Femto Cell Paper

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Femtocell Paper

Femto Cell Paper

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two-tier OFDM Femtocell Network With Qual-

ity Of Service Guarantee

0.1.1 1. Abstract

Abstract-In this project, we consider the problem of allocating power and sub-

carrier to the femtocell users in a two tier (uplink-downlink) OFDM based net-

work. It is a multi-objective optimization problem which aims to maximize the

throughput of all users, simultaneously increasing the power eciency of femto

base station. Interference to macro users is checked and is kept below a cer-

tain tolerable threshold and rate constraint is being imposed on Delay Sensitive

users. The problem is optimized using NSGA-II algorithm and the results are

compared with the existing scheme. Keywords-OFDM, femtocells, power allo-

cation, multi objective optimization, NSGA-II (non-dominanted sorting genetic

algorithm).

0.1.2 2. Introduction

INTRODUCTION

Femtocells are miniature versions of the standard base station. They are

low power base stations designed to facilitate cellular communication in the ar-

eas where macrocell base station power received is not adequate to support the

active users or demand for cellular communication is very high and one macro

base station is not adequate to meet the requirements ??. They have a typical

coverage of 10 meters and are used in small business oces or homes. Spectrum

sharing is performed in the region of high number of active users [2]. How-

ever, there is a great chance of cross-tier signal interference in such a spectrum

sharing system [3]. Hence we allocate resources to enhance the performance of

network and facilitate better cellular communication. In [4], a non-cooperative

power allocation with SINR adaptation is used to alleviate the uplink inter-

ference suered by macrocells; while in [5], a Stackelberg game based power

control is formulated to maximize femtocells capacity under cross-tier interfer-

ence constraints. However, subchannel allocation is not considered. In [6], a

joint subchannel and power allocation algorithm is proposed to maximize total

capacity in dense femtocell deployments. While in [7], lagrangian approach is

used to allocate power in OFDM based femtocell network. In [2], the distributed

subchannel and power allocation for co-channel deployed femtocells is modeled

as a non cooperative game, for which a Nash Equilibrium is obtained based on a

time-sharing subchannel allocation. However, in these works, joint subchannel

and power allocation with users QoS and cross-tier interference considerations

is not studied. In [8], a distributed modulation and coding scheme, subchannel

and power allocation that supports dierent throughput constraints per users

is proposed, but it does not consider two tier networks.

Femtocells should be able to support the minimum requirements for delay

sensitive users, such as video calling, online multimedia etc. while maximizing

2

the capacity of delay tolerant users [9]. Resource allocation not only includes

the power allocation maintaining minimum required SINR, but here we also

consider the maximum power utilization of femtocell base station (maximum

eciency). The delay sensitive users have a minimum QoS requirement [10],

while delay tolerant users do not. After including the constraints of power

budget and maximum interference temperature level, we optimize the multi-

objective problem formulation using NSGA-II algorithm. The remainder of the

paper is organized into following sections- section 2 provides the modeling of the

systems and the required mathematical model of optimization. In section 3 we

discuss briey the algorithm used in allocating power and subcarrier to the users

for two-tier system. In section 4 we have showed the results of simulations and

compared the results of proposed algorithm with existing results. We conclude

the paper in section 5.

0.1.3 3. System Model and Optimization

System Model and Optimization

We consider the two-tier femtocell system with total K number of femtocells

in a cellular network, deployed in sub-urban areas. We assume that each fem-

tocell comprises of F users and the number of users in macrocell is M. Let the

total bandwidth allocated to cellular communication in the macrocell be B and

the number of sub-carriers as N. We rst calculate the results for uplink case

and extend them to the downlink case. We model the SINR as:

F

k,u,n

=

p

F

k,u,n

g

F

k,u,n

p

F

w,n

g

F

k,w,n

M +

2

(1)

Where

F

k,u,n

is the SINR at the k{1, 2, . . . , K} femtocell base station to its

u{1, 2, . . . , F} user at the n{1, 2, . . . , N} subcarrier. Where p

F

k,u,n

is the trans-

mission power by the u user belonging to the k femtocell on n subcarrier to the

femtocell base station. g

F

k,u,n

is the channel gain from femto user u to its fem-

tocell base station k on n subcarrier. p

F

w,n

is the macro users w{1, 2, . . . , M}

transmit power on the n sub channel to the macrocell base station. g

F

k,w,n

is the

channel gain on sub channel n of the macro user w to the femtocell k and

2

is the AWGN (Additive White Gaussian Noise) power. We have assumed the

interference between femtocells to be negligible [11], [12], as they are transmit-

ting much lower power [11] than macro base station and separated by a larger

distance to cause any signicant interference. Hence we only consider the inter-

ference caused by femtocell users on macrocell users. Using Shannons capacity

formula, we can write:

C

F

k,u,n

= log

2

(1 +

F

k,u,n

) (2)

Where C

F

k,u,n

is the Capacity of the femto user u in the k femtocell on the sub

carrier n.

