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HC VIN CNG NGH BU CHNH VIN THNG

K THUT CHUYN MCH 1


(Dng cho sinh vin h o to i hc t xa)
Lu hnh ni b










H NI - 2007



HC VIN CNG NGH BU CHNH VIN THNG







K THUT CHUYN MCH 1

Bin son: THS. HONG TRNG MINH
THS. NGUYN THANH TR
1
LI NI U

K thut chuyn mch l mt trong nhng k thut nn tng trong cc mng truyn thng.
S pht trin ca k thut chuyn mch lun gn lin vi s pht trin ca h tng mng.
p ng yu cu nhn thc v cc kha cnh k thut chuyn mch ca cc lp i hc t xa,
nhm tc gi thc hin bin son bi ging C s k thut chuyn mch 1 da trn khung
cng ca Hc vin Cng ngh Bu chnh vin thng ban hnh. Vi cch thc tip cn t cc
vn mang tnh c s tin ti cc gii php k thut v gii php cng ngh, nhm bin son
thc hin b cc ni dung bi ging thnh 4 chng. Cc chng ny cung cp cho ngi hc
nhng kin thc c bn trong lnh vc chuyn mch gm cc c ch hot ng v k thut
iu khin h thng chuyn mch, cc gii php k thut chuyn mch, gii php cng ngh c
bn trong mng vin thng v mng my tnh. Tiu ca cc chng nh sau:
Chng 1. Gii thiu chung v k thut chuyn mch;
Chng 2. K thut chuyn mch knh;
Chng 3. K thut chuyn mch gi;
Chng 4. K thut chuyn mch tin tin;
Cc vn c s ton lin quan ti lnh vc chuyn mch, s pht trin ca k thut mng
v v tr chc nng cng nh tm quan trng ca k thut chuyn mch c trnh by trong
chng 1. Chng 2 l cc kha cnh mu cht nht trong k thut chuyn mch knh bao gm
cc dng tn hiu chuyn mch, cu trc ma trn chuyn mch v cc nguyn l c bn ca k
thut chuyn mch knh. Cc nhn nhn v h thng chuyn mch gi trn phng din phn
lp theo m hnh OSI, kin trc phn cng v cc c s k thut chuyn mch gi, nh tuyn
v bo hiu ca h thng chuyn mch gi c trnh by trong chng 3. Chng 4 cp ti
cc gii php k thut v gii php cng ngh chuyn mch tin tin ch yu hin nay trn c
s ca mng IP v ATM, mng th h k tip, cng ngh chuyn mch mm v cc ng dng
trong mng vin thng trong giai on hi t hin nay.
Trong qu trnh thc hin bi ging nhm tc gi nhn c rt nhiu s gip v gp
chn thnh t cc ging vin ca b mn Chuyn mch, khoa Vin thng 1, Hc vin cng
ngh bu chnh vin thng. Nhm bin son chn thnh cm n v mong mun tip tc nhn
c s gp ca cc thy c gio v c gi.
Trong qu trnh bin son ti liu chc kh trnh khi mt s sai st, nhm tc gi rt mong
nhn c s quan tm v gp ca c gi. Cc kin gp qua mail xin c gi v:
Hoangtrongminh@yahoo.com; Thanhtraptit@yahoo.com.
Nhm tc gi
ThS. Hong Trng Minh
ThS. Nguyn Thanh Tr



2
Chng 1
GII THIU CHUNG V K THUT CHUYN MCH
Chng m u ca ti liu k thut chuyn mch I nhm gii thiu cho hc vin tng quan v
kin trc mng vin thng, xu hng pht trin cng ngh mng vin thng. Cc khi nim c s
v cc m hnh ton a ra l c s ca cc vn s c a ra trong cc phn sau ca bi
ging. Xu hng pht trin v cc cng ngh mng hin i c gii thiu trong chng ny
nhm gip hc vin nhn nhn khi qut nhng hng tip cn mi trong lnh vc k thut
chuyn mch.
1.1. NHP MN K THUT CHUYN MCH
Vin thng l mt phn ca khi nim thng tin - mt dng thc chuyn giao thng tin.
Mng vin thng (telecommunications network) c coi l h tng c s ca x hi s dng k
thut in, in t v cc cng ngh khc chuyn giao thng tin. Mng vin thng gm tp hp
cc nt mng, cc ng truyn dn kt ni gia hai hay nhiu im xc nh v cc thit b u
cui thc hin trao i thng tin gia ngi s dng. Mt cch khi qut chng ta c th coi tt
c cc trang thit b, phng tin c s dng cung cp dch v vin thng to thnh mng
vin thng. Thit b u cui l cc trang thit b ca ngi s dng giao tip vi mng cung
cp dch v. Thit b chuyn mch l cc nt ca mng vin thng c chc nng thit lp v gii
phng ng truyn thng gia cc cc thit b u cui. Thit b truyn dn c s dng ni
cc thit b u cui hay gia cc nt vi nhau thc hin truyn cc tn hiu mt cch nhanh
chng v chnh xc. Cng tham gia xy dng mng vin thng c cc nh cung cp thit b, khai
thc thit b v cc nh cung cp dch v, v..v.
Cng vi s pht trin ca cng ngh tin tin l xu hng hi t mng truyn thng gia
mng c nh, mng di ng v mng internet sang mng th h k tip NGN (Next Generation
Network). H tng mng vin thng thay i khng ngng nhm p ng cc yu cu ngy cng
cao ca ngi s dng, s tc ng ny lin quan v nh hng ti rt nhiu lnh vc trn cc yu
t khoa hc cng ngh v khoa hc k thut, trong bao gm k thut chuyn mch. Cun ti
liu k thut chuyn mch ny tip cn t cc vn c bn v mu cht nht trong lnh vc
chuyn mch ti cc xu hng v gii php chuyn mch tin tin nhm gip ngi c nhn
thc cc kha cnh k thut lin quan ti lnh vc ny.
Trong cc phn u tin ca ti liu s gii thiu cc khi nim c s lin quan ti lnh vc
chuyn mch, sau l cc k thut v nguyn tc hot ng ca cc mng chuyn mch knh v
chuyn mch gi cng vi cc vn lin quan nh nh tuyn, nh s v cht lng dch v.
Cc k thut chuyn mch mi trong mng tc cao c trnh by trong cc chng cui l s
kt hp gia cc gii php cng ngh v gii php k thut, nhm th hin m hnh tng th ca
cc cng ngh tin tin ang ng dng v trin khai trn mng vin thng hin nay.
1.2. CC KHI NIM V L THUYT C BN
1.2.1. Mt s khi nim c s.
(i) nh ngha chuyn mch
Chuyn mch l mt qu trnh thc hin u ni v chuyn thng tin cho ngi s dng thng
qua h tng mng vin thng. Ni cch khc, chuyn mch trong mng vin thng bao gm chc
nng nh tuyn cho thng tin v chc nng chuyn tip thng tin. Nh vy, theo kha cnh thng


3
thng khi nim chuyn mch gn lin vi lp mng v lp lin kt d liu trong m hnh OSI
ca T chc tiu chun quc t ISO.
(ii) H thng chuyn mch
Qu trnh chuyn mch c thc hin ti cc nt chuyn mch, trong mng chuyn mch
knh thng gi l h thng chuyn mch (tng i) trong mng chuyn mch gi thng c
gi l thit b nh tuyn (b nh tuyn).
(iii) Phn loi chuyn mch
Xt v mt cng ngh, chuyn mch chia thnh hai loi c bn: chuyn mch knh v chuyn
mch gi. Mt khc, chuyn mch cn c chia thnh bn kiu: chuyn mch knh, chuyn
mch bn tin, chuyn mch gi v chuyn mch t bo. Cc khi nim c s v cng ngh chuyn
mch c th hin trong hnh 1.1 (a,b,c) di y.
Mng chuyn mch knh thit lp cc mch (knh) ch nh ring cho kt ni trc khi qu
trnh truyn thng thc hin. Nh vy, qu trnh chuyn mch c chia thnh 3 giai on phn
bit: thit lp, truyn v gii phng. thit lp, gii phng v iu khin kt ni (cuc gi) mng
chuyn mch knh s dng cc k thut bo hiu thc hin. i ngc vi mng chuyn mch
knh l mng chuyn mch gi, chia cc lu lng d liu thnh cc gi v truyn i trn mng
chia s. Cc giai on thit lp, truyn v gii phng s c thc hin ng thi trong mt
khong thi gian v thng c quyt nh bi tiu gi tin.

a, Chuyn mch knh; hai dng thng tin trn hai mch khc nhau.

b, Chuyn mch gi; cc tuyn ng c lp trn mng chia s ti nguyn


4

c, Chuyn mch gi knh o; cc gi tin i trn knh o
Hnh 1.1: Cc kiu mng chuyn mch c bn
(iv) K thut lu lng TE
K thut lu lng TE (Traffic Engineering) c coi l mt trong nhng vn quan trng
nht trong khung lm vic ca h tng mng vin thng. Mc ch ca k thut lu lng l
ci thin hiu nng v tin cy ca cc hot ng ca mng trong khi ti u cc ngun ti
nguyn v lu lng. Ni cch khc, TE l cng c s dng ti u ti nguyn s dng ca
mng bng phng php k thut nh hng cc lung lu lng ph hp vi cc tham s
rng buc tnh hoc ng. Mc tiu c bn ca k thut lu lng l cn bng v ti u cc iu
khin ca ti v ti nguyn mng thng qua cc thut ton v gii php k thut.
(v) Bo hiu trong mng vin thng
Bo hiu s dng cc tn hiu iu khin truyn thng, trong mng vin thng bo hiu l
s trao i thng tin lin quan ti iu khin , thit lp cc kt ni v thc hin qun l mng. Cc
h thng bo hiu c th phn loi theo c tnh v nguyn tc hot ng gm: Bo hiu trong
bng v bo hiu ngoi bng, bo hiu ng v bo hiu thanh ghi, bo hiu knh lin kt v bo
hiu knh chung, bo hiu bt buc, v..v. Cc thng tin bo hiu c truyn di dng tn hiu
in hoc bn tin. Cc h thng bo hiu trong mng chuyn mch in thoi cng cng PSTN
(Public Switched Telephone Network) c nh s t No1-No7.
(vi)Mng tch hp dch v s bng rng B-ISDN
Cung cp cc cuc ni thng qua chuyn mch, cc cuc ni c nh (Permanent) hoc bn c
nh (Semi-Permanent), cc cuc ni t im ti im ti im hoc t im ti a im v cung
cp cc dch v yu cu, cc dch v dnh trc hoc cc dch v yu cu c nh. Cuc ni trong
B-ISDN phc v cho c cc dch v chuyn mch knh, chuyn mch gi theo kiu a phng
tin (Multimedia), n phng tin (Monomedia), theo kiu hng lin kt (Connection-
Oriented) hoc phi lin kt (Connectionless) v theo cu hnh n hng hoc a hng.
1.2.2. Cc m hnh ton hc ca lu lng
L thuyt lu lng c nh ngha nh l ng dng ca l thuyt xc sut gii quyt cc
vn n lin quan ti k hoch, nh gi hiu nng, iu hnh v bo dng h thng vin thng.
Ni mt cch tng qut hn, l thuyt lu lng c nhn nhn nh l quy tc lp k hoch
mng, ni cc cng c (x l ngu nhin, hng i v m phng s) c a ra t cc nghin
cu hot ng mng. Nhim v c bn ca l thuyt lu lng l s dng cc m hnh ton v
a ra cc mi quan h gia cp dch v GoS (Grade of Service) v kh nng ca h thng
thng qua cc cng c m hnh ho v m phng cho cc h thng thc t. [1]


5
Lu lng trong k thut chuyn mch c m t qua cc s kin n ca cc thc th ri rc
(yu cu chim knh, gi, t bo, v.v..), n c th m hnh ho bi tin trnh im. C hai dng
tin trnh im l tin trnh m v tin trnh gia hai s kin n. Tin trnh m
t=0
{N(t)}


l mt
chui gi tr nguyn dng thi gian lin tc, vi N(t)= max{n:T
n
t} l s s kin n trong
thi gian (0:t]. Tin trnh gia hai s kin n l mt chui s thc ngu nhin
n=1
{An}

vi An=
T
n
T
n-1
l thi gian gia hai s kin n th n v n-1.
Lu lng c gi l lu lng t hp khi cc gi n theo tng nhm. c trng cho
nhm lu lng, k thut lu lng s dng tin trnh n theo nhm
n=1
{Bn}


trong Bn l s
n v trong nhm. Tin trnh ti lm vic c m t qua chui
n=1
{Wn}

vi Wn l lng ti
phc v ca h thng ti s kin n th n.
Bng 1.1 di y ch ra mt s ng dng c bn trong mng truyn thng c m t qua cc
m hnh lu lng vi cc hm phn b c bn.
ng dng M hnh Phn b
Thi gian tng tc phin Hm m
Thi gian phin Hm loga
Thi gian tng tc gi Hm Pareto

Telnet
Kch thc gi Kch thc nh
Thi gian tng tc phin Hm m
FPT
Kch thc Hm loga
Thi gian tng tc phin Hm m
Thi gian phin Hm loga
Thi gian tng tc gi Hng s


Thoi CBR
Kch thc gi C nh
Thi gian tng tc khung C nh Video VBR
Kch thc khung Phn b Gamma
Thi gian yu cu tng tc Hm m WWW
Kch thc gi Phn b Pareto
Bng 1.1: Mt s m hnh v hm phn b cho cc ng dng c bn
a, Phn b Erlang
Phn b Erlang l mt phn b xc sut lin tc c gi tr dng cho tt c cc s thc ln hn
zero v c a ra bi hai tham s: sc k (s t nhin;Int) v tham s t l (s thc; real).
Khi tham s k =1 phn b Erlang tr thnh phn b m. Phn b Erlang l trng hp c bit
ca phn b Gamma khi tham s k l s t nhin, cn trong phn b gamma k l s thc. Hm
mt xc sut ca phn b Erlang c ch ra trn hnh 1.2 di y.


6

Hnh 1.2: Hm mt xc sut ca phn b Erlang

1
( ; , )
( 1)!
k k k
x e
f x k
k

vi x>0
Nu s dng tham s nghch o = 1 / ta c:
1
( ; , )
( 1)!
x
k
k
x e
f x k
k

vi x>0
Erlang l n v o lu lng ng dng rt nhiu trong k thut chuyn mch. Lu lng o
bng Erlang tnh ton cp dch v GoS v cht lng dch v QoS (Quality of Service)
trong GoS c coi l kha cnh v mt k thut ca cht lng dch v QoS. Hai cng thc
tnh Erlang c s dng rng ri trong k thut lu lng tnh GoS l cng thc Erlang B v
cng thc Erlang C, ngoi ra cn c cc cng thc nh Erlang B m rng v Engset.
Erlang B cho php tnh ton xc sut yu cu mt ngun ti nguyn s b t chi v l do thiu
ti nguyn. M hnh lu lng Erlang B thng c s dng tnh ton trong bi ton thit k
cc tuyn ni trong k thut chuyn mch knh, trn cng thc Erlang B (1.1) th hin xc sut
mt ngun ti nguyn s b t chi. Cng thc tng qut c ch ra di y:

0
!
!
N
x N
x
A
N
P
A
x
=
=

(1.1)

Trong :
N: s ti nguyn trong h thng
A: Lu lng o bng Erlang
P: Xc sut b t chi
Mc chim dng tuyn ni hoc thit b trong k thut chuyn mch knh thng c
o lng bng tc n cc cuc gi v thi gian chim gi th hin qua cng thc:
A s = (1.2)
Trong :
A l lu lng tnh bng Erlang,


7
l tc n ca cuc gi,
s l thi gian chim gi trung bnh.
Thng thng, cc gi tr v s l cc gi tr trung bnh bi trong thc t cc cuc gi n v
thi gian chim gi l ngu nhin, cc khong thi gian gia cc cuc gi n v phn b thi
gian c th c xc nh qua phng php thng k, trn c s nhm xy dng mu m hnh
lu lng (Bng tham chiu lu lng). Mt cch tip cn khc cng thng c s dng l da
trn phng trnh trng thi cuc gi nhm tnh kh nng tc nghn ca thit b.
Erlang C cho php tnh ton thi gian i khi yu cu ti nguyn trong trng hp ti nguyn
hn ch. M hnh lu lng Erlang C s dng rt nhiu trong k thut chuyn mch gi gn vi
cc c ch hng i khc nhau, v d (M/M/1).
N
1
N
0
A
( 0)
A !(1 )
!
x N
x
P
A A
N
N x

=
> =
+

(1.3)
Trong :
N: S ti nguyn trong h thng
A: S lu lng yu cu
P: Xc sut i ti thi im khi to t>0.
b, Qu trnh Markov
Qu trnh Markov l mt qu trnh mang tnh ngu nhin (stochastic process) thng s dng
m t cc h thng khng nh vi c tnh nh sau: trng thi c
k
ti thi im k l mt gi tr
trong tp hu hn . Vi gi thit rng qu trnh ch din ra t thi im 0 n thi
im N v rng trng thi u tin v cui cng l bit, chui trng thi s c biu din bi
mt vect hu hn C = (c
0
,...,c
N
).
Nu P(c
k
| c
0
,c
1
,...,c
(k 1)
) biu din xc sut (kh nng xy ra) ca trng thi c
k
ti thi im k khi
tri qua mi trng thi cho n thi im k 1. Gi s trong qu trnh th c
k
ch ph thuc
vo trng thi trc c
k 1
v c lp vi mi trng thi trc khc. Qu trnh ny c gi l qu
trnh Markov bc 1 (first-order Markov process). C ngha l xc sut trng thi c
k
xy ra ti
thi im k, khi bit trc mi trng thi cho n thi im k 1 ch ph thuc vo trng thi
trc, v d: trng thi c
k1
ca thi im k 1. Khi ta c cng thc sau:
0 1 1 1
( , ,..., ) ( )
k k k k
P c c c c P c c

| = | (1.4)
Ni tm li, mt h c thuc tnh Markov c nhn nhn l qu trnh Markov (bc 1).
Nh vy, vi qu trnh Markov bc n, xc sut trng thi c th hin qua cng thc di y:
0 1 1 1
( , ,..., ) ( ,..., )
k k k k n k
P c c c c P c c c

| = | (1.5)
Nu xc sut chuyn trng thi xy ra c cc gi tr nguyn (0, 1, 2..,n,,) th l chui
Markov ri rc v i ngc vi n l chui Markov lin tc.
(i) Chui markov ri rc
Chui Markov thi gian ri rc bao gm mt tp hp cc trng thi v xc sut chuyn i
gia chng ti nhng khong thi gian ri rc nhau. Vi yu cu xc sut chuyn i gia cc
trng thi l mt hm ch ph thuc vo trng thi. S chuyn i ny khng cn xut hin ti
nhng khong thi gian xc nh m ch tun theo mt quy lut thi gian no .



8





Hnh 1.3: Chuyn tip hai trng thi chui Markov ri rc
Nu khng gian trng thi l hu hn, phn b xc sut chuyn trng thi c th c biu din
di dng ma trn c tn gi l ma trn chuyn i trng thi. Ma trn chuyn i trng thi P
c cu thnh t cc phn t (i,j) th hin qua cng thc p
ij
= P(c
k+1
=jc
k
=i), nu chui markov
l chui markov thi gian thun nht th ma trn chuyn i trng thi P ch ph thuc vo k.
K thut chui Markov thi gian ri rc p dng cho cc s trng thi tu , m cc s
ny lin kt cc i tng khc nhau vi mt s iu kin. N mt s trng thi khng th
chuyn n trng thi khc th tin trnh mc li, bi v chui ny c rt gn thnh 2 hay nhiu
hn 2 chui ring l. Vic tng s lng trng thi s m t h thng chnh xc hn nhng cng
lm tng phc tp tnh ton.
(ii) Chui Markov thi gian lin tc
Xt mt h thng a ngi s dng kt ni ti mt b nh tuyn hay truy nhp thit b chuyn
mch. Mt kiu m hnh cho loi h thng ny l xem cc s kin xy ra ti cc khong thi gian
rt nh. Khi gia s thi gian tin ti 0, gi tr gn ng l m hnh cho thi gian lin tc. Tuy
nhin, by gi chng ta phi s dng cc php tnh vi phn ton hc thay cho nhng php nhn
xc sut n gin c s dng phn tch chui Markov thi gian ri rc. Xt h thng c s
trng thi c th xy ra l j=0,1,2,....n. Trc ht, ta xc nh xc sut chuyn i trng thi t
trng thi i sang trng thi j vi thi gian t h thng ang trng thi i theo cng thc:
( ) t q t t t q
ij ij
= + . , (1.6)
Tham s q
ij
l xc sut m h thng chuyn t trng thi i sang trng thi j trong khong thi gian
v cng nh t. t q
ij
nh l tc chuyn i trng thi. Ta quy v trng hp chung l tc
chuyn i ca chng nhn cc gi tr khc nhau ph thuc vo trng thi ca h thng nh mt
tin trnh MMPP (Markov modulate Poisson Process). Do c tnh ca h thng Markov ch ph
thuc vo khong thi gian tng so vi trc (t), v vy kt qu trn ng vi tt c cc gi
tr ca thi gian t. By gi, nh ngha trng thi h thng bi gi tr ngu nhin x(t)=j vi mt
xc sut cho di y :
] ) ( Pr[ ) ( j t x t
j
= =
Chng ta c th a ra xc sut h thng trng thi j ti thi gian t nh sau (xc sut chuyn
trng thi c ch ra trn hnh 1.4):
( ) ( ) ( )[1 ]
j j ij j ij
i j k j
t t t q t t q t

+ = +

(1.7)
Trong , phn u ca v phi phng trnh 1.7 trn l xc sut m h thng ang trng
thi khc v chuyn v trng thi j trong khong thi gian t. Phn sau ca v phi l xc sut m
h thng vn trng thi j trong sut thi gian t.


P00=1-a
P10=b
P11=1-b
0 1
P01=a


9










Hnh 1. 4: S chuyn i trng thi trong chui Markov thi gian lin tc
M hnh chui Markov c ng dng trong k thut chuyn mch trong cc bi ton m hnh
ho lu lng, tnh ton kh nng tc nghn, cp phc v GoS ca trng chuyn mch v mt
s vn iu khin khc. Tuy nhin, vi mng a dch v mt s bi ton lu lng phi c
xt m hnh thch hp hn, v d nh m hnh lu lng t tng ng. V d di y ch ra
mt ng dng ca m hnh Markov trong tnh ton bi ton tc nghn.
Nh phn trn trnh by, trong thc t cc cuc gi n v thi gian chim gi l ngu
nhin v vy s c rt nhiu dng m hnh mu lu lng khc nhau. Gi thit tng s lng thit
b l N v i biu din s cc cuc gi ang trong qu trnh x l, i s tng ng vi s thit b bn
v thng c gi l trng thi ca mng v h thng s tc nghn khi i=N. m t kh nng
tc nghn ta gi thit:
Cc cuc gi n c lp;
Tc n ca cuc gi khi mng trong trng thi i l
i
;
Tc i ca cuc gi khi trng thi i l
i
;
Ch mt s kin (cuc gi n hoc i) xy ra trong mt thi im.
Lu trng thi c th hin trong hnh 1.5 di y:

Hnh1.5: Lu chuyn trng thi cuc gi
Trng thi (N+1) c coi l trng thi tc nghn, v vy ( 0 i N ) vi i: 1, 2, 3

i
lin quan trc tip ti lu lng yu cu,
i
c xc nh bi c tnh ca t nhin lu lng.
xc nh xc sut ca h thng trong trng thi i, ta phi tm cc xc sut trng thi. Xc sut
trng thi h thng trong trng thi i ti thi gian t+dt c xc nh bng tng cc xc sut sau:
Xc sut h thng trong trng thi i v thi im t vi iu kin khng c cuc gi n
hoc i.
Xc sut h thng trong trng thi i -1 ti thi im t v mt cuc gi n trong thi gian
dt.
t t+t

n
n-1
.
.
j
.
.

1
qnj
qoj
1-qjk.t


10
Xc sut h thng trong trng thi i+1 ti thi im t v mt cuc gi gii phng trong
thi gian dt.
Ta c biu thc biu din xc sut trng thi h thng [i] ti i nh sau:
[i]
t + dt
= [i]
t
(1-
i
dt -
i
dt) + [i +1]
t
(
i +1
dt) +[i -1]
t
(
i-1
dt)
hay
( [i]
t + dt
- [i]
t
)/ dt = - (
i
+
i
) [i]
t
+
i +1
[i +1]
t
+
i-1
[i -1]
t ;
(1.8)
i= 1, 2, 3, ..
Ta xt i = 0 l trng hp c bit v
0
=0 (khng c cuc gi i t trng thi 0),
-1
= 0 (khng
tn ti trng thi -1). Phng trnh ti cng thc 1.8 trn tr thnh:
0
t 1 t
[ 0 ] [ 0 ]
[ 0 ] [ 1 ]
t d t t
t
d

+

= +
;
Cho dt tin ti 0
t
0 t 1 t
t
[ 0 ]
[ 0 ] [ 1 ]
d
d

= +

m rng ti trng thi i ta c:
( )
t
1
t 1 t t
t
[i]
[i] [i +1] [i -1]
d
i i
i i
d


+
= + + +

Nu ta gi thit s c lp ca cc xc sut trng thi l bng 0 th d[i]/ dt = 0; ta c:
[ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]
0 1 0
1 1 2
0 1 ; ( ) 1 0 2


= + = +
(1.9)
dng tng qut nh sau:

( )
[ ] [ ] [ ]
1
1
1 1
i i
i i
i i i


+
+ = + +
Ta c: [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]
1 2
2 3
1 2 ; 2 3 ;....


= = (1.10)
Thay cc gi tr t cng thc 1.10 vo cng thc 1.9 c cng thc tng qut sau:
[ ] [ ]
1
1
i
i
i i


= (1.11)
Cng thc 1.11 th hin khi nim cn bng trng thi trong h thng vi s lng cuc gi
n h thng cn bng vi s lng cuc gi i ra khi h thng khi h thng trong trng thi i.
Cng thc trn thng c s dng trong tnh ton xc sut tc nghn v thi gian tc nghn ca
cc cuc gi trong h thng chuyn mch knh.
c, Phn b Poisson
Phn b Poisson l phn b xc sut ri rc, n m t xc sut ca mt s cc s kin xy ra trong
mt khong thi gian nu cc s kin ny xy ra vi mt tc trung bnh bit trc, v c lp
vi thi gian xy ra s kin cui pha trc. Qu trnh Poisson l mt chui Markov vi thi gian
lin tc. Hm mt xc sut ca phn b Poisson c ch ra trn hnh 1.6.


11

Hnh 1.6: Hm phn b mt xc sut ca phn b Poisson

( )
( ) ( ; )
!
t k
r t
e t
P N k f k t
k


= = = (1.12)
Trong :
: Tc n trung bnh
N
t
: S lng s kin trc thi im t
k: S lng cc s kin
Nu thi gian i T ca bin c u tin l mt bin ngu nhin lin tc vi phn b hm m
( ) th cng thc 1.12 c th rt gn thnh cng thc 1.13 di y:
( ) ( 0)
t
r r t
P T t P N e

> = = = (1.13)
Mt qu trnh Poisson l mt qu trnh ngu nhin c nh ngha theo s xut hin ca cc
bin c. Mt qu trnh ngu nhin N(t) l mt qu trnh Poisson (thi gian-thun nht, mt chiu)
nu:
S cc bin c xy ra trong hai khong con khng giao nhau l cc bin ngu nhin c
lp.
Xc sut ca s bin c trong mt khong con [t,t + ] no c cho bi cng thc
1.13. Bin ngu nhin N
t
m t s ln xut hin trong khong thi gian [t,t + ] tun theo
mt phn b Poisson vi tham s .
Cc qu trnh Poisson thi gian thun nht (time-homogeneous) c xut pht t cc qu
trnh Markov thi gian lin tc thi gian thun nht.
S cuc in thoi ti tng i trong mt khong thi gian xc nh c th c mt phn b
Poisson, v s cuc in thoi ti trong cc khong thi gian khng giao nhau c th c lp
thng k vi nhau. y l mt qu trnh Poisson mt chiu. Trong cc m hnh n gin, ta c th
gi thit mt t l trung bnh l hng s, v d = 12.3 cuc gi mi pht. Trong trng hp ,
gi tr k vng ca s cuc gi trong mt khong thi gian bt k l t l trung bnh nhn vi
khong thi gian, t. Trong cc bi ton thc t hn v phc tp hn, ngi ta s dng mt hm t
l khng phi l hng s: (t). Khi , gi tr k vng ca s cuc in thoi trong khong gia
thi im a v thi im b l
( )
b
a
t dt

.


12
1.2.3. L thuyt hng i
L thuyt hng i l mt trong cc cng c ton hc mnh cho vic phn tch c lng trong
cc h thng vin thng v cc mng my tnh. L thuyt hng i thng thng c p dng
cho cc h thng l tng a ra kt qu gn ng cho mt m hnh thc t. Tnh cht chung
ca cc gii php ng dng l thuyt ny l lm r hn cc c trng lu lng, cung cp d
bo nhng ranh gii ln hn trn nhng kt qu nghin cu nht nh v chng c th rt hu ch
trong vic kim tra tnh chnh xc v hp l ca cc gi thit thng k. L thuyt hng i l mt
hng pht trin ca l thuyt xc sut nghin cu cc qu trnh lin quan n hng i v
cung cp cc phng php phn tch hoc dng thc ng (closed form) trong vi lnh vc nht
nh.
L thuyt hng i khi pht mt cch t nhin trong vic nghin cu cc mng chuyn mch
knh v chuyn mch gi. Trong mng chuyn mch knh cuc gi s n mt phng tin
chuyn mch theo mt kiu ngu nhin, mi cuc gi s gi mt knh trong mt thi gian ngu
nhin no v qu trnh ch c phc v ca cc cuc gi ng dng l thuyt hng i. Trong
mng chuyn mch gi, cc bn tin c di bin i c chuyn qua mng, cc phng
tin truyn dn (cc chuyn mch v kt ni) c chia s bi cc gi. Thi gian s dng trong
b m l mt trong nhng tiu chun hot ng mng. D nhin thi gian ny ph thuc thi
gian x l, di bn tin hoc mt ngi s dng n mt phng tin phc v (nt v tuyn lin
kt) v b buc phi i khi phng tin ny bn. V vy, hng i l mt gii php khng th
thiu trong cc k thut chuyn mch lu m v chuyn tip.
Trong ng dng tng tc v thi gian thc, thng th thi gian tr li trung bnh c xem
nh mt tiu chun thc hin quan trng, trong khi cc ng dng khc, thng lng h thng l
tin chun thc hin c bn. Cc m hnh phn tch da trn phn tch hng i c s dng
d kin s thc hin ca nhiu vn thc t.
Cho d l thuyt hng i phc tp v mt ton hc th vic phn tch hot ng ca mt h
thng mng s dng m hnh hng i c th n gin i rt nhiu. c th p dng vo thc
tin, chng ta cn nhng kin thc v khi nim thng k c bn v hiu bit v vic p dng l
thuyt hng i.
M t hng i Kendall
D.G.Kendall xut k hiu cho cc h thng hng i: A/B/X/Y/Z. Thng thng m hnh
Kendall c xt theo nguyn tc n trc phc v trc FCFS, n sau phc v trc LCFS,
phc v theo th t ngu nhin SIRO v chia s x l PS. Trong :
A: phn b thi gian tin trnh n
B: phn b thi gian phc v
X: s lng server
Y: dung lng tng cng ca h thng
Z: s lng cc khch hng
Cc h thng hin i ph thuc rt ln vo phn mm v x l i vi cc cng vic iu
khin v qun l h thng. Trong cc h thng chuyn mch gi, cc b m c s dng cho
cc nhim v xp hng i x l. Tt c cc hng i u c th phn tch bi cc l thuyt hng
i, l mt tp cc m hnh ton nhm tm ra cc gi tr o lng ( v d: thi gian tr). Phn
tch di y ch ra mt c ch hng i thng thng nht; hng i M/M/1:Thi gian ca tin


13
trnh n c phn b theo hm m m hay theo tin trnh Poisson ( thc cht l tin trnh khng
nh hoc c tnh Markov) A := M.
Thi gian n ca cc s kin theo tin trnh Markov
Thi gian phc v phn b theo hm m m B := M.
H thng ch c 1 server.
Hng i c khng gian m l v hn.
Ta c xc sut h thng trong trng thi i c xc nh trong cng thc sau:
[ ] [ ] 1
i
A
i i
s

= (1.14)
V c 1 server nn l c nh v c lp vi i, thm vo ta c . A s = (1.2) nn:
i
=
v . A s = thay vo cng thc 1.14 ta c.
[ ] [ ]
.
1
i
s
i i
s

= v [ ] [ ] [ ]
( )
[ ]
2
1 0 ; 2 0


= = . (1.15)
T ct 1.15 ta rt ra cng thc tng qut :
[ ]
( )
[ ] 0
i
i

= hay [ ]
0
1;
i
i

=
=


( )
[ ]
0
0 1;
i
i

=
=


Hay:
[ ]
( )
0
1
0
i
i

=
=

v
[ ]
( )
( )
0
i
i
i
i

=
=

(1.16)
Gi thit tc n nh hn tc phc v trnh cho hng i tng ln v hn, gi hiu
sut s dng l = / . T cng thc 1.16 ta c:

[ ]
0
i
i
i
i

=
=

(1.17)
Mu s c th trin khai di dng (1-
-1
); nn ta vit li cng thc 1.17 nh sau:
[ ] ( ) 1
i
i

= (1.18)
Gi N l gi tr trung bnh ca s khch hng n trong hng i c tnh bng tng cc xc sut
trng thi h thng, ta c:
[ ]
2
0 0
(1 )
. (1 )
(1 ) 1
i
i i
N i i i


= =

= = = =


hoc N


=

(1.19)
Thi gian i trung bnh (T) ca gi trong h thng l thi gian tng ca thi gian trong hng i
cng vi thi gian phc v. T c th quan h vi N theo cng thc sau: T= .N , thay N t cng
thc 1.19 ta c:
T= ( - )
-1
(1.20)
T cng thc 1.20 ta c quan h thi gian i vi tc n v i ca cc gi c th hin qua
hnh v 1.7 di y.


14

Hnh 1.7: Thi gian tr ph thuc vo tc n v tc phc v ca hng i
Nh vy, tc n ca cc s kin n tng dn t 1/ v t ti trng thi bo ho khi tc
n bng tc phc v .
1.3. QU TRNH PHT TRIN CA K THUT CHUYN MCH
Vo khong thp nin 60 ca th k 20, xut hin sn phm tng i in t s l s kt hp
gia cng ngh in t vi k thut my tnh. Tng i in t s cng cng u tin ra i c
iu khin theo chng trnh ghi sn SPC (Stored Program Control),c gii thiu ti bang
Succasunna, Newjersey, USA vo thng 5 nm 1965. Trong nhng nm 70 hng lot cc tng i
thng mi in t s ra i. Mt trong nhng tng i l tng i E10 ca CIT Alcatel c
s dng ti Lannion (Php). V thng 1 nm 1976 Bell gii thiu tng i in t s cng cng
4ESS. Hu ht cho n giai on ny cc tng i in t s u s dng h thng chuyn mch
l s v cc mch giao tip thu bao thng l Analog, cc ng trung k l s. Mt trng hp
ngoi l l tng i DMS100 ca Northern Telecom a vo nm 1980 dng ton b k thut s
u tin trn th gii. H thng 5ESS ca hng AT&T c a vo nm 1982 ci tin rt
nhiu t h thng chuyn mch 4ESS v c cc chc nng tng thch vi cc dch v mng s
tch hp dch v ISDN (Integrated Service Digital Network). Sau hu ht cc h thng chuyn
mch s u a ra cc cu hnh h tr cho cc dch v mi nh ISDN, dch v cho mng thng
minh v cc tnh nng mi tng thch vi s pht trin ca mng li.
Khong nm 1996 khi mng Internet tr thnh bng n trong th gii cng ngh thng tin, n
tc ng mnh m n cng nghip vin thng v xu hng hi t cc mng my tnh, truyn
thng, iu khin. H tng mng vin thng tr thnh tm im quan tm trong vai tr h tng
x hi. Mt mng c th truyn bng rng vi cc loi hnh dch v thoi v phi thoi, tc cao
v m bo c cht lng dch v QoS (Quality Of Service) tr thnh cp thit trn nn
tng ca mt k thut mi: K thut truyn ti khng ng b ATM (Asynchronous Transfer
Mode). Cc h thng chuyn mch in t s cng phi dn thay i theo hng ny cng vi cc
ch tiu k thut, giao thc mi. Mt v d in hnh l cc h thng chuyn mch knh khi cung
cp cc dch v Internet s c tin cy khc so vi cc cuc gi thng thng vi thi gian
chim dng cuc gi ln hn rt nhiu, v cng nh vy i vi cc bi ton lu lng. S thay
i ca h tng mng chuyn i sang mng th h k tip NGN v ang tc ng rt ln ti
cc h thng chuyn mch, di y trnh by mt s vn lin quan ti mng NGN v cc c
im ca qu trnh hi t mng ca h tng mng cng cng. Mng chuyn mch knh cng cng
PSTN v IP (Internet Protocol) ang dn hi t ti cng mt mc tiu nhm hng ti mt h
tng mng tc cao c kh nng tng thch vi cc ng dng a phng tin tng tc v m
bo cht lng dch v. Hnh 1.8 di y ch ra xu hng hi t trong h tng mng cng cng:


15

Hnh 1.8: Xu hng hi t cng ngh mng cng cng
S khc bit ny bt u t nhng nm 1980, PSTN chuyn hng tip cn sang phng thc
truyn ti bt ng b ATM h tr a phng tin v QoS, sau chuyn hng sang cng
ngh kt hp vi IP chuyn mch nhn a giao thc hin nay. Trong khi Internet a ra mt
tip cn hi khc vi PSTN qua gii php trin khai kin trc phn lp dch v CoS (Class Of
Service) v hng ti m bo cht lng dch v QoS thng qua m hnh tch hp dch v
IntServ v phn bit dch v DiffServ, cc chin lc ca Internet theo hng tng thch vi IP,
mng quang v hng ti mng chuyn mch nhn a giao thc tng qut GMPLS (Generalized
MultiProtocol Label Switch). Cng ngh chuyn mch nhn a giao thc MPLS ra i vo nm
2001 l s n lc kt hp hai phng thc chuyn mch hng kt ni (ATM, FR) vi cng ngh
chuyn mch phi kt ni (IP), cng ngh chuyn mch nhn a giao thc MPLS nh ngha khi
nim nhn (Label) nm trn mt lp gia lp 2 v lp 3 trong m hnh OSI, vi mc tiu tn dng
ti a cc u im ca chuyn mch phn cng (ATM, FR) v s mm do, linh hot ca cc
phng php nh tuyn trong IP. Mt s quc gia c h tng truyn ti cp quang pht trin
tt c xu hng s dng cc k thut chuyn mch quang v s dng cc cng ngh trn nn
quang nh GMPLS, IP qua cng ngh ghp bc sng quang WDM (Wavelength Division
Multiplexing), kin trc chuyn mch trong mng th h k tip NGN
Trong mi trng mng hin nay, s phn cp h thng thit b bin (ni ht), thit b qu
giang v thit b li trong mng cung cp cc dch v PSTN vn ang tn ti. Cc mng bao trm
nh FR, ATM v Internet ang c trin khai song song v to ra nhu cu kt ni lin mng. Cc
truy nhp cng thm gm cp ng, cp quang v truy nhp khng dy ang c trin khai lm
a dng v tng mt truy nhp t pha mng truy nhp.
S tng trng ca cc dch v truy nhp to nn sc p v t ra 3 vn chnh i vi h
thng chuyn mch bng rng a dch v: Truy nhp bng thng rng, s thng minh ca thit b
bin v truyn dn tc cao ti mng li. Cc thit b truy nhp bng thng rng bao gm cc
thit b h tng mng truyn thng (tng i PSTN ni ht) v cc module truy nhp ng dy s
DSLAM (Digital Subcriber Line Access Mutiplexer) phi truyn ti v nh tuyn mt s lng
ln cc lu lng thoi v d liu ti thit b g mng. Cc thit b g mng hin c rt nhiu
dng gm VoiP Cc cng truy nhp cho thit b VoiP (Voice Over IP), cng trung k, chuyn
mch ATM, b nh tuyn IP v cc thit b mng quang. Cc thit b bin cn phi h tr cc
chc nng nhn thc, cp quyn v ti khon AAA (Authentificaton, Authorization v
Accounting) cng nh nhn dng cc lung lu lng t pha khch hng, v vy vic qun l v
iu hnh thit b bin l mt vn rt phc tp.



