on art (artlog), photographs (photoblog), sketches (sketchblog),
videos (vlog), music (MP3 blog), and audio (podcasting). Micro-blogging is another type
of blogging, featuring very short posts.






4.0 Types of Network
One way to categorize the different types of computer network designs is by their
scope or scale. For historical reasons, the networking industry refers are:
PAN
VPAN
WLAN
WiMAX

4.1 PAN
A personal area network (PAN) is a computer network used for communication among
computer devices (including telephones and personal digital assistants) close to one
person. The devices may or may not belong to the person in question. The reach of a
PAN is typically a few meters. PANs can be used for communication among the personal
devices themselves (intrapersonal communication), or for connecting to a higher level
network and the Internet (an uplink). Personal area networks may be wired with computer
buses such as USB and FireWire. A wireless personal area network (WPAN) can also be
made possible with network technologies such as IrDA, Bluetooth, UWB, Z-Wave and
ZigBee.

4.2 VPN
A Virtual Private Networks (VPN) utilizes public telecommunications networks
to conduct private data communications. Most VPN implementations use the Internet as
the public infrastructure and a variety of specialized protocols to support private
communications through the Internet.
A VPN provide remote offices or individual users with secure access to their
organizations network. A virtual private network can be contrasted with an expensive
system of owned or leased lines that can only be used by one organization. The goal of an
VPN is to provide the organization with the same capabilities, but at a much lower cost.



4.3 Wireless LAN (WLAN)
A wireless LAN (WLAN) is a wireless local area network that links two or more
computers or devices using spread-spectrum or OFDM modulation technology based to
enable communication between devices in a limited area. This gives users the mobility to
move around within a broad coverage area and still be connected to the network.






HOME
WORKSTA
TION
BRANCH
OFFICE
INTERNET

HUB
4.4 WiMAX


Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX) is a communications technology that
uses radio spectrum to transmit tens of megabits per second in bandwidth between digital devices such
as laptop computers. Similar to WiFi, WiMAX brings with it the ability to transmit over far greater
distances and to handle much more data.


5.0 Conclusion
The digital world involving and the trends are changing, making the world faster
ever before and technology more stable. Mobility is all about todays world which took
birth with the invention of the first pager in 1956 by the Japanese.
New technologies are being implemented, tested and applied in mobile computing
making us and the future another step closer. The internet is also getting better along the
lines of the information age. Meanwhile, types of network available for us is making
computer networks and communications the new mans best friend.
The computer networks and communications are expanding rapidly each and
every day making the sharing of information easier and faster. Mobile computing is now
getting more high-tech by the day and now focused in small, medium and large
businesses, and hence becoming a competitive industry in the global market. Mobile
computing may be beneficial to the environment as less transportation will be utilised.
This mobility aspect may be carried further in the people will interact via mobile stations,
eliminating the need to venture outside pf the house.
In conclusion, the future of mobile computing looks increasingly exciting with the
emphasis on compact, small mobile computers that it may also be possible to have all the
practicality of a mobile computer in the size of a hand held organizer or even smaller.
The working lifestyle will change, with the majority of people working from home, rather
than commuting.

References:
http://www.pcmag.com/encyclopedia_term/0,2542,t=mobile+computing&i=47137,00.as
p(28.072010)
http://answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20070629052817AASZjbY(28.072010)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Voice_over_Internet_Protocol(28.072010)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blog(28.072010)
http://compnetworking.about.com/od/basicnetworkingconcepts/a/network_types.htm(28.
072010)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Personal_Area_Network(28.072010)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wireless_LAN(28.072010)
http://www.mariosalexandrou.com/definition/wimax.asp(28.072010)
http://cell-phones.toptenreviews.com/smartphones/apple/apple-iphone-4s-details.html
(28.07.2010)