0.1. RESOURCES ANDSUBCARRIER ALLOCATIONINATWO-TIER OFDMFEMTOCELL NETWORKWITHQUALITYOF SERVICE GUARANTEE3

0.1.4 4. Optimization Problem Formulation

Optimization Problem Formulation

Our aim is to maximize the total capacity of all users, satisfying the con-

straints of Quality of service. The subcarrier and power allocation will be de-

cided by these quality factors. Our objective is to maximize the throughput [10]

requirement and to maximize the femtocell power eciency usage wise:

max

K

k=1

F

u=1

N

n=1

a

k,u,n

C

F

k,u,n

(3)

minP

max tot

K

k=1

N

n=1

a

k,u,n

p

F

k,u,n

(4)

Subject to:

C1 : p

F

k,u,n

0, k, u, n

C2 : p

F

k,u,n

P

max

, k, u, n

C3 :

N

n=1

a

k,u,n

C

F

k,u,n

R

u

, k, uDS

k

C4 :

K

k=1

F

u=1

a

k,u,n

p

F

k,u,n

g

MF

k,w,n

I

th

n

, n

C5 :

F

u=1

a

k,u,n

1, k, n

C6 : a

k,u,n

{0, 1}, k, u, n

The rst objective is to maximize the total throughput capacity of all the

femtocell users [10]. The second objective is the maximum resource/power uti-

lization of the femtocell base station. Here a

k,u,n

is the identier matrix. If

a

k,u,n

= 1, means that in k femtocell, the u user is assigned the n sub channel.

Otherwise it is zero. It ensures that no two users in a femtocell are allocated the

same sub channel. P

m

ax is the maximum power that each user can transmit.

P

max tot

is the maximum power that all femtocells transmit (in case of down-

link, receive) it is equal to P

max

F K. Here we assume that the maximum

power that a femto base station can transmit is the maximum power that a user

can transmit multiply by total number of femto users.

DS

k

and DT

k

are the set of delay sensitive and delay tolerant users in a

femtocell k. DS

k

+ DT

k

= F and DS

k

DT

k

= [10]. C1 makes sure that

power transmitted or received (in case of downlink) be greater than zero in

the allocated subcarrier. In C2, we fulll the QoS requirement of the delay

sensitive users. The capacity of delay sensitive users should be more than a

given threshold R

u

. In the constraint C3g

MF

k,w,n

is the channel gain on sub

channel n, from femtocell user u in femtocell k to the macro base station. I

th

n

is

4

the maximum interference temperature level that is tolerated. This constraint

implies that only those sub channels be assigned to the femtocell users whose

interference temperature level to the macro base station is below this level. C5

and C6 implies that no two users, in the same femtocell, is assigned the same

sub channel and only one subcarrier is allocated to a user.

0.1.5 5. Subcarrier and Power Allocation Scheme

The above Multi-objective problem is solved using Non Dominated Sorting Ge-

netic Algorithm - II (NSGA-II). The algorithm and its benet over conventional

NSGA is explained in detail in following sub-sections.

5.1 Genetic Algorithm

Genetic Algorithm are a class of evolutionary algorithms use to nd solution

for a multi-objective optimization problem. They provide novel approaches to

problem solving technique inspired by biological evolution. They use operators

like, Cross-over, Mutation and Selection, whos functionality is same as their

natural biological counter parts. This property makes an ecient algorithm in

searching solution to the optimization problem from a pool of feasible solution.

Fitness value of every solution is calculated by the tness function which

forms the base in deciding how t the solution is in its population, in other

words, how well it optimizes the problem.

Initially random population, a set of random solutions, is created. The

tness of each member of the population is tested. Based on their tness value,

they are mated to give ospring that have dierent or mixed characteristics,

in other words, fragments of dierent solutions are used to make new solution.

This new set of solution contains mixed traits from their parent population.