16

Hnh 1.9: Cc thit b chuyn mch trong m hnh mng cng cng in hnh
Vi mi trng mng PSTN trc y, cc thit b li mng chu trch nhim chnh trong iu
hnh v qun l v iu ny c thay i chc nng cho cc thit b g mng trong mi trng
NGN. Cc h thng chuyn mch a dch v cn phi h tr cc chuyn mch lp 3 trong khi vn
phi duy tr cc chuyn mch lp 2 nhm h tr cc dch v ATM v FR truyn thng, c tin
cy cao v phi tch hp tt vi cc h tng c sn.
Hn na, cc h thng chuyn mch phi c mm do ln nhm tng thch v p ng cc
yu cu tng trng lu lng t pha khch hng. V vy, c ch iu khin cc h thng chuyn
mch c pht trin theo hng phn lp v module ho nhm nng cao hiu nng chuyn
mch v m bo QoS t u cui ti u cui. Hng tip cn my ch cuc gi CS (Call
Server) v hng trin khai phn h a dch v IP (IMS) c trnh by di y ch ra nhng s
thay i ln trong lch s pht trin h thng chuyn mch.
1.3.1. Chuyn mch mm v hng tip cn my ch cuc gi CS.
Hng tip cn my ch cuc gi CS c hnh thnh trong qu trnh chuyn i cc h tng
mng chuyn mch knh sang chuyn mch gi trong mng PSTN. thc hin qu trnh chuyn
i v truyn thoi trn nn IP, mt gii php c th thc thi l to ra mt thit b lai c th
chuyn mch thoi c dng knh v gi vi s tch hp ca phn mm x l cuc gi. iu ny
c thc hin bng cch tch ring chc nng x l cuc gi khi chc nng chuyn mch vt
l. Thit b B iu khin cng a phng tin MGC (Media Gateway Controller) c coi l
thnh phn mu cht trong gii php k thut chuyn mch mm Softswitch.
Thc cht ca khi nim chuyn mch mm chnh l phn mm thc hin chc nng x l
cuc gi trong h thng chuyn mch c kh nng chuyn ti nhiu loi thng tin vi cc giao
thc khc nhau (chc nng x l cuc gi bao gm nh tuyn cuc gi v qun l, xc nh v
thc thi cc c tnh cuc gi). Theo thut ng chuyn mch mm th chc nng chuyn mch vt
l c thc hin bi cng a phng tin MG (Media Gateway), cn x l cuc gi l chc
nng ca b iu khin cng a phng tin MGC.
Mt s l do chnh cho thy vic tch 2 chc nng trn l mt gii php tt:


17
Cho php c mt gii php phn mm chung i vi vic x l cuc gi. Phn mm ny
c ci t trn nhiu loi mng khc nhau, bao gm c mng chuyn mch knh v
mng gi (p dng c vi cc dng gi v mi trng truyn dn khc nhau).
L ng lc cho cc h iu hnh, cc mi trng my tnh chun, tit kim ng k trong
vic pht trin v ng dng cc phn mm x l cuc gi.
Cho php cc phn mm thng minh ca cc nh cung cp dch v iu khin t xa thit
b chuyn mch t ti tr s ca khch hng, mt yu t quan trng trong vic khai thc
tim nng ca mng trong tng lai.
Chuyn mch mm thc hin cc chc nng tng t chuyn mch knh truyn thng nhng
vi nng lc mm do v cc tnh nng u vit hn. Cc u im ca chuyn mch mm mang li
l do vic chuyn mch bng phn mm da trn cu trc phn tn v cc giao din lp trnh ng
dng m.
Trong chuyn mch truyn thng, phn cng chuyn mch lun i km vi phn mm iu
khin ca cng mt nh cung cp. iu ny lm tng tnh c quyn trong vic cung cp cc h
thng chuyn mch, khng cung cp mt mi trng kin to dch v mi, lm gii hn kh nng
pht trin cc dch v mi ca cc nh qun tr mng. Khc phc iu ny, chuyn mch mm a
ra giao din lp trnh ng dng m API (Application Programable Interface), cho php tng
thch phn mm iu khin v phn cng ca cc nh cung cp khc nhau. iu ny cho php cc
nh cung cp phn mm v phn cng c c ting ni chung v tp trung vo lnh vc ca
mnh. Vi cc giao din lp trnh m, chuyn mch mm c th d dng c nng cp, thay th
v tng thch vi ng dng ca cc nh cung cp khc nhau.
Chuyn mch mm c xy dng trn c s mng IP, x l thng tin mt cch trong sut,
cho php p ng nhiu loi lu lng khc nhau. c xy dng theo cu hnh phn tn, tch
cc chc nng khc khi chc nng chuyn mch cng lm cho nhim v chuyn mch tr nn
n gin hn v do nng lc x l mnh m hn. Cng ngh chuyn mch mm lm gim tnh
c quyn ca cc nh cung cp, gp phn tng tnh cnh tranh v do gim gi thnh ca h
thng chuyn mch mm.
1.3.2. Hng tip cn phn h a phng tin IP (IMS)
thc hin hi t gia mng di ng vi mng c nh theo hng IP ho hon ton, mng th
h k tip NGN ng dng ti mng 3G (Third Generation) trong nhiu cch. Vo nm 2000,
3GPP( 3
rd
Generation Partnership Project) thit lp cc c tnh ca WCDMA R4 (Wireless
Code Division Multiple Access Release 4), l ln u tin a khi nim chuyn mch mm
vo trong h thng mng li di ng. S thay i ny nh hng ti kin trc mng, cc giao
din mng, s pht trin ca cc dch v trong h thng thng tin di ng hng s pht trin ca
3G ti NGN. Trong kin trc mng, NGN v 3G u nhm chuyn hng tch bit gia lp iu
khin v lp knh mang trong cc giao thc giao tip. 3G v NGN a ra rt nhiu giao thc nh:
Giao thc iu khin c lp knh mang BICC (Bearer Independent Call Control), Giao thc
khi to phin SIP/SIP-T (Session Initiation Protocol), giao thc iu khin bo hiu
H.248/Megaco, giao thc truyn ti bo hiu trong nn IP (SIGTRAN),v..v. 3G v NGN khng
ch cung cp cc dch v nh thoi m cn l cc dch v a phng tin thng qua cc giao din
dch v m. iu ny to kh nng kin to cc dch v mi qua cc nh cung cp th 3. Cc dch
v c th kin to ng thi trn c vng mng c nh v v vng mng di ng. Cc phin bn
R4/R5 u nh hng theo kin trc NGN nh vy, khi kin trc chuyn mch mm c ng
dng trong vng NGN 3G, n c gi l chuyn mch mm di ng. Gii php tch hp v h


18
tr cc dch v IP trong di ng c thc hin qua phn h IMS (Internet Multimedia
Subsystem) nm ti bin vng mng c nh v di ng.
Tm tt chng 1
Ni dung c bn ca chng 1 gii thiu cc khi nim v thut ng c bn s dng trong k
thut chuyn mch, mt s c s ton s c s dng trong tnh ton mt s tham s ca trng
chuyn mch, lch s v kin trc mng chuyn mch hin nay v hng tip cn ca cc cng
ngh chuyn mch hin i.

19
Chng 2
K THUT CHUYN MCH KNH
Trong chng k thut chuyn mch knh s trnh by vi ngi c cc vn lin quan ti
mng chuyn mch in thoi cng cng PSTN, gm cc khun dng tn hiu s, phng php
chuyn i cc tn hiu thoi tng t sang s, cu trc khung truyn dn theo tiu chun Chu
u v Bc m. Tm im quan trng nht ca k thut chuyn mch knh l cc h thng
chuyn mch trong l cc trng chuyn mch, v vy cc c im mu cht ca k thut
chuyn mch knh c trnh by qua cc nguyn l, nguyn tc cu to v phng thc hot
ng ca cc trng chuyn mch gm c: chuyn mch thi gian, chuyn mch khng gian
v chuyn mch ghp. Phng php ghp ni a tng chuyn mch v nguyn l ghp ni c
bn ch ra cch thc tip cn v xy dng cc h thng chuyn mch thc t. Phn cui ca
chng 2 trnh by hai trng chuyn mch trong h thng chuyn mch thc t ang khai
thc ti Vit nam.
2.1. C S K THUT CHUYN MCH KNH
K thut chuyn mch knh da trn nguyn tc thit lp knh ni dnh ring cho cc cuc
ni phc v cho qu trnh truyn tin qua mng. K thut chuyn mch knh ng vai tr
quan trng trong cc h thng mng vin thng k t mng chuyn mch in thoi cng cng
truyn thng PSTN n cc mng quang hin i. Trong chng 2 ca cun ti liu ny s
trnh by cc vn k thut chuyn mch knh c ng dng trong mng in thoi cng
cng PSTN v tp trung vo cc nguyn l c bn ca chuyn mch knh tn hiu s.
H tng mng PSTN truyn thng phc v cho truyn thng thoi thi gian thc v lin tc.
Cc h thng chuyn mch kt ni vi nhau qua cc phng tin truyn dn to thnh mng
chuyn mch, nhim v ca cc h thng chuyn mch l thc hin vic kt ni cho cc cuc
gi t u cui ti u cui mng, bao gm c cc ng dn bo hiu v ng dn thng tin.
Qu trnh kt ni thc hin theo yu cu ca thit b u cui v nh tuyn da trn a ch
c nh s theo tiu chun E.164 ca ITU-T [2]
Chuyn mch knh tn hiu s l qu trnh kt ni, trao i thng tin s trong cc khe thi
gian c phn chia theo phng thc chia thi gian TDM. Vi mc tiu tm hiu v nguyn
tc hot ng ca cc h thng chuyn mch knh, ta xem xt ln lt cc vn : Qu trnh
chuyn i tn hiu tng t sang tn hiu s theo nguyn l PCM (Pulse Code Modulation),
trao i ni dung thng tin trong cc khe thi gian, lu lng ca mng chuyn mch knh v
nguyn l cu trc ca chuyn mch khng gian v thi gian trong h thng chuyn mch
knh, k thut ghp ni trng chuyn mch v cc trng chuyn mch trong thc t.
2.1.1. K thut iu ch xung m PCM
K thut iu ch xung m PCM l mt qu trnh gm nhiu bc nhm thc hin vic
chuyn i tn hiu tng t thnh tn hiu s, mc d k thut ny c th ng dng vi mt s
dng tn hiu tng t khc nhau nh: thoi, video. Nhng trn thc t k thut ny thng
c ng dng cho tn hiu thoi trong mng PSTN. K thut iu ch xung m PCM ra i
nm 1969, cc c tnh k thut c m t trong khuyn ngh G.711 ca ITU-T nm 1988
(sch xanh). Mt h thng PCM 30 c m t trong hnh 2.1 di y, h thng gm 30
knh thoi c gii hn tn s trong khong (0.3kHz 3.4kHz) v ly mu ti tn s 8 kHz. Cc
tn hiu xung s ca tn hiu tng t sau qu trnh ly mu c m ho di dng nh phn

20
v truyn i trong h thng truyn dn. Ti u cui thu tn hiu, mt qu trnh hon nguyn
tn hiu c thc hin nhm khi phc li dng tn hiu pha pht.

Hnh 2.1: H thng PCM in hnh
Trc khi xem xt cc c tnh ca cc bc bin i ta xem xt th hin n gin qua hnh
v 2.1 .

Hnh 2.2: Cc bc bin i trong nguyn l PCM
c trng ca k thut bin i tn hiu thoi tng t sang tn hiu s c th chia thnh
cc bc c m t nh sau:
(i) Ly mu tn hiu.
Di ph ca tn hiu thoi bao gm nhiu loi tn s c khong tn s t 50Hz ti 20 kHz.
Tuy nhin, ph tn s c vng nng lng tp trung ln vo khong 0.8kHz 1.2 kHz.
gim thiu bng tn truyn dn, k thut PCM s dng di ph t 0.3kHz (f
min
) 3.4 kHz
(f
max
) v chn tn s tn hiu ly mu 8kHz tun th theo nh l Niquist f
s
f
max
[2]. Phng
php ly mu trong k thut PCM l phng php ly mu theo bin tn hiu, cc xung ly
mu c gi l xung PAM ( Pulse Amplitude Modulation). Cc xung tn hiu sau khi ly mu
c a vo h thng ghp knh phn chia theo thi gian TDM (Time Division Multiplexer),
nh vy khong thi gian gia cc tn hiu ly mu T s bng ng tn s ly mu v bng
125S. T = 1f
s
= 1/8.000Hz = 125S.



21
(ii) Lng t ho.
Lng t ho l mt qu trnh bin i cc mu tn hiu tng t thnh cc gi tr ri rc
truyn trong cc h thng s. Cc mu tn hiu PAM c so snh vi mt tp hu hn cc
mc lng t xc nh v gn cc mu xung PAM vo cc mc lng t tng ng. Gi
thit khong cch gia hai mc lng t l V th khong cch im gia (V
j
) ca hai mc
lng t cng l V. Bt k mu tn hiu no trong vng V
j
V2 u c nhn cng mt
mc lng t. Qu trnh lm trn ny s gy ra cc sai s trong qu trnh bin i thng tin t
tng t sang s. Cc li ny l cc li ngu nhin v c gi l nhiu lng t, tnh ton
c nhiu lng t cn phi nm r hm mt xc sut bin ca tn hiu u vo ly
mu.
gim nhiu lng t c th s dng phng php tng s lng mc lng t, nhng
iu ny s ko theo s lng cc thng tin cn phi truyn i, ng ngha vi vic tng bng
thng cho tn hiu. Mt tip cn khc da theo c tnh ca dng sng tn hiu l phng php
lng t ho khng u, cc tn hiu thoi c c tnh xc sut xut hin bin nh ln hn
nhiu so vi xc sut xut hin bin ln. V vy, hm s loga c chn cho hm phn b
mc lng t.
Trong thc tin, ngi ta s dng k thut nn-gin tn hiu (COMPANDING) tc l thc
hin vic nn mu tn hiu thc hin m ho v cui cng l gin tn hiu vi cc tham s
ngc vi cc tham s nn hon nguyn tn hiu. Qu trnh nn c thc hin theo hm
loga, cc mu tn hiu ln c nn nhiu hn cc mu tn hiu nh nhm a t s Tn
hiu/nhiu (S/N) ca cc gi tr tn hiu u vo v gi tr khng i. Hai tiu chun ca
ITU-T s dng cho k thut nn-dn l lut A v lut .
Lc nn gin tn hiu theo lut A v lut c khuyn ngh trong tiu chun G.711
ca ITU-T nn cc mc tn hiu 16 bit theo phng php lng t ho tuyn tnh thnh 8 bit.
Lut A c m t qua cng thc 2.1 di y.
A* |x|
1 + ln (A) 0 |x| < 1A (2.1)
F (x) =
Sgn(x) * ( 1 + ln( A|x|)
1 + ln (A) 1A |x| 1
Trong : Sgn (x) l hm du
A l hng s xc nh mc nn A = 87,6.
A|x| l hm nn tn hiu
x gi tr mu a vo nn (nguyn)
Cng thc 2.1 gm hai thnh phn cho mc tn hiu trong khong (0 1/A) c dng tuyn
tnh, v mc tn hiu ln (1/A 1) c dng logarithm v s c ly xp x ho theo cc
segments (on) tuyn tnh.Vng tuyn tnh m bo khi tn hiu vo x = 0 th tn hiu ra F(x)
= 0; Vng phi tuyn m bo khi tn hiu vo x =1 th tn hiu ra F(x)=1. K thut PCM s
dng 256 mc lng t cho tn hiu thoi v c chia thnh 2 cc tnh dng (+) v m (-)
thng qua bit du.
Nh vy, mi na ca tn hiu s gm 128 mc lng t. S lng bit s dng biu din
cc mc lng t l 8 bit( xem v d trn hnh 2.3). c tnh nn theo lut A s dng 8 on

22
cho cc tnh (+) v 8 on cho cc tnh (-), cc bc lng t c tng theo c s 2. Trong
mi on s dng 4 bit biu din 16 mc lng t u.

Hnh 2.3: c tuyn nn lng t theo lut A
Lut c m t qua cng thc 2.2 di y:
Sgn(x) * ln( 1 + |x|)
ln (1 + ) 0 |x| 1
Trong : Sgn (x) l hm du (2.2)
l hng s xc nh mc nn = 255.
x l hm nn tn hiu
x gi tr mu a vo nn (nguyn)
Cng thc 2.2 ch ra ton b di tn hiu u vo c nn theo dng logarithm, nh vy s
lng on trong lut l 15 on v c chia thnh hai cc tnh (+) v m (-). Lut c
s dng trong cc h thng PCM 24 knh.
Cc c im tng t ca hai lut nn dn tn hiu:
C hai lut u s dng phng php xp x tuyn tnh theo quan h loga.
u s dng t m 8 bit m ho. Tc bit cho knh l 8 bit x 8 kHz = 64 kb/s.
Tip cn phn on thc hin m ho tng t nhau.
Cc c im khc bit gia hai lut nn dn tn hiu :
Phng php xp x tuyn tnh khc nhau cho cc ng cong khc nhau.
Cc bit gn cho cc segment v cc mc lng t trong segment khc nhau.
Lut A cung cp di ng ln hn lut .
Lut cung cp t s S/N ti min tn hiu mc thp tt hn lut A.
(iii) M ho
Qu trnh m ho tn hiu trong k thut PCM thc hin vic chuyn i cc mu tn hiu
lng t ho thnh cc m nh phn 8 bit. Khun dng ca mt t m PCM nh sau: X = P
ABC DEGH ; X th hin t m, P l bt du, ABC l bit ch th phn on, DEGH l bit ch
th cc mc lu lng trong on. Trong thc t, qu trnh lng t v m ha c thc hin
ng thi trong mt chip vi x l theo lut A hoc lut .
F(x) =

23
2.1.2. Cu trc khung tn hiu PCM
Tiu chun G.704 ITU-T m t cc dng cu trc khung tn hiu PCM cho cc phng tin
truyn dn v chuyn mch. Trong mc ny chng ta xem xt cu trc khung v a khung ca
h thng PCM 24 (T1) v h thng PCM 30/32 (E1).
(i) Cu trc khung v a khung PCM 24
Cu trc khung PCM 24 c m ho theo lut v c mt s c tnh c bn sau:
Tc truyn 1,544 Kb/s; Mt khung gm 24 DS0 (64 kb/s).
di khung l 125 s c 193 bit c nh s t 1- 193;
Bit u tin ca mi khung c s dng xp khung, gim st v cung cp lin kt
s liu.

Hnh 2.4: Cu trc a khung PCM 24
K thut m ho ng dy : AMI, B8ZS.
Cu trc a khung gm hai khun dng: DS4 nhm 12 khung, v khung m rng EPS
nhm 24 khung (hnh 2.4 th hin cu trc a khung 24).
Bit bo hiu F s dng xp a khung, lin kt d liu, kim tra v bo hiu c
ch nh trong tng khung th hin trong bng 2.1 di y.
Bit F
Cc bit gn
S bit trong khe thi
gian
S th t
khung
trong a
khung
S bit
trong a
khung

FAS

DL

CRC
Cho th
bo hiu

Bo hiu
CAS
S dng
cho bo
hiu
1 1 m 1-8
2 194 e
1
1-8
3 387 m 1-8
4 580 0 1-8
5 773 m 1-8
6 966 e
2
1-7 8 A
7 1159 m 1-8
8 1352 0 1-8
9 1545 m 1-8

24
10 1738 e
3
1-8
11 1931 m 1-8
12 2124 1 1-7 8 B
13 2317 m 1-8
14 2510 e
4
1-8
15 2703 m 1-8
16 2896 0 1-8
17 3089 m 1-8
18 3282 e
5
1-7 8 C
19 3475 m 1-8
20 3668 1 1-8
21 3861 m 1-8
22 4054 e
6
1-8
23 4247 m 1-8
24 4440 1 1-7 8 D
FAS : Tn hiu xp khung ( ... 001011..)
DL: Lin kt s liu
CRC: trng kim tra mch vng d theo chu k
Bng 2.1: Bit F trong cu trc a khung 24

Hnh 2.5: Cu trc khung v a khung PCM 30

25
(ii) Cu trc khung v a khung PCM 30
Cu trc khung PCM 30 c m ho theo lut A v c mt s c tnh c bn sau:
Tc truyn 2,048 Kb/s; Mt khung gm 32 TS/30 CH.
di khung l 125 s cha 256 bit; nh s t 1 n 256.
K thut m ho ng dy : AMI, HDB3.
Cu trc a khung cha 16 khung. TS0 s dng xp khung v ng b, TS16 s
dng cho bo hiu. (cu trc khung v a khung ch ra trn hnh 2.5)
Khi s dng m vng d theo chu k CRC-4 kim tra li tuyn PCM, cu trc a khung
c chia thnh 2 phn nhm a khung nh SMF I v SMF II, mi nhm gm 8 khung. Vic
phn nhm ny khng nh hng ti cc khe thi gian s dng cho bo hiu. B tr cc bit
trong TSO khi s dng CRC-4 c ch ra trong bng 2.3 di y:
Cc bit trong TS0
SMF

S khung
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
c
1
0 0 1 1 0 1 1
0 1 A Sa Sa Sa Sa Sa
c
2
0 0 1 1 0 1 1
0 1 A Sa Sa Sa Sa Sa
c
3
0 0 1 1 0 1 1
1 1 A Sa Sa Sa Sa Sa
c
4
0 0 1 1 0 1 1




I

0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
0 1 A Sa Sa Sa Sa Sa
c
1
0 0 1 1 0 1 1
1 1 A Sa Sa Sa Sa Sa
c
2
0 0 1 1 0 1 1
1 1 A Sa Sa Sa Sa Sa
c
3
0 0 1 1 0 1 1
E 1 A Sa Sa Sa Sa Sa
c
4
0 0 1 1 0 1 1







a
khung




II
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
E 1 A Sa Sa Sa Sa Sa
Ghi ch:
C
1
- c
4
: Kim tra m vng d theo chu k; E: Ch th li CRC
A: Cnh bo; Sa: Cc bit d phng.
Bng 2.2: Cu trc TSO ca a khung PCM30 s dng CRC-4.

26
2.1.3. Trao i khe thi gian ni TSI
Trong k thut chuyn mch knh, sau khi tn hiu thoi c m ho thnh cc t m nh
phn 8 bit, cc knh thng tin c xc lp trn cc khe thi gian cch nhau 125s v c
truyn i nh cc h thng truyn dn v chuyn mch.
Trn nguyn tc s dng chung ti nguyn, cc thng tin ca ngi s dng c chuyn i
trn cc knh c phn chia logic theo thi gian, s khc bit ca khe thi gian c n nh
cho ngun tin pha pht v ngun tin pha thu l mt yu t yu cu c s chuyn i ni dung
thng tin t khe thi gian ny sang khe thi gian khc trong cng mt khung, chnh l qu
trnh trao i khe thi gian ni TSI.
Mt c cu s dng chuyn i TSI c minh ho trn hnh 2.6 di y, cc khi thit b
chnh gm c:

Hnh 2.6: Nguyn l trao i khe thi gian ni TSI
Cc tuyn PCM u vo v u ra c cu trc khung gm n khe thi gian, yu cu
chuyn i ni dung thng tin ca mt khe thi gian bt k t u vo ti u ra.
B nh lu m tm thi hot ng theo nguyn tc truy xut ngu nhin c dung
lng cha ton b thng tin d liu trong mt khung PCM, (S ngn nh: n, dung
lng ngn nh: 8 bit).
Khi iu khin CM (Control Memory) s dng ghi cc thng tin iu khin chuyn
i ni dung khe thi gian cho b nh lu m (S ngn nh: n, dung lng ngn nh:
L= log
2
n).
Khi ng b cho qu trnh ghi c vo cc b nh c ng b thng qua mt b
m khe thi gian TS.C.
Khi c yu cu chuyn i ni dung thng tin v tu thuc vo ngun ti nguyn ca h
thng, khi x l trung tm s a cc d liu iu khin ti khi iu khin CM nhm sp
xp v tr chuyn i ca cc khe thi gian. m bo tc lung thng tin u vo v u
ra, trong cng mt khong thi gian b nh lu m phi thc hin ng thi hai tc v ghi
thng tin vo v c thng tin ra. Theo nguyn tc trao i khe thi gian ni TSI, tr ti a
ca thng tin trao i khng vt qu thi gian ca mt khung T
d
(max) = (n-1)TS < 125s.

27
2.2. KIN TRC TRNG CHUYN MCH KNH
Chuyn mch knh tn hiu s l qu trnh thc hin trao i ni dung thng tin s trong cc
khe thi gian ca cc tuyn PCM u vo ti u ra. thc hin hiu qu qu trnh chuyn
mch, cc tuyn PCM thng c ghp knh vi tc cao trc khi a ti trng chuyn
mch.
Vic b tr s dng cc trng chuyn mch trong h thng chuyn mch ph thuc ch
yu vo kin trc iu khin ca h thng. Tuy nhin, kin trc trng chuyn mch knh
c chia thnh hai dng phn chia theo nguyn tc hot ng: Trng chuyn mch khng
gian (S) v trng chuyn mch thi gian (T).
Di y s trnh by nguyn l cu trc ca trng chuyn mch khng gian S, thi gian T
v kin trc ghp ni cc trng chuyn mch TST.
2.2.1 Trng chuyn mch khng gian s
Trng chuyn mch khng gian s S thc hin qu trnh chuyn ni dung thng tin t cc
tuyn PCM u vo ti cc tuyn PCM u ra m khng lm thay i v tr khe thi gian trn
trc thi gian. to ra knh truyn thng cho cc cuc gi, cc thng tin c chuyn qua
trng chuyn mch khng gian s c chuyn mch nh k vi khong thi gian 125s.

Hnh 2.7: Nguyn l chuyn mch khng gian S
Cc trng chuyn mch khng gian S c thit k h tr chuyn mch ng thi mt s
lng ln cc cuc ni di s iu khin ca cc chng trnh ghi sn. Hnh 2.7 trn y ch

28
ra s nguyn l cu trc ca trng chuyn mch khng gian S in hnh theo kiu iu
khin u vo, kiu iu khin u ra c thc hin bng s hon i v tr gn cng u ra
ca cc phn t kt ni.
Trng chuyn mch khng gian S c cu to t hai khi chnh: Khi ma trn chuyn mch
v khi iu khin cc b.
(i) Khi ma trn chuyn mch
Khi ma trn chuyn mch c cu trc di dng ma trn hai chiu gm cc cng u
vo v cc cng u ra, trn cc cng l cc tuyn PCM c chu k khung 125s. Cc im ni
trong ma trn l cc phn t logic khng nh ( thng thng l cc mch AND). Mt ma trn
c (N) cng u vo v (M) cng u ra tr thnh ma trn vung khi N=M.
(ii) Khi iu khin khu vc
Khi iu khin khu vc gm mt s khi thit b nh:
B nh iu khin kt ni CMEM (Control MEMory) lu tr cc thng tin iu khin
theo chng trnh ghi sn cho ma trn chuyn mch, ni dung thng tin trong CMEM
s th hin v tr tng ng ca im kt ni cn chuyn mch (S ngn nh: n, dung
lng ngn nh: L= log
2
N);
B gii m a ch DEC (DECode) chuyn cc tn hiu iu khin m nh phn thnh
cc tn hiu iu khin cng cho phn t kt ni AND;
B m khe thi gian TS.C (Time Slot Counter) nhn tn hiu ng h t ng h h
thng cp cc xung ng b cho b iu khin theo ng b ca cc tuyn PCM vo v
ra.
TS.C a tn hiu ng b vo b chn (SEL) ng b qu trnh ghi dch a ch v
tc v ghi c ca b nh CMEM.
Nguyn tc hot ng ca trng chuyn mch khng gian S gm mt s bc c bn sau:
Cc tuyn PCM trn cc cng u vo v u ra c ng b ho theo tn hiu ng b.
Nh trn hnh 2.5 ch ra mi khi iu khin khu vc LOC m nhim mt cng u ra, v vy
s b iu khin LOC s bng ng s cng u ra (M b iu khin).
r hn nguyn tc iu khin v hot ng ca trng chuyn mch S, ta xt mt v d
c th: Yu cu chuyn ni dung thng tin trn TS3 ti cng s 4 u vo ra TS3 trn cng s
1 u ra. Vi yu cu trn, khi iu khin khu vc LOC 1 s thc hin nhim v iu khin
chuyn mch, thng tin iu khin c a trc vo CMEM thng qua ng d liu iu
khin Data, thanh ghi a ch ca b chn SEL tr n ngn nh s 03: tng ng vi ch s
TS 3 ca khung PCM, ni dung d liu iu khin th hin cng kt ni vo (cng 4).
Qua s phi hp ng b ca TS.C, mt chu trnh iu khin tun t v ng b gia ch s
khe thi gian v con tr a ch c d liu ra t CMEM. V vy, khi con tr ch n a ch
03, thi gian h thng s trng khp vi TS3 trn cc tuyn PCM, ng thi SEL ch th qu
trnh c d liu v chuyn thng tin d liu qua b DEC gii m, thc hin ng tip im
gia cng vo 4 v cng ra 1. Tip im c ng trong sut thi gian chuyn d liu v
bng thi gian ca khe thi gian. Vi tnh cht logic ca tip im AND, khi hm iu khin
c mc 1 th ton b s liu u vo s c chuyn ti u ra.
i vi mi mt cuc ni thoi, chu k ng tip im c thc hin tun t theo chu k
125s, vic ngt cc kt ni c thc hin n gin thng qua qu trnh ghi li d liu trong
b nh CMEM, cc khong thi gian cn li s c thc hin cho cc kt ni khc. Nu ma

29
trn chuyn mch l ma trn vung th tng s knh ti a c th kt ni ng thi s l Ch= n
x N (N: s khe thi gian trong mt khung PCM; N: s cng u vo chuyn mch S).
Trng chuyn mch khng gian S mang tnh thi gian nu xt v tnh chu k ca qu trnh
ng ngt tip im, tuy nhin chu k ny l c nh cho tt c cc cuc ni qua trng chuyn
mch. Nhc im lun tn ti trong cc trng chuyn mch khng gian S l kh nng tc
nghn khi c nhiu hn mt yu cu chuyn mch TS u vo cng mun ra mt cng u ra.
Mt ma trn chuyn mch khng tc nghn hon ton c nh ngha l mt ma trn c kh
nng p ng c cc kt ni t cc u vo bt k ti cc u ra bt k.
Hin tng tranh chp cng u ra trong ni b trng chuyn mch c gi l hin tng
tc nghn ni. gii quyt vn trn, cc trng chuyn mch S thng c kt hp vi
cc b m gy tr thi gian trnh tranh chp, gii php ghp ni vi trng chuyn mch
thi gian T c s dng ph bin trong cc h thng chuyn mch hin nay.
2.2.2. Trng chuyn mch thi gian s
Trng chuyn mch thi gian tn hiu s thc hin qu trnh chuyn i ni dung thng tin
t mt khe thi gian ny sang khe thi gian khc, vi mc ch gy tr cho cc tn hiu. Qu
trnh gy tr tn hiu c thc hin theo nguyn tc trao i khe thi gian ni TSI. Hnh 2.6
di y ch ra s nguyn l cu trc ca trng chuyn mch thi gian T. Trng chuyn
mch thi gian T c hai kiu iu khin: iu khin u vo thc hin qu trnh ghi thng tin
c iu khin v c ra tun t; iu khin u ra thc hin ghi thng tin tun t v c ra
theo iu khin. Trong mc ny ta xem xt nguyn l hot ng ca trng chuyn mch T
theo kiu iu khin u ra.

Hnh 2.8: Nguyn l chuyn mch thi gian T
Trng chuyn mch thi gian T c cu to t 2 khi chnh: Khi b nh thoi SMEM
(Speech MEMory) v khi iu khin cc b LOC.
Khi b nh thoi SMEM l mt thit b ghi nh truy xut ngu nhin RAM (S lng
ngn nh: n; dung lng ngn nh: 8 bit). Nh vy, b nh SMEM lu ton b thng
tin trong mt khung tn hiu PCM. m bo tc lung thng tin qua trng

30
chuyn mch, tc ghi c ca CMEM phi ln gp 2 ln tc lung trn tuyn
PCM u vo hoc u ra.
Khi iu khin khu vc gm mt s khi nh: B nh iu khin CMEM lu tr cc
thng tin iu khin SMEM, s th t ca ngn nh v ni dung d liu trong CMEM
th hin cc ch s khe thi gian TS cn trao i ni dung tin. TS.C nhn tn hiu t
ng h h thng iu khin cc b chn SEL1, SEL2 nhm ng b ho qu trnh
ghi c thng tin d liu cho CMEM v SMEM.
Nguyn tc hot ng ca trng chuyn mch thi gian T trn c s ca nguyn tc trao
i khe thi gian ni TSI. Hnh 2.8 th hin kiu iu khin ghi vo tun t c ra c iu
khin SWRR (Sequence Write Random Read), r hn ta xem xt mt v d minh ho c
yu cu chuyn i ni dung thng tin t khe thi gian TS3 sang TS8.
Theo nguyn tc ghi vo tun t, ni dung thng tin trong TS3 s c lu vo ngn nh s
3. Vi yu cu chuyn i trn, h thng x l trung tm s chuyn thng tin ti CMEM thng
qua ng d liu iu khin, b nh CMEM s lu ch s khe thi gian TS3 ti ngn nh s
8. Con tr a ch ca CMEM s qut ln lt, ng b vi cc khe thi gian trn tuyn PCM,
nh vy khi con tr a ch ch n ngn nh s 8 trng vi thi im xut hin khe thi gian
s 8 trong khung PCM. B chn SEL1 s chuyn tn hiu c ti CMEM CMEM chuyn
d liu iu khin ti SMEM, thng tin cn chuyn t CMEM ti SMEM trong trng hp
ny l 3 (0011) SEL2 a con tr a ch ti nh s 3, ng thi cp tn hiu iu khin
c ra ni dung thng tin ti nh s 3 ca SMEM.
Nh vy, ti thi im xut hin khe thi gian TS8, ton b ni dung thng tin ca TS3
c chuyn qua trng chuyn mch. Qu trnh chuyn mch c lp li theo chu k 125s
hnh thnh nn knh thng tin qua trng chuyn mch. Nu cng vi yu cu chuyn mch
t TS3 sang TS8 v trng chuyn mch hot ng theo kiu ghi vo c iu khin v c ra
tun t RWSR (Random Write Sequence Read) th ti ngn nh s 3 ca CMEM s lu thng
tin a ch TS8.
Trng chuyn mch thi gian T mang tnh khng gian nu xt trn kha cnh v tr thng
tin d liu trong cc ngn nh ca CMEM. Chuyn mch T lun gy tr tn hiu v tr ln
nht khng vt qu mt khung PCM, T
d
max = (n-1)TS. Do tc ghi c ca b nh yu
cu ln gp 2 tc lung PCM nn s lng khe thi gian trong mt khung khng vt qu
1024 TS do gii hn ca cng ngh vt liu in t. m rng dung lng, ngi ta la chn
gii php ghp vi cc trng chuyn mch khng gian S.
2.2.3. Trng chuyn mch ghp TST
Cc h thng chuyn mch s c nhn nhn nh l cc h thng tn tht, vn nng cao
hiu nng chuyn mch lun l vn hng u trong thit k ch to trng chuyn mch.
Trong k thut chuyn mch knh, cc hin tng tc nghn c coi l tham s ch yu
nh gi cht lng dch v h thng v ch yu ri vo cc h thng chuyn mch s dng
tng S. Trong khi vic s dng cc chuyn mch khng gian S trong h thng chuyn mch l
mt trong nhng nhu cu bt buc p ng dung lng cn thit trong thc tin. Mc tiu
kt ni a tng chuyn mch khng ch nhm tng dung lng h thng m cn lm gim bt
phc tp v s lng thit b trong trng chuyn mch, kt ni a tng gm hai kiu: kiu
kt ni y v kt ni tng phn u nhm mc tiu xy dng trng chuyn mch khng
tc nghn (non-blocking).

31
Trc khi tm hiu nguyn tc hot ng ca trng chuyn mch ghp kiu TST, ta xem
xt m hnh ghp ni 3 tng chuyn mch khng gian theo nh l Clos.
M hnh ghp ni c lin kt y 3 tng chuyn mch c th hin trn hnh 2.9 (a) di
y. Ma trn chuyn mch khng gian c N u v M u ra (NxM) c kt ni bi r
1
ma
trn tng A (kch thc n x r
2
), r
2
ma trn tng B (kch thc r
1
x r
3
) v r
3
ma trn tng C (kch
thc r
2
x m). Vi gi thit r
2
=1, r
1
=n v r
3
=m ta c m hnh kt ni trn hnh 2.9(b).
nh l Clos pht biu nh sau: Ma trn chuyn mch kt ni 3 tng khng tc nghn khi v
ch khi s kt ni trung gian r
2
n + m -1 (2.3). Trng hp c bit khi n=m th r
2
2n-1.

Hnh 2.9: Ma trn kt ni 3 tng chuyn mch

Chng minh:
Mt ma trn chuyn mch khng tc nghn hon ton khi ton b cc yu cu u vo bt k
c u ni ti cc u ra bt k. Gi thit c n-1 ng vo yu cu chim, vy c n-1
ng lin kt gia tng A v tng B b chim. Tng t nh vy, nu u ra c m-1 ng b
chim th s c m-1 ng lin kt gia tng B v tng C b chim (hnh 2.9b).
Trng hp xu nht xy ra khi n-1 ng lin kt A-B u ni ti cc khi chuyn mch
tng B khc bit hon ton vi m-1 ng lin kt B-C. Vy tng s khi chuyn mch trong
tng B bng (n-1) + (m-1) m bo khng tc nghn ngay c khi trng hp xu nht xy
ra.
Ma trn chuyn mch khng tc nghn hon ton khi ng vo th n ca tng A kt ni
c ng ra th m ca tng C, dn n s lng khi chuyn mch trong B ti thiu phi d
1 khi cho ng dn cui cng ny. Hay ni cch khc s lng lin kt ti thiu r
2
(n-1) +
(m-1) +1 = n + m -1.

32
Nu ma trn chuyn mch l ma trn vung (N=M), (n = m) v (r
1
= r
3
), ta c s lng im
kt ni cho l:
C = 2Nr
2
+ r
1
2
r
2
= 2N(2n-1) + r
1
2

(2n-1) = (2n-1) ( 2N + N
2

n
2
) (2.3)
Khi kch thc ca trng chuyn mch ln, n ln ta c th tnh s lng im kt ni cho C
xp x theo cng thc (ct 2.4) sau.
C 2n (2N + N
2
n
2
)= 4nN + 2N
2
n (2.4)
ti u s im kt ni cho, ly vi phn C theo n (dC/dn) v cho kt qu tin ti 0 ta c
n (N/2)
1/2
(2.5). Thay n t cng thc 2.5 vo cng thc 2.4 ta c:

3/ 2 3/ 2
4 2. ( ) C N O N = = (2.6)
Nh trn cng thc 2.6 ch r, chuyn mch kt ni 3 tng Clos gim phc tp phn
cng (s tip im u ni cho) xung cn N
3/2
thay v N
2
trong ma trn kt ni crossbar m
vn m bo c mc tiu khng tc nghn.
C rt nhiu m hnh phi kt hp ghp ni trng chuyn mch T v S nh: TS, ST, STS
v TST,v..v [3]. Mi dng ghp ni u c nhng u nhc im nht nh v trong phn ny
ta xem xt m hnh kt ni ph bin trong cc h thng chuyn mch knh hin nay, m hnh
ghp ni TST. Trng chuyn mch ghp TST nhm gii quyt bi ton m rng dung lng
v s dng cho cc kt ni hai hng trong trng chuyn mch thc t. Theo l thuyt,
trng chuyn mch TST c h s tp trung l 1:1 v m bo khng tc nghn khi s lng
khe thi gian trn lin kt trung gian tun th theo nh l Clos ( cng thc ct 2.3).
Nh mc 2.2.2 trn y trnh by, trng chuyn mch thi gian T c th hot ng theo
hai kiu iu khin u vo (RWSR) v iu khin u ra (SWRR), v vy khi ghp 2 tng T ta
s c 4 phng n ghp ni.
Trong v d trn hnh 2.10 di y ta chn chuyn mch thi gian tng T1 hot ng theo
nguyn tc SWRR v chuyn mch thi gian tng T2 hot ng theo nguyn tc RWSR, A
truyn v nhn thng tin d liu trn TS5, B truyn v nhn thng tin d liu trn TS10, khe
thi gian trung gian gia T1-S v S-T2 c chn l TS15, thng tin iu khin ti cc CMEM
tng T c vit tt di dng a(b) [a: ch s ngn nh, b: ni dung ngn nh] . Ni dung
thng tin trn cc b nh CMEM c trnh by vn tt nh sau:
Hng kt ni t A-B qua SMEM 1(T1) S SMEM N (T2), cc b nh CMEM 1
(T1) v CMEM N (T2) c ni dung tng ng 15(5) v 15(10).
Hng kt ni t B-A qua SMEM N (T1) S SMEM 1 (T2), cc b nh CMEM
N(T1) v CMEM 1 (T2) c ni dung tng ng 15(10) v 15(5).
T ni dung cc khi iu khin chuyn mch T nh trn hnh v, ta nhn thy hai khi
iu khin CMEM 1(T1) v CMEM 1(T2) hon ton ging nhau, cng nh vy i vi
CMEM N (T1) v CMEM N (T2).



33

Hnh 2.10: Trng chuyn mch ghp TST
tit kim s b iu khin ta c th s dng 01 b iu khin s dng iu khin chung
cho 2 b iu khin. V trng hp ang xt l trng hp c bit khi ta chn khe thi gian
trung gian ging nhau (TS15), iu ny s khng ng vi trng hp tng qut khi A v B
cng c kt ni ti cng mt khi chuyn mch thi gian trong tng T1, hin tng tranh
chp s xy ra khi c hai yu cu u vo TS5 v TS10 cng mun ra u ra TS15. Mt gii
php trnh trng hp ny l s dng kt ni th hai (B-A) qua tuyn trung gian c khe thi
gian l TS15 + n/2. Lc ny ni dung b iu khin tng ng l: CMEM 1(T1) : 15(5);
CMEM 1 (T2): 15+n/2 (5); CMEM N (T1): (15+n/2) (10); CMEM N (T2) : 15(10).
Khi s dng mt b nh i ngu nh trn hnh 2.10 (A*) ta hon ton c th iu khin
c hai b iu khin CMEM ti hai tng chuyn mch bng mt khi iu khin.
Trng hp s dng mt b nh dng chung nh trn hnh 2.10 (B*) khi ta chn chuyn
mch tng T1 hot ng theo nguyn tc RWSR v chuyn mch tng T2 hot ng theo
nguyn tc SWRR.
Vn chn khe thi gian trung gian trong trng chuyn mch TST iu khin kt ni
gia cc tng T v S l mt khu quan trng trong qu trnh x l chuyn mch. Phng php
tm kim khe thi gian trung gian ri c thc hin mt cch n gin qua vic x l tm
kim cc cp bit (bn/ ri) ti u ra tng T1 v u vo tng T2. Phng php c xut
tm kim cc cp bit ri ti hai u l phng php tm kim kiu mt n chn knh. Cc bit
trong thanh ghi ch th trng thi v thanh ghi mt n th hin r s bn/ri ca cc knh thng
qua bn nh nh x trng thi.
Hnh 2.11 di y ch ra nguyn tc hot ng ca phng php mt n chn knh.

34

Hnh 2.11: Phng php chn knh ri theo mt n chn knh
Thanh ghi trng thi l s nh x trng thi hin thi ca cc knh c chn (bit 1 th
hin trng thi ri ca knh, bit 0 th hin trng thi bn ca knh). Thanh ghi mt n l mt
logic nh phn c di bng thanh ghi trng thi, trn tn ti 02 bit c gi tr 1 v cn li l
cc bit c gi tr 0. Thanh ghi mt n c nhim v la chn 2 khe thi gian ri (u vo v u
ra) cho kt ni, cc bit 1 s di chuyn trong thanh ghi mt n cho n khi trng khp v tm
c khe thi gian ri tng ng trong thanh ghi trng thi, kt qu thu c thng qua mt
php AND n gin gia thanh ghi trng thi v thanh ghi kt qu. 3 thut ton thng c
s dng trong cch thc di chuyn mt n gm: Ngu nhin lin tip, c nh- lin tip v
phng php th lp.
(i) Phng php ngu nhin - lin tip: phng php ny da trn nguyn tc tm kim ngu
nhin mt khe thi gian ri, nu khe thi gian u tin chn ngu nhin khng tho mn yu
cu, h thng dch chuyn lin tip trong ton di nhm tm khe thi gian tho mn yu cu.
Phng php ny to ra hiu ng chim dng cc b t cc im xc lp ngu nhin, thi gian
tm kim s ko di khi s lng knh b chim tng ln.
(ii) Phng php c nh lin tip: Phng php ny ch nh khe thi gian u tin sau
tm lin tip trn ton di. Hiu ng tri di cc knh b chim dng bt u t knh c chn
v xc sut chn knh trong phng php ny khng ging nhau.
(iii) Phng php th lp: Phng php ny da trn c tnh ca lu lng yu cu v s
chim dng ngu nhin ca cc khe thi gian. Qu trnh th lp da trn theo khong thi gian
chim dng khe thi gian. Phng php ny c bit hiu qu nu m hnh lu lng u vo
c xc nh.
2.3. NH TUYN TRONG CHUYN MCH KNH
Mng chuyn mch in thoi cng cng PSTN l h thng phn cp, qu trnh nh tuyn
cho cc cuc gi trong mng da trn a ch ch, cc h thng nt mng thc hin qu trnh
nh tuyn thng qua a ch v cc phng php bo hiu. Cc phng php nh tuyn phi
thng nht vi k hoch nh s, tnh cc, truyn dn v bo hiu. Mc di y s trnh by
v mt s c im c bn ca k hoch nh s trong mng PSTN.
2.3.1. K hoch nh s trong mng PSTN
Nguyn tc c bn ca k hoch nh s trong mng PSTN phi m bo 3 yu t:
(i) Cung cp nhn dng duy nht trong phm vi quc gia v quc t,
(ii) p ng c cc yu cu tng trng ca thit b u cui,
(iii) di cc con s ph hp vi khuyn ngh ca t chc vin thng quc t.
Tiu chun nh s ITU-T E.164 ra i vo thng 5 nm 1997, thuc vo seri E: "Hot ng
chung ca mng, dch v in thoi, hot ng dch v v cc tc nhn con ngi", quy nh

35
cc "Hot ng, nh s, nh tuyn v cc dch v di ng - Hot ng quc t - Quy hoch
nh s cho dch v in thoi quc t". Trong E.164 quy nh "Quy hoch nh s vin
thng cng cng quc t".
E.164 tp trung quy nh cu trc s v chc nng ca 3 dng c bn ca s s dng trong
vin thng cng cng quc t l theo vng, dch v chung v theo mng. E.164 quy nh c th
mi loi tin t cn thit cho tng mc ch nhm thng nht vic nh s ton cu cho mi
loi nhu cu dch v. N cng cung cp cc quy c dng nh tuyn cuc gi gia cc s
v nhm s trn ton h thng.
Chun E.164 quy nh tng di cc con s khng vt qu 15 digits, c phn cp
thnh cc vng m: m quc gia, m vng, m tng i v cc con s thu bao. Cc h thng
m ny thng i km vi m trung k to ra cc tin t c nh (prefix), cc h thng chuyn
mch da trn cc tin t phn bit cc cuc gi ra trong vng, trong nc hoc quc t.
Cn c vo cc a ch tin t, h thng bng bin dch ca h thng chuyn mch s lu cc
nh x a ch logic sang a ch vt l s dng trong qu trnh nh tuyn. Mt v d v h
thng nh s theo vng a l nh sau: +84 4 556 9999; Trong : + l tin t cho bit s vin
thng l y ; 84 l m quc gia ca Vit nam, 556 9999 l s thu bao gm 556 l m tng
i v 9999 l mt phn khc thu bao.
2.3.2. Cc phng php nh tuyn trong mng chuyn mch knh
nh tuyn trong mng chuyn mch knh l qu trnh xc nh ng i gia cc nt
mng m bo ti u v kinh t v k thut ca mng, cc iu kin phi tun th trong qu
trnh nh tuyn trong mng PSTN gm: Khng lp vng gia cc nt mng, th tc iu khin
n gin, s dng v qun l thit b hiu qu v p ng c cc yu cu thay i trong
tng lai. Hai phng php nh tuyn c bn thng s dng trong mng chuyn mch knh
l nh tuyn c nh v nh tuyn lun phin.
nh tuyn c nh thng c s dng trong cc kt ni trc tip hoc cc mng cp
thp. phng php ny n gin v nhanh chng khi ton b cc hng u c ngm nh.
nh tuyn c nh b hn ch khi xy ra s c v khng linh hot la chn tuyn, dn ti kh
nng tc nghn cao khi lu lng khng n nh.











Hnh 2.12: nh tuyn lun phin
nh tuyn lun phin bao gm hai kiu lun phin c nh v lun phin ng, trong thc
t vic p dng nguyn tc nh tuyn lun phin c thc hin nh hnh 2.12. Trong , lu
nt A
nt B
nt C
Trung k
Nt chuyn tip T
Tuyn trc tip
Tuyn d phng

36
lng gia hai nt mng A v C c th thc hin qua hai tuyn: tuyn trc tip A-C, tuyn trn
A-T-C. Nguyn tc chung khi cc knh trn tuyn A-C b chim ht th lp tc lu lng trn
s c chuyn sang tuyn A-T-C. Nu lc , tuyn A-T-C m cng b chim ht th lu
lng trn ny s b tn tht.
Trong nh tuyn nh hnh 2.12, c gi l nh tuyn lun phin c nh bi v mi mt
tuyn s knh c khai bo s dng l c nh c tnh ton da trn kt qu d bo lu
lng. Trong trng hp kt qu d bo lu lng sai th s xy ra hai trng hp: lu lng
s b tn tht nhiu dn n cht lng dch v khng cao hoc cc knh b tha nhiu dn n
hiu qu s dng knh khng cao.
Trong nh tuyn lun phin t ng, nu mt cuc gi thnh cng trong mt tuyn cho
th vic chn mch c lu li. Tri li, i vi la chn hin ti m cuc gi khng thnh
cng th s thc hin mt la chn mi cho cuc gi tip theo. Do s dng bo hiu knh
chung gia cc tng i kt hp vi cc tng i c cc tuyn ni n nhiu trung tm bc cao
hn th c th to nn mt k hoch nh tuyn lun phin t ng phc tp. Nh vy, nu mt
cuc gi gp tc ghn ti mc cao hn trong phn cp, n c th quay li tng i bc thp hn
v chn mt tuyn i khc.
nh tuyn lun phin t ng s nh tuyn li cc cuc gi ra t mt tuyn mc s dng
cao bt c khi no m n khng th chuyn ti lu lng c. iu ny c th xy ra nu c
s thay th tuyn lu lng cao hn hng hc. Nh th rt c li v lu lng vn n c
ch ca n trong khi n khng th lm c nu ch c cc tuyn trc tip. Tuy vy, nu b
sung thm mt lu lng ln vo tuyn trung k c th gy nn tc ghn cc cuc gi cho cc
im thu m ch do tuyn ny phc v (n s n hu ht cc tng i khc trong mng). Mt
gii php cho kh khn ny l dnh trc ng trung k. Mt phn cc mch trn tuyn cui
cng c dnh ring cho cc cuc gi m ch xy ra trn tuyn . Nh vy, cc cuc gi ny
vn t c mt mc dch v hp l khi lu lng trn qua mt tuyn tng bt thng.
khc phc nhc im trn kiu nh tuyn lun phin ng c a ra. N c chia
thnh hai loi: nh tuyn ng theo trng thi trung k v nh tuyn ng theo thi gian.
Nguyn tc nh tuyn ng theo trng thi trung k : truyn ti lu lng gia hai nt
mng, s lng knh trn cc hng khng gn c nh. Trong trng hp c cc cuc gi
xut hin gia hai nt trung tm qun l mng s xc nh c trng thi cc knh trn cc
hng v iu khin chim vo mt knh ri. thc hin c nguyn tc ny cn phi
xy dng c mt mng qun l tng th. Mt trung tm qun l mng s kt ni ti tt c
cc phn t trn mng thng qua mt mng truyn s liu v x l cc s liu v tnh trng
chim dng cc trung k.
Nguyn tc nh tuyn ng theo thi gian: Trong thc t lu lng xut hin trong mt khu
vc hay gia hai nt mng l thay i theo gi trong ngy. V d nu vng phc v ca hai nt
mng l khu thng mi th lu lng vo bui sng hoc chiu l rt cao, trong khi lu
lng vo bui ti thp. Ngc li, trong cc khu dn c, lu lng vo bui ti thng cao
hn ban ngy. m bo p ng c s thay i ln v lu lng nh vy ti cc nt
mng s lng knh cung cp cho cc tuyn s thay i theo nhu cu mt cch t ng (theo
gi). nh tuyn lun phin t ng phc tp hn c th gy ra tc nghn bt ngun t mt
phn ca mng dn n s bng n lu lng trn qua cc tuyn khc. R rng iu ny l
khng mong mun, nn ngi ta da vo k thut qun l mng. Mt trung tm qun l tp
trung c th gim st lu lng trn cc tuyn khc nhau v nu cn n c th gim hoc ct

37
ton b lu lng bt ngun t cc trung tm chuyn mch ngn nga s qu ti. Theo kiu
nh tuyn chuyn mch theo thi gian, cc thay i nh tuyn thay th lun ph hp vi iu
kin lu lng trong mi mt chu k thi gian (tc l ngy/ m, ngy trong tun, cc dp c
bit).
2.4. CC TRNG CHUYN MCH TRONG THC TIN
Trong mc ny ta xem xt hai dng cu trc trng chuyn mch thc t ca h thng chuyn
mch NEAX-61 v h thng chuyn mch A1000 E10.
(i) Trng chuyn mch trong h thng NEAX-61
H thng chuyn mch NEAX-61 chia thnh cc phn h: Phn h ng dng, phn h chuyn
mch, phn h x l v phn h vn hnh, bo dng. Phn h chuyn mch bao gm mng
chuyn mch phn chia thi gian, b iu khin ng thoi. Mng chuyn mch phn chia
thi gian l trng chuyn mch ghp TST. B iu khin ng thoi iu khin chuyn
mch thi gian TSW v chuyn mch khng gian SSW theo cc bn tin iu khin t b x l
cuc gi CLP thng qua HUB trong phn h x l. Cu trc ghp ni trng chuyn mch
c th hin trong hnh 2.13 di y.
SSW J HWI TSW KHWI
J HW
J HW
DTIC
LOC
RLUIC
DLTC
Phn h ng
dng
KHW DN
KHW UP
TSC
HUBIU
HUB
HUBIU
SSC
Mng phn
chia thi
gian
iu khin
ng
thoi dng
cho c
im
khng tc
nghn
HUB CLP Phn h x l
Phn h chuyn mch
TSM SSM

Hnh 2.13: Cu trc phn h chuyn mch ca tng i NEAX-61
Cc khi chc nng c bn trong phn h chuyn mch gm:
Giao tip KHW (KHWI) Card P-8A4W: Nhn cc loi tn hiu t TSC v tng hp cc mu,
ng k knh trng thi ST ri gi chng ti khi x l bn tin giao thc PMH; la chn khi
chuyn mch thi gian TSW lm vic, tm cc li v thng bo ti h thng; ghp tn hiu
thoi t TSW, tn hiu trng thi t khi iu khin chuyn mch thi gian TSC v tn hiu bn
tin t HUBI thnh tn hiu KHW. v gi tn hiu KHW ti phn h ng dng.
Khi giao tip Hub (HUBIU) Card P-8A8J: Tp hp li cc tn hiu bn tin t d liu ph hp
nm trong cc t bo iu khin nhn c thng qua Hub v gi cc tn hiu ti TSC v
KHWI; tch cc tn hiu bn tin nhn c t TSC v KHWI, chn cc tn hiu vo t bo iu
khin ti Hub.

38
Khi chuyn mch thi gian TSW Card P-8A4X: Thc hin chuyn mch thi gian ca tn
hiu thoi nhn c t KHWI ph hp vi tn hiu iu khin t TSC v gi tn hiu thoi
thng qua JHW ti SSW; nhn cc thng tin li t HUBIU, TSW, KHWI v cc khi khc v
gi cc thng tin ti b x l cuc gi CLP.
Khi chuyn mch khng gian SSM Card P-8A4S:Thc hin chuyn mch khng gian v giao
tip vi chuyn tip ng cao tc JHW; thc hin chuyn mch khng gian ca tn hiu thoi
nhn c t JHWI ph hp vi tn hiu iu khin t SSC v gi chng ti JHWI.
(ii) Trng chuyn mch trong h thng A1000 E10.
H thng chuyn mch A1000 E10 c cu trc phn chia theo cc trm (phn h). Trng
chuyn mch ca h thng A1000 E10 nm trong trm iu khin ma trn SMX. H thng ma
trn chuyn mch thit lp tuyn ni gia cc khe thi gian cho cc n v truy nhp thu bao
v cc trm SMT, SMA. c im chnh ca ma trn chuyn mch l:
Cu trc kp hon ton (2 nhnh CCXA v CCXB) vi mt tng chuyn mch phn
chia theo thi gian (T).
M rng ti 2048 tuyn ni PCM trn mt nhnh m khng gy ra gin on.
Chuyn mch 16 bit qua mi khe thi gian.
Ngoi 8 bit quy c ca knh chuyn mch phn chia theo thi gian, cc bit cn li c dng
nh sau: 3 bit iu khin cung cp cc qu trnh kim tra chuyn mch v qun l vic lp li
ca h thng ma trn chuyn mch; 5 bit thc hin chuyn mch ngoi bng, v d bng cch
truyn cc tn hiu kt hp vi cc tuyn ni chuyn dng.












Hnh 2.14: S cu trc ca CCX
H thng ma trn chuyn mch kp c cha cc thit b chn nhnh v khuych i (SAB),
mt ma trn chuyn mch chnh (MCX) v cc ng ni ma trn (LR) vi tc 4Mb/s. Cc
ng ni ma trn c chia thnh LRA (i vi nhnh A) v LRB (i vi nhnh B). Cu
trc ca CCX c ch ra trn hnh 2.14 trn y.
Ma trn chuyn mch chnh MCX c chia thnh 2 nhnh A v B v ng trn gc
phn cng, n c to thnh t cc trm iu khin u ni SMX. Mt nhnh ca ma trn
chuyn mch chnh bao gm ti a 8 trm SMX nhn tn hiu ng b (8 Mhz) v tn hiu
ng b khung t khi c s thi gian kp 3 STS.





mcxb





Ma trn chuyn mch
chnh



MCXA



MCXA
Cc trm hoc
CSNL
Cc trm hoc
CSNL
LRB LRB
SMT
SMA
CSN
SMT
SMA
CSN
LRA
H thng ma trn chuyn mch CCX
LRA
LA LA
LA
LA



SAB

39













Hnh 2.15: Ma trn chuyn mch phn chia thi gian ca SMX
Mi trm SMX x l 256 ng ni ma trn vo (LRE) v 256 ng ni ma trn ra
(LRS). u vo, khi ra khi cc giao din ILR, cc ng ni LCXE (ng ni ni b ti
ma trn chuyn mch chnh, xut pht t mt SMX ti mt SMX khc) cng s th t c
a ti v tr ging nhau ca tt c cc trm SMX. Mi ma trn chuyn mch phn knh theo
thi gian c kh nng chuyn mch bt k khe thi gian no trong s 2048 LRE ti bt k khe
thi gian no trong s 256 LRS.
Trong SMX, ma trn phn knh theo thi gian ca n bao gm cc khi c s chuyn mch
phn knh theo thi gian 64x64 nh trn hnh 2.15. Cu trc gm 32 ct, mi ct c 4 khi c
s to mt ma trn ca SMX vi dung lng ti a 2048 ng vo LRE v 256 ng ra
LRS. Tt c hot ng kt ni khe thi gian u thng qua khi c s v thi gian truyn trung
bnh l 1 khung (125 ms). SMX l ma trn vung vi mt tng T c cu trc kp hon ton,
cho php pht trin u ni n 2048 ng mng (LR).
Tm tt chng 2
Trong chng 2 trnh by v cc c im c bn ca k thut chuyn mch knh, tp trung
vo gii quyt cc vn : nguyn l hot ng ca trng chuyn mch thi gian, trng
chuyn mch khng gian, gii php nng cao dung lng h thng chuyn mch knh thng
qua phng php ghp ni cc trng chuyn mch T v S, nguyn l c bn ca k thut nh
tuyn trong mng chuyn mch knh v v d v cu trc trng chuyn mch trong thc tin.

Khi c s
1.32
Khi c s
1.2
Khi c s
1.1
Khi c s
2.32
Khi c s
2.2
Khi c s
2.1
Khi c s
3.32
Khi c s
3.2
Khi c s
3.1
Khi c s
4.32
Khi c s
4.2
Khi c s
4.1

256 LRS
64
64 64
64
64
64
64

40
Chng 3
K THUT CHUYN MCH GI
Trong s pht trin ca h tng vin thng, chuyn mch gi tr nn rt quan trng trong h
thng truyn thng khi cc dch v s liu tng v vt s lng dch v thoi. Chng ny s
trnh by cc c im quan trng trong k thut chuyn mch gi gm: c s k thut chuyn
mch gi, cc nguyn tc, cu trc hot ng ca cc h thng chuyn mch gi, trng
chuyn mch gi. Vi mc tiu hng ti cc gii php k thut chuyn mch v nh tuyn,
hng tip cn trong chng ny s xoay quanh m hnh kt ni m OSI v gii thiu c th
cc cu trc trng chuyn mch gi cng vi phng php lun nghin cu cc vn ny.
3.1. C S K THUT CHUYN MCH GI
K thut chuyn mch gi da trn nguyn tc chuyn thng tin qua mng di dng gi.
Gi tin l thc th truyn thng hon chnh gm hai phn: Tiu mang cc thng tin iu
khin ca mng hoc ca ngi s dng v ti tin l d liu thc cn chuyn qua mng. Qu
trnh chuyn thng tin qua mng chuyn mch gi c th khng cn xc lp ng dnh ring
v cc mng chuyn mch gi c coi l mng chia s ti nguyn. Cc gi tin s c chuyn
giao t cc nt mng ny ti nt mng khc trong mng chuyn mch gi theo nguyn tc lu
m v chuyn tip, nn mng chuyn mch gi cn c coi l mng chuyn giao trong khi
mng chuyn mch knh c coi l mng trong sut i vi d liu ngi s dng.
Trn hng tip cn tng i n gin t kha cnh dch v cung cp, cc dch v c
cung cp trn mng vin thng chia thnh dch v thoi v dch v phi thoi, trong i din
cho dch v phi thoi l dch v s liu. Chng ta hiu rng, s ho v gi ho thoi l hai vn
hon ton khc nhau, trong mng chuyn mch in thoi cng cng PSTN hin nay tn
hiu thoi c s ho, v k thut chuyn mch truyn thng c p dng l k thut
chuyn mch knh. D liu thoi ch c gi l gi ho nu nhng gi ny c chuyn
ti trn mng chuyn mch gi. Trong mc ny chng ta s xem xt nhng vn k thut c
bn c ng dng trong h thng chuyn mch: K thut chuyn mch knh v k thut
chuyn mch gi. Mng in thoi cng cng (PSTN) c pht trin trn mng chuyn mch
knh cung cp cc dch v thoi truyn thng. Cc mng d liu nh cc mng cc b LAN
(Local Area Network), mng Internet l mng chuyn mch gi rt thch hp trao i d
liu. Trong Bng 3.1 ta thy s khc bit gia cc dch v thoi (chuyn mch knh) v dch
v d liu (chuyn mch gi).
c im Dch v thoi Dch v d liu
Bng thng
Bng pht bng thng
Nhy cm vi li
Pht li thng tin
tr
Kiu kt ni
C nh v thp (di 64kb/s)
Khng
m thoi li nu c li
Khng th thc hin c
Thp v n nh
Hng kt ni
thay i (c th ln ti Gb/s)
Ln (100/1000:1)
Khng cho php li
Thc hin d dng
Ln v c th thay i
C th l phi kt ni
Bng 3.1: So snh mt s c im ca dch v thoi v d liu
Cc dch v thoi trong mng PSTN hin nay s dng k thut iu ch PCM v chim
bng thng 64kb/s. Nu chng ta c th cung cp bng thng ln hn cho mi cuc gi th cht

41
lng cuc gi thoi cng khng v th m tt hn. Tri li, i vi cc dch v d liu bng
thng rt quan trng. Mt s ng dng i hi bng thng ti 1Gb/s hoc cao hn. S thay i
v bng thng thng c gi l bng n bng thng. Trong khi dch v thoi c cung cp
bi k thut chuyn mch knh lun i hi bng thng khng i, ngc li cc dch v d
liu c th c nhu cu v bng thng thay i ti hng trm, thm ch hng ngn ln.
tr l tham s rt quan trng nh gi cht lng mng in thoi. Cc cuc gi thoi
i hi thi gian tr thp v n nh. Nhiu mng d liu cng c yu cu tr tng i
thp, tuy nhin khng i hi s n nh. Chng hn trong khi truyn file vic cc gi tin ca
u hay cui file n trc khng c ngha g. m bo tr thp v n nh mng
PSTN c thit k l mng nh tuyn theo hng kt ni. Mt s mng d liu cng l mng
hng kt ni, tuy nhin mt khi yu cu v tr khng qu ngt ngho th mng d liu
thng c xy dng theo m hnh phi kt ni.
3.1.1. M hnh kt ni h thng m OSI.
Trong khong gia nhng nm 70, cng nghip my tnh bt u pht trin rt mnh, v nhu
cu kt ni thng tin qua mng tng ln rt nhanh. Cc h thng my tnh cn trao i thng tin
qua rt nhiu hnh thi khc nhau ca mng. H thng m ra i nhm tiu chun ho cho tt
c cc u ni gi l m hnh kt ni h thng m OSI.
Mc tiu ca m hnh OSI (Open System Interconnection) l m bo rng bt k mt x l
ng dng no u khng nh hng ti trng thi nguyn thu ca dch v, hoc cc x l
ng dng c th giao tip trc tip vi cc h thng my tnh khc trn cng lp (nu cc h
thng cng c h tr theo tiu chun ca m hnh OSI). M hnh OSI cung cp mt khung
lm vic tiu chun cho cc h thng. Cu trc phn lp c s dng trong m hnh v c 7
lp, c th phn loi thnh 2 vng chnh.

Hnh 3.1: M hnh phn lp OSI RM
Lp thp cung cp cc dch v u cui - ti - u cui p ng phng tin truyn s
liu, cc chc nng hng v pha mng t lp 3 ti lp 1.
Lp cao cung cp cc dch v ng dng p ng truyn thng tin, cc chc nng
hng v ngi s dng t lp 4 ti lp 7.
M hnh OSI c th chia thnh ba mi trng iu hnh:
Mi trng mng: lin quan ti cc giao thc, trao i cc bn tin v cc tiu chun lin quan
ti cc kiu mng truyn thng s liu khc nhau.

42
Mi trng OSI: Cho php thm vo cc giao thc hng ng dng v cc tiu chun cho
php cc h thng kt cui trao i thng tin ti h thng khc theo hng m.
Mi trng h thng thc: Xy dng trn m hnh OSI v lin quan ti c tnh dch v v
phn mm ca ngi sn xut, n c pht trin thc hin nhim v x l thng tin phn
tn trong thc t.
Cc lp Chc nng V d ng dng
Lp ng dng Qun l truyn thng gia
cc ng dng
Cc giao thc:
Telnet, FTP
S dng cc bn tin
Lp trnh din Thm cc cu trc vo n
v s liu trao i
Giao thc : Bin
i, nn, gii nn.
S dng k thut
thay i s liu; nn,
v gii nn
Lp phin Qun l cc dch v v iu
khin lung s liu
Cc giao thc:
SIP, RTCP
S dng cc cuc
gi th tc t xa
Lp truyn ti tin cy v ghp cc s
liu truyn qua mng
Cc giao thc:
TCP, UDP
S dng cc
segments
Lp mng Truyn s liu qua mng Cc giao thc:
IP,IPX
S dng tiu
(datagram)
Lp lin kt s
liu
Truyn dn, khung v iu
khin li
Cc giao thc:
PPP, HDLC,
ATM, FR, MPLS
S dng khung, gi,
t bo
Lp vt l Giao tip c, in ti
phng tin truyn thng
Card giao tip
mng
S dng bt

Bng 3.2: Tm tt chc nng cc lp ca m hnh OSI
Nhng mi trng ny cung cp nhng c tnh sau:
Giao tip gia cc lp.
Chc nng ca cc lp, giao thc nh ngha tp hp ca nhng quy tc v nhng quy
c s dng bi lp giao tip vi mt lp tng ng tng t trong h thng t
xa khc.
Mi lp cung cp mt tp nh ngha ca nhng dch v ti lp k cn.
Mt thc th chuyn thng tin phi i qua tng lp.
Cc chc nng chi tit ca cc lp c nh ngha trong tiu chun ISO 7498 v chun X.200
ca ITU-T. Cc c tnh c bn c tm tt nh sau:
(i). Lp ng dng
Cung cp cc dch v truyn thng ca ngi s dng vi cc dng thc s liu, bo hiu
iu khin v cc p ng ca cc thit b u cui, cc h thng giao thc iu khin cc ng
dng thng qua cc phn t dch v ng dng, qun l truyn thng gia cc ng dng.

(ii). Lp trnh din

43
Lp trnh din chu trch nhim to ra cc khun dng d liu cho lp ng dng tng thch
gia cc ng dng v h thng truyn thng. Cc giao thc lp trnh din a ra cc ngn ng,
c php v tp c tnh ph hp cho truyn thng, ng thi thng nht cc m, d liu cho
cc dch v lp ng dng.
(iii). Lp phin
Lp phin qun l cc dch v v iu khin lung s liu gia cc ngi s dng tham gia
vo phin truyn thng, cc giao thc lp phin ch ra cc lut v phng php thc hin phin
truyn thng m khng can thip vo ni dung truyn thng.
(iv). Lp truyn ti
Lp truyn ti cung cp cc dch v truyn ti d liu t u cui ti u cui, cung cp kh
nng truyn ti c tin cy gia cc thit b u cui m khng lin quan trc tip ti phn
cng mng truyn thng. p ng cc yu cu ca lp phin qua cht lng dch v, kch
thc n v d liu, iu khin lung v cc yu cu sa li.
(v). Lp mng
Lp mng cung cp chc nng nh tuyn, thit lp v qun l cc kt ni trong mng, cc
giao thc lp mng cung cp thng tin v cu hnh logic ca mng, a ch v nh x cc kt
ni ti cc thit b vt l trong mng.
(vi). Lp lin kt d liu
Lp lin kt d liu hot ng trn cc lin kt d liu hoc mt phn mng ca kt ni, lp
lin kt d liu cung cp cc chc nng lin quan ti h thng truyn dn nh ng b, iu
khin lung d liu, pht hin v sa li truyn dn v ghp hp cc knh logic trn ng dn
vt l.
(vii). Lp vt l
Lp vt l cung cp mi trng truyn dn, tn hiu ng h v cch thc truyn bit trn
phng tin truyn dn. Cc chun ca lp vt l cung cp cc c tnh v nguyn tc giao tip
c, in, sng ti phng tin truyn thng.
3.1.2. Nguyn tc c bn ca chuyn mch gi
Chng 2 xem xt cc c tnh c bn ca k thut chuyn mch knh, chng ta nhn
thy rng k thut chuyn mch knh thng c ng dng cho cc dch v thi gian thc,
hng kt ni v lu lng khng bng pht. Trong khi mc tiu ca chuyn mch gi l
s dng cho d liu nn lun phi sn sng chp nhn lu lng bng pht trong khi c th
khng cn hng kt ni hoc thi gian thc.
c tnh hng kt ni yu cu cc giai on kt ni phn bit gm: thit lp kt ni, truyn
thng tin v gii phng kt ni. Mt kiu kt ni khc i ngc vi kiu hng kt ni l kiu
phi kt ni. Phi kt ni cho php cc thc th thng tin c truyn c lp vi cc c tnh kt
ni c th hin trong cc tiu thc th thng tin. Cc giai on kt ni nh trong chuyn
mch knh khng cn tn ti m thay vo l phng php chuyn theo mt giai on duy
nht gm c ba giai on.
Hnh 3.2 di y ch ra s khc bit c bn xt theo phng din kt ni ca cc phng
thc chuyn mch knh, chuyn mch bn tin v chuyn mch gi.

44

Hnh 3.2: Cc phng php chuyn mch c bn
S khc bit gia chuyn mch bn tin v chuyn mch gi nm ti qu trnh x l bn tin,
chuyn mch gi thc hin vic phn on bn tin thnh cc thc th ph hp vi ng
truyn v cu hnh mng, cc gi c th c kch thc thay i hoc c nh, phng php
chuyn mch vi cc gi c kch thc c nh c gi l chuyn mch t bo (cell). Nh
vy, mt bn tin ngi dng c th phn thnh nhiu gi. Sau qu trnh chuyn mch cc gi
s c ti hp hon nguyn li thng tin ca ngi s dng [7]
Qu trnh phn mnh v to gi c thc hin ti cc lp trong m hnh OSI th hin trong
hnh 3.3 di y.

Bn tin nguyn thu ( di L bit)
Thng tin CRC
Tiu
Trng thng tin c di (M bit)
Ti tin (N bit)
Tiu CRC
Bt bt u khung Bt kt thc khung

Hnh 3.3: ng gi d liu theo m hnh OSI
K thut chuyn mch gi cho php kt ni thng tin t u cui ti u cui qua qu trnh
chia s ti nguyn, s dng cc tp th tc v cc lin kt c tc khc nhau truyn cc
gi tin v c th chuyn gi trn nhiu ng dn khc nhau. C hai kiu chuyn mch gi c
bn: chuyn mch datagram DG (datagram) v chuyn mch knh o VC (Virtual Circuit).
Trn hnh 3.4 m t s lc 2 kiu chuyn mch ny.

45

Hnh 3.4: Chuyn mch Datagram v chuyn mch knh o
(i).Chuyn mch Datagram: Chuyn mch datagram cung cp cho cc dch v khng yu cu
thi gian thc. Vic chuyn gi tin ph thuc vo cc giao thc lp cao hoc ng lin kt
d liu. Chuyn mch kiu datagram khng cn giai on thit lp kt ni v rt thch hp i
vi dng d liu c lu lng thp v thi gian tn ti ngn. Chuyn mch datagram l chuyn
mch kiu n lc ti a (best effort), cc thng tin v tr s khng c m bo cng nh cc
hin tng lp gi, mt gi cng d dng xy ra i vi kiu chuyn mch ny. Cc datagram
phi cha ton b cc thng tin v a ch ch v cc yu cu ca lp dch v pha trn c
th hin trong tiu , v vy tiu ca datagram l kh ln. Tuy nhin, chuyn mch
datagram cho php la chn cc con ng ti ch nhanh nht p ng cc thay i nhanh
ca mng.
(ii) Chuyn mch knh o: Chuyn mch knh o VC (Virtual Channel) yu cu giai on
thit lp tuyn gia thit b gi v thit b nhn thng tin, mt knh o c hnh thnh gia
cc thit b trong ng dn chuyn mch; knh o l knh ch c xc nh khi c d liu
truyn qua v khng ph thuc vo logic thi gian. Chuyn mch knh o yu cu mt tuyn
hin ngay trong qu trnh nh tuyn v knh o c nhn dng thng qua trng nhn dng
knh o VCI (Virtual Channel Identifier) nm ti tiu gi tin. Trong qu trnh thit lp knh
o, nhn dng knh o VCI c to ra bi cc node chuyn mch ch nh cc ngun ti
nguyn ca gi tin s chuyn qua (v d: b m, dung lng lin kt).
Mt khi knh o c thit lp dc theo tuyn ng t ngun ti ch qua cc lin kt v
cc node th knh c s dng truyn cc gi tin. Cc gi c VCI trong tiu c th c
s dng nh con tr truy nhp ti cc thng tin lu tr ti cc nt chuyn mch. Cc trng
nhn dng knh o cn phi duy nht phn bit cc thng tin ngi s dng v ti s dng.
Nu s dng cc VCI cho ton b mng th s lng VCI rt ln v khng ngng tng ln theo
kch c mng. V vy, ngi ta s dng cc nhn dng knh o theo cc vng cc b, thm ch
l trn tng lin kt. Vi cch ny, khi mt VC khi to mi mt nt chuyn mch dc tuyn
ng s phi xc lp cc nhn dng knh o trn cc lin kt u vo v lin kt u ra ca
nt chuyn mch . Cc nt phi tho thun vi nhau v nhn dng knh o duy nht trn lin
kt gia hai nt cho mt knh o.
Nhn dng knh o trn cc lin kt u vo v u ra khng cn thit phi ging nhau, vic
chuyn thng tin da trn tiu gi tin c cha VCI s thc hin vic chuyn i thng tin
trong cc VCI u vo ti VCI u ra. Tt c cc gi c gi trn cng mt knh o VC s
theo cng mt ng dn, v vy th t v thi gian tr lan truyn c khng ch. iu ny
rt hu ch i vi cc lu lng thi gian thc v c thi gian tn ti di. Nu knh o li
hoc hng, cc h thng nh tuyn s tm mt con ng khc thay th. Cc phng php tm

46
ng v thit lp ng dn s c trnh by trong mc nh tuyn. Khi mun gii phng
knh o, gi tin iu khin ngt u ni c truyn ti tt c cc thit b m knh o i qua
gii phng ti nguyn v knh o s c ti s dng cho cc kt ni khc.
3.2. CC KIN TRC CA TRNG CHUYN MCH GI
Trc khi tm hiu cc vn lin quan ti kin trc trng chuyn mch gi, ta xem xt s
lc cc cu trc c bn ca h thng chuyn mch gi hin nay, cc h thng chuyn mch
gi trong mng internet c cn c gi l cc b nh tuyn.
c rt nhiu cu trc c ng dng cho cc b nh tuyn, cc cu trc c la chn
a vo khai thc da trn rt nhiu yu t gm gi thnh, dung lng, cht lng yu cu v
cng ngh hin thi.
Th h th nht ca b nh tuyn tng i n gin nu chng ta nhn nhn t phng din
cu trc (xem trn hnh 3.5).

Hnh 3.5: Kin trc b nh tuyn th h u tin
B nh tuyn s dng bus truyn thng gm mt b x l tp trung a chc nng, b m
tp trung v mt BUS chung chia s d liu cho cc card ng truyn u vo v u ra. B
nh tuyn nhn cc gi tin ti giao din v gi cc gi tin ny ti b x l trung tm (CPU).
CPU c nhim v xc nh chng n tip theo ca gi tin v gi chng ti giao din u ra
tng ng. Cc gi tin i vo b nh tuyn phi c truyn trn cng mt bus lp lch
trnh ti u ra v thng c lu m ti mt b nh d liu tp trung. Cc card giao tip
ng truyn l cc thit b khng cha kh nng x l gi.
Nhc im c bn ca m hnh kin trc ny l d liu phi i hai ln qua bus sau khi vo
b nh tuyn v bus ch c th c s dng cho mt card ng truyn ti mt thi im.
Mt nhc im khc na l h thng x l ca b nh tuyn, vi chc nng a x l, CPU s
phi thc hin rt nhiu cng vic gm c chc nng nh tuyn ln chuyn gi, n to ra mt
ti trng ln cho cc b x l ng thi to ra hin tng nghn c chai ti b nh tuyn.
Hiu nng ca b nh tuyn th h u tin ph thuc rt ln vo tc bus v nng lc x
l ca b x l trung tm. Kin trc ny khng th p ng c nhu cu lu lng ngy cng
tng ca cc giao din mng vi tc ln ti nhiu gigabit.
Thit k c bn ca b nh tuyn th h th hai c ch ra trn hnh 3.6 sau y. B nh
tuyn c b sung cc b x l ASIC v mt vi b nh trong card ng truyn nhm phn
tn hot ng chuyn gi, gim lu lng ti trn bus dng chung. Nhng thnh phn b sung

47
ny c th thc hin tm kim trong tiu gi tin cc thng tin v thc hin lu m gi tin
n khi bus ri, c ngha l kin trc ny cho php x l gi tin ngay ti cc giao din.

Hnh 3.6: Kin trc b nh tuyn th h th hai
Trong kin trc ny, b nh tuyn gi mt bng nh tuyn trung tm v cc b x l v
tinh ti cc giao din mng. Nu mt tuyn ni khng c sn trong bng lu m th giao din
s yu cu ti bng bin dch ti trung tm, nh vy, ti tc cao cc b x l trung tm vn
xy ra hin tng tc nghn v c qu nhiu yu cu cn x l ti cc giao din mng v thi
gian x l chm hn rt nhiu nu nh d liu ny c cache ti card ng dy.
Hn ch c bn ca kin trc ny l lu lng ph thuc rt ln vo kh nng x l ca
CPU v nng lc ca BUS, tuy nhin chng ta c th thy r bin php ci thin hiu nng h
thng qua vic tng cng tnh nng cho cc giao din, bng cch s dng b nh ln hn vi
cc bng nh tuyn c kch thc tng ln. Mt gii php khc nhm phn tn v gim tc
truyn bng cc khi chuyn gi song song, nh vy cu trc ny tn dng c bng thng
ca BUS s dng chung. Tuy nhin, cc b nh tuyn th h 2 ch tn ti trong mt khong
thi gian ngn v khng h tr c yu cu thng lng li mng li, cu trc s dng bus
lm phng tin truyn bc l im yu r rt v rt kh thit k ti tc cao.

Hnh 3.7: Kin trc ca b nh tuyn th h th ba

48
gii quyt vn tc nghn ca cc b nh tuyn th h th hai, th h b nh tuyn
th ba c thit k vi mc tiu thay th bus s dng chung bng trng chuyn mch. Cc
thit k cho b nh tuyn th h th 3 nhm gii quyt 3 vn tim tng trc y: Nng lc
x l, kch thc b nh, v bng thng ca bus. C 3 vn ny u c th trnh c bng
cch s dng mt kin trc vi nn tng l ma trn chuyn mch v cc giao din c thit k
hp l.
Hnh 3.7 ch ra mt kin trc thng dng nht, b nh tuyn c chia thnh hai mt bng
x l ring bit: Mt bng nh tuyn gm b x l, b nh iu hnh v c s d liu s dng
cho cc giao thc nh tuyn; mt bng chuyn tip gi tin c xy dng trn c s ma trn
chuyn mch gi v c iu khin trc tip bi bng thng tin chuyn tip gi tin. Mt bc
tin quan trng trong vic xy dng cc b nh tuyn hiu nng cao l tng cng x l cho
tng giao din mng gim thiu khi lng x l v ngun ti nguyn b nh ca b nh
tuyn. Cc b x l a nng v cc mch tch hp c bit hon ton c th gii quyt vn
ny. Tuy nhin, kh nng x l tng th cho cc gi tin qua h thng nh th no cn ph
thuc vo kh nng tm v chn tuyn, cng nh kin trc trng chuyn mch c la chn.
3.2.1 Tng quan v kin trc trng chuyn mch gi
Nh phn trn trnh by cc th h b nh tuyn khng s dng trng chuyn mch
trong mt bng chuyn tip gp rt nhiu tr ngi khi x l tc cao bi cc gii hn ca b
x l v mt tc , kin trc khng phn tn chc nng v c coi nh l mt kiu chuyn
mch phn chia thi gian. Nn hu ht cc b nh tuyn tc cao hin nay u s dng
trng chuyn mch khng gian.
Cc trng chuyn mch gi c kh nng lu m v chuyn tip cc gi tin c di thay
i hoc c nh, nn chin lc s dng b m phi ph hp vi kin trc ca trng
chuyn mch, cc b m c th c b tr ti u vo, u ra hoc trung tm trng chuyn
mch. Cc vn lin quan n s dng b m s c trnh by c th trong mc 3.2.3.
Hnh 3.8 di y ch ra mt cch nhn tng quan v cc kiu kin trc trng chuyn mch
gi. M hnh ny da trn cch phn chia ca cng ngh chuyn mch t bo ATM, l cng
ngh chuyn mch gi c kch thc gi c nh. Cc ng dng trng chuyn mch tc
cao ph bin hin nay u da trn nguyn tc chuyn mch kiu t bo ny [4].
Hnh 3.8: Phn loi trng chuyn mch gi
Da trn k thut chuyn mch cc trng chuyn mch gi c phn chia thnh hai
nhm tng t nh trong k thut chuyn mch knh: Chuyn mch phn chia theo thi gian
TDS ( Time Division Switching) v chuyn mch phn chia khng gian SDS (Space Division

49
Switching). Chuyn mch phn chia thi gian TDS chia thnh hai kiu: chia s b nh v chia
s phng tin. Chuyn mch phn chia theo khng gian chia thnh hai nhnh chnh: Chuyn
mch n ng v chuyn mch a ng. Trong mc ny chng ta xem xt mt s c im
c bn, cc u nhc im ca cc ma trn chuyn mch ny.
(i) Chuyn mch phn chia thi gian
Cu trc chuyn mch phn chia theo thi gian TDS c nhn nhn nh mt cu trc
truyn thng n chia s ti nguyn cho cc gi tin vo/ra h thng. Thnh phn chia s ti
nguyn ny c th l Bus, mch vng Ring hoc b nh. Nhc im ln nht ca k thut ny
l gii hn dung lng ca cu trc truyn thng ni. Tuy nhin, cc cu trc ny c th d
dng m rng h tr cho cc iu hnh kt ni a hng hoc multicast. Mt s b nh
tuyn IP vn s dng kin trc ny v thuc v cc th h u v th h hai ca b nh tuyn.
Chuyn mch chia s phng tin: Trong chuyn mch chia s phng tin, cc gi tin ti
cng vo c ghp knh theo thi gian v chuyn trn phng tin (bus hoc mch vng
ring). thng qua ca phng tin chia s ny quyt nh nng lc ca ton b chuyn mch.

Hnh 3.9: Cu trc trng chuyn mch chia s phng tin
Nh ch ra trn hnh 3.9 cc cng u ra c gn trc tip vi b lc a ch AF (Address
Filter) v b m FIFO (First in First Out). AF xc nh a ch ca cc cng u vo v lc
cc a ch c u ra tng ng trn cng u ra. Cc b lc a ch v cc b m trn cc
cng u ra hot ng c lp v c th thit k ring bit nhng iu cng l tr ngi khi
s lng mch logic rt ln. thc hin chuyn mch qua phng tin s dng chung, h
thng chuyn mch chia thi gian thnh N khe thi gian TS v trong cc khe thi gian nht
nh cc gi c truyn qua phng tin chung.
im bt li ln nht ca kin trc ny l kch thc trng chuyn mch N b gii hn bi
tc b nh. Trong thc t, khi tt c N gi u vo u cng ra mt cng u ra, FIFO
khng th lu ton b N gi tin trong mt khe thi gian nu trng chuyn mch c kch thc
ln v tc u vo qu cao. Vic thiu b nh m FIFO s gy tc nghn cc b ti u ra
v cc gi s b tn tht trong khi cc b nh ti cc cng khc c th cn trng m khng
c s dng.
Chuyn mch chia s b nh: Trong cu trc chia s b nh nh ch ra trn hnh 3.10 di
y, cc gi tin c ghp theo thi gian thnh mt lung d liu n v chuyn tun t vo
b nh chia s.