This process is called cross-over. Mutation is performed to search for new

variety of solutions, more than what is available in the initial population. Each

set of solution (also known as a Chromosome) goes through all the steps to

form more t generation.

Many times in a multi-objective optimization problem, there are conicting

objectives. Hence there is not a single non-dominating solution but a set of

non-dominating solution. Parito fronts are plotted and the best solution (non-

dominating) is selected (choice of selection may vary from person to person

other system specication).

5.2 NSGA-II

Genetic Algorithm, even though delivered exceptional results, suered from

various drawbacks. One of them being their computational complexity. They

have the computational complexity of the order of O(MN

3

). Where M is the

number of objectives and N is the Population size. They lacked elitism too.

Even better solutions had the tendency of being modied. It also required a

sharing parameter in order to obtain a wide variety of equivalent solutions.

The initial population in the NSGA-II algorithm is rst sorted into fronts.

Where the members of rst front are non dominated by any other member.

The members of second front are dominated by the members of rst front only

and so on. A solution is said to dominate the other solution if its tness value,

0.1. RESOURCES ANDSUBCARRIER ALLOCATIONINATWO-TIER OFDMFEMTOCELL NETWORKWITHQUALITYOF SERVICE GUARANTEE5

for all objective function, is better than the other. The individuals in the r

th

front are assigned a value of r. Crowding distance is a parameter that is use to

describe how close an individual is to its neighbor. It is a measure of diversity

in population.

Each individual chromosome is coded as a two dimensional matrix with F

rows and K columns. Each element of the chromosome matrix is composed of

two parts, the left hand side (dimensionless quantity) denotes the n

th

subcar-

rier that is assigned to the femto user in that particular Femtocell. We assume

that only one subcarrier is assigned to each femto user. The right hand side

denotes his uplink/downlink power on that subcarrier. Keeping in mind that

power allocated to each user is less than P

max

, satises constraint 1 and 2. and

only one subcarrier is assigned to each user satises constraint C5 and C6. The

gure below shows the structure of a chromosome (where we have assumed that

there are only two femto users). The last row depicts how chromosomes would

be considered for crossover and mutation.

Users/Femtocells FC1 FC2 FCK

F1 12 17dbm 36 14dbm 15 16dbm

F2 21 19dbm 42 18dbm 02 17dbm

Used as string 12172119 361442218 15160217

The standard NSGA-II algorithm is as follows:

i) Generation- Initially the population is randomly generated.

ii) Fitness Check-The tness of each individual is evaluated through all the ob-

jective functions.

iii) Ranking-Rank the population using Non Dominant Sorting Algorithm de-

scribed in section 5.2.3.

iv) Crowding Distance- Calculate the crowding distance by using the crowding

distance algorithm described in 5.2.3.

v) Generating new generation- This is done by following described operations:

Selection- Select two chromosomes based on crowding selection operator.

which is described in section 5.2.4.

Crossover-With a crossover probability cross over the parents to form new

ospring (children). If no crossover was performed, ospring is the exact

copy of parents. The single point crossover is explained in section 5.2.5.

Mutation-With the probability of mutation, mutate new ospring at each

locus (position in chromosome). Mutation is explained in section 5.2.5.

Acceptance- Place new ospring in the new population.

Replace- Use new generation for the further run of algorithm.

Test-If the end condition is satised (e.g. when reaches a constant number

of generation for which the algorithm is run), stop and return the best

solution in current population.

Loop- Go back to tness again.

The following sub sections provide detailed description of steps involved in

resource allocation using NSGA-II algorithm.

6

5.2.1 Population initialization

Number of population and number of generation are xed at the very begin-

ning of simulation/algorithm. Let the number of population be P and let

the number of generations be G. Hence the dimension of population will be

P (F K 4). Each individual is created by generating a single digit ran-

dom number.

5.2.2 Evaluate Objective Function

The tness of each individual chromosome is evaluated with respect to each

objective function.

5.2.3.1 Non Dominated Sorting Algorithm

For each individual p in the main population P do the following:

Initialize S

p

= . This set would contain all the individuals that are

dominated by p.

Initialize n

p

= 0. This is the number of individuals that dominate p.

For each individual q in p:

If p dominates q then add q to the set S

p

i.e. S

p

= S

p

{q}.

Else if q dominates p then increment the domination counter for

p i.e. n

p

= n

p

+ 1.

If n

p

= 0 i.e., no individuals dominate p then p belongs to the rst

front. Set rank of individual p to 1 i.e., p

rank

= 1. Update the rst

front set by adding p to front one i.e., F

1

= F

1

{p}.