50

Hnh 3.10: Kin trc trng chuyn mch chia s b nh
Cn c vo tiu ca gi tin, cc gi tin s c chuyn ti cc u ra tng ng. a ch
cung cp cho cc gi tin ghi vo v c ra c iu khin bi module iu khin theo cc
thng tin trong tiu gi tin.
u im ca kiu trng chuyn mch chia s b nh ny l c th ti u c b nh khi
chia s ti nguyn. Kch thc ca b nh c th t ph hp vi yu cu gi t l mt mt
t bo di mt gi tr chn trc. Tuy nhin, nhc im chnh cng ny sinh t vn b
nh ny, b nh phi duy tr mt khng gian ti thiu ng thi phi mm do p ng s
bng n ca lu lng. ng thi tc ghi c b nh phi ln gp N ln tc lung u
vo (N). C hai kiu chia s b nh l phn hoch hon ton v chung hon ton. Hai kiu
chia s ny hng ti hai tiu ch ngc nhau: tiu ch chia s v tiu ch cng bng. V vy,
nu chn mt tiu ch th tiu ch cn li s l nhc im.
(ii) Chuyn mch phn chia khng gian
Trong chuyn mch khng gian cc ng dn c thit lp ng thi gia cc cng u
vo v cc cng u ra, hot ng cng mt tc s liu nh ti u vo v u ra. Hn na,
y khng cn b iu khin tp trung m c phn b trong ton b trng chuyn mch.
Theo l thuyt, dung lng ca trng chuyn mch khng gian l v hn, tuy nhin trong
thc t dung lng b hn ch bi s lng cc u ni vt l, gii hn ca kt ni v ng b
h thng.
Trng chuyn mch phn chia theo khng gian c th khng p ng c vic thit lp
cho tt c cc yu cu u ni ng thi v n ph thuc rt nhiu vo cu trc ca chuyn
mch. Trng hp gi l tc nghn ni, v l vn trung tm ca trng chuyn mch
khng gian. Thm ch nu trng chuyn mch l khng tc nghn, vn c th xy ra trng
hp c nhiu hn 1 u vo cng mun u ni ti u ra trong cng mt thi im. y l
hin tng gi l nghn u ra. Vn tranh chp u ra c gii quyt bi gii php b tr
cc b m trong trng chuyn mch. Cc kiu b tr b m s c trnh by trong mc
3.2.3.
SDS c phn chia da trn s lng ng dn kh dng gia cc cp u vo v u
ra, trong cc chuyn mch n ng, ch tn ti mt ng dn gia mt cp u vo/ra,
trong khi chuyn mch a ng tn ti nhiu hn mt ng dn gia mt cp u
vo/ra.Trong chuyn mch n ng c cc kiu chuyn mch crosbar, chuyn mch kt ni
y v chuyn mch banyan. Trong chuyn mch a ng gm: chuyn mch Banyan m
rng, chuyn mch clos, chuyn mch a mt v chuyn mch quay vng.

51
Chuyn mch crossbar: Chuyn mch crossbar l mt ma trn chuyn mch hai chiu thng
l ma trn vung (NxN), c cu to bi cc phn t kt ni cho hai trng thi ( cross bar).
Hnh 3.11 ch ra v d ca mt ma trn crossbar kch thc (4x4).

Hnh 3.11: Kin trc ma trn chuyn mch Crossbar
Trong k thut chuyn mch knh, cc tip im c iu khin t mt trung tm iu
khin khu vc LOC (Local Controller). Trong ma trn crossbar ca k thut chuyn mch gi,
cc phn t u ni cho thc hin trc tip vic kt ni. c tnh t kt ni l mt c im
ring ca trng chuyn mch gi, chc nng ny cn c gi l chc nng t nh tuyn (s
c cp mc 4.2.2). Kin trc trng chuyn mch kiu Crossbar c 3 c im u vit:
Khng tc nghn ni, cu trc n gin v c th cu trc theo module. Tuy nhin, phc tp
phn cng s tng theo s lng im kt ni cho v bng O (N
2
) v vn c th xy ra kh
nng tranh chp u ra.
Chuyn mch kt ni y : Trng chuyn mch vi cc kt ni trung gian y cho php
cc gi tin lun la chn c mt tuyn ng gia hai cng ca trng chuyn mch. Kiu
kt ni ny m bo kh nng khng tc nghn ca trng chuyn mch nhng tng phc
tp ca phn cng khi s im kt ni tng ln. Trng chuyn mch kt ni y hot ng
tng t nh trng chuyn mch chia s phng tin. Hnh 3.12 ch ra mt v d ca kiu
trng chuyn mch kt ni y .

Hnh 3.12: Chuyn mch khng gian kiu kt ni y
Cc gi tin u vo c pht qung b trn ton b cc cng u ra, v vy mt s gi t
cc u vo khc nhau c th yu cu ra ng thi mt cng u ra ti mt thi im, gii

52
quyt vn ny cc b m s c b tr ti trung tm hoc ti u ra ca cc cng. Chuyn
mch kt ni y c tc x l tiu rt ln khng gian tiu yu cu N
2
bus qung
b ring bit. y chnh l nhc im ln nht ca kiu trng chuyn mch ny. u im
ca trng chuyn mch kt ni y nm ch n gin v cu trc khng tc nghn.
Chuyn mch da trn cu trc Banyan: Chuyn mch da trn cu trc banyan l mt h
chuyn mch t nh tuyn da trn cc phn t chuyn mch (2x2). Mng banyan l mng
cho php kt ni bt k mt u vo n mt u ra bt k. Cc trng chuyn mch trong h
Banyan gm c: delta, omega v mng banyan. S khc bit ch yu ca cc trng chuyn
mch l cch kt ni trung gian nh ch ra trn hnh 3.13 di y.

Hnh 3.13: Cc trng chuyn mch trong h bayan
Cc kiu chuyn mch da trn cu trc banyan c mt s u im chnh:
phc tp phn cng ca cc im kt ni cho gim xung O( N log
10
N);
Khng cn c ch nh tuyn;
C th xy dng cc cu trc song song phc v cho cc kt ni a ng.
Mt nhc im c bn ca cc trng chuyn mch da trn cu trc banyan l tc nghn
ni. Tc nghn ni lm gim hiu nng ca trng chuyn mch ng k khi kch thc ca
trng chuyn mch tng ln. Gii php hin nay i vi cc trng chuyn mch ny l s
dng b m hoc tng tc ca cc lin kt gia cc trng chuyn mch.

Hnh 3.14: Kin trc cc trng chuyn mch a ng

53
Chuyn mch da trn cu trc banyan m rng: Kin trc trng chuyn mch banyan m
rng trnh by trn hnh 3.14 (a), y l phng php m rng theo chiu ngang. Vic m rng
thm tng chuyn mch ng ngha vi vic to thm c hi chn ng cho cc gi tin i
trong ni b trng chuyn mch. V vy, hin tng mt gi s gim xung so vi trng
chuyn mch banyan. Nhc im ca trng chuyn mch da trn cu trc mng banyan m
rng l vn nh tuyn phc tp cng vi phc tp phn cng s tng ln cng vi s
im kt ni cho.
Chuyn mch da trn cu trc ghp Clos: Trong mc 2.2.3 ti chng 2 trnh by v
phng php ghp ni Clos, trng chuyn mch clos cho php gim phc tp ca h thng
xung cn O (N
3/2
) nh trn cng thc 2.7. Nhc im ca trng chuyn mch ny l cn c
mt c ch iu khin thng minh v nhanh sp xp cc gi tin vo ma trn chuyn mch.
Trong thc t, rt kh t c kh nng khng tc nghn nu trng chuyn mch khng phi
l trng chuyn mch khng tc nghn hon ton, nht l vi cc dng lu lng khng ng
dng nh lu lng mng chuyn mch gi. Vic tng cc kt ni trung gian cng s lm gim
kh nng tc nghn nhng ng thi li lm tng phc tp ca iu khin. Mt gii php
khc c th thc hin khc phc nhc im trn l b tr b m vo tng chuyn mch
trung gian.
Chuyn mch da trn cu trc a mt: Nh ch ra trn hnh 3.14 (c) trng chuyn mch gm
nhiu mt nhm mc ch tng kh nng thng qua ca trng chuyn mch. S dng mt s
k thut nhm phn chia lu lng u vo. Chuyn mch da trn cu trc a mt gim hin
tng tranh chp trong trng chuyn mch. Cc u im khc ca kiu kin trc ny l tc
ca u ra ch bng tc u vo v tin cy ca h thng s tng ln khi c cc trng
chuyn mch hot ng song song. Tuy nhin, tnh tun t ca cc gi tin s khng c m
bo nu nh khng cng c truyn trn cng mt mt.
Chuyn mch da trn cu trc quay vng: Chuyn mch quay vng ch ra trn hnh 3.14 (d)
c thit k trnh tranh chp u ra. Vic quay vng cc gi tin khng tm ng a ch
ch v cc cng u vo tng t nh mt qu trnh tr thi gian. T l tn tht gi tin s gim
xung v lm tng thng qua ca trng chuyn mch. Tuy nhin, nhc im ca chuyn
mch quay vng l yu cu s lng chuyn mch ln tng ng vi s cng, hn na vic
quay vng c th gy ra li nn cn phi thm mt s c ch iu khin v lm phc tp hn
cho h thng chuyn mch.
3.2.2 Cc trng chuyn mch mng Banyan
Nh mc 3.2.1 trnh by, c rt nhiu kiu trng chuyn mch s dng trong cng ngh
chuyn mch gi, mi mt kiu kin trc u c nhng u nhc im ring. Cc kiu kin
trc chuyn mch ghp a tng thng c s dng trong cc h thng chuyn mch gi
trong thc t, iu ny cng xy ra tng t nh trong k thut chuyn mch knh.Trong mc
ny ta tp trung vo mt s vn c bn lin quan ti cc trng chuyn mch banyan. Cc
c tnh c bn ca mng banyan gm:
(1) Mng banyan gm k = log
2
N tng v mi tng c N/2 node.
(2) Mng banyan c c tnh t nh tuyn qua s dng k bit a ch, mi bit s dng nh
tuyn qua mt tng.
(3) Lut u ni d dng c thc hin bng cc mch in t tch hp cao VLSI.

54

Hnh 3.15: V d v mng banyan (8x8)
Hnh 3.15 trn y ch ra mt v d v nh tuyn qua mng banyan (8x8) n gin vi cc
phn t u ni l ma trn (2x2), trong trng hp tng qut mng banyan c cu thnh t
cc phn t ma trn (b xb). Cc ng m ch ra con ng nh tuyn, tuyn ni xc nh
bng mt chui gm k bit nm trong tiu ca gi tin (b
1,
b
2
, ..b
k
). Ti tng u tin, bit b
1

c kim tra: nu gi tr b
1
= 0 gi tin s c chuyn ra ng lin kt ra pha trn, nu gi
tr b
1
=1 gi tin s c chuyn ra ng lin kt pha di. Tng t nh vy cho n tng
cui cng.
(i) c tnh kt ni lin tng ca mng banyan.
Cc kt ni cho c th th hin di dng hm u vo v d trn hnh 3.15 ta c: I (0) =0,
I(1)=2, I(2)=4, I(3)=6, I(4)=1, I(5)=3, I(6)=5, I(7)=7. t p l ch s lin kt tng v p
2
p
1
p
0
l
dy nh phn biu din s lin kt. V d: p=3 ( 011 di dng m nh phn) th p
2
=0, p
1
=p
0
=1.
ta c I(p
2
p
1
p
0
) = p
1
p
0
p
2
. Bng mt php chuyn n gin ta c c mt hon v xo trn,
vi dy k bit, hon v tng t nh lnh quay tri ca vi x l v c th biu din di cng
thc sau:
p
k-1
p
k-2
.....p
0
p
k-2
....p
0
p
k-1
(3.1)

Nh vy, cc c tnh (1), (2) hon ton c tho mn nh trn hnh 3.15 ch ra, ma trn ghp
hp u ni nh trn hnh c nhim v cn bng lu lng u vo ti cc tng trung gian.
Cng thc 3.1 gii thch c tnh (3) khi s dng cc tnh nng c bn ca vi x l thc hin
u ni lin tng.
(ii) Hin tng nghn ni trong mng banyan.
Hin tng tc nghn ni trong trng chuyn mch banyan xy ra khi c hin tng tranh
chp lin kt gia cc tng chuyn mch. Ni cch khc, hin tng tc nghn ni xy ra khi :
khng c mt u vo ri gia hai u vo hot ng bt k v cc a ch u ra ca cc gi
u trn cng mt cng pha trn hoc pha di. Hnh 3.16 di y ch ra hin tng nghn
ni ca ma trn banyan.

55

Hnh 3.16: Hin tng nghn ni trong chuyn mch Banyan
trnh hin tng nghn ni cng nh nng cao hiu nng chuyn mch, mng banyan
thng c kt hp vi k thut phn l batcher. Mng phn l c to ra t mt lot cc
mng ghp hp vi cc kch thc khc nhau, mng ghp hp (Merge) l mng c kh nng
phn l hai chui c th t c chiu di N/2 thnh mt chui c th t chiu di N. Hnh 3.17
ch ra mng phn l batcher (8 x8) gm 3 mng ghp hp vi 3 kch thc khc nhau: Bn ma
trn kch thc (2x2); Hai ma trn kch thc (4x4) v mt ma trn kch thuc (8x8).

Hnh 3.17: Mng phn l kt ni kiu banyan
Mng ghp hp c to thnh t cc phn t (2x2) trong cc tng v kt ni gia cc phn
t tng t nh mng banyan. Ta gi thit rng, nu th t ca cc na tng u vo u tin
tng dn v tng th hai gim dn th mng ghp hp s phn l thnh mt danh sch tng dn
ti cc u ra (c tnh bitonic).
Danh sch ngu nhin ca 8 gi u vo s c phn thnh 4 danh sch hai gi 2 danh
sch 4 gi v cui cng l mt danh sch ca 8 gi. Mt mng ghp hp (NxN) gm log
2
N
tng, mi tng cha N/2 phn t chuyn mch vy tng s chuyn mch l: S(N)= (Nlog
2
N)/2
chuyn mch. Vy mng phn l s c 1+2+.... log
2
N = (log
2
N)(log
2
N +1)/4 tng v c
(Nlog
2
N)(log
2
N+1)/4 phn t. Mi mt phn t chuyn mch c hai trng thi (0,1) v vy s
trng thi c tnh theo cng thc 3.2 di y:

2
log
2
2
N
N
N
banyan
St N = = (3.2)

tm cc iu kin khng tc nghn ni trong mng ghp hp phn l, ta xem xt trng hp
sau:

56
Xt trng hp hai gi tin cng i vo trng chuyn mch c a ch ngun v a ch ch
tng ng nh sau: gi th nht P1(s,d), gi th hai P2(s,d). Gi thit d > d v s > s.
Khi hai gi cng i ra t mng phn l ta c d-d s- s. Cn phi chng minh rng hai gi tin
ny phi c chuyn trn cc lin kt khc nhau ti tt c cc lin kt tng. Ta xt ti tng i
theo cng thc 3.1 ta c ch s ca lin kt gm mt dy s:
d
k-1
.... d
k-i
v s
k-i-1
...s
0
cho gi th nht
d
k-1
....d
k-i
v s
k-i-1
....s
0
cho gi th hai
Ti y c hai trng hp cn phi xem xt: (i) nu mt hoc nhiu hn mt bit trong tp
d
k-1
....d
k-i
v d
k-1
...d
k-i
khc nhau th hai gi s i trn hai lin kt khc nhau; (ii) mt khc, d
d < 2
k-i
iu c ngha l hai ch nh hn 2
k-i
khong lin kt. Khi ta c d d s s, 2
k-i

> s s > 0, nn cc ngun cng phi nh hn 2
k-i
khong lin kt. V vy, t nht l c mt bit
khc nhau gia s
k-i-1
... s
0
v s
k-i-1
...s
0
, iu chng t rng hai gi s i trn hai lin kt
khc nhau.
3.2.3 Cc chin lc s dng b m trong trng chuyn mch
Mt trong nhng tiu ch quan trng nht trong cc bi ton thit k xy dng trng
chuyn mch l hiu nng ca trng chuyn mch. Hiu nng ca trng chuyn mch c
nh gi qua rt nhiu tham s v u hng ti s ti u cc tham s. Mt s tham s c bn
ca trng mch gi gm:
(i) Kh nng thng qua ca trng chuyn mch: l lu lng truyn qua trng chuyn
mch, c nh ngha nh l xc sut mt gi tin truyn trong mt khe qua trng chuyn
mch ti u ra. thng qua ti a ca trng chuyn mch thng c gi l dung lng
chuyn mch, ch th mc ti thc hin c khi u vo c mc ti cao nht.
(ii) tr trung bnh ca gi: Thi gian trung bnh yu cu ca chuyn mch chuyn cc
gi t u vo ti u ra theo yu cu.
(iii) Xc sut mt gi: c nh ngha nh l xc sut m cc gi nhn c trong u vo
mt trong trng chuyn mch v trn b m hoc do tranh chp.
Mt h thng chuyn mch l tng cn phi chuyn tt c cc gi m khng gy mt mt vi
tr truyn c th nh nht, vi th t gi n nh. Hiu nng ca chuyn mch nh hng bi
mu lu lng ca cc gi i dn trng chuyn mch.
Qu trnh n n gin nht m t cho cc gi i n trng chuyn mch l qu trnh
bernoulli, l dy cc gi n u vo chuyn mch c lp vi p l xc sut n trong mt khe
thi gian. Thm na, yu cu phn b ti ch ti u ra l ng dng vi kiu gi u vo,
kiu lu lng ny cn gi Mu ngu nhin ng dng. Trong trng hp thc t, mu lu
lng th hin tnh c lp gia dng cc gi u vo v cc gi u ra. Hn na, cc gi ti
u vo trng chuyn mch c th khng tun theo bt k mt mu lu lng no, v d tt
c cc gi n cng mt lc v cng mun i ra trn cng mt cng.
Trong k thut chuyn mch t bo cc mu lu lng n c chia thnh hai dng: Mu
lu lng n ngu nhin theo tin trnh bernoulli, mu lu lng bng n n theo m hnh
ON/OFF. Cc kiu kin trc trng chuyn mch phn chia khng gian trnh by trn mc
3.2.3 cng nhm mc ch phn b li lu lng u vo ph hp vi kin trc trng chuyn
mch. Cc k thut trn gii quyt c phn no cc yu cu v kh nng khng tc nghn
(i), tn tht gi (iii) v ci thin thng qua ca trng chuyn mch. Cc vn lin quan

57
ti tr trong trng chuyn mch lin quan trc tip ti cu trc trng chuyn mch v l
nhc im c bn ca cc trng chuyn mch kiu quay vng gi tin.
Mt hng tip cn khc c s dng rng ri trong cc trng chuyn mch l chin lc
b tr cc b m nhm gii quyt tranh chp, phi hp lu lng v ci thin thng qua
ca cc trng chuyn mch s c trnh by vn tt di y. Cc chin lc s dng b
m sp xp cc hng i ti cc v tr : u vo, trung tm v u ra ca trng chuyn mch.
a) Chuyn mch m u vo
Cc trng chuyn mch m u vo gm mt ma trn khng gian b tr cc b m ti tt
c cc cng u vo gii quyt vn tranh chp. M hnh trng chuyn mch m u
vo c ch ra trn hnh 3.18 di y.

Hnh 3.18: Chuyn mch b tr m u vo
Cu trc trng chuyn mch gm ba khi chc nng :
B m u vo;
Khi chuyn mch khng nghn;
Khi gii quyt tranh chp.
Cc gi tin c lu gi u tin ti cc b m u vo ch cho n khi u ra ri. Mng
chuyn mch khng tc nghn thc hin chc nng nh tuyn ni b, c th c cu trc t
cc ma trn crrossbar. Khi gii quyt tranh chp phn b cc cp u v v cc cp u ra.
Mt u im quan trng ca chuyn mch hng i u vo l chuyn mch tc cao c th
thc hin d dng, bi v vi chuyn mch hng i u vo c tc hot ng b m mong
mun (tc ghi/c b nh) cn bng v xp x vi tc cng. V vy, chuyn mch vi c
ch m u vo c th tng kch thc tng i d dng.
Tuy nhin, chuyn mch m u vo phi i mt vi vn thng qua b hn ch bi
hin tng nghn u dng HOL (Head Of Line) v vn sp xp cc gi tin trnh tranh
chp ti u ra ca trng chuyn mch khng gian. Vn u tin c th c gii quyt
thng qua vic tng tc iu khin trng chuyn mch hoc m rng cc lin kt trung
gian. Vn chng tranh chp cng u ra s c thc hin qua cc lc iu khin, mt
lc iu khin thng dng nht c xut bi HUI [4] qua thut ton chim cng 3
giai on. Ngoi ra cn mt s lc da trn kiu quay vng cc khong thi gian chim
cng v phng php chim cng u ra o.
(i) thng qua ca trng chuyn mch m u vo: thng qua ca trng chuyn
mch m u vo ch t 58,6% do hin tng nghn u dng HOL. Mt s phn tch di
y ch ra tnh ton l thuyt cho gii hn ny. Gi thit trng chuyn mch trong trng thi

58
bo ho v lun c mt gi tin trong b m cn chuyn, bt c khi no c mt gi c
chuyn ti u ra th c ngay mt gi khc chim v tr u ca b m.
Gi B
mi
l s lng cc gi trong v tr u b m mun ti u ra i trong khe thi gian m,
ch c 01 gi tin c chuyn trong khe thi gian m. Gi A
mi
l s lng cc gi c chuyn
i ti u ra i t v tr u ca b m trong khe thi gian m. Mi quan h trn c biu din
trong cng thc 3.3.

( 1)
max(0, 1)
mi m i mi
B B A

= + (3.3)
Cng thc 3.3 trn tng t nh phng trnh tnh ton cho mt hng i n, khi B
mi
l s
lng gi trong hng i i trong khe thi gian m, A
mi
l s gi n hng i trong khe thi
gian m. Ni cch khc, mi cng u ra i c th coi nh l mt hng i o. Ta xem xt hng
i o ny vi F
m-1
l s lng gi chuyn quan trng chuyn mch trong khe thi gian (m-1)
ta c:

1
1
1 1
( ) 1
m
F k
m
mi
F
P A k
k N N


= =


(3.4)
Khi 0 k F
m-1
v
1 ( 1)
1 1
N N
m m i mi
i i
F N B A

= =
= =

(3.5)
Tc chuyn trn mi cng u ra l
0
/ F N = khi N A
mi
l phn b poisson vi
tc n
0
, hng i u ra o tng ng vi h thng M/D/1 vi thi gian i trung
bnh c a ra bi cng thc 3.6:

2
0
0
2(1 )
i
B

(3.6)
Mt khc ta c:

1
0
1
N
i
i
i
B
N F
B
N N

=

= = =

(3.7)
Ghp hai kt qu ca cng thc 3.6 v cng thc 3.7 ta c
0
2 2 58, 6% = = .
(ii) Thut ton gii tranh chp 3 pha: Thut ton gii tranh chp 3 giai on gm: Tm kim,
xc nhn chim cng, v gi gi tin. Trong pha th nht, tt c cc u vo u c cc gi u
tin ca hng (HOL), gi gi yu cu, ch cha a ch ngun v a ch ch qua mng l. Cc
gi c phn loi bi mng l loi ph hp vi ch yu cu. Tt c cc gi s c lc tm
a ch ch. Gi tm thy s c vng li, tt c cc gi u vo c cc gi vng li s gi gi
xc nhn ACK, cha a ch ngun ca gi vng nh l a ch ch cn i ti, qua mng L-
banyan. Cc u ra ca mng banyan c cp vi cc u vo xc nhn ng chim. Cc
ng chim ca cng u vo tip tc gi gi HOL ( pha 2 v 3) qua mng, v cc b m
u vo ch i chu k thi gian tip theo sau khi gi gi i t b m. Hot ng 3 pha ny
c m t trn hnh 3.19.

59

Hnh 3.19: Lu x l 3 giai on chng tranh chp
Nhc im ch yu ca lc ny nm ti 2 pha u khi x l tiu . Qu trnh gi
thng tin chim cng v xc nhn cng s lm tr qu trnh x l gi tin trong trng chuyn
mch, nht l khi trng chuyn mch c yu cu x l tc cao. Cc yu t ph thuc
vo tc x l nm ti kch thc ca trng chuyn mch v kch thc ca trng thng
tin. Vi gi thit ma trn chuyn mch c kch thc (1000x1000) v cc gi c di 1000
bit, tiu chim khong 14%. iu ny ng rng trng chuyn mch phi hot ng t
nht ti tc 170Mb/s chuyn cc lung 150Mb/s.
(iii)Thut ton gii quyt tranh chp da trn kiu nghch vng: Thut ton mch vng khng
cn chc nng phn loi, phi hp gia cc b m u vo c thc hin trn hai chu k
phc v: th nht cho nghn u ra qua kch hot cc b iu khin m, th hai l ch nh
cc u ra khng th phc v ti cc b iu khin m cn li. C ch nghch vng l c ch
phn chia thi gian logic theo chu k chn cng chuyn mch. Trong lc ny, cc b iu
khin cng u vo c lin u ni thnh cu trc mch vng. Mt token c to ra tun t
tng ng ti tt c cc cng u ra. Token c chim khi n ti ti cng u tin cha u
ra lin kt vi token. u vo no chim token u tin, th s c php chuyn gi tin ti
cng u ra tng ng. Ma trn chuyn mch khng cn y tc ln m vn thc hin c
nhim v chuyn mch.
Tuy nhin, c hai im hn ch vi kiu cu trc ny; tc bit tng ln trong mch vng
vi kch thc ca chuyn mch v khng tho mn iu kin cng bng ti qu trnh chim
token. Lc ny ch thch hp cho cc trng chuyn mch nh.
(iv) Cc cu trc gii quyt tranh chp khc: Chuyn mch s dng hng i u vo cng c
th ci thin c nng cao hiu nng ca trng chuyn mch. N c lu khi ti cao,
cc gi s b ri theo th t u tin. C th gii thch bng thc t, khi lu lng u vo l rt
cao duy tr cc cng u ra bn thay v loi b bt lu lng bng cch b bt cc gi.

60
Vi hai thut ton gii quyt tranh chp c th coi l mt bc pht trin ln khi so snh
vi cc chuyn mch hng i u vo thun tu. Chng khng m bo c t l mt mt t
bo khi lu lng cao. duy tr t l mt t bo, cc con ng phi c tm ra iu
khin nghn HOL. nghn HOL c th gim i theo nhiu cch: chuyn mch m rng, k thut
ca s, hoc k thut nhm knh.
Mt k thut na thng s dng cho chuyn mch c b m u vo l k thut ca s.
Trong k thut ny, tt c cc u vo c cho php gi cc yu cu cho cc gi ca n tun
t trong hng i ti im bt u ca khe thi gian , cho n khi mt trong s chng c
chim hoc c mt con s chc chn ca cc ln th ti a (gi l ca s) c tm thy. Thc
t n khng vt qu mt ca s kch thc w, khi n c ngha l cc thut ton trc y
chy w ln, v vy n cn tc bit rt cao. N ch ra qua m phng rng thng qua tng
ln cng vi kch thc ca ca s w. Nhung s ci tin ny khng s dng w ln hn 4 v ti
w=4 thng qua t 0.8.
Mt k thut khc cng c th c s dng nng cao thng qua ti a (kh nng ca
trng chuyn mch) l k thut nhm knh. Trong k thut ny, cc u ra chuyn mch
c chia thnh cc nhm knh kch thc R v cc gi c cng vo cc nhm knh thay v
tn ti di dng knh ring bit. N c kh nng ci thiu hiu nng, khi tng ti cung cp
ng thi trn cng mt nhm knh khng ging nh ti trung bnh v s lng ngun phc v
ln cho mt nhm knh.
Tuy nhin, cn c mt s vn cn quan tm trong m hnh ny l trong mt khe thi gian
khng ch c u ra xung t m cn phi x l trnh xung t cho c mt nhm knh khi
c ch nh trn cng mt tuyn truyn dn trong cng thi gian. Mng ch nh nhm knh
trong trng hp ca s kch thc N chy trn Log2R tng a ch phn cng. thng qua
c th t c trong trng hp ny l 0.9 trong trng hp nhm knh l 32. Vi cng mt
kch thc nhm knh v ca s, ci thin thng qua trong lc ny n gin hn so vi
lc ca s.
b) Chuyn mch m u ra
Nh ch ra trn hnh 3.20, chuyn mch m u ra c thc hin bi mt ma trn chuyn
mch khng gian u vo v mi u ra chuyn mch c trang b mt b m. Cc t bo
tranh chp cng mt u ra s c lu tr tm thi vo trong cc b m ny. Vi chuyn
mch (NxN) trong trng hp xu nht s c N t bo tranh chp trong mt khong thi gian
mt t bo. V vy, tc mong mun ca cc b m u ra l ln hn N ln tc ng
lin kt.

Hnh 3.20: Chuyn mch m u ra

61
V cc chuyn mch hng i u ra khng b nghn u dng tiu HOL, nn hiu nng
ca trng chuyn mch ny tt hn so vi cc trng chuyn mch trang b b m u vo.
Theo l thuyt xp hng, xc sut mt gi c xc nh bi hiu qu ca lin kt v kch
thc b m. Nu b m c kch thc N th khng c hin tng mt mt gi tin, trong khi
dung lng b m l (k N) th s gi tin c kh nng b mt do trn b m l (N-k). Mt s
tnh ton cho thy kch thc hng i thng rt nh (khong 2 t bo) th vn m bo c
hiu sut s dng lin kt l 0.8 [6]. Nu hng i c s dng ring r th kch thc trng
chuyn mch nh hng rt hn ch ti tr trung bnh. Cc tnh ton l thuyt cho thy
thng qua ca trng chuyn mch m u ra c th t ti 81%.
c) Chuyn mch c b m trung tm
B m trung tm cng c bit n vi tn gi l hng i chia x. Cc trng chuyn
mch c b m trung tm ch c mt hng i c chia x cho cc u vo v cc u ra.
Cu trc c bn ca trng chuyn mch c b m trung tm ch ra trn hnh 3.21. Vi kiu
hng i trung tm, tn ti mt b nh trung tm c th c truy nhp bi tt c cc u vo
v cc u ra. Cc t bo n c lu tr tm thi trong b m v cc u ra s la chn cc
t bo c ch ti n c ra. Nh vy, gii hn ca trng chuyn mch kiu ny l tc
truy nhp b nh.


Hnh 3.21: Trng chuyn mch m trung tm
thng qua ca trng chuyn mch loi ny tng ng vi trng chuyn mch s
dng b m u ra. Tuy nhin, khng gian b nh ca trng chuyn mch b m trung tm
nh hn ca trng chuyn mch s dng b m u ra v b nh c chia x.
V tip cn m trung tm tng t nh vi chuyn mch thi gian nn mt vn ng
ch l khi cc t bo u vo ti b m trung tm v c chuyn ra ti cc u ra khc
nhau, cc t bo s c c ngu nhin (c iu khin) ti cc vng nh ngu nhin, v vy
cn phi c mt chin lc qun l vng nh. Trong cc chuyn mch chia x b nh c mt
vn chung l hogging, xy ra trong trng hp lu lng khng ng nht. Mt u ni bt
k no c th chim ton b khng gian nh trong mt khong thi gian. Cc t bo khc
khng th c c hi chuyn mch trong thi gian ny. gii quyt vn ny c th c mt
phng n khc nhm phn hoch vng nh thnh cc vng nh hn c lp. Tuy nhin,
phng php phn hoch thnh cc vng nh nh hn s gy nn tn tht khi mt s lu lng
chim mt ng no ln trong khi cc ng khc khng c hoc rt t lu lng, iu
ny cng lm gim hiu nng tng th ca mng chuyn mch khi vic s dng b nh m
khng hiu qu.


62
3.3. K THUT NH TUYN TRONG MNG CHUYN MCH GI
Nh trong chng 1 nh ngha, nh tuyn l mt tin trnh la chn con ng cho
thc th thng tin chuyn qua mng. N c xem nh l kh nng ca mt node trong vn
la chn ng dn cho thng tin qua mng. nh tuyn l mt khi nim ct li ca mng
chuyn mch gi v nhiu loi mng khc nhau. nh tuyn cung cp phng tin tm kim
cc tuyn ng theo cc thng tin m thc th thng tin c chuyn giao trn mng. [7]
Mi nt trong mng nhn gi d liu t mt ng vo (incoming link) ri chuyn tip n
ti mt ng ra (outgoing link) hng n ch ca d liu. Nh vy mi nt trung gian
phi thc hin cc chc nng chn ng hay cn gi l nh tuyn v chuyn tip cho n v
d liu. Cc chc nng thuc lp mng - lp 3 ca m hnh OSI, v cc giao thc nh
tuyn hot ng trn lp lin kt d liu - lp 2 v cung cp mt dch v trong sut cho
tng giao vn, v vy chng phi di tng giao vn lp 4.
Mc tiu c bn ca cc phng php nh tuyn nhm s dng ti a ti nguyn mng, v ti
thiu ho gi thnh mng. t c iu ny k thut nh tuyn phi ti u c cc tham
s mng v ngi s dng nh : Xc sut tc ngn, bng thng, tr, tin cy, gi
thnh,v..v. V vy, mt k thut nh tuyn phi thc hin tt 2 chc nng chnh sau y:
(i) Quyt nh chn ng theo nhng tiu chun ti u no .
(ii) Cp nht thng tin nh tuyn, tc l thng tin dng cho chc nng (i)
Tu thuc vo kin trc, h tng c s mng m cc k thut nh tuyn khc nhau c p
dng. Cc tiu chun ti u khi chn ng dn t trm ngun ti trm ch c th ph thuc
vo yu cu ngi s dng dch v mng. Gia mng v ngi s dng c th c cc tho
thun rng buc v cht lng dch v cung cp hay mt s yu cu khc. iu c th dn
ti kh nng chn ng ca mng ch l cn ti u i vi mt loi hnh dch v c th, hoc
vi mt s nhm ngi s dng dch v c th. Chc nng cp nht thng tin nh tuyn l
chc nng quan trng nht m cc giao thc nh tuyn phi tha hnh. Cc gii php cp nht
thng tin nh tuyn a ra hin nay tp trung vo gii quyt bi ton cn i lu lng bo
hiu v nh tuyn trn mng vi tnh y v s nhanh chng ca thng tin nh tuyn. Cc
tiu ch c bn so snh gia cc giao thc nh tuyn s c ch ra trong phn sau vi cc
b tham s nh gi c th.
Trong cc mng my tnh c rt nhiu cc k thut nh tuyn khc nhau c a ra. S
phn bit gia cc k thut nh tuyn ch yu cn c vo cc yu t lin quan n 2 chc
nng chnh ch ra trn y. Cc yu t thng l:
(a) S phn tn ca cc chc nng chn ng trn cc nt ca mng.
(b) S thch nghi vi trng thi hin hnh ca mng.
(c) Cc tiu chun ti u nh tuyn.
Da trn yu t (a) ta c th phn bit k thut nh tuyn thnh: k thut nh tuyn tp trung
(centralized routing) v phn tn (distributed routing) . Da trn yu t (b) ta c k thut nh
tuyn tnh (static hay fixed routing) hoc ng (adaptative routing). Cui cng cc k thut
nh tuyn cng loi theo (a) v (b) li c th phn bit bi yu t (c). Tiu chun ti u
nh tuyn c xc nh bi ngi qun l hoc ngi thit k mng, n c th l:
tr trung bnh ca thi gian truyn gi tin.
S lng nt trung gian gia ngun v ch ca gi tin.
an ton ca vic truyn tin.

63
Ngun ti nguyn mng s dng cho truyn tin .
v.v..
T hp ca cc tiu chun trn.
Vic chn tiu chun ti u nh vy ph thuc vo nhiu bi cnh mng (topo, thng
lng, mc ch s dng.v.v..). Cc tiu chun c th thay i v bi cnh mng cng c th
thay i theo thi gian hoc cc trin khai ng dng trn mng. Chnh v th m vn ti u
ho nh tuyn lun c t ra trong thi gian trin khai mng, nht l s i lp v quan
im ngi s dng dch v v nh khai thc dch v mng. Ngi s dng lun mun c
nhng dch v tt nht cho h cn nh khai thc li mun ti u dch v ngi dng trn nn
mng c sn hoc u t ti thiu em li li nhun cao nht, thm ch ngay c cc dch v
ca ngi s dng cng khng th s dng mt tiu chun cho tt c. V vy, cc gii php
nh tuyn thng l gii php dung ho hay cn gi l gii php cn ti u.
V mt nguyn tc, cc gii php qun tr mng bao gm c chc nng nh tuyn trong
mng thng c chia thnh hai loi, qun l kiu tp trung v kiu phn tn. Gii php qun
l nh tuyn cho cc mng nh (v kch c mng v phc tp ca mng) thng ng dng
kiu nh tuyn tp trung gim gi thnh v thun tin trong cng tc qun l. Tuy nhin
kiu nh tuyn tp trung thng bc l cc yu im v phi cng khai thng tin nh tuyn
cho ton mng v d b tn cng.Hn na, nh tuyn tp trung phn ng vi s thay i trng
thi mng km nhanh nhy. Gii php nh tuyn phn tn kh ph hp vi cc mng ln v
phc tp cao, n da trn s ti to v kt hp gia cc nt c coi l ngang hng, v vy
nu c li xy ra th n ch mang tnh cc b gia cc nt lin quan. Cc thng tin nh tuyn
phn tn c x l v chuyn rt nhanh trong mng qua cc nt mng c chc nng phn b
thng tin nh tuyn trn din rng ca mng.
3.3.1. Cc thut ton tm ng ngn nht
Hai thut ton thng c s dng ph bin trong k thut nh tuyn ng l: Thut ton
nh tuyn theo vecto khong cch DVA (Distance Vector Algorithm) v thut ton nh tuyn
theo trng thi lin kt LSA(Link State Algorithm). Vic tnh ton nh tuyn trong mng
chuyn mch gi thng c gn vi th G(E,V) - (E: s cnh, V: s nh). Vic s dng
th c hng v c trng s s tng minh cc bi ton nh tuyn m bo QoS. Trong
phn ny ta xem xt cc thut ton s dng m t hai k thut tm ng ngn nht thng dng
hin nay.
(i) Thut ton nh tuyn theo Vector khong cch: L mt thut ton nh tuyn tng thch
nhm tnh ton con ng ngn nht gia cc cp node trong mng, da trn phng php tp
trung c bit n nh l thut ton Bellman-Ford. Cc node mng thc hin qu trnh trao
i thng tin trn c s ca a ch ch, node k tip, v con ng ngn nht ti ch. M t
hnh thc thut ton ny nh sau:
Gi thit
r l node ngun, d l node ch
C
d
r
l gi thp nht t node r ti ch d
N
r
d
l node tip theo ca r trn ng ti d
c
rs
l gi ca lin kt t r ti s
DVA gi thit gi ca tuyn lin kt c tnh cng gi v dng.


64
Tnh ton
Bng nh tuyn trong mi node r c khi to nh sau:
C
r
r
= 0; s : s N
r
d
th C
r
s
= ;
C
r
d
(r, d, N
r
d
) l tp cc gi ca con ng i t node r ti node d qua nhiu nht (s -2) node
trung gian.
Bc s =1 : C
r
d
(r, d, 1) = C
s
d
(d,1)= c
sd
, N
r
d
r
Bc s >1 : C
r
d
(d, N
r
d
) = Min[Min[C
r
d
(r, d, s )], C
r
d
(r, d, s -1)] , d r
Mt khi node r nhn c thng tin vecto khong cch ((d, C
s
d
),) t node s, r s cp nht
bng nh tuyn tt c cc ch ti d trong tp cha s.
Nu ( C
s
d
+ c
rs
< C
r
d
hoc N
r
d
= s) th (C
r
d
= C
s
d
+ c
rs
v N
r
d
= s) th thut ton dng.
(ii) Thut ton nh tuyn theo trng thi lin kt (LSA): Trong thut ton ln quan ti trng
thi ca cc lin kt, cc node mng qung b gi tr lin kt ca n vi cc node xung quanh
ti cc node khc. Sau khi qung b tt c cc node u bit r topo mng v thut ton s
dng tnh ton con ng ngn nht ti node ch c m t hnh thc nh sau:
Gi thit :
r l node ngun, d l node ch
C
d
r
l gi thp nht t node r ti ch d
N
r
d
l node tip theo ca r trn ng ti d
C
r
s
(r,s) l gi ca lin kt t r ti s,
Tnh ton:
Bng nh tuyn trong mi node r c khi to nh sau:
C
r
r
= 0; s : s N
r
d
th C
r
s
= ;
Gi l tp cc nt sau khi thc hin sau k bc thut ton :
Khi to: C
r
d
(r,d) = , d
Bc 1: = r
C
r
s
(r,s) = Min C
r
s
(r,s); N
r
d
=s, r s;
Bc k: = w ( w )
C
r
d
(r,d) = Min [C
r
s
(r,s) + C
s
d
(s,d)] , s.
Thut ton dng khi tt c cc node thuc .
Khi tnh ton ng i ngn nht s dng cc thut ton trn y, thng tin trng thi ca
mng th hin trong h o lng (metric), cc b nh tuyn phi c cp nht gi trn tuyn
lin kt. Mt khi c s thay i topo mng hoc lu lng cc node mng phi khi to v tnh
ton li tuyn ng i ngn nht, tu theo giao thc c s dng trong mng.
3.3.2. Cc giao thc nh tuyn ni min v lin min.
Khi nim min hay h thng t tr xut pht t mng Internet. Mng Internet l mng din
rng ln n mc mt giao thc nh tuyn khng th x l cng vic cp nht cc bng nh
tuyn ca tt c cc b nh tuyn. V l do ny, lin mng c chia thnh nhiu h thng t
tr AS (Autonomous System). H thng t tr l mt nhm cc mng v b nh tuyn c
chung chnh sch qun tr. N i khi cn c gi l min nh tuyn. Cc giao thc nh
tuyn c s dng bn trong mt AS c gi l giao thc nh tuyn ni min IGP (Interior

65
Gateway Protocol). thc hin nh tuyn gia cc AS vi nhau chng ta phi s dng mt
giao thc ring gi l giao thc nh tuyn ngoi min EGP (Exterior Gateway Protocol).
Trong mc ny ta xem xt mt s giao thc nh tuyn thng thng c s dng trong mng
internet. Bng 3.3 di y tng kt cc c im chnh ca cc giao thc nh tuyn.
Bng 3.3: Cc giao thc nh tuyn v tiu ch so snh
(i) Giao thc thng tin nh tuyn RIP
RIP l mt giao thc nh tuyn min trong c s dng cho cc h thng t tr. Giao thc
thng tin nh tuyn thuc loi giao thc nh tuyn khong cch vect. Giao thc s dng gi
tr o lng l s bc nhy (hop count) trong ng i t ngun n ch. Mi bc i
Cc giao thc nh tuyn Tiu ch
tnh RIP-1 RIP-2 IGRP EIGRP IS-IS OSPF BGP
Thch hp
cho mng
ln
C Khng Khng Khng C C C C
D cho thi
hnh
Khng C C C C Khng Khng khng
Kiu thut
ton
Khng DVP DVP DVP DUAL LSP LSP DVP
H tr a
ch
C C C C C C C C
H tr
CIDRR
v VLSM

C

Khng

C

Khng

C

Khng

C

C
H tr
chia ti
Khng Khng Khng C C C C C
H tr
chng
thc
Khng Khng C Khng C C C C
Cho php
nh
trng s
Khng Khng Khng C C C C C
Hi t
nhanh
Khng Khng Khng C C C C C
Th tc
Hello
Khng Khng Khng Khng C C C Khng
S dng
qung b
cp nht
Khng C C C C C C Khng

66
trong ng i t ngun n ch c coi nh c gi tr l 1 hop count. Khi mt b nh
tuyn nhn c 1 bn tin cp nht nh tuyn cho cc gi tin th n s cng 1 vo gi tr o
lng bc nhy ng thi cp nht vo bng nh tuyn.
RIP thc hin vic ngn cn vng lp nh tuyn v hn bng cch thc hin gii hn s
ng i cho php trong 1 ng i t ngun ti ch. S bc nhy ti a trong mt ng i
l 15. Nu 1 b nh tuyn nhn c mt bn tin cp nht nh tuyn v ti y gi tr o
lng tr thnh 16 th ch coi nh l nt mng khng th n c. Nhc im ca RIP
chnh l gii hn ng knh ti a ca 1 mng RIP l di 16 hops. RIP c c im hot
ng n nh nhng kh nng thay i chm. Khi c thay i v cu hnh mng, RIP lun thc
hin ch chia r tng (phm vi) v p t c ch ngn chn cc thng tin nh tuyn sai
c pht tn trong cc b nh tuyn. RIP s dng cc b nh thi iu chnh hot ng
ca mnh. B nh thi cp nht nh tuyn theo khong thi gian nh trc, thng thng
30s l b nh thi li c reset cp nht li cc thng tin nh tuyn c gi t cc b
nh tuyn ln cn. iu ny cng gip ngn chn s tc nghn trong mng khi tt c cc b
nh tuyn cng 1 thi im c gng cp nht cc bng nh tuyn ln cn. RIP c hai phin
bn l RIP1 v RIP2. [7]
(ii) Giao thc nh tuyn OSPF
OSPF l mt giao thc nh tuyn min trong c s dng rng ri. Phm vi hot ng
ca n cng l mt h thng t tr (AS). Cc router c bit c gi l cc router bin AS c
trch nhim ngn thng tin cc AS khc vo trong h thng hin ti. thc hin nh tuyn
hiu qu, OSPF chia h thng t tr ra thnh nhiu khu vc (area) nh. Mi AS c th c
chia ra thnh nhiu khu vc khc nhau. Khu vc l tp hp cc mng, trm v router nm trong
cng mt h thng t tr. Tt c cc mng trong mt khu vc phi c kt ni vi nhau. Ti
bin ca khu vc, cc router bin khu vc tm tt thng tin v khu vc ca mnh v gi cc
thng tin ny ti cc khu vc khc. Trong s cc khu vc bn trong AS, c mt khu vc c
bit c gi l ng trc; tt c cc khu vc trong mt AS phi c ni ti ng trc. Hay
ni cch khc ng trc c coi nh l khu vc s cp cn cc khu vc cn li u c coi
nh l cc khu vc th cp.
Cc router bn trong khu vc ng trc c gi l cc router ng trc, cc router
ng trc cng c th l mt router bin khu vc. Nu v mt l do no m kt ni gia
mt khu vc v ng trc b hng th ngi qun tr mng phi to mt lin kt o (virtual
link) gia cc router cho php ng trc tip tc hot ng nh mt khu vc s cp.
OSPF l giao thc nh tuyn trng thi lin kt, c thit k cho cc mng ln hoc cc
mng lin hp v phc tp. Cc gii thut nh tuyn trng thi s dng cc gii thut tm
ng ngn nht SPF (Shortest Path First) cng vi mt c s d liu phc tp v cu hnh ca
mng. C s d liu cu hnh mng v c bn bao gm tt c d liu v mng c lin kt n
b nh tuyn cha c s d liu.
Gii thut chn ng ngn nht SPF l c s cho h thng OSPF v nm ti cc b nh
tuyn. Khi mt b nh tuyn s dng SPF c khi ng, b nh tuyn s khi to cu trc
c s d liu ca giao thc nh tuyn v sau i ch bo t cc giao thc tng thp hn
di dng cc hm. B nh tuyn s s dng cc gi tin OSPF Hello thu nhn thng tin v
cc b nh tuyn ln cn ca mnh. B nh tuyn gi gi tin Hello n cc ln cn v nhn
cc bn tin Hello t cc b nh tuyn ln cn. Ngoi vic s dng gi tin Hello thu nhn

67
cc ln cn, bn tin Hello cn c s dng xc nhn vic mnh vn ang hot ng n cc
b nh tuyn khc.
Mi b nh tuyn nh k gi cc gi thng bo v trng thi lin kt (LSA) cung cp
thng tin cho cc b nh tuyn ln cn hoc cho cc b nh tuyn khc khi mt b nh tuyn
thay i trng thi. Bng vic so snh trng thi lin kt ca cc b nh tuyn lin k tn
ti trong c s d liu, cc b nh tuyn b li s b pht hin ra nhanh chng v cu hnh
mng s c bin i thch hp. T cu trc d liu c sinh ra do vic cp nht lin tc cc
gi LSA, mi b nh tuyn s tnh ton cy ng i ngn nht ca mnh v t mnh s lm
gc ca cy. Sau t cy ng i ngn nht s sinh ra bng nh tuyn di dng c s d
liu.
(iii). Giao thc cng bin BGP
Giao thc cng bin l mt giao thc nh tuyn lin min, thc hin vic nh tuyn gia cc
h thng t tr AS. Giao thc ny da vo phng php nh tuyn c tn l nh tuyn vct
ng i. Trc khi xem xt v nh tuyn vct ng i th ta xem xt xem ti sao hai
phng thc nh tuyn vct khong cch v trng thi lin kt li khng thch hp cho nh
tuyn gia cc AS. Vct khong cch khng thch hp v tuyn c chn lun l tuyn c s
bc nhy nh nht. Trong khi , c nhiu trng hp ngi qun tr khng mun cho gi i
qua mt mng khng an ton mc d tuyn ny l tuyn c s bc nhy nh nht. nh tuyn
vct khong cch cng khng c v cc router ch thng bo s bc nhy ti ch ch
khng nh ngha ng i c th dn ti ch. nh tuyn trng thi lin kt cng khng ph
hp cho nh tuyn gia cc AS v mt lin mng l qu ln cho loi giao thc nh tuyn ny.
s dng nh tuyn trng thi lin kt cho ton b lin mng yu cu mi router phi lu
tr mt c s d liu trng thi lin kt khng l. Cng mt rt nhiu thi gian tnh ton
bng nh tuyn s dng gii thut Dijkstra. nh tuyn vct ng i khc vi c nh tuyn
vct khong cch v nh tuyn trng thi lin kt. Mi mc trong bng nh tuyn cha a
ch mng ch, router k tip v ng i n ch. ng i y c th hin di dng
mt danh sch cc AS m gi phi i qua ti ch.
3.3.3. nh tuyn h tr cht lng dch v QoS
Cc vn lin quan ti nh tuyn c trnh by ti cc mc trn y. Cc c im v
khung lm vic ca cht lng dch v mng s c trnh by trong mc 3.4. Trong mc ny
s trnh by v cc vn l thuyt mu cht trong nh tuyn h tr cht lng dch v (QoS
routing). C ch nh tuyn h tr cht lng dch v QoS c to ra nhm gii quyt mt s
cc hn ch ca c ch nh tuyn truyn thng. Bn cch mc tiu p ng cc yu cu v
QoS ca lung lu lng, nh tuyn h tr QoS cn cn phi nng cao hiu qu s dng ti
nguyn mng, nh vy cc mc tiu chnh ca n l:
(i)p ng i hi v QoS ca cc lung d liu.
nh tuyn h tr QoS cn phi tm ra mt ng i t ngun ti ch tha mn yu cu
ca lung d liu v bng thng, tr C ch tm ng thng l ng theo yu cu ch
khng cu hnh tnh hoc hng lun phin. Ngay c khi tn ti vi ng c th s dng th
vic chn ng c th da vo cc rng buc v chnh sch nh: ng i c s nt nh nht
hoc chi ph thp nht.




68
(ii) Ti u h s s dng ti nguyn mng.
nh tuyn h tr QoS cn phi chuyn hng lu lng theo cch hiu qu nht c th ti
a nht tng thng lng qua mng. V ng di s tn nhiu ti nguyn mng, nn ng
ngn nht trong cc ng c th p ng s c chn.
(iii) Hiu sut mng khng b gim ng k khi c s c xut hin nh tc nghn.
Khi mng trong tnh trng ti nng, nh tuyn h tr QoS phi a ra mt hiu sut tt hn
so vi cc c ch nh tuyn c. Ngha l ngay c khi ti nng th thng lng ton b mng
cng khng c gim nhiu hn so vi nh tuyn best effort.
thc hin nh tuyn m bo cht lng dch v QoS, mt s kiu nh tuyn c
nh ngha v pht trin gm:
nh tuyn h tr QoS l c ch nh tuyn xc nh cc ng i cho cc lung da
vo hiu bit v ti nguyn hin c trn mng cng nh yu cu v QoS ca cc lung
d liu;
nh tuyn theo chnh sch khng da vo thng tin v cu trc mng v cc tham s
o, m da vo cc chnh sch qun tr;
nh tuyn theo iu kin rng buc tnh ton cc tuyn theo nhiu iu kin rng
buc khc nhau, bao gm c nh tuyn theo chnh sch v nh tuyn h tr QoS.
Nh trong chng 2 gii thiu cc c im c bn ca k thut nh tuyn, ta bit i
vi mt c ch nh tuyn, c hai nhim v quan trng l duy tr v trao i thng tin v trng
thi mng v tnh ton ng i theo cc tham s chn. Ngoi thng tin v kt ni mng
nh trong giao thc nh tuyn hin nay, giao thc nh tuyn QoS cn phi duy tr thm cc
thng v trng thi mng (nh bng thng, tr hin c ti cc lin kt). Cc thng tin ny
thng thay i nhanh lm tn sut cp nht thng tin thay i theo v dn n chi ph (tnh
ton, truyn thng) tng ln. tm ra ng i tha mn cc tham s cho trc, thut ton
nh tuyn s tr nn phc tp hn v cn phi tnh ton theo nhiu rng buc khc nhau. V
vy, gim phc tp ca thut ton nh tuyn, cc tham s c chn cn phi biu din
cc thuc tnh c bn ca mng, v khng qu phc tp c th thc hin bin php lc tun
t cc tham s.
Trong mi trng Internet, nh tuyn h tr QoS c mt s kh khn sau:
Th nht, cc ng dng c yu cu QoS rt a dng, qu nhiu rng buc s lm
cho vn nh tuyn tr thnh khng kh thi.
Th hai, mt mng thch hp phi h tr c lu lng n lc ti a best - effort v
m bo cht lng dch v QoS, nn vn ti u ha hiu sut tr nn rt phc
tp. Rt kh c th xc nh im hot ng tt nht cho c hai lu lng nu qu
trnh phn b chng l c lp vi nhau. Mc d lu lng QoS khng b nh
hng nh vo qu trnh chim gi ti nguyn, nhng lu lng n lc ti a s b
tn tht nu nh gi phn b lu lng tng th sai.
Kh khn cui cng l trng thi ca mng thay i rt nhanh do s thay i ca ti,
kt ni, lin kt, hay s tng trng ca mng dn ti kh khn trong qu trnh thu
thp thng tin v trng thi ca mng trong mt mi trng ng. Nu thng tin v
trng thi mng khng chnh xc v y th hiu sut ca thut ton nh tuyn
s gim.

69
Thut ton nh tuyn QoS s da vo cc thng tin c thu thp v duy tr v tnh trng
mng tm ra ng i ti u cho cc gi d liu. C ba cch tip cn vi bi ton tm
ng l: nh tuyn tp trung (nh tuyn ngun), nh tuyn phn tn, nh tuyn phn cp.
Phn ny gii thiu cc nguyn tc ca ba thut ton nh tuyn trn v nh gi nhng im
mnh v yu ca chng.
(1) nh tuyn tp trung
Trong k thut nh tuyn tp trung, mi nt duy tr thng tin v ton b trng thi mng, bao
gm cu trc vt l ca mng v thng tin trng thi ca tng lin kt. Giao thc trng thi lin
kt s cp nht trng thi ton mng ti mi nt (nh OSPF, IS-IS). Da vo thng tin ny,
ton b ng i s c tnh ton ti mi nt. Do vy, n trnh c cc vn ca tnh ton
phn tn, nh lp n v cng, ng i lp vng. C nhiu thut ton n gin, d thc hin
s thc hin vic tnh ton tm ng i ti u.
Tuy vy, nh tuyn tp trung gp phi mt s vn sau.
Th nht, h tr QoS, trng thi ton mng ti mi nt phi c cp nht tn
sut cn thit p ng cc thay i lin tc ca cc tham s mng nh bng thng v
tr. Yu cu ny s dn n chi ph truyn tin kh cao i vi cc mng ln.
Th hai, giao thc trng thi lin kt ch c th cung cp thng tin gn ng vi trng
thi mng v mc sai lch cng ln nu thng tin cha c cp nht. V vy, thut
ton nh tuyn QoS c th khng tm ra ng i cho lu lng yu cu do thng tin
trng thi khng chnh xc.
Th ba, v qu trnh tnh ton ch tp trung ti nt ngun nn chi ph l kh cao khi c
mt lng ln cc yu cu v nhiu rng buc. Nh vy, vn ca c ch nh tuyn
tp trung chnh l kh nng m rng km. nh tuyn tp trung kh c th c thc
hin vi mng c quy m ln.
(2) nh tuyn phn tn
Trong nh tuyn phn tn, ng i c tnh ton ti cc nt trung gian gia ngun v ch.
V vy, thi gian p ng yu cu nh tuyn l ngn hn v c th m rng c. nh tuyn
phn tn c th tm ra nhiu ng i ng thi cho cng mt nt v lm tng xc sut thnh
cng ca bi ton nh tuyn. Hu ht cc thut ton nh tuyn cng yu cu mi nt duy tr
trng thi ton mng (thng di dng cc vect khong cch, mi bng cha thng tin cho
tng tham s), cc quyt nh nh tuyn c thc hin ti tng nt mng.
V nh tuyn phn tn cng da vo trng thi ton mng nn n cng gp phi mt s vn
v kh nng m rng nh nh tuyn tp trung. Ngoi ra, do thng tin trng thi mi nt
khng hon ton ging nhau nn c th hnh thnh cc ng i lp vng, gy lng ph ti
nguyn mng. Lp vng cng c th c pht hin khi nt nhn c cc bn tin iu khin
trong khong thi gian tnh theo giy ng h. Tuy nhin, cc vng lp thng lm cho qu
trnh nh tuyn khng thnh cng v cc vector khong cch khng cung cp y cc thng
tin tm ng i thay th.
(3) nh tuyn phn cp
nh tuyn phn cp nhm gii quyt kh nng m rng ca nh tuyn ngun trong cc
mng ln. nh tuyn phn cp c kh nng m rng rt tt bi v mi nt mng ch duy tr
thng tin v trng thi ton mng gin lc, ngha l cc nhm nt tng ng vi cc nt
logic. mi cp, trong m hnh phn cp, nh tuyn tp trung c s dng tm ng i
ph hp da vo trng thi mng gin lc. V vy nh tuyn phn cp c nhiu u im

70
ca nh tuyn tp trung. Bn cnh , n cng c u im ca nh tuyn phn tn v qu
trnh tnh ton c chia s ti nhiu nt mng.
Tuy vy, v trng thi mng c gom li nn thng tin ny l cng tr nn khng chnh
xc. C th hn, mi nt logic c th l mt mng con c rt nhiu nt v c nhiu lin kt vt
l khc nhau, nhng cc thng tin ny khng c th hin nu coi mng l mt nt logic.
Vn ny cng tr nn phc tp hn khi c ch nh tuyn h tr nhiu tham s QoS. C th
c nhiu ng i gia hai nt bin ca mt logic ng vi cc ti nguyn khc nhau trn cc
ng i . Lm th no gom cc thng tin vn cn l mt vn m i vi nh tuyn
phn cp.
Vic la chn phng php nh tuyn QoS no cn ph thuc v chi ph ca qu trnh nh
tuyn v phn thnh 3 loi: Chi ph giao thc, x l v lu tr thng tin.
Chi ph giao thc: Mt yu cu c bn h tr nh tuyn QoS l phi theo di s thay i
ca cc ti nguyn mng hin c (nh bng thng lin kt) nn thng tin ny s c gi tr vi
thut ton tm ng. Gi s giao thc trng thi lin kt c s dng cp nht trng thi
mng, v c ch cp nht s ng thi gi thng tin v tt c trng thi lin kt ca b nh
tuyn cho cc b nh tuyn cn li trong mng, nn chi ph x l v vn chuyn bn tin s
phn b nhiu cho cc lin kt v cc nt trong mng. Mt khc giao thc trng thi lin kt
ch cn thay i mt cht phn b thm cc thng tin v QoS, nhng cn phi thm c ch
xc nh thit b cn gi bn tin cp nht. C th hn, cc b nh tuyn cn xc nh bng
thng hin c ti cc lin kt v xc nh khi no c mt s thay i ng k cn cp nht. C
ch khi ng qu trnh cp nht s quyt nh ch ph v hiu sut ca nh tuyn QoS.
C ch khi ng cp nht s xc nh khi no gi bn tin cp nht, mi s thay i ca ti
nguyn c thng bo s cung cp thng tin v trng thi mng rt chnh xc, nhng chi ph
chuyn ti thng tin ny l rt t. Mt phng php n gin hn ch tn sut cp nht
thng tin l s dng b nh thi gian. C ch ny iu khin trc tip lng tin cp nht,
nhng khng bm st mi thay i quan trng theo thi gian. bm st mi thay i quan
trng, ngi ta nh gi mc thay i ca tham s. V d, phng php da vo mc
ngng s quyt nh gi bn cp nht bt c lc no gi tr mi nm ngoi phm vi tnh theo
% ca gi tr c. Phng php ny iu khin da vo s cn i gia chnh xc ca thng
tin v lng tin cp nht dn ti hin tng lu lng tng t bin v lm tc nghn mng.
V vy, ngi ta c th s dng kt hp b nh thi vi mc ngng nh gi thay i.
Chu k cp nht xc nh khong thi gian ti thiu v ti a gia hai ln cp nht. Mc
ngng s nh gi s thay i ca cc tham s QoS l ng k hay khng. Nu thay i ca
tham s QoS l ng k (tc l vt ngng cho php) v khong thi gian t ln cp nht
trc n hin ti ln hn mc ngng ca chu k cp nht, th thay i s c thng bo
cho cc nt mng. Nu qu chu k cho php m khng c s thay i ng k (c th do mc
ngng t qu cao) th bn tin trng thi vn s c gi i. Nh vy, vn l phi cn i
gia chi ph ca tn sut thng bo v chnh xc ca thng tin trng thi.
Chi ph yu cu x l: Chi ph x l bao gm x l cc bn tin cp nht v tnh ton, chn
ng i. Chi ph x l cc bn tin cp nht truy nhp vo c s d liu da vo bn tin nhn
c. Nu s ln cp nht tng th chi ph ny s tng theo.
Tnh ton ng i l thnh phn c nhiu thay i hn c so vi nh tuyn n lc ti a.
Cc ng i h tr QoS c tnh ton da vo cc tnh cht ca yu cu v thng tin v ti
nguyn hin c. C ch nh tuyn n lc ti a v nh tuyn QoS khc nhau hai im:

71
thut ton thc hin v iu kin kch hot thut ton. iu kin kch hot thut ton chnh l
nhn t quyt nh chi ph tnh ton ca c ch nh tuyn QoS.
Trong nh tuyn h tr QoS, cc ng i c th c tnh theo yu cu hoc c tnh
trc. Trong c ch nh tuyn n lc ti a, thng tin nh tuyn c chuyn vo bng
chuyn tip gi FIB (Forward Information Base) theo m hnh y push, tc l giao thc
nh tuyn y ton b ni dung ca bng nh tuyn RIB. Khc vi nh tuyn n lc ti a,
nh tuyn QoS s dng m hnh pull (ko). Cc ng i h tr QoS c chn c chn lc
vo bng FIB. Vic chn cc ng vo bng FIB c thc hin bi giao thc bo hiu
thit lp ng i cho loi lu lng no .
Nu ng i QoS c tnh theo yu cu, th u im l lun s dng thng tin mi c
cp nht nn sai lch vi trng thi mng thc t l thp. Tuy nhin, nu yu cu n qu
nhiu s lm tng ng k chi ph tnh ton. Cch tip cn th hai tng t nh nh tuyn n
lc ti a, cc ng i s c tnh trc. Tuy nhin, khi yu cu v bng thng cha c
bit th bng nh tuyn cn phi c tnh trc cho tng nt ch vi cc yu cu bng thng
c th c trong tng lai.
Thc hin thut ton theo yu cu l kh n gin v n ch duyt c s d liu v quyt
nh mt s ng i QoS n gin. Chi ph tnh ton mt ng i ph thuc vo cu hnh
mng v khong cch tng i gia ngun v ch. Mt nhn t quyt nh i vi tnh ton
yu cu l tn sut ca cc yu cu mi.
Ngc li, tnh ton trc hu nh khng nhy cm vi tn sut ca cc yu cu mi, n ch
ph thuc vo tn sut m bng nh tuyn QoS c tnh li. Trong khi tn sut ca yu cu
mi khng th iu khin c th tn sut tnh li bng nh tuyn li ph thuc vo b nh
tuyn. Vic tnh ton li bng nh tuyn thng xuyn s lm tng chnh xc v hiu sut
nh tuyn, nhng cng ng thi lm tng ti cn x l. Hn na xy dng bng nh
tuyn QoS s phc tp hn nhiu so vi vic tnh ton mt ng n v n i hi chi ph
gii phng b nh v ti cp pht b nh. Ngoi ra, sau khi bng nh tuyn QoS c xy
dng , cn phi thm mt bc chn ng t bng nh tuyn - tc l tm ng i thch hp
khi c mt yu cu n.
Chi ph xy dng bng nh tuyn QoS trong cch tnh trc ph thuc vo bng thng hin
c ca cc lin kt mng, tp hp cc gi tr khc nhau s to ra cc bng nh tuyn khc nhau
vi chi ph khc nhau. Chi ph cho vic tm ng thch hp sau khi xy dng bng nh
tuyn QoS l nh v khng ng k so vi cc chi ph khc.
Khi mt ng c tnh phc v mt yu cu mi, chi ph tnh ton ph thuc vo v tr
ch ca yu cu, v tr ch s quyt nh s ln lp ca thut ton. Khi chiu di ng i
tng ln, chi ph tnh ton ng i s tin gn n chi ph xy dng bng nh tuyn; v vi
nt ch xa, cc ng i ti tt c cc nt s c tnh trc khi ti ch.
Chi ph lu tr thng tin: Chi ph lu tr lin quan n vic m rng c s d liu lu tr
thm cc thng tin v ti nguyn lin kt hin c. Ngoi ra, nu bng nh tuyn QoS c
dng th cng lm tng thm chi ph lu tr. Kch c bng nh tuyn QoS ph thuc vo phn
thc hin c th.
Nh vy chi ph hot ng ca nh tuyn QoS gm chi ph cho giao thc trao i thng tin
nh tuyn, tnh ton ng i QoS, v lu tr cc thng tin v ti nguyn trong c s d liu.
Mt s nghin cu cho thy chi ph hot ng ca nh tuyn QoS l c th p ng c vi
kh nng ca cc b vi x l hin nay.

72
3.4. MT S BI TON V CHT LNG DCH V.
Cht lng dch v QoS c nhn t hai kha cnh: pha ngi s dng dch v v pha
mng. T kha cnh ngi s dng dch v, QoS c coi l mc chp nhn dch v ca
ngi s dng v thng c nh gi trn thang im nh gi trung bnh MoS (Mean of
Score) [9]. T kha cnh dch v mng, QoS lin quan ti nng lc cung cp cc yu cu cht
lng dch v cho ngi s dng. C hai kiu nng lc mng cung cp cht lng dch v
trong mng chuyn mch gi. u tin, mng chuyn mch gi phi c kh nng phn bit cc
lp dch v.Th hai, mt khi mng c cc lp dch khc nhau, mng phi c c ch ng x
khc nhau vi cc lp bng cch cung cp cc m bo ti nguyn v phn bit dch v trong
mng. Hnh 3.22 ch ra cc c im c bn ca cht lng dch v.
Mc chp nhn dch v t pha ngi s dng c th c kim tra qua cc thng s
mng nh kh nng tn tht gi, tr, trt v xc sut tc nghn. S lng v c tnh cc
tham s cht lng ph thuc vo c cu mng cung cp dch v.
i vi cc mng hin nay, lu lng truyn ti trn mng thng l lu lng phc tp,
mt thng s mng c th quan trng i vi ng dng v dch v ny nhng li khng quan
trng i vi ng dng hoc dch v khc. Mt c ch ci thin cht lng dch v cn phi ti
u nhm trnh cc iu kin xung t, cc yu cu tri ngc nhau nhm nng cao hiu nng
tng th ca ton mng.

Hnh 3.22: Cc kha cnh ca cht lng dch v
Nh chng ta bit, h thng mng truyn thng c chia thnh hai kiu chuyn mch
knh v chuyn mch gi, trong chuyn mch gi c chia thnh hai kiu mng kt ni c
hng ( v d: mng ATM) v mng phi kt ni (v d: mng IP). Trong mc ny ch ra hai v
d nh tnh ton mt tham s ca cht lng dch v vi cc cng thc ch ra trong
chng 1 ca ti liu. Tnh ton xc sut tc nghn v thi gian tr trong m hnh h thng
knh trung k.
Trong mng kt ni c hng, tng t nh trong chuyn mch knh cc tham s c bn
nh hng n cht lng dch v l kh nng tc nghn ca h thng. M hnh cc h thng

73
knh trung k nh ch ra trn hnh 3.23 di y th hin cc yu cu u ni ti ngun ti
nguyn chung, cc knh thng tin c n nh nhm p ng cc yu cu ny. Mi knh c
chim trong khong thi gian kt ni v c ti s dng cho cc kt ni khc.

Hnh 3.23: M hnh h thng knh trung k
Lu lng yu cu: Lu lng yu cu n h thng c tnh bng cng thc 3.8 di y:

.
r
T H = v .
r
T T M = (3.8)
Trong :
T
r
: Lu lng ca mt user ; : Tc n
H: Thi gian chim gi trung bnh; M: S lng user phc v bi h thng.
T cc nh ngha gii thiu trong chng 1, h s s dng ti c xc nh.
= A/N (3.9)
( A: Lu lng o bng Erlang; N: S lng trung k).
i vi h thng trung k trn hai kiu h thng Erlang B v Erlang C c ng dng trong
cc bi ton tnh ton tc nghn. Cng thc Erlang B c ch ra trong chng 1 (ct 1.2), h
thng Erlang B da trn mt s gi thit sau:
(i) Tin trnh n ca cc cuc gi l tin trnh n ngu nhin, phn b poisson, chui
cc s kin n l v hn.
(ii) Thi gian chim gi trung bnh phn b theo hm m.
(iii) Hu hn cc knh trung k trong h thng phc v.
(iv) H thng t trng thi bo ho v chuyn sang tc nghn nu ton b cc knh b
chim. (B nh m c dung lng bng zero).
o cht lng dch v QoS dng cho h thng Erlang B l xc sut tc nghn theo cng thc
1.2.

0
!
!
N
x N
x
A
N
P
A
x
=
=


Phng trnh trn c sp xp trong bng Erlang B gm 3 tham s: Xc sut tc nghn (P);
s lng knh (N); lu lng yu cu (A). Nu bit hai tham s th tham s th 3 s tnh c
theo cng thc Erlang B.

74
V d: Tm s lng knh o N m bo xc sut tc nghn trong gi bn l 2% vi cc gi
thit: S lng user M=1000; s lng cc yu cu kt ni trong gi bn, =2; thi gian gi
kt ni o, H=18 sec.
Li gii:
A= x H x M = 2 x 0.3 x 60 x 1000= 36000 giy bn trong 1 gi
A = 36000/100 = 360 ccs = 10 Er.
S dng A tra bng Erlang B ta c N =17. vy s lng knh cn thit l 17.
Trong h thng trung k s dng m hnh h thng Erlang C, cc cuc gi tc nghn s
c thay th bi xc sut i. T cng thc Erlang C (1.3) ta c cc xc sut tr ti cc thi
im khi to, xc sut tr ti thi im >t (3.10) v xc sut tr trung bnh (3.11) di y.

N
1
N
0
A
( 0)
A !(1 )
!
x N
x
P
A A
N
N x

=
> =
+



( )
( ) ( 0).
N A t
H
P t P e

> = > vi N > A (3.10)
( 0)
e
H
P P
N A
= >

vi N>A (3.11)
V d: Tnh thi gian tr trung bnh ca cc cuc gi vi cc gi thit sau: S lng user
M=1000; s lng cc yu cu kt ni trong gi bn, =2; thi gian gi kt ni o, H= 1.5
min.
Li gii:
Tng lu lng yu cu A = (2 x 1.5 x 1000)/100 x 36 = 50 Er.
T bng tham s Erlang C ta c P = 0.1 v vy s dng cng thc (ct 3.11) ta tnh c thi
gian tr :
1.5*60
( 0) 0.1* 0.9sec
60 50
e
H
P P
N A
= > = =



Tm tt chng 3
Trong chng 3 trnh by v cc c im ca k thut chuyn mch gi theo cc vn c
bn nh sau: c tnh ca mng chuyn mch gi, cc kin trc ca b nh tuyn IP, cu trc
v cc gii php k thut ng dng trong trng chuyn mch, cc vn lin quan ti k
thut nh tuyn v tng quan v k thut nh tuyn m bo cht lng dch v.







75
Chng 4
K THUT CHUYN MCH TIN TIN
K thut chuyn mch tin tin c trnh by di cc kha cnh tng quan v cc cng ngh
chuyn mch hin i cng vi cc gii php k thut c s dng trong hai cng ngh ph
bin: cng ngh IP v cng ngh ATM. Cc vn lin quan ti cng ngh IP gm kin trc
mng, a ch v m hnh cht lng dch v. Mt s cc gii php cng ngh v gii php k
thut c xut thc hin s c trnh by trong chng ny. Cc kha cnh u vit ca
pht trin cng ngh chuyn mch tin tin cng s c trnh by. Cc vn lin quan n
cng ngh ATM gm cc phng thc chuyn mch knh o v lung o. Chng ny s tp
trung vo kin trc cc trng chuyn mch gi tc cao di cc gc chuyn mch v
nh tuyn. Cc vn lin quan ti chuyn mch tc cao nh: phng php chuyn mch
nhn, nh tuyn PNNI, k thut lu lng l cc vn ct li quan trng nht trong k thut
chuyn mch tin tin. Cc mc cui ca chng s trnh by v mt s c im c bn ca
mng th h k tip NGN v hng tip cn chuyn mch mm da trn m hnh my ch
cuc gi. Cc ng dng ca chuyn mch mm s c trnh by nhm ch ra mt s ng dng
thc t trn mng vin thng giai on hi t hin nay.
4.1. GII THIU TNG QUAN V CNG NGH IP/ATM
4.1.1. Tng quan v IP/ATM
Xt di gc chuyn mch, cng ngh IP v cng ngh ATM l hai cng ngh mng
chuyn mch gi vi hai phng thc chuyn gi khc nhau (hng kt ni v phi kt ni).
Di y s trnh by tng quan v IP di gc so snh vi m hnh OSI, m hnh tham
chiu ca ATM s c trnh by trong mc 4.1.2.
Nn tng cng ngh IP c xy dng trn c s giao thc ton cu IP (TCP/IP) s dng
cho mng Internet, hnh 4.1 di y ch ra m hnh tham chiu cc giao thc TCP/IP vi m
hnh OSI.

Hnh 4.1: M hnh tham chiu TCP/IP vi OSI
Lp thp nht trong m hnh TCP/IP l lp giao din mng hay cn c gi l lp mng
cc b bao gm lin kt vt l gia cc thit b. Lp giao din mng c mt tt c cc thit b
mng (cc Host, cc trm trung chuyn). N bao gm tt c cc thnh phn phn cng ca c
s h tng mng v c chc nng tng ng vi tng vt l v tng lin kt d liu trong m
hnh OSI, n to cc kt ni vt l n h thng cp trong thi gian thch hp, to khung s liu

76
cho thng tin. Giao tip mng c th bao gm mt chng trnh iu khin thit b hay mt h
con phc tp s dng cc giao thc kt ni d liu ring.
Lp Internet ca m hnh TCP/IP tng ng vi lp mng trong m hnh OSI. N cch ly
cc Host vi cc chc nng chi tit ca mng, v d nh phng php nh a ch thc
hin cc chc nng nh tuyn v chuyn mch thng tin qua mng. C th lp Internet gii
quyt mt s vn : nh a ch, phn phi gi tin, nh tuyn. Giao thc IP c pht trin
cung cp cc dch v u cui ti u cui cho lp Internet, gi v nhn cc thng ip
kim sot v x l li ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol).
Nhim v c bn ca lp truyn ti l cung cp phng tin lin lc t mt chng trnh ng
dng ny ti mt chng trnh ng dng khc. Trong khi lp Internet thc hin chc nng
phn phi bn tin t u cui n u cui v khng m bo cho s phn phi . Mc truyn
ti c th iu chnh lung thng tin, n c th cung cp qu trnh truyn c tin cy, bo
m d liu n ni khng c li v ng th t. lm c iu phn mm giao thc s
gi li ni nhn bn tin xc nhn. C hai giao thc c pht trin h tr lp ny l: Giao
thc iu khin truyn dn TCP (Transport Control Protocol) - h tr cc ng dng yu cu
dch v t u cui- ti - u cui c tin cy. Giao thc lc d liu ngi dng UDP
(User Datagram Protocol)- h tr cc ng dng khng yu cu tin cy cao. Ngoi ra giao
thc bn tin iu khin ICMP cho php cc Host v cc trm trung chuyn trao i cc thng
tin qun l v iu khin bng cc bn tin.
Lp cao nht trong m hnh TCP/IP l lp ng dng/x l , ch c mt cc Host h tr
qu trnh x l hay ng dng t ngi dng - ti - host v t host - ti - host. C nhiu tiu
chun ng dng c pht trin bao gm ng dng cho mng vin thng, cho cc truy nhp
thit b u cui xa (TELNET), giao thc FTP (File Transfer Protocol) truyn file, giao
thc truyn th n gin SMTP (Simple Mesage Transfer Protocol) cho th in t. Lp ny
tng ng vi 3 lp trn cng ca m hnh OSI.
Mt s thuc tnh c bn ca hai cng ngh c trnh by vn tt di y:
(i) Kh nng h tr cc ng dng
Cng ngh IP nguyn thu ch yu h tr cc ng dng s liu khng ng b, cc ng
dng d liu ng b c x l qua cc giao thc lp cao. Trong khi cng ngh ATM h
tr c cc ng dng thoi, d liu ng b v khng ng b vi cc c tnh phn lp dch v
ng dng theo nhm.
(ii) Kh nng kt ni
Cc kt ni trong cng ngh ATM c thc hin qua 3 giai on tng t nh chuyn mch
knh, v vy ng dn xuyn qua mng c tnh ton v gi nguyn trong sut qu trnh
truyn d liu. i nghch vi phng php ny, trong cng ngh IP s dng kt ni tng
bc chuyn thng tin v c th i trn nhiu ng dn khc nhau.
(iii) Kch thc gi
Cc gi tin IP c di thay i v c bin i theo kh nng ca ng truyn, nng
lc ca ng truyn s xc nh n v truyn bn tin ln nht MTU ( Maximum Transfer
Unit). Cc t bo ATM c di c nh gm 48 byte thng tin + 5 byte tiu .

77

Hnh 4.2: Cu trc tiu gi tin IP v ATM
(a*) Cc trng chc nng ca tiu gi tin IP gm c:
Trng phin bn (Version): Ch ra phin bn ca giao thc hin hnh (IPv4), c s
dng my gi, my nhn, cc b nh tuyn cng thng nht v nh dng
datagram.
Trng tiu nhn dng IHL (Identifed Header Length): Trng xc nhn di tiu
cung cp thng tin v di tiu ca gi tin, thng thng tiu c di 20
octets.
Trng kiu phc v TOS (Type Of Service): Trng kiu phc v di 8 bit gm 2
phn: trng u tin v kiu phc v. Trng u tin gm 3 bit dng gn mc u
tin cho cc gi tin, cung cp c ch cho php iu khin cc gi tin qua mng. Cc bit
cn li dng xc nh kiu lu lng gi tin khi n chuyn qua mng, nh c tnh tr,
thng qua v tin cy.
Trng tng di TL (Total length): Trng hin th tng di gi tin di 16 bit, s
dng xc nh chiu di ca ton b gi IP. Chiu di ln nht mt gi IP cho php
l 65535 octets.
Trng nhn dng (Identification): Trng nhn dng di 16 bit, c my ch s
dng pht hin v nhm cc on b chia nh ca gi tin. Cc b nh tuyn s chia
nh cc gi tin nu nh n v truyn tin ln nht ca gi tin MTU (Maximum
Transmission Unit) ln hn MTU ca mi trng truyn. MTU ca mi trng truyn
c nh ngha nh l kch c ca gi IP ln nht m n c th c mang trong mt
khung lin kt d liu. Vic hp li cc on tin c thc hin ti my ch ch. S
chia ct gi tin to thm cng vic cho cc b nh tuyn v cc my ch u cui. Mt
k thut c tn l tm tuyn ng cho n v truyn gi tin ln nht (Path MTU
Discovery) c a ra, to kh nng cho mt my ch gi tin c th tm ra mt MTU
ln nht c th, theo con ng t ngun ti ch m khng cn bt k qu trnh chia
ct gi tin no khc.
Trng c (Flags) : Trng c cha 3 bt c s dng cho qu trnh iu khin phn
on, bt u tin ch ch ti cc b nh tuyn cho php hoc khng cho php phn
on gi tin, 2 bt gi tr thp c s dng iu khin phn on, kt hp vi
trng nhn dng v trng phn on xc nh gi tin nhn c sau qu trnh
phn on.
Trng phn on (Fragment Offset) : Trng phn on mang thng tin v s ln
chia mt gi tin, kch thc ca gi tin ph thuc vo mng c s truyn tin, tc l
di gi tin khng th vt qua MTU ca mi trng truyn.

78
Trng thi gian sng TTL (Time-to-live): Trng thi gian sng ca gi tin s dng
ngn cc gi tin lp vng trn mng, c vai tr nh mt b m ngc nhm trnh
hin tng tr gi tin qu lu trn mng. TTL cng s dng xc nh phm vi iu
khin, qua vic xc nh xem mt gi c th i c bao xa trong mng. Bt k gi tin
no c vng TTL t gi tr bng 0 th gi tin s b b nh tuyn hu b v thng
bo li s c gi v trm pht gi tin.
Trng giao thc (Protoco)l : Trng ny c dng xc nhn giao thc lp k tip
mc cao hn ang s dng dch v IP, th hin di dng con s thp phn.
Trng kim tra tiu (Checksum): Trng kim tra tng di 16 bit, c tnh ton
trong tt c cc trng ca tiu IPv4 (TOS, HL, TTL...). Mi khi gi qua b nh
tuyn, cc trng la chn c th b thay i v trng TTL s b thay i gi tr. Cho
nn mt gi tin khi qua cc b nh tuyn th trng kim tra tng cn phi c tnh
ton v cp nht li m bo tin cy ca thng tin nh tuyn.
Trng a ch ngun- a ch ch (Source Address- Destination Address): Trng a
ch ngun v a ch ch c cc b nh tuyn v cc gateway s dng nh
tuyn cc n v s liu, lun lun i cng vi gi tin t ngun ti ch.
(b*) Cc trng chc nng c bn ca t bo ATM gm c.
Trng iu khin lung chung GFC (General Flow Control): C 4 bit, trong 2 bit
dng cho iu khin v 2 bit dng lm tham s. GFC ch xut hin ti giao din UNI,
chc nng ca n l: iu khin lung truy nhp t khch hng vo mng, gim tnh
trng qu ti trong thi gian ngn c th xy ra trong mng ca ngi s dng. Cn i
vi mng ring ca khch hng, GFC c th c s dng phn chia dung lng
gia cc thit b u cui. Ngoi ra GFC c th dng cho c cuc ni im - im v
im - a im.
Trng nhn dng knh o v lung o (VCI/VPI): i vi UNI, trng ny gm 24
bit (8bit VPI v 16 bit VCI), i vi NNI, trng ny gm 28 bit (12 bit VPI v 16 bit
VCI). Trng nh tuyn VPI/VCI to thnh mt gi tr duy nht cho mi cuc ni v
tu thuc vo v tr hai im cui ca mt cuc ni m nt chuyn mch ATM s
chuyn tip cc t bo trn c s VPI&VCI hay ch da trn gi tr VPI. Khi qua nt
chuyn mch VPI v VCI s nhn gi tr mi ph hp cho chng k tip.
Trng kiu lu lng PT (Payload Type): 3 bit dng ch th thng tin c truyn
l thng tin ca ngi s dng hay thng tin ca mng (gm thng tin gim st, vn
hnh, bo dng).
Trng u tin tn tht t bo CLP (Cell loss Priority): Gm 1 bt duy nht, c dng
phn bit mc u tin ca cc kt ni khc nhau do khch hng hoc nh cung
cp dch v xc lp. Cc t bo vi bit CLP=0 c mc u tin cao, ngc li cc t bo
vi bit CLP=1 c mc u tin thp hn, V vy, khi tc nghn xy ra, cc t bo c bit
CLP=1 s b loi b trc t bo c CLP = 0.
Trng iu khin li tiu HEC (Header Error Check): Gm 8 bit, c x l ti
lp vt l sa cc li n hay pht hin cc li khi trong 5 Byte tiu t bo.
(iv) m bo cht lng dch v
Trong khi cng ngh ATM l cng ngh chuyn mch gi nhanh m bo cht lng dch
v, th cht lng dch v QoS ca IP l mt vn ln cn phi gii quyt. Cc tham s cht
lng mng cn phi ci thin trong cng ngh IP gm: Tr, trt v tc nghn.