This is carried out for all the individuals in main population P.

Initialize the front counter to one i.e., i = 1.

Following is carried out while the i

th

front is nonempty i.e., F

i

= :

Q = The set for storing the individuals for (i + 1)th front.

For each individual p in front F

i

.

for each individual q in S

p

(S

p

is the set of individuals dominated

by p).

n

q

= n

q

1, decrement the domination count for individual

q.

If n

q

= 0 then none of the individuals in the subsequent

fronts would dominate q. Hence set q

rank

= i + 1. Update

the set Q with individual q i.e., Q = Q {q}.

Increment the front counter by one i.e., i = i + 1.

Now the set Q is the next front and hence F

i

= Q.

Here we are also keeping record for each individual, the number of individ-

uals that dominate it and also those individual that are dominated by it. This

unique feature makes NSGA-II more attractive than NSGA.

5.2.3.2 Crowding Distance Calculation

Crowding Distance is a measure of diversity amongst the individuals. This is

0.1. RESOURCES ANDSUBCARRIER ALLOCATIONINATWO-TIER OFDMFEMTOCELL NETWORKWITHQUALITYOF SERVICE GUARANTEE7

calculated for all the individuals of a front. The crowding distance is compared

between the individuals belonging to the same front only. The algorithm of

calculating crowding distance is described below:

For each front F

i

we do the following:

Take any objective function (say m) to begin with, and for each

objective function do the following:

Calculate the Fitness (value) of each individual front with re-

spect to the above objective function only.

Store them in the ascending order in a set I, i.e. I = sort(F

i

, m).

Assign innite distance to the rst (one with minimum value

of crowding distance) and the last (one with maximum value

of crowding distance) solution points. These form the boundary

points for this generation, i.e. I(d

1

) = and I(d

l

) = . Where

l is the total number of individuals in front F

i

.

Re calculate the value of other points with respect to these

boundary point value. Let j be the j

th

individual in front F

i

.

For j = 2 to l 1:

I(d

j

) = I(d

j

) +

I(j + 1).mI(j 1).m

f

max

m

f

min

m

where I(j).m is the

value of m

th

objective function for j

th

individual in front

F

i

. f

max

m

and f

min

m

are the maximum and minimum value of

objective function m.

Crowding distance is the distance between individual solutions when plotted

in an m dimensional space. The boundary points always optimize an objective

function. Hence they are given innite value so that they are always selected.

5.2.4 Tournament selection

Till this stage we have grouped individuals of the population in Fronts and

assigned crowding distance to each of them. The next step is to select the indi-

viduals for mating to produce a new generation. Hence it is called Tournament

selection. The selection is done using a crowding-comparison- operator (

n

).

Every individual in a population has two major attributes, its rank (p

rank

) and

its crowding distance F

i

(d

j

) (It is the crowding distance of j

th

individual in

front i). We dene partial order as:

p q if p

rank

< q

rank

.

If they belong to the same front F

i

than F

i

(d

p

) > F

i

(d

q

).

In other words, for selection purpose, we choose the individual with the lower

rank, and if they belong to the same front, we choose the one with lower crowd-

ing distance. The mating pool is prepared based on this selection whose size is P.

5.2.5 Single Point Crossover

Mating between the selected individuals is done by the mechanism of cross-

over. Fragments of individuals that were selected are exchanged to produce o

springs with new or mixed characteristics. Our chromosomes is basically an

8

array of integers. Single point crossover is performed to swap some portion of

one parent chromosome with another to produce two new (child) chromosomes.

An example is shown below where all the integers after | are exchanged to form

new individuals:

parent 1: 17491311|1814 parent 2: 13251822|1234

ospring 1: 17491311|1234 ospring 2:13251822|1814

5.2.6 Mutation

Mutation is performed in order to maintain diversity in population. It is ana-

logues to biological mutation. Here we alter some digits of our chromosomes.

This is done by assigning a random variable to the digits of chromosomes which

gives the information regarding alteration of that digit. The probability of mu-

tation, P

m

is usually kept 100 times lower than the probability of crossover, P

c

.

The purpose of mutation is to avoid generation of local maxima/minima by pre-

venting the chromosomes to become too similar to each other. Thus preventing

or slowing evolution. An example of mutation is shown below, where the bold

digit is being mutated: parent: 18271-9441214

ospring: 18271-5441214

5.2.7 Generation of new population

We have with us a pool of individuals from the original population and o-

springs. The new population is formed, based on the non-dominant sorting

and crowding distance operator. Steps 5.2.4, 5.2.5 and 5.2.6 are repeated for G

number of times.