79
(v) Phng php chuyn tin
C hai cng ngh u s dng tiu lm c s d liu cho bi ton nh tuyn v chuyn
tin. Cng ngh ATM s dng cc nhn VPI/VCI kt ni gia mt tuyn u vo ti mt
tuyn u ra ca mt nt mng, cng ngh IP s dng a ch ch cho bi ton nh tuyn v
qu trnh chuyn tin c thc hin ti mt bng chuyn tip thng qua bng chuyn tip. Cc
thng tin chuyn tip c xc nh t thng tin trong bng nh tuyn.
(vi) a ch nh tuyn
Cc a ch tm kim trong bng nh tuyn ATM c di c nh trong khi cc a ch
IP c di thay i. Tm kim cc a ch c di thay i c th c thc hin gn ng
thng qua cc tin t di nht.
(vii) Bo hiu
Cc c ch bo hiu trong cng ngh ATM kh phc tp v cht ch nhm m bo cht
lng dch v, cng ngh IP truyn thng s dng chuyn mch datagram nn khng tn ti
giao thc bo hiu ring.
4.1.2 Cng ngh chuyn mch IP
(i) Khi nim c bn v thit b chuyn mch IP:
Chuyn mch IP l mt thit b hay h thng m n c th gi cc gi tin IP lp 3 v cha
thnh phn chuyn mch c kh nng chuyn mch cc gi tin lp 2. Thit b chuyn mch
IP c c ch nhn bit loi gi tin no s c chuyn i lp 3 v gi no s c chuyn
mch lp 2, sau gi mt vi hoc tt c cc gi tin i trn ng c chuyn mch lp 2.
Hu ht cc chuyn mch IP s dng c cu chuyn mch ATM. Hnh v 4.3 sau y ch r
hai m hnh thit b chuyn mch IP.
im iu khin IP IPCP ( IP Control Point) thc hin cc giao thc nh tuyn IP in
hnh nh RIP, OSPF, BGP cung cp ng nh tuyn tng chng lp 3 ngm nh v c
th lin lc trc tip hoc gin tip ti cc thnh phn ca chuyn mch ATM gi cc gi
tin IP. Cng nh cc chuyn mch ATM thng thng, nhng thnh phn chuyn mch ATM
trong chuyn mch IP duy tr mt bng kt ni cc cng vo/ra, cc nhn vo/ra (VPI/VCI).
IPCP
ATM Switch
In Out

a). Thit b chuyn mch IP
IPCP
ATM Switch
In Out
ng vo ng ra

b). Chuyn mch IP o
Hnh 4.3: Thit b chuyn mch IP

80
C mt s c im khc nhau gia hai m hnh chuyn mch IP biu din trn hnh 4.3
trn y. M hnh thit b chuyn mch IP (a) gm b iu khin IP v trng chuyn mch
tn ti trong mt thit b n. M hnh chuyn mch IP o bao gm nhiu thnh phn chuyn
mch c iu khin trc tip hay gin tip ca mt b iu khin IPCP. S khc nhau na l
v tr ca cc cng vo v cng ra. Trong cu hnh ca chuyn mch IP th cc cng vo v
cng ra u nm trong cng mt n v giao din. Vi b chuyn mch IP o, thnh phn
vo/ra cng c th c nh v trn cng mt n v giao din hoc trn mi giao din ring
bit. iu dn ti cch thc s dng v s ph thuc vo cc giao thc tm ng v bo
hiu ATM v IP trong mi m hnh l khc nhau.
(ii) C ch hot ng ca chuyn mch IP
iu khin b x l nh tuyn IP c ghp vi chuyn mch ATM v cho php chuyn
mch IP nh mt giao thc ca b nh tuyn IP thng thng v thc hin truyn gi trn
nguyn tc tng chng (1). Khi Lung d liu ln xut hin gim st b x l nh tuyn IP s
bo hiu cho lung truyn trm k tip pha trn gn nhn ca mt tuyn o/ lung o cho
cc t bo ca lung v sau s cp nht vo bng nh tuyn chuyn mch ATM c lin
quan. Gi giao thc IFMP ti trm pht (2). Tin trnh ny xy ra c lp gia cc cp chuyn
mch IP ph thuc vo tuyn kt ni. N tr thnh nhim v n gin trong kt ni cc bng
nh tuyn chuyn mch IP. Khi to mt kt ni c theo cc bc trn hnh 4.4 di y.
Nu lung n c bin dch, n s gi tip cc gi ca lung trn mt Knh o ri vi mt
nhn dng knh o (3)
Lung ra c th gim st trn cng mt lung v yu cu chuyn mch IP hin thi s dng
mt VCI cho n. (4)

Hnh 4.4: M hnh kt ni theo chuyn mch IP
Sau b iu khin chuyn mch IP ch dn chuyn mch ATM to bn cng cho
lung . Cc s liu tip theo s c chuyn mch trc tip trn phn cng ca chuyn
mch ATM. (5)

Upstream
Node

IP Switch
Controller

ATM
Switch
Upstream
Node
2
4
a) Ch hot ng mc nh
IP Switch
Controller

ATM
Switch
Downstream
Node
1

IP Switch
Controller

ATM
Switch
Downstream
Node
5
4

IP Switch
Controller

ATM
Switch
Upstream
Node
Downstream
Node
6 7
b) Gn nhn theo lung Upstream
c) Gn nhn theo lung Downstream d) Kt ni qua chuyn mch

81
Trong khong thi gian 60 giy sau khi thit lp lung o, th trng thi ca cc lung o s
c kim tra. Nu khng c s liu truyn qua trong khong thi gian (time out), th knh
o c gii phng. Thi gian kim tra tu thuc vo cu trc mng v thut ton iu
khin n nh.
Mt s gii php v k thut da trn chuyn mch lp 2 nhm ci thin cch thc nh
tuyn IP. Cui nm 1996 nhm lm vic cho IETF to ra mt forum mi c tn l MPLS
nhm tiu chun ho gii php chuyn mch v nh tuyn k hp (chuyn mch lp 3 v lp
4). Cho php nhiu nh cung cp thit b cng nhau xy dng gii php chuyn mch IP. Cc
giao thc ny s c ch ra trong cc phn sau.
Khi s dng phng php nh tuyn IP trn nn mng ATM dn ti mt s vn sau:
Cc b nh tuyn to thnh im nt tc nghn v khng th h tr lu lng n nh
ti tc qu cao (OC3), trong khi kh nng ca trng chuyn mch ATM l rt ln.
Cc bng nh tuyn qu ln v vic truy nhp a ch mt qu nhiu thi gian, vn
ny c th ci thin c nu s dng bng nh tuyn n chiu, vi s sp xp nhn
theo hnh cy, phng php tra cu c s can thip ch dn ca cc bng VPI/VCI
trong phn cng.
Cc mng IP th h tip theo cn c s qun l di thng, kh nng thc hin v QOS
m ATM c th a ra.
Cn mt cch thc n gin h tr lu lng IP phi kt ni qua mng hng kt
ni.
Bo hiu v nh tuyn trong ATM Forum UNI/NNI c coi l qu phc tp, cn mt
giao thc n gin m d chp nhn i vi IP.
4.1.3 Cng ngh chuyn mch MPLS/GMPLS
Gii php cng ngh MPLS (Multi Protocol Label Switching) l kt qu ca pht trin ca
nhiu gii php chuyn mch IP, mc tiu c bn ca gii php ny l tch hp nh tuyn v
chuyn mch thnh mt tiu chun n nht. c bit, MPLS l gii php nhm lin kt nh
tuyn cc lp mng v cc c ch trao i nhn thnh mt gii php n t c cc mc
tiu sau:
Ci thin hiu nng nh tuyn
Ci thin tnh mm do ca nh tuyn trn cc m hnh chng ln truyn thng.
Tng tnh mm do trong qu trnh a v pht trin cc loi hnh dch v mi.
MPLS cng c th coi nh mt gii php cng ngh t hp, mng MPLS c kh nng
chuyn cc gi tin ti lp 3 v ti lp 2 s dng c ch hon i nhn nh mt k thut chuyn
tip. MPLS da trn m hnh ngang cp, v vy mi mt thit b MPLS chy mt giao thc
nh tuyn IP n, cp nht trao i thng tin nh tuyn vi cc thit b ln cn, duy tr mt
khng gian cu hnh mng v mt khng gian a ch.
MPLS chia b nh tuyn IP lm hai phn ring bit: chc nng chuyn gi tin v chc
nng iu khin. Phn chc nng chuyn gi tin gia cc b nh tuyn IP, s dng c ch
hon i nhn nh ca ATM. K thut hon i nhn v bn cht l vic tm nhn ca gi tin
trong mt bng cc nhn xc nh tuyn ca gi v nhn ca n. Vic ny n gin hn
nhiu so vi vic x l gi tin thng thng v do vy ci tin kh nng ca thit b. Cc b
nh tuyn s dng thit b ny gi l b nh tuyn chuyn mch nhn LSR (Label Switching
Router).

82
Phn chc nng iu khin ca MPLS bao gm cc giao thc nh tuyn lp mng vi
nhim v phn phi thng tin gia cc LSR, v th tc gn nhn chuyn thng tin nh
tuyn thnh cc bng nh tuyn cho vic chuyn mch. MPLS c th hot ng c vi cc
giao thc nh tuyn Internet khc nh OSPF v BGP. Do MPLS h tr vic iu khin lu
lng v cho php thit lp tuyn c nh nn vic m bo cht lng dch v l hon ton
kh thi. y l chc nng vt tri ca MPLS so vi cc giao thc nh tuyn khc. Tuy
nhin, do MPLS l cng ngh chuyn mch nh hng kt ni nn kh nng b nh hng bi
li ng truyn l cao hn so vi cc cng ngh khc.
Bn cnh tin cy, cng ngh MPLS cng khin vic qun l mng c d dng hn. Do
MPLS qun l vic chuyn tin theo cc lung tin, cc gi tin thuc mt lp chuyn tip tng
ng FEC c th c xc nh bi gi tr cu nhn. Do vy, trong min MPLS cc thit b
o lu lng mng c th da trn nhn phn loi gi tin. Bng cch gim st lu lng ti
cc LSR, nghn lu lng s c pht hin v v tr xy ra nghn c th c xc nh nhanh
chng, y l mt trong nhng iu kin m bo cho mng MPLS c kh nng h tr QoS tt
nht, v vy MPLS to ra cc li ch cho cc nh cung cp dch v qun l lu lng v h
tr cc dch v mi. Tuy nhin, gim st lu lng theo phng thc ny khng a ra ton b
thng tin v cht lng dch v (v d, nh tr xuyn sut).
gim st tc ca mi lung v m bo cc lung lu lng tun th tnh cht lu
lng nh trc, h thng gim st c th dng thit b nn lu lng. Thit b ny cho
php gim st v m bo lu lng c tun th theo tnh cht m khng cn thay i giao
thc hin c.
MPLS c th c nhn nhn nh mt mt bng iu khin trn ATM cho php m rng
phng php nh tuyn v iu khin lu lng IP. C th coi nh l mt phng php xy
dng cc VC ATM, ngoi tr cc cuc gi MPLS l ng dn chuyn mch nhn LSP (Label
Switched Path). Khi chy trn phn cng ATM, c MPLS v forum ATM u s dng cng
mt khun dng gi tin (53 byte), cng nhn (VPI/VCI), cng mt k thut dn nhn cho t
bo chuyn mch, cng chc nng trn cc thit b g mng. C MPLS v ATM u yu cu
giao thc thit lp kt ni ( v d, giao thc phn b nhn LDP cho MPLS, UNI/PNNI cho
ATM). S khc nhau c bn nm trong mt s vn sau: MPLS khng s dng a ch ATM.
nh tuyn ATM, v cc giao thc trong forum ATM. Thay vo , MPLS s dng a ch IP,
nh tuyn IP ng, thm vo l giao thc iu khin phn b nhn LDP sp xp cc
FEC vo trong LSP. Trong thc t MPLS s cng tn ti vi mi trng thun ATM trong cu
hnh Ship-in-the-night (SIN), ti hai iu hnh hot ng theo ch tng h, hoc nt
mng MPLS c th trao i thng tin qua cc chuyn mch thun ATM (tch hp). Cui cng,
kin trc MPLS c th hot ng trn bt k mt cng ngh lin kt d liu no, khng ch
ATM. V vy, nh cung cp mng c th cu hnh v chy MPLS trong mt vng cc kt ni
nh: giao thc im ti im PPP (Point to Point Protocol), chuyn mch khung, ATM, LAN
qung b.
Cng ngh chuyn mch nhn a giao thc tng qut GMPLS (Generalized Multiprotocol
Labed Switching l bc pht trin theo ca cng ngh chuyn mch nhn a giao thc MPLS
(Multiprotocol Labed Switching). GMPLS thc cht l s m rng chc nng iu khin ca
mng MPLS, n cho php kin to mt phng iu khin qun l thng nht khng ch lp
mng m cn thc hin i vi cc lp ng dng, truyn dn v lp vt l. Vic kin to mt
mt phng iu khin thng nht i vi cc lp mng ha hn kh nng to ra mt mng n
gin v iu hnh v qun l, cho php cung cp cc kt ni t u cui ti u, qun l ti

83
nguyn mng mt cch hon ton t ng v cung cp cc mc cht lng dch v (QoS) khc
nhau cc ng dng trn mng.
Xu hng pht trin mnh m vic xy dng cc h thng truyn ti quang trong c s h
tng mng vin thng quc t ni chung, ca quc gia v cc nh cung cp dch v mng ni
ring phn no p ng nhu cu rt ln v bng thng truyn ti cho cc ng dng mi trn
mng, chng hn nh ng dng mng lu tr, thu bng thng, cp nht d liu trc truyn
trong c s h tng mng truyn ti a dch v. Hin nay ngi ta cho rng p ng c
nhu cu bng thng cho cc ng dng dch v th mng truyn ti ch yu s l cc h thng
truyn dn trn si quang vi cc thit b ghp tch lung ADM, thit b ghp bc sng quang
WDM, thit b u cho lung quang OXC... S a dng v phc tp trong qun l cc phn t
mng ti cc phn lp mng khc nhau l nhn t c bn thuc y vic nghin cu ci tin b
giao thc MPLS thnh GMPLS khng ngoi mc ch thng nht qun l gia cc thc th
mng khng ch phng thc chuyn mch gi m MPLS thc hin m cn c trong lnh
vc chuyn mch thi gian, khng gian qun l. GMPLS cn m rng chc nng h tr giao
thc IP iu khin thit lp hoc gii phng cc ng chuyn mch nhn LSP cho mng
hn hp bao gm c chuyn mch gi, chuyn mch knh, mng quang.
Mt trong nhng yu t kinh t ni bt ca GMPLS l n c chc nng t ng qun l
ti nguyn mng v cung ng kt ni truyn ti lu lng khch hng t u cui ti u. Vic
cung ng kt ni cho khch hng theo kiu truyn thng nh i vi mng truyn ti Ring
SDH c c im l mang tnh nhn cng, thi gian p ng di v chi ph kt ni cao.
thit lp c kt ni t u cui n u cui theo phng thc nhn cng ni trn ngi ta
cn phi xc nh cc vng ring SDH no trong mng m ng kt ni i qua, dung lng
cn li ca vng Ring cn kh nng phc v khng, nu nh cha thi cn phi tm
ng vu hi qua vng Ring no khc? Sau khi xc nh c ng kt ni ngi ta phi
thng bo cho ton b cc nt mng thuc cc vng ring thc hin cc thit lp lung hoc
u chuyn nhn cng trong cc vng ring, cng vic ny i hi rt nhiu nhn cng v tn
rt nhiu thi gian trao i thng tin nghip v. Cng ngh GMPLS cho php cc nt mng t
ng cung cp cc kt ni theo yu cu do vy gi thnh chi ph cung cp kt ni cng nh gi
thnh qun l bo dng gim i rt nhiu, thi gian cung ng kt ni cung cp dch v gim
i rt nhiu so vi phng php truyn thng.
4.2 K THUT CHUYN MCH ATM
4.2.1. M hnh phn lp ATM
Cng ngh truyn ti khng ng b ATM l k thut chuyn mch gi tc cao c ITU-T
thng qua nh l cc chun ghp knh v chuyn mch cho mng s tch hp a dch v bng
rng B-ISDN (Broadband Integrated Service Digital Network). ATM s dng cc gi c
di c nh c gi l cc t bo mang cc lu lng thoi, d liu, video v a phng
tin. ATM c xem l cng ngh u tin cung cp bng thng theo yu cu v cho php
nhiu ngi dng ti u ti nguyn mng bng cch chia s bng thng mt cch hiu qu.
Hnh 4.4 di y ch ra m hnh tham chiu ca ATM vi m hnhB-ISDN v so snh vi m
hnh OSI. M hnh tham chiu ca ATM chia thnh cc mt bng v cc lp.
a, Cc mt bng ca m hnh tham chiu B-ISDN.
(i) Mt bng qun l
Thc hin hai chc nng chnh: u tin l chc nng qun l lp c chia thnh cc lp
khc nhau nhm thc hin cc chc nng lin quan ti ngun thng tin v cc tham s ca cc

84
thc th giao thc ti cc lp; tip theo l qun l mt bng: Lin quan n qun l ton b h
thng v phi hp cc mt bng vi nhau. Trong khi qun l mt bng khng c cu trc phn
lp th qun l lp li c cu trc phn lp.

Hnh 4.5: M hnh tham chiu ca ATM-BISDN v OSI
(ii) Mt bng ngi dng
Thc hin truyn thng tin ca ngi s dng t ngun n ch trong phm vi ca mng,
cc dch v c th l thoi, s liu, hnh nh. Thc hin cc chc nng lp cao nh iu khin
lung, iu khin tc nghn, chng li. Ngoi ra mt phng ngi dng cng c cu trc phn
lp, mi lp thc hin mt chc nng ring bit lin quan ti vic cung cp mt loi dch v
cho ngi dng.
(iii) Mt bng iu khin v bo hiu
Thc hin cc chc nng nh: iu khin kt ni, x l cuc gi v cc chc nng bo hiu
lin quan n vic thit lp, duy tr, gim st v gii phng kt ni.
b, Cc lp ca m hnh tham chiu ATM vi OSI
(i) Lp vt l
Lp vt l c chia thnh 2 lp con, lp con mi trng vt l PM (Physic Medium) v lp
con hi t truyn dn TC (Transmisiom Convergence).
Lp con mi trng vt l PM l lp thp nht, c chc nng ph thuc vo mi trng
truyn dn vt l c th, bao gm kh nng thu/pht cc tn hiu, ng chnh bit, m ho, gii
m, bin i quang-in/in-quang, Lp ny thc hin cc chc nng chnh nh: Cung cp
kh nng truyn dn bit, m ho dng bit theo m ng truyn v ng b bit. Trong ch
hot ng bnh thng, vic ng b thng da trn cc ng b thu qua giao din. Ngoi ra,
cng c th s dng h thng ng b ring trong trng hp truyn dn t bo.
Lp con hi t truyn dn TC thc hin cc chc nng sau:
Phi hp tc t bo; nhm phi hp cc lung lu lng t bo n khc nhau
m bo tc lung chung thng qua cc vic chn cc t bo ri khng mang thng
tin.
To v xc nhn dy HEC; To ra cc m xc nhn cho cc t bo hp l.
Thch ng khung truyn dn; To cc lung d liu thch ng vi cc cng ngh truyn
dn khc nhau.
To v khi phc khung truyn dn. y l chc nng ca cc thit b kt cui mng
nhm to ra cc khung d liu s dng trong cc h thng truyn dn khc nhau.

85
(ii) Lp ATM
Lp ATM l lp nm ngay trn lp vt l trong m hnh giao thc B-ISDN v cng ngh
ATM ch yu th hin lp ny. Chc nng chnh ca lp ATM l: X l nh tuyn cc cuc
gi da vo VPI/VCI v chc nng chuyn mch nhm m bo cho qu trnh truyn ti thng
tin t ngun ti ch p ng cc yu cu v cht lng dch v v nng cao hiu qu cc
phng php k thut truyn dn c s dng.
Lp ATM s m trch vic to v thm tra t bo khi lp bn trn nh AAL (Adaptive
Atm Layer) a thng tin xung truyn i qua mng. Ngoi ra lp ATM cn c chc nng
iu khin lung GFC, chc nng a hp v gii a hp cc lung t bo hai u pht v thu
khi cc lung t bo t nhiu ngun khc nhau i trn cng mt lin kt.
(iii) Lp tng thch ATM (AAL)
Lp tng thch ATM (AAL) l lp lin kt lp ATM vi lp ng dng. Cc chc nng lp
AAL do cc thit b u cui hoc thit b tng thch ti giao din ngi dng m nhim.
Trong mng ATM, phn mng x l cc chc nng lp ATM hon ton c lp vi cc dch
v truyn thng trong mng. C ngha l thng tin khch hng c truyn mt cch trong sut
qua mng ATM, mng khng tham gia x l thng tin v cng khng c bit v cu trc s
liu truyn i. iu ny c gi l tnh cht c lp v ni dung. Mt c tnh khc ca mng
ATM l tnh c lp v thi gian, ngha l trong mng ATM tn hiu nh thi ca mng c
lp vi tn hiu nhp ca cc ng dng (hoc thit b) v mng chp nhn tt cc tc .
Chc nng lp AAL ph thuc vo cc yu cu ca cc lp cao. V mng ATM c th cho
php a dch v, do vy mng khng qu phc tp ngi ta nhm cc dch v c cng
mt s c tnh li vi nhau thnh tng loi, nhm n gin ho giao din trong ATM. Vic
phn loi AAL da trn ba tham s l: Quan h thi gian gia ngun v ch, c tnh v tc
truyn v c tnh v phng thc kt ni. (bng 4.1)
Lp A Lp B Lp C Lp D
Quan h thi gian ng b Bt ng b
Tc bit C nh Thay i
Kiu kt ni Hng kt ni Phi
kt ni
Kiu AAL AAL 1 AAL 2 AAL 3/4 AAL 5
Kiu ng dng M phng
knh
Video,
thoi VBR
Data Bo hiu,
TCP/IP,FR
Bng 4.1: Phn loi cc dch v lp tng thch ATM
Lp AAL c chia thnh 2 lp con l: Lp hi t CS (Convergence Service) v lp ct/ ghp
t bo SAR (Segmentation Reassembly Sublayer).
CS thc hin cc chc nng phi hp v thch ng gia lp cao v lp AAL nh: To
cc thng tin dch v cho khch hng lp cao, iu khin cc th tc ng gi/m gi
i vi cc CS-PDU. Lp con CS li c th c chia lm 2 thnh phn l phn dch
v ring v phn dch v chung.
Lp ct/ghp t bo SAR thc hin chia nh cc n v d liu PDU (Packet Data
Unit) ca cc lp cao thnh cc phn c di 48 byte tng ng vi trng d liu

86
trong t bo ATM. Ti u thu, SAR ly thng tin trong trng s liu t bo khi
phc li cc PDU ban u. Mt im truy nhp dch v lp AAL l AAL-SAP (Service
Application Point) cung cp cc giao din ti cc lp cao hn nh vic chuyn i cc
tin t lin quan AAL-PDU.
4.2.2. Nguyn l chuyn mch ATM
Trc khi xem xt nguyn l trng chuyn mch ATM, ta xem xt mt s khi nim mu
cht lin quan trc tip n c ch iu hnh chuyn mch ca cc trng chuyn mch ATM.
Mc ny s trnh bycc khi nim knh o VC, lung o VP, chuyn mch VC v VP v
nguyn tc chuyn mch ca trng chuyn mch ATM.
a, Knh o VC
thit lp mt kt ni gia hai u cui i hi s kt hp ca mt chui nhiu lin kt
vi nhau t ngun cho ti ch. T hp chui cc lin kt knh o c gi l kt ni o VCC
(Virtual Channel Connection). Vic quyt nh kh nng s dng tng lin kt ph thuc vo
bng tn khch hng yu cu v dung lng cn li ca lin kt. Trong tng t bo, knh o
c nhn dng bi gi tr VCI (Vitual channel Identifier), l mt thnh phn ca phn tiu
t bo nh ch ra trn hnh 4.1.
Ti cc nt chuyn mch, bng nh tuyn s cung cp cc thng tin bin dch VCI cho tng
t bo khi c truyn ti. Thng tin cn thit ca bng ny c cp nht trong giai on thit
lp cuc gi v gi nguyn trong sut qu trnh cuc gi. Cc kt ni knh o c th dng
trong cc ng dng sau:
(i) Cc ng dng t khch hng ti khch hng
Trong ng dng ny, VCC c thit lp gia thit b u cui khch hng ti cc u ca
kt ni. Thng tin c tryn ti di dng cc t bo ATM gia cc thit b u cui khch
hng.
(ii) Cc ng dng khch hng ti mng
Trong ng dng ny, VCC c thit lp ni thit b u cui ca khch hng vi im nt
mng v cung cp truy nhp ti cc thnh phn ca mng.
(iii) Cc ng dng mng ti mng
Trong ng dng ny, VCC c thit lp gia hai im nt mng. ng dng mng - mng ca
VCC gm c qun l lu lng v nh tuyn mng.
Mt s c tnh ca kt ni knh o gm c:
Khch hng s dng VCC c kh nng yu cu cht lng dch v xc nh bi cc
tham s nh t l mt t bo, bin thin tr t bo
VCC c cung cp trn c s yu cu trc tip hoc bn c nh.
Trong VCC, th t t bo khng thay i. y l nguyn l c bn ca ATM
i vi tng VCC, cc tham s v dung lng s c tho thun gia khch hng v
mng khi kt ni c thit lp v sau c th tho thun li.
i vi vic gn cc gi tr VCI c 4 phng php c s dng: Do mch gn, do khch hng
gn, theo s tho thun ca khch hng v mng v theo phng php c chun ho.
Ni chung, gi tr VCI c gn c lp vi dch v c cung cp qua VC tng ng. Ti
NNI, VCI c gn trc trong cc trng hp sau: Ch th t bo khng c gn, ch th t
bo lp vt l, ch th bo hiu Meta v ch th bo hiu qung b chung.

87

b, ng o VP
ng o l mt tp cc knh o c cng im kt ni. Chui cc lin kt ng o lin kt
vi nhau hnh thnh mt kt ni ng o VPC (Virtual Path Connection) ni gia hai im
kt cui VPC (im kt cui VPC l im m cc VPI c hnh thnh, bin dch v b
loi b), hoc trong cu hnh im-a im c s im kt ni t 2 tr ln.
Khi nim ng o VP dng ch cc ng ni logic trc tip (s dng bi nhiu knh
o) gia cc im chuyn mch thng qua cc im ni cho trung gian.
ng truyn o l hnh thc (u ni bn c nh hoc chuyn mch) to ra lin kt c
tnh cht tng ng v mt logic gia hai nt chuyn mch m khng cn thit phi u ni
trc tip bng mt lin kt vt l. iu ny cho php phn bit gia cu trc mng vt l v
logic, ng thi cho php sp xp li cu trc logic ph hp cc yu cu v lu lng. ng
truyn o c phn bit bng gi tr trng nhn dng ng o VPI, l mt tham s ca tiu
t bo.
Cc bng bin dch nh tuyn ti cc nt chuyn mch thc hin bin dch gi tr VPI ca
tng t bo khi thm nhp vo cc b ni cho. Tuy nhin, thng tin i vi cc knh o thuc
ng o ny khng b x l. Tt c cc knh o thuc ng o s c truyn ti trn cng
mt ng o u ra.
c, Chuyn mch VP v VC
Ti mt s nt chuyn mch, vic bin dch VPI c thc hin cng vi vic bin dch
VCI to nn s thay i ca VCI v VPI. Hnh 4.6 ch ra 2 phng php chuyn mch theo
knh o v theo lung o.

Hnh 4.6: Chuyn mch VP v VC
Dy cc t bo ATM c m bo cho mi VCC trong phm vi cng mt VPC. Cc tham
s QoS nh: tn tht t bo, bin thin tr t bo s c m bo cho mi VCC. Ti

88
thi im thit lp VCC, cc tham s lu lng khch hng s c xc nh qua s tho hip
gia mng v khch hng v sau mng s gim st cc tham s .
Tng t nh i vi cc kt ni o VCC, cc kt ni o VPC c th c dng cho vic
truyn thng tin gia khch hng vi khch hng, gia khch hng vi mng v gia mng vi
khch hng. Vic thit lp v gii phng VPC c thc hin bng cc th tc qun l mng,
ph thuc vo vic cc VPC s c gn hoc c cung cp khi c nhu cu. Khi vic thit
lp v gii phng cc VPC theo nhu cu c th c mng hoc khch hng thc hin.
d, Nguyn tc chuyn mch v nh tuyn trong nt mng ATM
Chuyn mch ATM thc hin chc nng chuyn mch cc t bo ATM t mt u vo (trong
s N u vo) n mt hay nhiu u ra (trong s M u ra) da trn vic bin dch cc VPC
v VCC.

Bng bin dch
Tiu / ng
ng
vo
Tiu ng ra Tiu

I1
In
A
B
C
A
B
D
O1
OP
O2
M
N
O
O1
O2
O3
P
Q
R
Bng phin dch
I2
In
O1
O2
Op
I1
Cc
Tiu

ra
Cc
Tiu

vo
C B A
D B A
M M P
O Q Q
N R R

Hnh 4.7: Nguyn l chuyn mch ATM
Trn hnh 4.7 cc t bo ATM c chuyn mch vt l t mt u vo Ii (N) n mt u
ra Oj (M), ng thi mt gi tr tiu vo (A, B, C, ) c phin dch sang mt tiu ra
(M, N, O, ). mi ng vo v ng ra gi tr tiu l duy nht, nhng trn cc ng
khc nhau c th c cc tiu nh nhau (v d: A cc ng I1 v In). Tt c cc t bo c
u A ng vo I1 u c chuyn ti u ra O1 v u chng c phin dch hay
chuyn i vo gi tr M. Cn tt c t bo c u A ng vo In c chuyn n O1
nhng u chng khi ra li nhn gi tr l P. Mt khc hai t bo hai u vo khc nhau (Ii
v In) n chuyn mch ATM cng mt lc v d nh ra cng mt ng ra O1, chuyn
mch ATM khng th ng thi a ra 2 t bo ny cng mt lc c. gii quyt vn
ny chuyn mch phi c b nh m lu gi cc t bo cha th phc v v cho ra t bo
c u tin cao nht. Cc c ch m v kiu trng chuyn mch trnh by trong chng
3.
Nh vy mi kt ni c xc nh theo cc gi tr VPI ring ca mi VP trong tng chng
ca ng truyn v gi tr VCI ring ca mi VC trong tng VP. Bc u tin thit lp
kt ni gia cc u cui l qu trnh xc nh ng ni gia thit b ngun v thit b ch.
Qu trnh ny kt thc vi kt qu l xc nh c cc chng ng truyn dng trong kt ni
v cc gi tr nhn dng ca chng.
C hai phng thc nh tuyn c s dng trong chuyn mch ATM, l nguyn tc t
nh tuyn v nh tuyn dng bng nh tuyn. Theo nguyn tc t nh tuyn ny vic bin

89
dch VPI/VCI cn phi thc hin ti u vo ca cc phn t chuyn mch sau khi bin dch
xong t bo s c thm phn m rng bng mt nh danh ni b th hin rng x l tiu
ca t bo. Tiu mi ca t bo c t trc nh ni dung ca bn bin dch, vic tng
thm tiu t bo y yu cu tng thm tc ni b ca ma trn chuyn mch. Ngay sau
khi t bo c c nh danh ni b, n c nh hng theo nguyn tc t nh hng. Mi
cuc ni t u vo ti u ra c mt tn ni b nm trong ma trn chuyn mch xc nh.
Trong cc cuc ni a im VPI/VCI c gn tn ni b nhiu chuyn mch do c kh
nng cc t bo c nhn bn v nh hng ti cc ch khc nhau ph thuc vo tn c
gn.
Theo nguyn tc s dng bng nh tuyn nh trn hnh 4.7, VPI/VCI trong tiu t bo
c bin dch ti mi phn t chuyn mch thnh mt tiu mi v m s cng u ra thch
hp nh mt bng nh tuyn gn vi c cu chuyn mch. Trong giai on thit lp cuc ni,
ni dung ca bng c cp nht ph hp vi cc yu cu ca ngi dng v mng.
4.3. K THUT NH TUYN TRONG MNG TC CAO
4.3.1. nh tuyn PNNI
PNNI c vit tt t cm t: Private Network Network Interface Giao din nt mng
ring. PNNI l phng php nh tuyn da vo k thut trng thi lin kt c s dng trong
mng chuyn mch ATM. PNNI gm c 2 thnh phn giao thc:
Giao thc bo hiu m t th tc v cc bn tin s dng trong qu trnh thit lp kt ni
t im ti im v im ti nhm ch trn mng ATM. Giao thc bo hiu xy dng
trn nn tng l cc tn hiu theo chun giao din ngi dng v mng UNI trong mng
ATM, c b sung thm c ch h tr nh tuyn ngun, th tc Crankback v nh
tuyn lun phin (phc v cho vic thit lp li knh truyn trong trng hp c li khi
kt ni).
Giao thc nh tuyn s dng tnh ton ng i trn mng. M hnh phn cp ca
mng PNNI m bo n c th ng dng trong cc mi trng mng ln.
a, bo hiu PNNI
Trong phn ny chng ta s xem xt v cc th tc bo hiu c s dng trong giao thc
PNNI, cc th tc ny gip to knh o truyn tin qua mng ATM. PNNI giai on mt c
mt s c im chnh nh sau :
H tr tt c cc bo hiu ca chun UNI 3.1 v tng thch vi mt s c im ca
bo hiu chun UNI 4.0.
Ph hp cho ng dng vi cc mng ln.
H tr nh tuyn phn cp.
H tr m bo cht lng dch v QoS
H tr nh tuyn vi nhiu tham s v thuc tnh khc nhau.
S dng phng php nh tuyn ngun.
Hot ng trong cc khu vc c phn chia.
Gii php nh tuyn ng, c th p ng s thay i v c s mng
H tr anycast
Bo hiu PNNI c xy dng tng thch vi chun UNI 3.1 v cc giao din kt ni
trong mng ATM, gm cc tnh cht c bn nh sau:

90
Kt ni im im v im a im.
C h tr cht lng dch v t u cui ti u cui.
H tr Anycast.
Cung cp bo hiu cho cc dch v tc bit kh dng ABR (Available Bit Rate)
Kt ni ng dn chuyn mch o.
Tha thun v tham s truyn s khi ti a, s khi ti thiu v kch thc khi.
Ngoi ra, bo hiu PNNI xy dng tng thch vi phin bn UNI 4.0 nn c thm knh o
c nh mm - SPVC (Soft Permanent Vitual Circuit), c mc knh o VC v lung o VP.
Hn na, do m hnh PNNI s dng k thut nh tuyn ngun nn giao thc bo hiu c th
h tr c danh sch ng i nh sn DTL, th tc Crankback, v nh tuyn lun phin.
(i) Th tc thit lp knh o trong mng PNNI
Khi thit lp knh o t im u n im cui i qua mng PNNI, ti nt ngun, th tc
thit lp t c khi to. u tin, nt ngun quyt nh yu cu thit lp knh v s dng
thng tin c trong s d liu mng ti chnh nt ngun tm ng a n ch theo yu cu
to knh, ng i c thit lp ph thuc vo lut nh tuyn ti nt ngun. Sau khi tm
c ng i, nt ngun y danh sch cc nt trung gian c chn i qua vo phn t
thng tin gi l danh sch ng i nh sn DTL (Designated Transit List). DTL bao gm
cc bn tin bo hiu c th thng qua nt chuyn k tip. Knh o c th b li nu nh
thng tin nh tuyn c a vo thi im nt ngun xc nh ng i khng cn chnh
xc, trng hp ny c th xy ra vi cc mng ln do c tr khi truyn gia cc nt. V
vy PNNI b sung thm th tc quay vng Crankback bo co li cho nt ngun, t nt
ngun s tm mt ng i khc thit lp knh o.
(ii) Danh sch ng i nh sn
PNNI s dng nh tuyn ngun chuyn tip yu cu ca knh o chuyn mch SVC qua
mt nt hoc mt tng trong cu trc phn cp ca nh tuyn PNNI. PNNI xc nh hng i
t nt ngun bng danh sch ng i nh sn. DTL l mt bng thng tin c nh ngha
y ng i t ngun n ch qua cc nhm cng cp ca cu trc phn tng PNNI. Danh
sch ng i nh sn c tnh ton t nt ngun hay nt u tin trong nhm nhn yu
cu v knh o chuyn mch SVC. Da trn c s d liu v tnh trng mng ca nt u tin,
n tnh ton ng i n ch m bo cht lng dch v theo yu cu. Cc nt trung gian
to cc lin kt n nt k tip theo danh sch nh sn, thc hin qun l knh o v chuyn
tip yu cu ca knh o chuyn mch trn mng .
DTL thc hin nh phn t thng tin khi gi bn tin SETUP trong mng PNNI. Nt ngun
tnh ton danh sch ng i nh sn cho ton b ng i n ch qua cc nhm cng cp.
Mt DTL c tnh ton trn yu cu cho cc nhm cng cp. Khi nt ngun cung cp danh
sch DTL y cho cc nhm cng cp, n a ra tn nh danh ca cc nhm khc, cc nt
m n s i qua. Danh sch DTL s cha a ch tng minh ca cc chuyn mch trong cc
nhm cng cp ca nt ngun v a ch logic ha ca cc chuyn mch trn cc nhm cng
cp khc. Khi c mt yu cu nm trong phm vi nt trong mt nhm mi, n xa danh sch
DTL c v tnh ton DTL mi i qua nhm ny. Khi yu cu n ch nm trong phm vi
nhm cng cp, nt bin ca nhm cng cp s tnh ton ng i n nt ch.



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(iii) Th tc Crankback v nh tuyn lun phin
Trong mng PNNI, khi tm ng n ch ng i c tnh ton theo c s d liu trng
thi mng ti nt ngun, bao gm thng tin v cc node d nh i qua ti thi im yu cu
kt ni. i vi mt mng ln, thng tin v tnh trng ca cc nt c th khng c cp nht
kp thi do mt s nguyn nhn lin quan n thi gian hi t v tr lan truyn gia cc
node. Trong trung hp ny, yu cu to knh c th b hy gia chng v bng thng ca
knh truyn, nt truyn trung gian khng p ng c nh thng tin v ung truyn theo
tnh ton ti nt ngun, nguyn nhn y l do bng thng ca h thng vo thi im cp
nht bng DTL v bng thng khi knh truyn c thit t khng cn ging nhau. Nt m
DTL b chn li gi bn tin gii phng (RELEASE) n nt trc n theo danh sch ng i
nh sn DTL v cng bao gm phn t thng tin Crankback .
Khi thng k tt c cc thng tin cn thit tm ng nh tuyn lun phin, phn t
thng tin xc nh l do b hng ca qu trnh lp knh truyn v chn nt hoc lin kt xy
ra hng . Thng tin ny c s dng ti nt ngun tm ng nh tuyn lun phin. Nt
ngun b qua nt hoc lin kt b chn v th tm ng i khc n ch. Nu n tm c
ng i, bn tin SETUP mi c in vo bng DTL v cng gi n ch.
Th tc Crankback v nh tuyn lun phin mang li cho PNNI li th nng cao kh
nng thnh cng trong vic thit lp knh. Ngi s dng c th t c s ln th li ti a
ca thut ton quay ngc th kt ni ti nt ngun kt ni vi u cui nhm t c
hiu nng cao nht cho mng.
b, nh tuyn PNNI
Cc chc nng chnh ca nh tuyn PNNI bao gm:
Tm kim thng tin trng thi cc nt ln cn.
Trao i thng tin v c s d liu cu hnh mng
Trn lt cc bn tin trng thi cu hnh PTSE
Bu ra trng nhm trong nhm cng cp PGL
Tng kt li cc thng tin trng thi ca cu hnh mng.
Xy dng ng i trong h thng phn cp.
Ban u, thut ton Dijkstra c s dng trong nh tuyn PNNI. Tuy nhin, n ch p
ng c yu cu tm ng trong i hi p ng tham s cht lng dch v n l .V
vy, thut ton Dijkstra khng th s dng cho nh tuyn p ng m bo cht lng vi
nhiu dch v cng lc. Sau thut ton Dijktra c ci tin nhm p ng cc loi hnh a
dch v bng cch kt hp vi mt s chc nng bo hiu. Cc thnh phn trong cu trc nh
tuyn PNNI c ch ra trn hnh 4.8 di y gm:
(i) Nt logic v lin kt logic
Nt logic l thnh phn c bn nht trong m hnh h thng mng PNNI, n nm tng
di cng trong h thng phn cp mng.
Lin kt gia cc 2 nt logic gi l lin kt logic, lin kt ny c th l mt lin kt vt l
hoc mt knh VPC. Lin kt logic gia 2 nt mt nhm cng cp cn gi l lin kt ngang
hng, lin kt gia 2 nt thuc 2 nhm cng cp khc nhau cn gi l kin kt bn ngoi.



92
(ii) Nhm ngang hng PG ( Peer Group)
Tp hp cc nt logic c chia s thng tin cu trc mng do cc nt qung b trong cu
trc mng gi l nhm ngang hng. Thnh vin trong cc nhm ngang hng ny tm kim
thng tin v cc nt ln cn bng giao thc HELLO, mi nt gi gi tin HELLO qua cng kt
ni ti nt khc thu c thng tin v cc nt khc. V vt l cc nhm ngang hng bao
gm cc nt vt l, v logic cc nhm ngang hng l nhm cc nt uc tp hp bi cc nt
logic i din cho cc nhm cng cp tng thp tng tip theo ca cu trc.
Trn hnh 4.8 ta c cc nhm ngang hng vi nhau gm (PGA,PGB), tng thp hn ta c cc
nhm (PGA1,PGA2,PGB1,PGB2,PGC) l ngang hng vi nhau.

Hnh 4.8: M hnh phn cp nh tuyn PNNI
(iii) nh danh nt, nh danh nhm ngang hng
nh danh nhm ngang hng v nh danh nt c s dng phn bit cc nt trong
cng mt nhm ngang hng cng nh gia cc nhm vi nhau, c 13 octet u ca a ch
ATM nh danh nt. Trong hnh 4.8 ta c th thy nh danh cc nhm nh (PGA, PGA) v
nh danh cc nt khc nhau nh (A1.1, A1.2). iu ny cho thy r tnh duy nht ca mi nt
v mi nhm trong m hnh PNNI
(iv) Trng nhm ngang hng PGL ( Peer Group Leader)
Trong nhm cng cp, sau khi cc nt trao i thng tin theo giao thc HELLO, qu trnh
bu chn ra 1 nt lm trung nhm cng cp ny s bt u. Nt trng nhm ny s i din
cho cc nt trong cng nhm ti cc mc tip theo cao hn. Nt trung nhm s tng hp
thng tin nhm v gi thng tin n nt logic i din cho n cc mc kt tip. ng thi,
n thu thp thng tin v cc tng cha ng, thng tin ny c s dng tm ng cho cc
thng tin mun i qua nhm ngang hng. Cc nt trng nhm c nh du mu en nh
A1.1, B2.


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(v) Nt i din cho nhm logic LGN (Logical Group Node)
Nt i din cho nhm logic l khi nim tru tng v nt c chc nng gii thiu nhm
cng cp tng di vi tng trn ca mng PNNI trong m hnh phn cp, n tp hp v tng
kt cc thng tin v nhm con ng vi n. LGN bao gm thng tin cu trc mng c tp hp
li tng di bi nt trung nhm. Thng tin ny lin tc c gi ti cc nt nhm khc
theo k thut trn lt.V d: Trong hnh 4.8, nt A.1 cung cp thng tin v nhm PGA1 cho
cc nt PGA. Ta c th thy chc nng ca nt i din cho nhm logic v nt trung nhm
ca nhm con tng thp hn ca n kh ging nhau.
Tp hp cc LGN cng c chia thnh cc nhm cng cp vi nh danh xc nh. Nhm
cc LGN ny cng bu ra trung nhm nhm nhim v tp hp thng tin ca cc thnh vin
trong nhm thng tin v nhm con ng vi mi thnh vin ca nhm v trn lt thng tin
trong nhm cng cp cng nh i din vi tng trn ca nhm trong m hnh phn cp. i
vi nt i din cho nhm logic , thng tin ca n nhn c l thng tin t nt trung nhm
ca nhm con gi ln, cn gi l thng tin ln, thng tin do n gi xung nhm con l thng
tin xung.
(vi) Nt bin v lin kt bn ngoi:
Nt bin l nt c xc nh r rng trong mt nhm tng ng. Nt bin l nt c cha t
nht mt mi lin kt vi nt nm bn ngai ng bin ca nhm cng cp. N c tm
thy trong khi thc hin giao thc HELLO bng cch so tn nh danh. Lin kt n nt bin
gi l lin kt bn ngai, khng c cc c s d liu c chuyn qua lin kt ny m ch c
cc th tc ca gi tin HELLO trong giao thc PNNI c truyn trn .
(vii) Lin kt trn v tng ng lin kt trn
Lin kt trn l lin kt mang thng tin cu hnh qung b t nt bin n nt bc cao hn
nt i din cho nhm logic. S tn ti ca lin kt ln xut pht t vic trao i gi tin
HELLO gia cc nt bin. Nhng trao i c xc nh bc cao hn ni m 2 nhm cng
cp c cc nt logic gii thiu trong cng nhm cha.
Tng ng lin kt trn l lin kt tn ti do PNNI cho php tnh khng i xng trong lin kt
gia nhm cha v nhm con
(viii) Nhm cha v nhm con
Nhm cha l nhm bao gm nhm cc nt i din cho nhm logic ca tng thp hn ti
tng cao hn, nhm con l nhm cc nt m trong cu trc thng tin l chuyn gia chnh n
v nhm logic miu t nhm ny vi nhm cha . Nt con l nt thuc nhm con nm tng
thp hn trong h thng phn cp ca cu trc mng PNNI.
(ix) Giao thc HELLO
Giao thc HELLO l th tc trng thi lin kt s dng bi cc nt ln cn tm kim s
tn ti v nhn dng vi nhau. Trong gi tin HELLO c cha mt s thng tin nh a ch cui
ca h thng ATM, nh danh nt, nh danh nhm ngang hng, nu 2 nt c cng nh danh
nhm ngang hng th chng cng thuc mt nhm ngang hng do vy cc nt c th bit c
cc nt no nm cng nhm ngang hng vi n, nt no khc nhm ngang hng. Giao thc
PNNI c trao i lin tc khi c mi lin kt , do vy c th ni n cng xc nh c cc
lin kt b hng. Sau khi trao i giao thc HELLO, nt to ra phn t trng thi cu hnh
PTSE (PNNI Topology State Element) v trao i lin tc vi cc nt ln cn bng k thut
trn lt.

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(x) Phn t trng thi cu hnh PNNI
PTSE l tp hp thng tin nh nht ca thng tin nh tuyn PNNI c trn lt gia cc nt
logic trong mt nhm cng cp. Thng tin c s d liu cu hnh mng ti mt nt bao gm
thng tin ca tt c cc phn t thng tin PTSE m n nhn c.
PTSE l phn t thng tin s dng bi cc nt xy dng v trao i d liu cu trc
mng trong cc nhm cng cp, cc PTSE c trao i lin tc gia cc nt theo kiu trn lt
trong cng nhm cng cp v i xung t LGN n cc nhm con thng tin n cc nt ln
cn v ti nguyn thng tin. PTSE bao gm thng tin cu hnh mng v cc lin kt, nt trong
cc nhm cng cp, cc tham s , trng s trong c th c cc thng s ng nh bng
thng, tp hp cc phn t PTSE c mang trong gi tin trng thi cu hnh ( PTSP ). Cc gi
ny vi thng tin cp nht v cu hnh c gi i nu c mt thay i trong cu hnh mng
(xi) Knh iu khin nh tuyn
Cc nt ln cn trong m hnh PNNI c mt knh iu khin nh tuyn trao i thng
tin v nh tuyn PNNI. tng thp nht ca m hnh PNNI, cc nt s dng mt knh VCC
c nh sn iu khin nh tuyn.
Ti tng cao hn ca m hnh PNNI, cc nt i din cho nhm logic s dng mt knh
SVCC. Thng tin yu cu thit lp knh SVCC ny c bt ngun t nhng tin qung b gi
qua lin kt trn trong nhm cng cp i din bi nt i din cho nhm logic.
(xii) K thut trn lt
K thut trn lt l s lan truyn cc phn t thng tin PTSE xuyn sut cc nhm ngang
hng, n m bo cho mi nt trong nhm cng cp c th duy tr nh danh trong c s d
liu cu hnh mng. K thut trn lt chnh l phng php qung b thng tin trong nh
tuyn PNNI
V bn cht, k thut trn lt gm cc bc sau y :
Cc phn t PTSE c ng gi thnh cc PTSP truyn i
Khi PTSP c nhn , n kim tra cc thnh phn PTSE trong
Mi phn t PTSE c nhn s bo co li vic n c nhn bng cch gi gi
tin Acknowlegment n nt va gi gi tin PTSP cha phn t PTSE .
Nu thng tin cha trong phn t PTSE l mi hoc c thi gian khi to gn hin ti
hn so vi gi tin trong c s d liu th n s c ci t ln c s d liu v gi
trn lt n cc nt khc.
Cc phn t PTSE s c gi i gi li sau nhng khong thi gian nht nh cho n
khi nhn c gi tin tr li Acknowlegment.
Nu sau mt thi gian , mt nt khng c cp nht th n s b xa i trong c s d
liu.
(xiii) iu khin nh tuyn PNNI
ATM cho php ngi s dng thit lp khi thit lp knh truyn cc gi tr v m bo cht
lng dch v QoS v cc gi tr v bng thng p ng yu cu cht lng knh truyn.
Knh truyn c thit lp bao gm 2 thao tc chnh :
Chn ng i t ngun n ch
Thit lp cc kt ni t mi im trn ng truyn

95
Qu trnh tm ng kt thc khi tm c ng i t ngun n ch v ng i m
bo c cc yu cu v cht lng dch v cng nh bng thng da trn nhng thng tin c
sn. Cc nt c i qua trn knh truyn phi c kh nng p ng, nu khng th tc
Crankback s c thc hin.
Trn thc t, hin nay cc thut ton phc v cho vic tnh ton cc tham s v m bo
cht lng dch v hin nay vn ang c nghin cu pht trin. Mt s thut ton hin nay
ang c s dng i hi cc tnh ton rt t vi nhu gi tr tham s v trng s phc tp.
Do vy PNNI cho php la chn mt cch mm do cc phng php tnh ton a ra
thng tin v m bo cht lng dch v.
(xiv) Hi t mng
Khi nim hi t mng c a ra nhm gim bt cc thng tin lan truyn v nt cng nh
cc thng tin v cc lin kt t c hiu nng cao hn khi pht trin cc mng ln.
Hi t mng khng ch c thc y pht trin bi nhu cu lm gim s phc tp ca
mng m cn nhm che giu cu hnh mng ca cc nhm c nhu cu c bo mt trong cu
hnh mng. Hi t mng bao gm hi t lin kt v hi t v nt.
c t thng tin cu hnh mng PNNI cp con cho nt logic mc cha, cn thit phi
c s hi t thng tin ca nt v lin kt. Qu trnh ny tng hp tin ti mt nhm cng cp
qung b ln tng trn. Hi t cu hnh mng c thc hin bi cc trung nhm cng cp
PGL. Nhiu lin kt mc con c tp hp vo trong mt lin kt mc cha v cc nhm
nt cng cp c tp hp li vo trong Nt i din cho nhm logic ti tng k tip.
(xv) Chn ng i trong PNNI
C 2 phng php c bn c s dng trn cc m hnh mng l nh tuyn ngun v
nh tuyn tng bc ( hop - by - hop). V nguyn tc, c 2 phng php trn u c th c
p dng trn cc mng k thut hng kt ni nh ATM. Tuy nhin, phng php nh tuyn
theo tnh ton tng bc c mt s bt li trong trung hp ny .
nh tuyn tng bc c th b lp vng, xy ra mu thun gia cc nt khi chn ng do
mi nt s dng cc thut ton khc nhau, mu thun do c s d liu cu hnh mng trn cc
nt chuyn mch khng ng b. Ngoi ra nh tuyn tng bc cn c mt s hn ch khc.
i vi nh tuyn ngun, im ngun c trch nhim chn uc i n ch mt cch r
rng, chun xc, cc nt trung gian phi thc hin ng theo ng i ny. Do vy khng xy
ra hin tng lp vng, mu thun gia cc chuyn mch, khng ph thuc vo c s d liu
ca nt trung gian. i vi nh tuyn ngun, cc nt chuyn mch phi s dng cng mt
thut ton, v vy cng khng c mu thun v tnh ton gia cc nt.
loi b cc hn ch ca nh tuyn tng bc cng nh tn dng cc u im ca nh
tuyn ngun, PNNI s dng nh tuyn ngun cho tt c cc yu cu to knh truyn. iu ny
dn n nt u trong nhm cng cp PG phi chn ng i cho cc knh lin lc trong
mng. Kt hp nh tuyn PNNI v trin khai trn cng ngh kt hp IP v ATM s c trnh
by trong mc sau.
4.3.2. Cc gii php chuyn mch v nh tuyn IP/ATM
a, Cc gii php chuyn mch IP
Khi kt hp IP/ATM chuyn mch IP c hai kiu m hnh chuyn mch: Chuyn mch IP
iu khin lung v chuyn mch IP iu khin topo.


96
(i) M hnh chuyn mch IP iu khin lung
M hnh iu khin lung hot ng trn lung IP thc t, m n c nh ngha nh l
cc gi lin tip nhau c cng a ch ngun, a ch ch v s th t ca cng (minh ho trn
hnh 4.9). Model iu khin lung hot ng theo cch sau :
Mt vi gi u tin ca lung IP c nh tuyn nhy tng bc qua mt hoc vi thc
th nh tuyn IP (R1, R2, Rn) qua mng ATM. Cc thc th nh tuyn ATM c kt ni ti
cc thc th khc bng kt ni ATM. Da trn c tnh ca lung IP (v d kiu lu lng, s
cng, cc a ch ngun / ch, tc n, ..v.v), thc th nh tuyn IP s hot ng tc khc
x l a ch chuyn tip mi bt u. X l a ch chuyn tip gm c cc hot ng yu
cu to lp mt kt ni ATM mi (hng tt) v nh hng lung IP qua hng tt v v
vy x l nh tuyn tng bc c thc hin. iu ny c hon tt bi qu trnh gn nhn
VPI/VCI mi ti cc t bo thuc v lung IP v do c cc bng chuyn nhn VPI/VCI cp
nht trong chuyn mch ATM.
ATM
Bn
/Chuyn tip
a ch
N gi ca lung IP
(N+1)+ M gi ca lung IP
R1
R2
Rn

Hnh 4.9: M hnh chuyn mch IP iu khin lung
Mt khi lung IP c chuyn tip a ch mi qua hng tt, tt c cc t bo thuc v
lung IP u l t bo chuyn mch. X l trn c s b nh tuyn i xuyn qua mng ATM.
tr c gim xung v hiu sut c tng ln.
Cc c tnh ca Model chuyn mch IP iu khin lung :
Cc hng tt c thit lp ng tu thuc vo c tnh ca lung IP ti. V vy n c tn
l iu khin lung. Mng h tr chuyn mch iu khin lung IP c 2 tuyn ng : Tuyn
ng mc nh i qua tng bc nh tuyn IP, v thit lp ng cc hng tt qua phn cng
chuyn mch ATM. iu ny khc cch nh tuyn truyn thng ch tn ti hng mc nh (
tuyn ng ngn nht). Nu ng tt b hng, lung IP c th nh tuyn li qua tuyn mc
nh. Chuyn mch IP iu khin lung ph hp nht cho cc khu vc ATM nh v hp thnh
mng Intranet v l do sau .
Th nht, tt c u cui s dng s chy cc ng dng khc nhau vi c tnh lung
v yu cu mng li khc nhau.
Th hai, iu khin lung c ngun ti nguyn chuyn mch p ng tt (khng gian
nhn VPI/VCI) c kh nng cung cp chuyn mch IP cho cc lung ring bit v n
ch l cc lung yu cu hng tt iu s tiu dng rt nhiu ti nguyn chuyn
mch. Ch rng khng phi tt c cc lung IP u yu cu hng tt (v d ICMP,
SMTP, SNMP, ..v.v).
Mt gii php khc cho chuyn mch IP iu khin lung l giao thc gii bc k tip
NHRP (Next Hop Resolution Protocol). Giao thc ny a ra bi Nhm to tuyn qua khng
gian ln ROLC (Routing over large Clouds), gii quyt vn gia cc b nh tuyn ca
cc mng con logic. Mc tiu y l ch ra im tn ti trong vng gn nht ti ch v
t c a ch ATM. Server NHRP tng tc ln nhau vi cc server khc a ra c

97
kt qu im gn ch nht. NHRP khng phi l giao thc nh tuyn v trn thc t n s
dng nh tuyn IP tiu chun nh trc cc bn tin NHRP qua mng li. NHRP gm 2
thnh phn (hnh 4.10). Trm con bc k tip NHC (Next hop client) c cha trong ATM
c gn vi cc thit b /b nh tuyn v trm ch bc k tip NHS (Next hop server). NHS
cng tn ti vi chc nng nh tuyn v duy tr cc a ch IP n v kt hp vi ATM. B
nh tuyn/ NHS cng c gi l trm ch nh tuyn. NHC truy tm trm ch nh tuyn
tm a ch ATM ca a ch ch IP v Trm ch nh tuyn tr li cc a ch ATM lin quan
hoc nh trc n ti trm ch nh tuyn khc qua tuyn ng mc nh sn.
Hng tt
Gi 1
Hi NHRP
Tr li
Gi 1
LIS A LIS B
NHC #1 NHC #2
a ch IP = A.1
a ch ATM = AAAA
a ch IP = B.1
a ch ATM = BBBB

Hnh 4.10:Giao thc gii bc k tip
Chuyn mch IP da trn NHRP lm vic theo cch sau:
NHC ngun (#1) s nh trc vi gi IP u tin qua kt ni ATM ti Trm ch nh
tuyn. Trm ch nh tuyn nh trc cc gi IP ti trm ch ch (NHC #2) qua tuyn ng
nh sn.
Da trn k thut tc ng nhanh iu khin lung, NHC ngun (#1) s tra vn trm ch
nh tuyn cc a ch ATM lin quan ti a ch IP ch (B.2). Cc tra vn yu cu gii
NHRP gm cc a ch IP ngun/ ch v a ch ngun ca ATM. NHC ngun tm kim thy
a ch ch c a ch ATM ca trm ch B.2. Nu Cache ca trm ch nh tuyn cha bng
truy nhp cho a ch IP (B2_BBBB) c trong yu cu chuyn mch n s quay tr li tr li
cho NHC(#1). Nu khng c trong yu cu chuyn mch, NHRP s nh hng theo tuyn
mc nh ti Trm ch nh tuyn tip theo hoc ti trm ch c cha a ch IP ch trong
cache ca n.Trm ch nh tuyn cui cng s tr li a ch ATM ch (BBBB) qua cc
tuyn mc nh v NHC ngun (#1). Ch rng a ch ch c th l a ch ATM ca trm
ch IP ch thc s hoc l cc thit b g (Edge) hoc b nh tuyn gn nht trm ch.
NHC ngun (#1) by gi c th khi to ATM SVC trc tip ti a ch ch (BBBB) ca
trm ch ch(NHC #2). ATM SVC l tuyn tt b qua tt c cc bc trung gian trong mng
ATM. Tuyn tt c thit lp bi cc nh tuyn v bo hiu ATM UNI/PNNI tiu chun.
Chuyn mch IP theo phng thc NHRP c da trn model iu khin lung. Cc gi IP
khi to hng qua tuyn ng mc nh i qua Trm ch nh tuyn, cc gi tun t c th
chuyn hng qua mng chuyn mch ATM bng cc kt ni c lp khc nhau. Mng cung
cp hai phng thc cho NHRP : Tuyn mc nh v tuyn tt qua phn cng chuyn mch
ATM. Nu tuyn tt khng th thc hin c th tt c cc gi IP s chuyn theo tuyn mc
nh cho n khi tuyn tt c thit lp tr li.



98
(ii) M hnh chuyn mch IP iu khin topo
Chuyn mch IP iu khin Topo da trn topo mng IP trn l cc giao thc nh
tuyn ( v d OSPF, BGP, ..v.v) c trong ISR. Cc nhn VPI/VCI mi lin kt vi cc c
trng tin t IP( IP prefix) ch c to ra v phn b ti cc ISR khc trong vng nh tuyn.
Tt c lu lng tr nh chi tit cho mng s chuyn mch cc lung theo cc gi tr ca
VPI/VCI. Hot ng ca Model chuyn mch IP iu khin topo nh sau:
Cc ISR hi t trn c s trao i giao thc nh tuyn iu khin thng tin gia cc thc
th nh tuyn IP. Cc nhn VPI/VCI mi lin quan ti tin t IP ch c to ra v phn b
ti cc thnh phn chuyn mch ca cc ISR. ISR ti u vo ca mng kim tra tin t IP ch
ca gi. Gn cc gi tr VPI/VCI thch hp vo cc t bo v nh trc chng qua ng
chuyn mch ti ISR u ra mng v nh vy tt c cc d liu c chuyn ti ch (minh
ho trn hnh 4.11).
ATM
Chuyn tip
a ch
N gi ti mng x
Mng x
Rn

Hnh 4.11: Chuyn mch IP iu khin topo
Gii php chuyn mch IP iu khin topo c thit k cho cc mng lin kt ln (Internet).
Xy dng tuyn ng chuyn mch da trn tin t IP m ra kh nng ghp cc lung IP c
cng a ch vo mt tuyn. Nh vy n s gim phn chi ph ti nguyn chuyn mch (Khng
gian nhn VPI/VCI) hn l gii php iu khin lung.
Hai gii php chuyn mch iu khin topo a ra hin nay: chuyn mch th Cisco v chuyn
mch IP da trn kt hp hng ARIS, v c cc c tnh chung:
Cc nhn mi ( VPI/VCI) lin quan ti cc thng tin nh tuyn trc IP c to ra v
phn b gia cc ISR trong vng nh tuyn.
Cc t bo/ gi c chung tin t a ch ch c nh du vi cc nhn ring.
Cc nhn c s dng nh s trong bng chuyn nhn cha trong thnh phn
chuyn mch ca ISR.
Tuy nhin c mt vi im khc nhau c bn:
Khi thit lp tuyn ng chuyn mch. ARIS khi to thit lp ng chuyn mch t u ra
hoc ISR gc m n c ch nh ti g ca mng. Chuyn mch th khi to tuyn ng
chuyn mch gia hai ISR bt k trong vng nh tuyn.
ARIS c kh nng kt hp v ti kt hp qua tin trnh xc nhn u ra, m n c th biu
din tuyn ng chuyn mch n l ti cc ti nguyn IP ch nh ln cn hoc lin quan
ti u ra ISR. Chuyn mch th s dng tng t nhng vi k thut khc c tn lp tng
ng nh trc.

99
Mch vng pht hin v phng nga. ARIS cung cp mch vng d li v phng nga ti thi
im thit lp tuyn ng chuyn mch. Chuyn mch th khng cung cp mch vng d li
v phng nga.
Hp nht VP/VC. Cc lung VP/VC c hp nht thnh mt lung n to ra kh nng
chuyn mch a im ti mt im. ARIS tiu ph rt t ti nguyn chuyn mch khi to ng
chuyn mch a im ti mt im. N yu cu ti nguyn O(N) trong N l s ISR trong
vng nh tuyn. Trong khi chuyn mch th cn dng O(N2) ngun ti nguyn.
H tr Multicast. ARIS h tr nhiu giao thc nh DVMRP, PIM, CBT, ..v.v. Chuyn mch
th ch h tr PIM.
Giao thc phn b nhn. ARIS s dng dch v phi kt ni datagram chuyn nhn gia cc
ISR. Chuyn mch th s dng TCP, kt ni nh hng.
Mt s s khc bit gia hai gii php chuyn mch theo topo v iu khin lung nh sau:
Dng lu lng trong gii php chuyn mch theo topo c chuyn mch ton b ch
khng ch phn di ca dng d liu nh trong gii php chuyn mch iu khin lung.
i vi gii php iu khin topo th tng chi ph thi gian thc hin thp hn nhiu. Bi v
nhng ng chuyn mch c xy dng ch sau khi mt s thay i trong topo hoc sau khi
c lu lng i khin n nu topo n nh, cc ng chuyn mch va c chuyn mch
vic lu thng dng. V t s phi hp m rng iu khin theo topo c a ln trn ht bi
v s lng cc ng c chuyn mch trong cng mt tuyn cn tng ng vi s lng b
nh tuyn v kch c ca mng. Thm vo mt mc kt hp cao c th thc hin bng cch
to ra nhng ng tt a im n n im s dng ghp knh.
Chuyn mch IP kiu Topo xy dng nhng ng tt cho d lu lng c chy qua
chng hay khng, iu ny c ngha l nhng ngun chuyn mch c dng ht do lu
lng iu khin v khng phi l lu lng d liu.
Trn thc t tn ti vn l rt kh cung cp cht lng dch v cho mt dng lu
lng m n c truyn trn ng tt kiu iu khin topo, bi v c th hp nht cc
dng IP, thi gian thc v dng tin c n lc ti a trn mt mng ch chung, cho
chng truyn trn mt ng tt.
Cui cng khi mt mng hi t, vic cp nht bng nh tuyn khng chnh xc c th
gy nn s hnh thnh cc vng lp ngn m c th dn ti vic tng hp mt tp nhn
hnh thnh trn mt vng lp chuyn mch, cc b nh tuyn ch c th hn ch nhng
vng lp ny bng cch s dng trng TTL ca cc gi tin.
b, Cc giao thc nh tuyn trong IP/ATM
(i) nh tuyn PNNI m rng
nh tuyn PNNI m rng PAR (PNNI Augmented Routing) l phng php u tin m
ra kh nng nh tuyn PNNI h tr IP. Trong mng PAR tt c cc b nh tuyn IP chy
cc giao thc IP truyn thng nh l OSPF xy dng v qun l bng chuyn tip gi tin.
Tt c cc chuyn mch ATM chy giao thc nh tuyn PNNI.
PAR cho php cc b nh tuyn gn trng chuyn mch ATM cng l mt thnh vin
trong hot ng phn b cu hnh PNNI. c bit, b nh tuyn PAR s dng nh tuyn
PNNI pht hnh s hin din v kh nng ca n ( giao thc nh tuyn, nhn dng b nh
tuyn, a ch IP,..), cng nh thu nhn cc thng tin v dch v h tr bi cc b nh tuyn

100
khc. B nh tuyn lc cc thng tin nhn c qua tin trnh x l nh tuyn PNNI v tch
ra cc thng tin cn thit thit lp cc SVC.
PAR cho php cc b nh tuyn c cc tham s cu hnh IP chung xy dng v duy tr
mt tp cc SVC ti cc b nh tuyn khc, v vy qun l v cu hnh mng s n gin i
rt nhiu, thm vo l cc b nh tuyn khng phi cu hnh PVC gia cc b nh tuyn.
PAR cung cung cp kh nng h tr nhiu mng o trn mt nn mng ATM, qua vic dn
nhn tt c cc thng tin lin quan ti PAR vi mt gi tr nhn dng VPN. Nu gi tr PAR
cp nht khng tm thy gi tr nhn dng ca b nh tuyn th thng tin s b lc b. Cc
b nh tuyn PAR c th lc cc thng tin lp IP nh l cc c giao thc v a ch IP. iu
ny chng t rng cc b nh tuyn PAR s khng ch x l cc thng tin cn thit cho cc
iu hnh nh tuyn qua mng ATM.

Hnh 4.12: nh tuyn PNNI m rng
Trong hnh 4.12 cc b nh tuyn t 1 n 10 h tr OSPF. Cc b nh tuyn t 4 n 7
chy giao thc PNNI v gn cc chuyn mch ATM. Cc b nh tuyn PAR s tham gia vo
tin trnh qun l cu hnh mng PNNI. Chng trao i bn tin Hello v tham gia vo nhm
ngang hng nhau. Cc b nh tuyn PAR trao i cc phn t trng thi cu hnh PNNI
(PTSE) vi cc nt PNNI ln cn v xy dng, duy tr c s d liu cu hnh PNNI. Chng
cng a cc thng tin ca cc b nh tuyn non-ATM vo trong PTSE qung b trong
nhm. Cc chuyn mch ATM chy cc PNNI tiu chun s b qua cc thng tin ny v
chuyn ton b ti cc nt khc trong nhm. iu ny cho php cc b nh tuyn gn ATM
s dng PNNI phn b thng tin IP ti cc b nh tuyn khc. Bi v cc b nh tuyn
PAR duy tr c s d liu PNNI, nn chng c mt nh x y v cu hnh topo mng. Cc
cp nht PAR c th c phn mc khc nhau trong mt mng PNNI.
C s d liu cu hnh PNNI duy tr bi b nh tuyn PNNI cng cha cc a ch v cc
dch v h tr trn cc b nh tuyn PAR khc. Cc b nh tuyn ny chia s thng tin cu
hnh mng IP chung v thit lp mt s SVC khi khi to mng.
PAR i hi khng c s thay i cc chuyn mch ATM khi PNNI ang chy ngoi tr
trng hp chng c th qung b PTSE mt cch trong sut. Mt thit b PAR phi c kh
nng to ra v giao tip vi cc thng tin lin quan ti PAR.
Cui cng, cc b nh tuyn vn phi chy cc giao thc nh tuyn IP truyn thng xc
nh nt k tip tt nht trn con ng ti ch.
(ii) Proxy-PAR
Yu cu c bn ca PAR l PNNI phi chy ng thi trn cc b nh tuyn. lm gim
nh lu lng thng tin nh tuyn cn chuyn qua mng v to ra cc chc nng cu hnh v
t ng tm kim, gii php proxy-PAR ra i vo nm 1998. Proxy-PAR l mt phin bn
nh ca PAR cho php cc b nh tuyn gn ATM khai thc phn b nh tuyn PNNI t cc

101
b nh tuyn khc. Proxy-PAR gm cc thnh phn client hot ng trn cc b nh tuyn,
thnh phn server hot ng trc tip trn cc chuyn mch ATM, thng tin giao thc server-
client c trao i trn cc dng bn tin khc nhau. Client ng k cc thng tin lp IP ti
server, cc thng tin ng k c phn b qua vng PNNI. Client c th truy vn server
cc thng tin lin quan ti lp IP c th s dng. Ging nh PAR. Mc tiu ca Proxy-PAR l
cho php cc thit b non-ATM s dng k thut trn lt PNNI ng k v pht hin dch
v.
R1-OSPF,p-PAR
Mng ATM
PNNI
ATM switch
PNNI
p_PAR server
R2-OSPF,p-PAR
ATM switch
PNNI
p_PAR server
R3-OSPF,p-PAR
R4-OSPF,p-PAR
ATM switch
PNNI
p_PAR server
ATM switch
PNNI
p_PAR server
R5-OSPF,p-PAR
p-PAR
p
-
P
A
R
p-PAR
p-PAR

Hnh 4.13: Proxy PAR
Trong hnh 4.13 cc b nh tuyn t 1 n 5 c u ni ti mng ATM chy PNNI trn
cc nt chuyn mch. Mi mt b nh tuyn c cu hnh nh l mt thnh vin trong vng
OSPF v chy Proxy-PAR client. Thm vo , cc chuyn mch ny c u ni trc tip
ti cc b nh tuyn chy Proxy-PAR server. Khi mng khi to, Proxy-PAR client trn cc
b nh tuyn s lin lc vi server ca chng v ng k thng tin lp IP nh nhn dng vng
OSPF, nhn dng b nh tuyn,v..v. Cc thng tin ny c s dng cho k thut trn lt
PNNI v cc Proxy-PAR client ly li cc thng tin cn thit cho cc iu hnh tip theo.
Trong trng hp cc thng tin cung cp cho cc b nh tuyn c cha a ch ATM ca cc
b nh tuyn trong vng OSPF, th rt n gin cho qu trnh x l ca cc b nh tuyn khi
mun thit lp cc SVC vi cc b nh tuyn khc. Kt qu l, cc b nh tuyn t ng cu
hnh SVC vi s phn nh trung thc cu hnh vng OSPF. Ngi iu hnh trong trng hp
ny khng cn cu hnh trc cc PVC v tm cc b nh tuyn trong cng vng OSPF cc
SVC s c thit lp t ng. Thm mt im ch rng mi mt b nh tuyn n phng
truy vn server v cc thng tin lin quan ti PAR m n khng cn t ng trn lt nh trong
trng hp PAR.
Cc c tnh k thut ca Proxy-PAR c nh ngha trong 3 giao thc chc nng c bit.
u tin l giao thc Hello c bn cht ging nh giao thc Hello PNNI giai on 1
( m t chi tit trong giao thc nh tuyn PNNI). Giao thc hello thit lp cc lin
lin kt gia cc Proxy-PAR server v Proxy-PAR client ng k th t v cc bn tin
truy vn c th truyn. Server cng thng tin cho cc client qua giao thc hello thi
gian phc v cc d liu.
Th hai, l giao thc ng k. Proxy-PAR client s dng giao thc ny ng k cc
giao thc IP c bit v cc dch v m n h tr. Lin quan ti cc thng tin ny l a
ch ATM v phm vi ca cc thanh vin trong vng PNNI. Cui cng n cho php cc
thng tin c bit lin quan ti PAR c phn b trong vng phn cp PNNI. V d,

102
mt b nh tuyn ng k cc dch v OSPF phn b ti cc b nh tuyn khc
trong cng lp vng phn cp PNNI, cc dch v BGP ti cc b nh tuyn BGP khc
trong vng phn cp lp trn. Khun dng ca mt gi tin dch v Proxy-PAR in
hnh gm tiu PNNI, a ch ATM, s th t v phm vi thnh vin. Mt hoc nhiu
nhm thng tin nh ngha dch v IG (Sevice Definition Information Group) cng
cnh ngha. IG nh ngha cho IPv4 gm c a ch IPv4, mt n a ch, mt n
dch v. Mt n dch v s ch ra nhng dch v thc t c ng k ng dng (SPF,
BGP, PIM). Mi mt gi tin ng k gi i bi Proxy-PAR client c server xc
nhn v p li. Cc thng tin ng k ny c trn lt qua mng PNNI trong phm
vi cc thnh vin. N khng trc tip gi ti cc client khc v cn phi truy vn tng
minh t cc Proxy-PAR client. Nu mt Proxy-PAR client mun ng k cc thng tin
mi, tt c cc thng tin ng k trc y s b ghi . Khng c trng thi duy tr
gia server v client ngoi tr cc thng tin c ng k.
Th ba, l giao thc truy vn, Mt Proxy-PAR client s dng giao thc truy vn ly
li cc thng tin lin quan ti PAR, ngoi ra client c th hi cc thng tin trong phm
vi thnh vin nh : a ch IP, mt n a ch, nhn dng VPN, v dch v. iu ny
cho php cc Proxy-PAR client ch nhn cc thng tin lin quan ti cu hnh ring v
iu hnh ring ca n trong mng ATM. N cho php client nh k truy vn server
loi b cc thng tin khng cn thit hoc qu hn s dng
PNNI m rng cho php cc b nh tuyn PAR v Proxy-PAR ng k v truy nhp thng
tin khng ch trn lp dch v IP (giao thc) s dng trong trn mng ATM. Mt vi dch v
thng thng c ch ra trn bng 4.2 sau y.
Dch v PNNI h tr
OSPF
RIP
BGP4
MOSPF
DVRMP
PIM-SM
PIM-DM
MARS
NHRP
ATMARP
DHCP
DNS
c
khng
c
c
khng
c
khng
khng
khng
khng
khng
c
Bng 4.2: Cc dch v c PNNI h tr
Cc thng tin dch v c th i cng vi thng tin giao thc c bit hon thin qu trnh
cu hnh mng. V d, mt b nh tuyn pht hnh dch v OSPF s gm cc IG tch bit
trong nhn dng vng, mc u tin ca b nh tuyn yu cu chuyn qua, v kiu ca giao
tip OSPF. Thm vo l mt h thng c kh nng IG c th c s dng ng k cc
thng tin th nghim v ring bit.

103
Proxy-PAR li dng mi quan h x l hin i nht vi cc ch nh yu cu vng nh ti
pha client. N rt hiu qu trong quyt nh thit k tng phn pht trin Proxy-PAR. Tuy
nhin, n cung ng rng cc client khng th lu tr v yu cu mt s lng ln d liu.
Bn cnh mc tiu chnh l s dng Proxy-PAR cho trn lt PNNI cho mt s lng nh
cc client n nh, n khng c thit k iu hnh trong mi trng mng thay i
thng xuyn.Tuy nhin, n cung cp mt cch hiu qu cc k thut qung b t do pht
hnh v khm ph cc thit b gn ATM vi thng tin cu hnh IP chung.
PAR v Proxy-PAR to ra trn cc thnh phn c kh nng bootstrap lm vic trn cu hnh
chng ln ca cc SVC. N tng thch hon ton vi cc giao thc phn gii a ch IP/ATM
hot ng trn m hnh chng ln hin c (ATMARP, NHRP,v..v).
(iii) PNNI tch hp
Mt phng php m rng th ba ca PNNI l tch hp nh tuyn IP v ATM gi l I-
PNNI (Intergrated PNNI). I-PNNI c th nhn nhn nh tip cn ngc hng vi OSPF
ARA. Thay v s dng nh tuyn IP phn b cc a ch ATM, I-PNNI s dng giao thc
nh tuyn PNNI phn b cc a ch IP. c bit, I-PNNI tch hp cc chc nng nh
tuyn ca IP v PNNI vo mt giao thc n trn nn PNNI. Trong n ch dng PNNI
nh ngha cc IG mang thng tin nh tuyn IP. I-PNNI c thit k iu hnh trn
chuyn mch ATM, cc b nh tuyn gn ATM, Cc b nh tuyn non-ATM v thm ch c
trm ch (Host). I-PNNI tng thch hon ton vi cc hot ng iu hnh chuyn mch
ATM. Mi mt b nh tuyn gn cc phng tin nh ethernet hoc chuyn mch khung, I-
PNNI s dng giao thc nh tuyn IP ng nh OSPF v BGP.
LAN
Router Router
Router
Router- server
Thit b g
Nhm A
Nhm B
Nhm C
Nhm X
LGN LGN LGN

Hnh 4.14: PNNI tch hp
T gc nhn ca IP, I-PNNI ch l mt giao thc lin kt trng thi c s dng
phn b cc tin t a ch IP trong mng v tnh ton tuyn ng theo phng php tng
chng. Mt khc, t gc ATM I-PNNI ch l mt giao thc PNNI vi vi chc nng m
rng s dng chun b cho cc d liu khng phi l ATM m cc chuyn mch s rt d
dng b qua c chuyn mch. Cc b nh tuyn v chuyn mch chy I-PNNI duy tr mt
c s d liu duy nht cho ton b mng. u im u tin ca gii php ny khi chy mt b
giao thc n s gim bt s chng cc giao thc nh tuyn v gim rt nhiu cc nh tuyn
ln cn, cui cng gii php ny l kt qu thc t cho bt k mt nt no trong mng, k c b

104
nh tuyn v chuyn mch, nh dng nh tuyn ln cn trao i cp nht thng tin nh
tuyn. Mt u im quan trng na l nh tuyn IP c th nng cp v cc b nh tuyn c
mt ci nhn tng th v ton b kin trc mng gm cc b nh tuyn, cc chuyn mch
ATM, v cc lin kt u ni. Mng phn cp hai mc gm cc b nh tuyn v chuyn mch
chy giao thc I-PNNI c ch ra trn hnh 4.14.
iu hnh trong nhm C gm c cc my ch nh tuyn v cc thit b g mng. My ch
nh tuyn (v d, my ch cho MPOA) thng giao thc IP th nay thay th bng I-PNNI. Cc
thit b g mng khng chy I-PNNI m chy giao thc client IP/ATM tiu chun nh LANE
hoc MPOA.
Cc chc nng c bn ca I-PNNI gm c:
Tt c cc b nh tuyn, chuyn mch v my ch phc v u chy giao thc nh
tuyn n nht I-PNNI.
Cc b nh tuyn v chuyn mch tham gia trong nhm mt cch ngang hng. Mt
nhm gm c cc chuyn mch, cc b nh tuyn hoc tch hp. Trong mi trng
tch hp ngi qun tr nhm phi h tr kh nng pht hnh a ch IP ra cc nhm
khc.
Pht hnh cu hnh PNNI c trao i gia cc b nh tuyn, gia cc chuyn mch,
v gia cc chuyn mch v b nh tuyn.
Cc a ch IP v ATM c pht hnh tch bit trong giao thc pht hnh PNNI
PTSE. V vy I-PNNI l mt gii php tch hp nh tuyn IP v ATM, cn c hai
khng gian a ch c h tr v duy tr.
Qu trnh tm kim a ch IP c pht hnh theo mt trong ba cch sau:
Trc tip: a ch IP c tm kim trc tip qua cc b nh tuyn pht hnh.
Truy vn: Mt phng php truy vn a ch nh trong giao thc gii bc k tip
NHRP tm a ch.
Gin tip: a ch IP ph thuc vo thnh phn th 3. N c s dng mt b nh
tuyn pht hnh a ch IP v a ch ATM lin quan ca mt mng con hoc trm ch
thng dng. iu ny lm gim bt cc truy vn NHRP.
Mt mng c mt c s d liu chung c xy dng v duy tr bi cc thnh vin trong
nhm ngang nhau. Cc b nh tuyn thng bo hn ch truyn khi n khng c kh nng p
ng c cc SCV yu cu, tuy nhin cc b nh tuyn c th khi to v ngt cc u ni
SVC qua s dng k thut nh tuyn PNNI chun gii quyt vn .
Cc b nh tuyn chy I-PNNI c kh nng qung b trong LAN thng qua cc nt gi t
OSPF th hin c s d liu cu hnh LAN. C th to ra phn cp nh tuyn nhiu mc.
NHRP cn thit cho cc nt I-PNNI sp xp a ch IP/ATM khi cc thng tin n khng
y , V d, mt phn cp nh tuyn ch cung cp cc thng tin a ch ATM tng qut gia
cc nhm, hoc mt my ch nh tuyn chy I-PNNI khng pht hnh cc b nh tuyn ch
ring ca tt c cc my ch ATM m n h tr.
Trn y m t mt cch ngn gn v cc thnh phn c bn cu to nn m hnh phn
cp ca nh tuyn PNNI nh cc nt, cc lin kt v quan h gia chng. Gn lin vi m
hnh ny l c cu trao i bn tin HELLO, cc phn t thng tin PTSE, gi thng tin PTSP
phc v cho vic trn lt thng tin trong m hnh mng PNNI. Ngoi ra, cc phng php nh

105
tuyn m rng ca PNNI cng l nhng ni dung quan trng mang tnh ng dng cao trong
cc m hnh chuyn mch ATM ring cng nh gia cc nhm chuyn mch ATM.
nh tuyn PNNI m rng cho thy kh nng hot ng tt ca c ch nh tuyn ngun
vi yu cu v cht lng dch v cng nh bng thng trn cc m hnh mng ln v d dng
thch ng c vi cc thay i v vy l ca c s h tng mng IP/ATM.
4.3.3. K thut nh tuyn m bo QoS trong MPLS
Cht lng dch v (QoS) chnh l mt trong nhng yu t quan trng nht thc y
MPLS v n lun l mt vn ln i vi k thut nh tuyn khng ch trong mng MPLS.
MPLS gii quyt bi ton QoS tng t nh m hnh phn bit dch v (Differs) trong IP, bng
cch h tr cht lng dch v trn c s phn loi cc lung lu lng ti bin mng. Cc
tham s rng buc v QoS ca kt ni thng c nh gi qua mc m bo bng thng
ti thiu, tr/trt v t l mt thng tin. Mc tiu c bn ca k thut nh tuyn QoS l tm
ra mt ng c kh nng m bo cc iu kin rng buc ca u ni v thm ch loi b
mt s u ni khc.
Mt m hnh trng thi mng QoS thng c biu din di dng mt th G(V,E).
Trong V th hin cho cc nt v E l cc lin kt. Lu lng vo mng qua nt S
i
v ra qua
nt T
i
. Mi lin kt (i,j) c 2 c tnh : C
i,j
l dung lng lin kt v f
i,j
l lu lng thc t.
Gi R
i,j
= (C
i,j
f
i,j
) l bng thng d. Mt kt ni c yu cu bng thng l d
k
th mt lin kt
c gi l kh dng khi R
i,j
>= d
k
. Mt kt ni mi c th c chp thun nu t nht tn ti
mt ng dn kh dng gia S
i
v T
i
.
Mt trong cc kha cnh then cht ca k thut nh tuyn trong MPLS l h tr cc ng
dn hin (ni) da trn k thut chuyn tip nhn, v vy thut ton nh tuyn trong MPLS
cho php la chn cc ng dn v cc tham s cht lng dch v QoS c c cc kt
qu tt nht. Yu cu cht lng dch v QoS ca kt ni c th c a ra nh mt tp cc
iu kin rng buc, cc iu kin ny c th th hin r rng nh cc yu cu v bng thng
ti thiu t pha khch hng, hoc khng tng minh nh cc yu cu v n hi ca mng.
Mt tuyn hin c th c nh tuyn hin hon tuyt i hay tng i. Trong trng hp
nh tuyn hin tuyt i, ng dn cho cc LSR li vo c nh ngha mt cch chnh xc.
Khi tt c cc LSR m ng dn s i qua c ch r rng. Trong trng hp nh tuyn
hin tng i, khng phi tt c cc LSR ng dn s i qua c ch r. V d, nu mt
ng dn phi i qua mt vi min, ng dn hin hnh qua mt min c th khng c
nh ngha chnh xc. Trong trng hp ny, LSR bin ca MPLS s tnh ton mt ng dn
qua min ca n.
Trong cng ngh chuyn mch nhn a giao thc MPLS, vic la chn ng dn chuyn
mch nhn LSP da trn phng php tm ng ngn nht vi iu kin rng buc CSPF l
gii php nh tuyn ng c bn trong mng MPLS.
nh tuyn rng buc m bo cht lng dch v CSPF (Constraint Sortest Path First)
trong MPLS s dng mt tp thuc tnh ca trung k lu lng, tp thuc tnh ny lin quan
ti ti nguyn v cc thng tin trng thi khc ca mng. Mt trung k lu lng l s tp hp
cc lung lu lng ca cng mt phn lp c t trong mt LSP. Mt trung k lu lng
c th c lin kt ring vi n (cc a ch, ch s cng). Mt trung k lu lng c th c
nh tuyn bi n l mt b phn ca LSP. Do , tuyn ng m cc lung trung k lu
lng c th b thay i. Da trn cc thng tin ny, mt tin trnh nh tuyn rng buc trn
mi nt t ng tnh ton tuyn hin cho mi trung k lu lng t nt i. Trong trng

106
hp chung, gii php tm ng dn kh dng nu n tn ti thng c tin hnh theo hai
bc: u tin l loi b ton b cc ti nguyn m khng tho mn cc yu cu ca trung k
lu lng (kt ni), sau chy thut ton tm ng ngn nht trn th cn li hoc ngc
li. M hnh m t nguyn l ca nh tuyn rng buc c ch ra trn hnh 4.15 di y:

Hnh 4.15: Nguyn l nh tuyn da trn cc iu kin rng buc
Nh trn hnh 4.15 ch r, cc iu kin rng buc c tnh ton gm cc rng buc t pha
mng v pha ngi s dng, chnh l cc tham s trong qu trnh chy thut ton tm
ng ngn nht. Sau khi tm ng ngn nht ta c cc tuyn hin v da vo cc giao thc
bo hiu dnh trc cc ti nguyn mng thng qua cc ng dn chuyn mch nhn LSP.
thit lp cc ng dn LSP trong MPLS s dng hai phng php bo hiu thit lp
tuyn hin l RSVP m rng v CR-LDP.
a, Giao thc RSVP m rng
Giao thc RSVP ban u c xy dng h tr kin trc IntServ trong cc mng IP
truyn thng. RSVP c m rng h tr vic phn b nhn cho cc CR-LSP trong mng
MPLS. Trc khi trnh by v giao thc RSVP m rng, ta tm hiu v s lc hot ng ca
giao thc RSVP ban u c xy dng h tr qu trnh chim gi ti nguyn trong m hnh
IntServ.
RSVP thit lp ng i s dng cc bn tin PATH v RESV, n l mt giao thc mm -
tc l trng thi ca cc nt trung gian phi c duy tr bng vic gi cc bn tin lm ti
theo chu k. Trong RSVP, mt ng i l mt tuyn m lung gi IP, hay cn gi l phin
RSVP i qua. Phin RSVP c nhn din bng a ch IP ch, v gi tr cng tng giao vn
ca d liu c dnh trc ti nguyn. thit lp mt ng i t mt host ngun n host
ch, host gi s dng bn tin PATH thit lp trng thi ng i qua cc nt trung gian
da vo nh tuyn hop-by-hop ti cc nt ny. Sau pha nhn s s dng bn tin RESV, vi
cc tham s v lu lng v QoS, i theo chiu ngc li vi chiu gi chim d ti nguyn
ti mi nt trn ng i . Mi nt trn ng i nhn c bn tin RESV s kim tra ti
nguyn hin c v so snh vi ti nguyn yu cu. Nu ti nguyn hin c khng p
ng yu cu th nt ny s gi bn tin bo li n c hai pha gi v nhn gii phng trng
thi ng i i v ti nguyn chim d. Nu tt c cc nt trung gian trn ng i c
ti nguyn h tr th ng i s c thit lp. V giao thc RSVP da trn giao thc IP
khng tin cy gi bn tin bo hin nn khng m bo qu trnh chim gi ti nguyn din
ra t u n cui. Do vy khi host gi nhn c bn tin RESV, n s gi thm mt bn tin
RESVCONF khng nh kt qu i vi pha nhn.