In [12] elitism was assured by using Largest Weighted Delay First, LWDF.

Here since all the best individuals from the current and previous populations

are added to the new population, elitism is guaranteed. The best individual

chromosome from the nal population gives the desired allocation of subcarriers

and bits per subcarrier.

0.1.6 6.Simulation Results and Discussion

Simulation results, given in this section are compared with the Existing So-

lutions [10]. The femtocells are randomly placed over the cell. The coverage

radius of macro cell is 500 m while femtocell is 10 m. Macro cell and femtocell

users can transmit a maximum of 23dbm power. The carrier frequency is 2

Ghz, bandwidthB = 10 Mhz, N = 50, M = 50,

2

=

B

N

N

0

where N

0

= 174

dBm/Hz is AWGN (Additive White Gaussian Noise) power spectral density.

The path loss models for indoor femto users and outdoor macro users are based

on [15] and block fading channel gains are modeled as i.i.d. unit exponentially

distributed random variables. Standard deviation of shadow fading between the

MBS and user is 8dB, while that between an FBS and user is 10dB. The Ex-

isting algorithm included in the simulation for comparison is the sub channel

allocation scheme proposed in [10] in conjunction with optimal power allocation

proposed in this paper.

Figure 1 to 5 shows the parito front for uplink network i.e. the total ca-

pacity of all users versus power dierence per femtocell (power dierence is the

dierence between the total power that is being transmitted and the maximum

power budget of femto base station). The parameters used in generating the

plots are: F = 2, R

u

= 9 bps/Hz, P

max

= 23dbm (uplink), P

max

= 20dBm

0.1. RESOURCES ANDSUBCARRIER ALLOCATIONINATWO-TIER OFDMFEMTOCELL NETWORKWITHQUALITYOF SERVICE GUARANTEE9

(downlink) and threshold interference level I

th

n

= 7.5x10

14

w (-101.2 dBm).

The total transmitted power cannot be greater than the total power budget,

hence we get negative values on the Y-axis. As NSGA-II algorithm works on

minimization of objective function, we multiply the objective function in (3) by

-1 and plot the result. Hence on both the axis we get negative values. The best

points (non dominated points) in all the parito fronts are chosen and plotted

in gure 8. From the gures 1 to 5 we observe that the power dierence per

femtocell remains almost constant, averaging to 0.0365 Watts.

Figure 6 shows the total capacity of all delay sensitive users versus number

of femtocells, the parameters set are same as above. From the gure we see

that the capacity obtained by proposed algorithm is much higher than that of

existing algorithm. We can clearly see from the gure that it also satises the

constraint of minimum capacity for DS users. Similar result is observed for

downlink network.

Figure 7 shows the total capacity of Delay tolerant users versus total number

of femtocells. From the gure we see that the capacity of delay tolerant users

over the femtocell range, is almost same as that of delay sensitive users. This is

because we are maximizing the capacity of both the type of users giving equal

weights to them. It is however less than the existing scheme. Similar result is

observed for downlink network.

Figure 8 shows the total capacity of all users over number of femtocells. We

observe that the total capacity (capacity of DS users + capacity of DT users) is

slightly greater than the existing algorithm. Averaging over all femtocells, the

total capacity is greater by 4.5 than existing scheme. Same is true for downlink

case.

Figure 9 shows the variation in capacity versus variation in Interference

Temperature Level for both the uplink and downlink case. The value of P

max

used is 23 dbm for uplink and 20 dbm for downlink for K=10. Curve is plotted

for F=2 and F=4 with R

u

= 9 bps/Hz. From the graph we observe that the

sum capacity increases as we decrease the interference tolerance temperature

level because we are increasing the allowable tolerance with macro users. As

we increase femto users from 2 to 4 we get a rise of almost 20% in the total

capacity in both the uplink and downlink network. Also increasing the P

max

from 20 dbm to 23dbm we get to see a rise of almost 20% in the total capacity.

0.1.7 9. Conclusion

In this paper we considered the problem of subcarrier allocation and power

allocation to the femtocell users considering the constraints of Quality of Service

for delay sensitive users. The proposed algorithm has properly allocated all the

resources and from the simulation we can see that it provides more ecient

results than the existing algorithm.

0.1.8 References

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