107
LSR bin LSR li LSR li
PATH
RESV
My gi
My nhn
Nhn = 9 Nhn = 5
RESV CONF

Hnh 4.16: Thit lp CR-LSP dng RSVP m rng
RSVP c m rng h tr thit lp v duy tr ng CR-LSP v phn phi nhn trong
MPLS. Cc c tnh ca RSVP-TE [RFC 3209] TE (Traffic Engineering) l s m rng phn
li ca RSVP thit lp cc tuyn ng hin da trn nh tuyn rng buc LSP trong mng
MPLS s dng RSVP lm giao thc bo hiu. D tr ti nguyn l mt thnh phn rt quan
trng ca x l lu lng. y l mt trong s cc l do nhm lm vic MPLS chn RSVP
hn l vic xy dng mi hon ton mt giao thc bo hiu khc h tr cc yu cu x l
lu lng. RSVP m rng thnh giao thc bo hiu h tr vic to LSP c th c nh
tuyn t ng trnh khi li mng v tc nghn. RSVP n gin ho vic vn hnh mng bng
qu trnh x l lu lng mt cch t ng. RSVP-TE s dng cc b nh tuyn chuyn mch
thit lp, duy tr cc ng ng LSP v phc v ti nguyn cho cc LSP .
Bo hiu RSVP-TE thay th thit b gi v thit b nhn l cc b nh tuyn thay v l cc
my ch. Hot ng ca n ging nh cc im li vo v li ra ca trung k lu lng.
RSVP-TE ci t cc trng thi ng dng vi tp hp lung c chung mt ng v chia s
chung ti nguyn mng thay cho mt lung ring l t my ch ti my ch. Bng cch tp
hp rt nhiu lung lu lng vo mi ng hm LSP, RSVP-TE gim khi lng ln cc
trng thi RSVP cn thit phi duy tr trong li ca mng nh cung cp dch v. Bo hiu
RSVP ci t trng thi phn phi lin quan ti chuyn tip gi, bao gm c qu trnh phn
phi cc nhn MPLS.
RSVP-TE yu cu thit b c kh nng mang mt i tng m (opaque object), ngha l
cc i tng ny khng b x l bi cc thit b khc khi truyn trong mng. RSVP mang cc
i tng trong cc bn tin ca n nh l cc on m ca thng tin. Nhng on m ny
c mang ti cc module iu khin thch hp trong b nh tuyn. Phng thc thit lp bo
hiu da trn c s ny khuyn khch s pht trin ca cc i tng RSVP mi. Cc i
tng ny c th c dng to ra v duy tr cc trng thi c phn phi cho cc thng
tin khc ngoi vn d tr ti nguyn n thun.Tp hp cc m rng c th nhanh chng v
d dng c pht trin qua vic ci thin RSVP nhm h tr cc yu cu x l lu lng
mang tnh tc thi trong vn nh tuyn chnh xc v gim phc tp trong qu trnh phn
phi nhn.
b, Giao thc phn phi nhn LDP v CR-LDP
Giao thc phn phi nhn c nhm nghin cu MPLS ca IETF xy dng v ban hnh
[RFC 3036]. Giao thc phn phi nhn c s dng trong qu trnh gn nhn cho cc gi
thng tin, LDP l giao thc iu khin tch bit c cc LSR s dng trao i v iu phi
qu trnh gn nhn/FEC. Giao thc ny l mt tp hp cc th tc trao i cc bn tin cho php
cc LSR s dng gi tr nhn thuc FEC nht nh truyn cc gi thng tin. V tr ca giao
thc LDP trong chng giao thc c th hin trong hnh sau:

108

Hnh 4.17: V tr ca LDP trong chng giao thc ca MPLS
Mt kt ni TCP c thit lp gia cc LSR ng cp m bo cc bn tin LDP c
truyn mt cch trung thc theo ng th t. Cc bn tin LDP c th xut pht t bt c mt
LSR pha trc n LSR pha sau cn k. Vic trao i cc bn tin LDP c th xut pht t bt
c mt LSR (iu khin ng chuyn mch nhn LSP c lp) hay t LSR bin li ra ( iu
khin LSP theo lnh) v chuyn t LSR pha trc n LSR pha sau cn k. Vic trao i cc
bn tin LDP c th c khi pht bi s xut hin ca lung s liu c bit, giao thc d tr
ti nguyn RSVP hay cp nht thng tin nh tuyn.
Thng tin trong cc bn tin LDP c ng gi trong cu trc TLV (kiu, di, gi tr).
Cc trng thng tin TLV c s dng nhm tng thch vi cc tnh nng tiu chun v m
rng ca cc nh cung cp thit b khc nhau.Mt gii php phn phi nhn h tr k thut lu
lng TE c th hin qua giao thc phn phi nhn nh tuyn rng buc CR-LDP.
CR-LDP h tr phng php phn phi nhn theo yu cu v hot ng trong ch duy
tr nhn bo th. Cc chc nng m rng so vi LDP gm c:
(1) kh nng thit lp cc ng dn chuyn mch nhn vi iu kin rng buc
(2) h tr cc tham s lu lng
(3) chim gi trc ti nguyn mng
(4) phn lp ngun ti nguyn.
h tr nh tuyn cng bc ngoi mt s iu kin khng ch v bng thng, khong
cch qun l cn cn c kh nng nh tuyn hin (hoc nh tuyn ngun).
C hai l do s dng nh tuyn cng bc phn phi nhn trong MPLS. Trc ht,
MPLS cho php tch cc thng tin s dng chuyn tip nhn t cc thng tin c trong mo
u ca gi IP. Th hai l vic chuyn i gia FEC v LSP ch c gii hn trong LSR ti
mt u ca LSP. Ni mt cch khc, vic quyt nh gi IP no s nh tuyn hin nh th
no hon ton do LSR tnh ton xc nh tuyn. V nh trnh by trn, y chnh l chc
nng cn thit h tr nh tuyn m bo cht lng dch v trong MPLS.
4.4. K THUT LU LNG TRONG MPLS
4.4.1. Tng quan v k thut lu lng
Cc nh ngha c bn v k thut lu lng c trnh by trong chng 1, mc ny
chng ta xem xt mt s vn lin quan ti k thut lu lng trong mng hin i, ch yu
l k thut lu lng trong MPLS. TE gii quyt vn hot ng ca mng trong vic h tr
ngi dng mng v QoS n cn. Hot ng ch yu ca TE i vi cc mng chuyn mch

109
gi l o lng lu lng v iu khin lu lng. Hot ng sau cng gii quyt vn m
bo cho mng c mt ngun ti nguyn h tr yu cu QoS ca ngi dng.
K thut lu lng trong mi trng chuyn mch g i thit lp mc tiu hng ti 2 chc
nng hot ng : nh hng lu lng v nh hng ti nguyn.
Hot ng nh hng lu lng h tr hot ng QoS ca lu lng ngi dng.
Trong mt phn lp n, m hnh dch v Internet n lc ti a, hot ng nh hng
lu lng then cht vi mc ch cung cp tn tht lu lng nh nht, tr nh nht,
thng qua ln nht, n lc ca cc tho thun lp dch v (SLA).
Hot ng nh hng ti nguyn mc ch gii quyt ti nguyn mng nh cc lin
kt truyn thng, cc router v cc server l cc thc th gp phn vo s thc hin
mc ch nh hng lu lng. Qun l nng lc ca nhng ti nguyn ny vn
sng cn i vi thnh cng ca cc mc ch hot ng nh hng ti nguyn. Bng
tn s dng l vn u tin, khng c bng tn th bt c hot ng no ca TE u
l v ngha. Vic qun l nng lc ca bng tn s dng l c trng ca k thut lu
lng. V vy, cc hin tng tc nghn xy ra trong cc h thng mng c th do hai
nguyn nhn c bn: thiu ti nguyn phc v v ti nguyn nhng phc v khng
hiu qu.
4.4.2. iu khin qun l v truy nhp
iu khin qun l v truy nhp lu lng l mt vn phc tp, hu ht cc mng hin
nay u cho php qun l cc lung lu lng ca thit b u cui da trn cc tho thun
mc dch v SLA. Cng ngh ATM l cng ngh c c ch cht ch v nghim ngt i vi
vic qun l lung thng tin u vo da trn trng chc nng iu khin lung chung ca t
bo ATM UNI. Cc c ch iu khin qun l lu lng hin nay thng i theo hng ny
thng qua cc lp dch v tng t nh trong ATM.
Phn lp Cc c im c bn
Lp A Tc bt c nh (CBR), c s TDM, hng kt ni, yu
cu nh thi, iu khin lung l ti thiu, tn tht nh
c php.
Lp B Tc bt thay i (VBR), c s STDM, hng kt ni,
yu cu nh thi, iu khin lung l ti thiu, tn tht nh
c php.
Lp C VBR, c s STDM, khng yu cu nh thi, hng kt
ni, iu khin lung cho php, khng cho php tn tht
Lp D VBR, c s STDM, khng kt ni, khng yu cu nh
thi, iu khin lung cho php, khng cho php tn tht.
Bng 4.3: Cc lp dch v lu lng
Cc phn lp ny c nh ngha nhm tp trung ti cc hot ng sau:
iu chnh thi gian gia pha gi v pha nhn.
Xc lp tc bit (bin i hoc hng s)
c tnh phin kt ni c hng v phi kt ni gia bn gi v bn nhn
Tnh lin tc ca ti trng ngi dng.

110
Hot ng iu khin lung.
Tnh ton lu lng ngi s dng.
Phn chia v ti hp cc PDU.
Tnh ton lu lng ngi dng.
S phn chia v ti hp ca cc PDU.
Trong dng n gin nht, k thut lu lng lun n lc p ng QoS ca ngi dng
qua vic to ra ti nguyn mng tt nht h tr nhng nhu cu ny. D nhin, ti nguyn
mng l hn ch. Do , vi mt mng m khng c bng tn h tr cc yu cu QoS
ca ngi dng mi thi im trong ngy, hot ng k thut lu lng phi sp xp lu
lng ngi dng. iu ny ngha l cc k thut phi a ra quyt nh cch thc h tr cc
phn lp khc nhau ca lu lng ngi dng. Vic sp xp lu lng thng t ti bin
mng, nh trong mng MPLS cc LER phi thit lp hng i v hot ng trn phn cng u
tin lp lu lng. Trn hnh 4.18, mi lp lu lng c phn vo mt hng i khc nhau
v lu lng bo hiu c a vo trc cc lp lu lng khc, l nguyn l hot ng
chung.


Hnh 4.18: Sp xp lu lng ti LER trong mng MPLS
Cc loi hng i thng c s dng trong b nh tuyn MPLS gm:
Hng i FIFO: Truyn dn cc gi c da trn yu cu n ca chng, sp xp theo
trnh t n. MPLS dng phng php ny cho vic a ra mt FEC.
Hng i cn bng trng s WFQ: Bng tn kh dng dc theo hng i ca lu lng
c chia ra da trn trng s. Cc lp lu lng c x l ngang bng nhau. iu
ny thng c dng khi ton b lu lng l s ho hp ca nhiu lp lu lng.
Lu lng lp A c ho hp vi khi lng ln hn tc l lu lng lp D. WFQ
ph hp vi vic qun l lung MPLS.
Hng i theo yu cu CQ: Bng tn c phn cn xng cho mi lp lu lng. N
m bo mc dch v ti tt c cc lp dch v.
Hng i u tin PQ: Tt c cc gi thuc lp u tin cao c truyn trc bt c lp
c u tin no thp hn. Do , mt vi lu lng c truyn do lu lng khc
chu ph tn.
4.4.3. iu khin chng tc nghn trong MPLS
Trong cc trng hp, k thut iu khin lu lng c p dng da vo cc tnh hung
bt thng. Lu lng thng thng c nh tuyn bng giao thc tm ng i ngn nht.

111
Nu vic nh tuyn theo ng i ngn nht to thnh cc nt tc nghn trong mng th k
thut iu khin lu lng s c s dng khc phc phn no nh hng do nhng tnh
hung ny gy ra. Trong cc c ch x l lu lng trong MPLS c th chia thnh cc trng
hp kt ni ti mt vng nng, v cc ng khng cn bng ti.
Trong trng hp kt ni ti mt vng nng, cc lu lng b dn trong mt khong thi
gian kh d bo mang v thng mang tnh ngn hn. Kt qu c th dn n tc nghn trn
mt vi lin kt hay b nh tuyn nht nh. gii php vi vn ny l nh ngha mt ng
hm CR-LDP khng phi l ng i ngn nht v y mt phn lu lng vo ng ny.
Khi cc ng ra khng cn bng v lu lng, ti lu lng khng cn bng gia cc
ng c th gy ra hin tng tc nghn ti b nh tuyn. s dng k thut iu khin
theo cc trng hp ny, cn phi c d liu v h s s dng cc lin kt trong mng v thng
k ma trn lu lng. Khi cc thng tin ny c thu nhp th mi c th li lu lng da vo
phn u a ch hoc u ra trnh cc ch tc nghn trong mng. Cc gii php nng chng
tc nghn thng qua nh tuyn s c trnh by trong chng 5.
4.4.3. iu khin lu lng a lp
Vn hng ti xy dng h tng mng chuyn mch tch hp l thit yu i vi cc
cng ngh mng hin nay, cc dch v a phng tin c xu hng s dng IP l lp trung
gian v tnh m v ph bin ca giao thc IP, im bt li l IP khng h tr cht lng dch
v nn m hnh chng ln s dng cc k thut hng kt ni nh ATM v MPLS m bo
QoS. Cc mng bo v s dng cc chuyn tip nhanh nh mch vng cp quang m bo
bng thng v bo v lu lng nm ti cc lp thp hn trong m hnh OSI.

Hnh 4.19: M hnh mng a lp
Qu trnh phn lp mng to ra s sai khc gia cu trc vt l v cu hnh logic ca mng.
K thut iu khin a lp nhm hng ti s ph hp ca cc dch v a phng tin cung
cp hin nay. Theo m hnh m bo QoS cho ngi s dng, mng c phn chia thnh
vng mng li v mng truy nhp, trong vng mng li m hnh phn bit dch v DifferServ
c kt hp vi cc cng ngh mng li nhm a ra cc lp lu lng khc bit. Trong khi
, ti cc mng truy nhp, m hnh tch hp dch v InterServ c p dng nhm to h tr
ti a cc kiu truy nhp cho ngi dng v dnh trc ti nguyn h thng cho tng dch v.
iu khin lu lng trong vng mng li thng c x l ti cc mc tng th, mt s k
thut chn ng, bo v ng dn v qun l ng dn c xut. Cc chc nng ny
thuc v lp 3 ca m hnh OSI. Thm vo l cc lp iu khin phin truyn thng cho cc
ng dng a ng, qun l ti nguyn ca cc ng thit lp, cc phng php bo hiu

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h tr k thut lu lng c thc hin trong c vng mng li v mng truy nhp. Ti pha
mng truy nhp ni lung lu lng c a vo mng, cc gii php k thut h tr k thut
nh chia ct, ng gi v phn loi cc lung lu lng da trn cc yu cu ca mng v
ngi s dng, cu trc li cc nhm lung ch yu thc hin ti mc 2 ca m hnh OSI.
K thut iu khin lu lng a lp xut pht t cc m hnh chng ln, trong hnh v 4.19
ch ra mt m hnh kch bn mng chung hin ang s dng ph bin trn th gii. Cc ng
lin kt quang to ra cc nhm bc sng v mang trn mt s LSP, cc LSP c phn
bit vi nhau bi cc c tnh v bng thng. Cc c tnh bng thng ca mi LSP ph thuc
vo cu trc IP/MPLS. Trong cu trc m hnh chng ln vic iu khin lu lng ca cc
LSP trn tng phn lp s thc hin tng t kiu iu khin ch t ti mi nt. Mt s chin
lc k thut lu lng a lp c xut v tp trung vo gii quyt cc vn sau:
(i). phc tp ca chc nng nh tuyn rng buc tham s: Cc yu cu v iu kin rng
buc n t c pha mng v pha ngi s dng, vi cc mng ln y l mt vn kh khn
v phc tp khi cc thnh phn ca mng phc tp.
(ii). X l QoS: Vic qun l QoS yu cu mt vi phn lp qun l l mt vn cn phi
gii quyt, c bit l cc tuyn ng c nhiu u tin v yu cu mc chim dng khc
nhau.
(iii). Bo hiu: thc hin hiu qu truyn thng cho cc dch v cc nh tuyn rng buc
tham s phi bit r trng thi lin kt ca ton mng, iu c ngha l s c mt s lng
ln cc thng tin trn lt qua mng, mt s chin lc nhm ti u cc lu lng bo hiu
trong mng c xut da trn cc m hnh phn vng v phn lp.
gii quyt cc vn trn cc k thut iu khin lu lng a lp hin nay c xut
theo hng phn thnh hai lp: Lp IP/MPLS v lp truyn dn quang.
Trn lp IP/MPLS cc giao thc nh tuyn c m rng thm cc phn qun l bng thng
v cc chin lc nh tuyn da trn h thng quang nh ti nh tuyn li nhanh v hng
lun phin, hng pht trin da trn cu trc truyn dn quang tp trung vo cc vn x l
nh tuyn nhanh v c d phng ng dn cao. D phng v bo v ng dn c th
thc hin trn tng khu vc hoc ton mng.
Ti cc lp truyn dn quang, cc nhim v n nh ng dn LSP vo trong cc bc sng
quang v cc yu cu dnh trc ti nguyn cho cc LSP c thc hin nh vo cc thng tin
iu khin t mt mt bng iu khin duy nht. Mt bng iu khin ny bit r cc cu hnh
ca c phn lp IP/MPLS v lp quang, cho php iu khin cc th t u tin trong tng
LSP.
4.5 CC GII PHP NNG CAO HIU NNG CHUYN MCH MPLS
4.5.1 Bo hiu m bo cht lng dch v
Nh cc phn trn trnh by, hiu nng ca chuyn mch ph thuc vo rt nhiu tham s
ch yu lin quan n c tnh lung lu lng v gii php chuyn mch. Cc vn v gii
php k thut chuyn mch c ch ra ti chng 3 v phn u ca chng ny. Vi cc
mc tiu chuyn mch m bo cht lng dch v cho cc lung thng tin a dch v, cc gii
php nng cao hiu nng chuyn mch c trnh by trong mc ny gm hai phn: bo hiu
m bo cht lng dch v v nh tuyn m bo cht lng dch v. ng lc c bn nhm
y mnh vn nghin cu bo hiu m bo QoS nhm nng cao:

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mm do m bo mt s lng ln cc lung lu lng vo mng li m
khng lm suy gim hiu nng mng;
D dng qun l cc lung thch hp;
Gia tng tin cy v kh nng khi phc li ca cc ng dn.
Hn ch bt thng tin duy tr trng thi lung ti cc b nh tuyn trung gian nhm
nng cao hiu nng mng;
H thng bo hiu m bo cht lng dch v thng thc thi qua cc tng tc vi cc my
ch chnh sch, k thut lu lng v cc thnh phn qun l mng. Nguyn tc chung ca
cc phng php bo hiu m bo QoS hin nay da trn cc c ch phn vng v qun l
bng thng.
C ch phn vng bo hiu ca cc mng tch hp a dch v bng thng rng da trn cc
min chnh sch khc nhau, trong bao gm c chnh sch qun l, chnh sch nh tuyn v
k thut lu lng ng dng. Mt h thng mng ln thng c chia thnh hai vng mng:
mng li v mng truy nhp. Cc phng php bo hiu cho vng mng truy nhp thc hin
trn cc c s m hnh Intserv vi cc bo hiu dnh trc ti nguyn nh RSVP. Cc vng
mng li thng s dng m hnh Diffserv vi cc phng php bo hiu ca PNNI m rng
hoc da trn CR-LDP.
Cc phn t qun l bng thng l mt trong nhng phn t quan trng nht trong cc kt ni
lin vng, chnh sch bng thng c coi l chnh sch u tin hng u cho cc lung lu
lng khi chuyn qua cc vng nh tuyn khc nhau. Chim dng ti nguyn trong cc ng
dn lin mng l mt trong nhng vn phc tp yu cu rt nhiu c cu m bo tnh
mm do trong cc kt ni lin vng. Qun l bng thng trn lp lin kt d liu thc hin
vic nh x cc yu cu QoS t cc lp cao ti lin kt vt l nhm chim dng ti nguyn v
xc lp cc th t u tin trong cc kt ni t u cui ti u cui.
4.5.2. nh tuyn v chuyn tip m bo QoS
nh tuyn QoS xc nh tuyn da trn ti nguyn mng hin c v yu cu ca lung lu
lng. Kt qu l cht lng ca ng dng c m bo v ci tin so vi nh tuyn n lc
ti a truyn thng. N c cc u im sau:
nh tuyn m bo cht lng dch v QoS la chn tuyn ng i kh thi bng
cch trnh cc nt v kt ni b nghn.
Nu ti lu lng vt qu gii hn ca tuyn ng ang c th nh tuyn m bo
QoS a ra nhiu tuyn khc truyn lu lng d .
Nu xy ra li mng hoc li nt th nh tuyn m bo QoS s la chn mt tuyn
ng i thay th nhanh chng khi phc li vic truyn d liu m khng lm gim
nhiu QoS.
Cc loi lu lng khc nhau c yu cu QoS khc nhau, cc t hp lu lng c
ngun v ch ging nhau c th i cc tuyn ng khc nhau.
Tuy nhin, cc u im ny ca nh tuyn QoS cng phi chu chi ph pht trin cc giao
thc nh tuyn mi hay m rng cc giao thc hin ti. Mt s kh khn ch yu l:
Th nht: do cc rng buc v cht lng (tr, rung pha, t l mt gi, bng thng..) ca
cc ng dng phn tn thng thay i. Nhiu rng buc ng thi thng lm cho
vic nh tuyn tr nn phc tp v rt kh cng mt lc tho mn c tt c cc rng

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buc. Hn na, phc tp ca giao thc nh tuyn QoS cng ph thuc vo s phn
nh ca n s dng trong cc quyt nh nh tuyn
Th hai: bt k mt mng tch hp dch v no trong tng lai cng s truyn ti c lu
lng QoS v lu lng BE, iu lm cho vn ti u ho tr nn phc tp hn
v rt kh c th xc nh c iu kin tho mn tt nht c hai loi lu lng
trn nu chng phn b c lp.
Th ba: trng thi mng thay i thng xuyn do ti khng n nh, cc kt ni c
to ra v gii phng lin tc, kch thc mng ngy cng ln lm cho vic thu thp
thng tin v trng thi mng tr nn kh khn hn, c bit khi bao gm c mng v
tuyn. Hot ng ca cc thut ton nh tuyn QoS c th b nh hng nghim trng
nu khng cp nht thng tin trng thi mng kp thi.
4.5.3 Cc gii php thc tin
Cc gii php thc tin a ra trong mc ny tp trung vo cc gii php thc tin thc hin
trn mng chuyn mch nhn a giao thc MPLS. Cc gii php bo hiu m bo QoS trong
MPLS c xy dng trn hai giao thc RSVP-TE v CR-LDP m rng trn m hnh phn
vng RSVP-TE ti mng bin v CR-LDP ti mng li, m hnh ny tng thch vi hu ht
cc nh cung cp thit b v phn ln cc h thng nh tuyn bin mng c sn giao thc
RSVP nhm phc v cho lu lng IP. Bo hiu RSVP m rng thm mt s i tng nh:
tuyn hin, i tng yu cu nhn, i tng c tnh phin v i tng ghi li tuyn trong
mt phn m rng (m) ca RSVP. Cc i tng ny c nh ngha trong mt bn tin gm
c 3 trng chc nng chnh trong tiu gm: Trng di, trng kiu bn tin v trng
gi tr c gi tt l TLV ( Type; Length, Value).
Cc gii php nh tuyn m bo QoS trong MPLS c ci thin t thut ton tm ng
ngn nht v b sung mt s iu kin rng buc ca mng. Mt s phng php c bn gm:
(i) Thut ton bc nhy ti thiu MHA (min Hop Algorithm)
Thut ton bc nhy ti thiu l thut ton n gin nht nhm tm ra mt ng dn vi s
bc nhy ti thiu t ngun ti ch, mc d thut ton ny c kh nng tm c ng dn
p ng c yu cu bng thng v c u im l tnh ton nhanh, nhng MHA gy ra hin
tng nghn c chai ti lin kt ti ln trong mng. MHA c khuynh hng s dng cng mt
ng dn cho ti khi t ti tnh trng bo ho trc khi chuyn sang cc ng dn khc c
mc ti thp hn.
(ii) Thut ton tm ng ngn nht v rng nht WSPA (Widest Sortest Path Algorithm)
Thut ton tm ng ngn nht v rng nht (WSPA) l mt thut ton ci tin t thut ton
bc nhy ti thiu nhm cn bng ti lu lng mng. Trong thc t, WSP s dng bc
nhy nh l mt h o lng v chn ng dn c t bc nhy nht tho mn cc yu cu,
nu tn ti nhiu ng dn, thut ton s chn mt ng dn vi bng thng cn d ti a.
Tuy nhin, thut ton ny vn c im hn ch ging nh MHA khi la chn ng dn c
thc hin gia cc ng dn ngn nht c dng ti khi bo ho, hn na thut ton khng
tnh ti s lin quan gia cc yu t bc nhy v bng thng.
(iii) Thut ton tm ng rng nht v ngn nht SWPA (Shortest Widest Path Algorithm)
Thut ton tm ng rng nht v ngn nht (SWPA) s dng bng thng nh l mt tham
s o lng v la chn ng dn vi bng thng nghn c chai ti a. Bng thng nghn c
chai ti a ca mt ng dn l bng thng d ti thiu trong tt c cc lin kt ca mt

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ng dn. Nu c nhiu hn mt ng dn c cng bng thng d ti thiu, thut ton s
chn ng c s lng bc nhy t nht. Nhc im ca thut ton ny l u tin bng
thng nhm ti u ti lin kt m b qua cc tham s khc.
(iv) Thut ton nh tuyn nhiu ti thiu MIRA ( Minimum Inteference Routing Algorithm)
Mc tiu ca thut ton ny l cung cp ng dn c nhiu t nht vi cc yu cu kt ni
ng dn chuyn mch nhn (LSP) trong tng lai gia cc cp ngun ch khc (S
j
,T
j
).
thut ton ny gi thit c mt s nhn nh v tim nng ca cc cp ngun- ch. Nhn nh
v tim nng ca cp ngun- ch cho php nh tuyn lu lng mi dc theo cc ng dn
khng b ti hn bi yu cu trong tng lai, v vy n gim c cc s t chi yu cu kt
ni. Nhiu ca mt ng dn c th c nh ngha nh l s suy gim gi tr lung ti a
ca mt cp ngun ch do vn nh tuyn trn cng mt LSP ca cc cp ngun ch khc.
Cc lin kt ti hn l cc lin kt khi s dng trong mt hng mi gia mt cp ngun-ch,
n lm suy gim tc lung ti a gia cc cp khc. N tnh ton ng dn ngn nht bng
cch t gi lin kt l tham s ti hn v chy thut ton Dijkstra. Nhc im ca thut ton
ny l s dng phng php tnh nhm t c ti a s cc yu cu, v vy n c th chn
cc ng dn di v ti cao thay v cc ng dn c s bc nhy ngn nhng ri vo ti
hn, iu s dn ti ti tng th ca mng s tng ln. Hn na, khi s dng cc cp ngun
ch tnh cc lin kt ti hn, thut ton khng xc nhn ti thc t s dng trn cc cp
lin kt ny, v vy mc nh hng ca cc cp lin kt c ti khc nhau l khc nhau. Nhc
im cui cng l MIRA khng tnh ton cho cc yu cu trn cng mt cp ngun - ch
(trng hp t can nhiu).
c rt nhiu cc gii php nh tuyn rng buc c xut trong MPLS nh trnh by
trn y, mc tiu c bn ca cc gii php ny l a cc iu khin rng buc bng thng
vo trong cc bi ton tm ng dn ngn nht. Mt s iu kin khc nh tr, tin cy
hay t hp cc tham s tnh ton cng c xut, tuy nhin khi s dng phng php t hp
cc tham s o trong iu kin thc t gp rt nhiu kh khn v s bin ng ca lu lng
lng mng v phc tp trong tnh ton nh tuyn.
4.6. MNG TH H K TIP NGN V CHUYN MCH MM
4.6.1. Mng th h k tip NGN
Khi nim mng th h k tip NGN (Next Generation Network) ra i gn lin vi vic ti
kin trc mng, tn dng tt c cc u th v cng ngh tin tin nhm a ra nhiu dch v
mi, mang li ngun thu mi v gp phn lm gim chi ph u t, khai thc ban u cho cc
nh kinh doanh.
Cc ng lc c bn pht trin NGN nh s pht trin cng ngh, th trng, hi t kt hp
mng v cc loi hnh dch v tc ng ti s bin i kin trc mng bao gm :
S tng trng ca cc dch v di ng vi cc nh cung cp dch v th 3 dn
ti mt mi trng cnh tranh mnh m gia cc nh iu hnh mng.
S gia tng v mc phc tp v qun l dch v mng.
Gi thnh cng ngh v yu cu m bo cc dch v truyn thng.
Yu cu v cht lng dch v ngy cng cao
NGN c ITU-T nh ngha nh sau:

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Mng th h k tip (NGN) l mng da trn nn gi c th cung cp cc dch v truyn
thng v c th tn dng c cc di bng tn rng, cc cng ngh truyn ti vi QoS cho
php v cc chc nng lin quan n dch v s c lp vi cc cng ngh truyn ti lp
di. NGN cho php ngi dng truy nhp khng hn ch ti cc nh cung cp dch v vin
thng khc nhau. NGN h tr tnh lu ng ni chung c th cung cp dch v thch hp v
rng khp ti cc ngi dng. Nh vy NGN c m t theo cc c im c bn nh sau:
Truyn ti trn nn chuyn mch gi.
Tch bit cc chc nng iu khin vi cc kh nng mang, cuc gi/ phin v ng dng/
dch v.
Tch ring vic cung cp dch v khi mng v cung cp cc giao din m.
H tr tt c cc dch v, cc ng dng v cc k thut da trn khi xy dng dch v
(bao gm dch v thi gian thc, phn loi dch v, dch v phi thi gian thc v dch v
a phng tin).
Cc kh nng bng rng vi QoS u cui ti u cui v truyn ti trong sut.
Tng tc vi cc mng trc y thng qua cc giao din m.
Tnh linh ng ca thit b u cui.
Truy nhp khng hn ch cho ngi dng ti cc nh cung cp dch v khc nhau
a dng v k hoch nhn dng gii quyt a ch IP cho mc ch nh tuyn trong
mng IP.
Nhn t pha ngi s dng cc dch v c hi t thnh mt dch v chung duy nht.
Hi t dch v gia mng c nh v mng di ng
Cc chc nng lin quan n dch v c lp vi cc cng ngh lp di
Phc tng tt c cc th tc theo quy tc nh truyn thng khn cp v an ninh/ ring l.
NGN tp hp c u im ca cc cng ngh mng hin c, tn dng bng thng rng v
lu lng truyn ti cao ca mng gi p ng s bng n nhu cu lu lng thoi truyn
thng hin nay v nhu cu truyn thng a phng tin ca ngi dng u cui.

Hnh 4.20: M hnh phn lp ca ITU-T
c im ca NGN l cu trc phn lp theo chc nng v phn tn cc ti nguyn trn
mng. iu ny lm cho mng c mm ha v s dng cc giao din m API
(Application Program Interface) kin to cc dch v m khng ph thuc nhiu vo cc nh
cung cp thit b v dch v mng. M hnh phn lp do ITU-T a ra trnh by trn hnh 4.20

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trn y gm 4 lp chc nng chnh (ng dng, iu khin, truyn ti, truy nhp) v mt lp
qun l chung cho 4 lp ny.
(i) Lp ng dng v dch v mng
Lp ng dng cung cp cc chc nng iu khin v kin to mi trng dch v cho cc
nh cung cp th 3 c t chc thnh mt lp duy nht cho ton mng nhm m bo cung
cp dch v n tn u cui theo cch thng nht. S lng nt ng dng v dch v ph
thuc vo lu lng dch v cng nh s lng v loi hnh dch v, c t chc phn tn
theo dch v nhm m bo an ton cho h thng.
(ii) Lp iu khin
Lp iu khin c t chc thnh mt cp thay v ba hay bn cp nh cu trc mng PSTN
truyn thng nhm gim ti a cp mng v tn dng nng lc x l cuc gi rt ln ca thit b iu
khin th h mi v gim chi ph u t trn mng.
Lp iu khin c nhim v iu khin lp chuyn ti v lp truy nhp cung cp cc dch
v mng NGN gm nhiu module nh module iu khin kt ni ATM, MPLS, iu khin
nh tuyn IP, iu khin kt ni thoi, x l cc bo hiu mng gm CS7, SIP, MEGACO
S lng nt iu khin c t chc thnh cp c kt ni trc tip vi mt cp nt chuyn
mch a dch v ng trc.
(iii) Lp truyn ti
Lp truyn ti phi c kh nng chuyn ti cc loi lu lng. Lp chuyn ti c t chc thnh
hai cp ng trc v truy nhp. Cc giao thc hot ng trong lp truyn ti phi thch ng vi
hu ht cc cng ngh lp 3.
(iv) Lp truy nhp
Lp truy nhp gm ton b cc nt truy nhp h tr cc dch v cho ngi s dng bao
gm cc dch v thoi v phi thoi, cc nt truy nhp kt ni ti mng ng trc thng qua
cc thit b cng ng bin v cc thit b trung k.
(v) Lp qun l mng
Lp qun l mng l phn qun l mng tp trung xuyn sut tt c cc lp khc. Lp ny
thc hin cc chc nng qun l nh tnh cc, h tr vn hnh, cc x l lin quan n cc
thu bao. Lp qun l mng c th tng tc vi cc lp khc thng qua cc giao din chun
hay giao din lp trnh ng dng m API.
Chuyn mch mm gn lin vi s ra i ca mng th h k tip NGN, di y l mt s
nh ngha ca cc nh pht trin h thng:
Theo Nortel, Softswitch l mt thnh t quan trng nht ca mng th h sau (NGN - Next
Generation Network). H nh ngha: Softswitch l mt phn mm theo m hnh m c th
thc hin c nhng chc nng thng tin phn tn trn mt mi trng my tnh m v c
nhng tnh nng ca mng chuyn mch thoi TDM truyn thng. Chuyn mch mm c th
tch hp thng tin thoi, s liu v video, n c th phin dch giao thc gia cc mng khc
nhau v d nh gia mng v tuyn v mng cp. Chuyn mch mm cng cho php trin khai
cc dch v VOIP (thoi qua mng IP) mang li li nhun. Mt chuyn mch mm kt hp tnh
nng ca cc chuyn mch thoi lp 4 v lp 5 vi cc cng VOIP, trong khi vn hot ng
trn mi trng my tnh m chun. Cc h thng my tnh kin trc m s dng cc thnh
phn c chun ho v s dng rng ri ca nhiu nh cung cp khc nhau. y, h
thng my tnh c th l mt my tnh c nh cho ti nhng server c ln nh Netra ca Sun

118
Microsystem. S dng cc h thng my tnh m cho php cc nh khai thc pht trin dch v
mt cch c lp vi phn cng v hng li ch t nh lut Moore trong ngnh cng nghip
my tnh.
Theo MobileIN, Softswitch l tng v vic tch phn cng mng ra khi phn mm
mng. Trong mng chuyn mch knh truyn thng, phn cng v phn mm khng c lp
vi nhau. Mng chuyn mch knh da trn nhng thit b chuyn dng cho vic kt ni v
c thit k vi mc ch phc v thng tin thoi. Nhng mng da trn chuyn mch gi
hiu qu hn th s dng giao thc Internet (IP) nh tuyn thng tin thoi v s liu qua
cc con ng khc nhau v qua cc thit b c chia s.
Theo Alcatel, Softswitch l trung tm iu khin trong cu trc mng vin thng. N cung
cp kh nng chuyn ti thng tin mt cch mm do, an ton v p ng cc c tnh mong
i khc ca mng. l cc sn phm c chc nng qun l dch v, iu khin cuc gi,
Gatekeeper, th hin vic hi t cc cng ngh IP/ATM/TDM trn nn c s h tng sn c.
Hn na, Softswitch cn c kh nng tng thch gia cc chc nng iu khin cuc gi v
cc chc nng mi s pht trin sau ny. Nh vy, Softswitch l trung tm chuyn mch c
y chc nng ca chuyn mch truyn thng v tng thch c vi cc chc nng mi,
s dng cc cng ngh sn c cng nh cng ngh mi.
Cn theo CopperCom, Softswitch l tn gi dng cho mt phng php tip cn mi trong
chuyn mch thoi c th gip gii quyt c cc thiu st ca cc chuyn mch trong tng
i ni ht truyn thng. Cng ngh Softswitch c th lm gim gi thnh ca cc chuyn
mch ni ht, v cho ta mt cng c hu hiu to ra s khc bit v dch v gia cc nh
cung cp dch v v n gin ho qu trnh dch chuyn t mng truyn thng sang mng h
tr thoi gi t u cui - n - u cui (end - to - end) trong tng lai.
Mi nh pht trin nhn Softswitch di gc khc nhau, cc nh cung cp nh thng
ch nhc ti vai tr ca Softswitch trong vic thay th tng i ni ht. ng l Softswitch th
hin rt r u im ca mnh trong ng dng lm tng i ni ht nh chng ta s ni n di
y, nhng khng ch c vy. Cc nh cung cp ln hn (nh Nortel, Alcatel, Cisco...) a
ra cc gii php Softswitch hon chnh cho c tng i ni ht v tng i chuyn tip.
4.6.2. M hnh phn cp chuyn mch trong mng NGN
Vi m hnh phn lp ca ITU-T trn y, cc thnh phn thit b c bn ca NGN lin
quan ti chuyn mch gm: Cc thit b chuyn mch lp truy nhp gm thit b chuyn mch
lp 2 v lp 3, cc thit b chuyn mch trn lp truyn ti v iu khin l thit b chuyn
mch lp 5 hay cn gi l thit b chuyn mch mm. Mt cch nhn nhn khc v cu trc
phn cp chuyn mch trong NGN l theo phn cp vng gm vng truy nhp v vng mng
li. Hnh 4.21 di y ch ra cc thit b chuyn mch trong m hnh phn cp chuyn mch
ca NGN.

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Hnh 4.21: Cc phn t c bn trong mng NGN
Mng th h sau NGN c chia thnh hai mng thnh phn: mng truyn ti gi tc cao
v mng iu khin tng thch vi kin trc h thng m hin i. Trong , mng truyn ti
gi tc cao c cu trc phn cp bao gm hai thnh phn c bn l mng li v mng truy
nhp.
Mng li c cu thnh t mng cp quang tc cao s dng cc cng ngh truyn dn
SONET/SDH, WDM, ATM v cc cng MGC/MG dung lng ln. Mng truy nhp bao gm
cc cng a phng tin MG nh AMG, MMG, RMG, TMG, cc h thng chuyn mch
nhnh v mng truyn dn gi tc cao.
Cng RMG (Remote Media Gateway) dng kt ni trc tip cc thu bao ca mng
PSTN/xDSL, cng AMG (Access Media Gateway) c th trang b cc giao din tc s cp
PRI kt ni vi cc thit b tp trung nh tng i PBX, b tp trung quang FLC (Fiber
Lines Concentrator) ca mng cng ty. Cng AMG cng c th kt ni trc tip vi cc b
nh tuyn (Router) ca mng s liu ni chung, trong bao gm mng IP cung cp cc
dch v Internet cho khch hng. Cc cng trung k TMG thc hin chc nng ca cc tng
i ng di/chuyn tip kt ni vi cc mng khc nh mng PSTN, N-ISDN hay mng
chuyn tip khung FR qua giao din NNI. Cng MMG (Mobile Media Gateway) h tr cho
s tch hp mng kt ni vi mng thng tin di ng.
Mng iu khin l mng lin kt cc cng iu khin a phng tin MGC. Chc nng
chnh ca cc cng MGC l iu khin cc cng MG, AMG, MMG, RMG, TMG (Trunking
Media Gateway) v cc ti nguyn khc ca mng nh cc ng truyn dn, bng thng,
v.v
Mng NGN cho php thc hin a dch v, n khng ch phc v thng tin thoi hay s liu
m NGN l mt mng thng nht mang li nhng ng dng cht lng cao, dch v phong
ph, a dng. Vic trin khai cc dch v c thc hin a dng v nhanh chng, p ng s
hi t gia thoi v s liu, gia c nh v di ng. N to ra c hi khng ch lm tng li
nhun m cn gim c chi ph u t, khai thc v qun l. iu quan trng l cc lp ny

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c kh nng cung cp cc ng dng s liu v cc dch v mi ti tn ni lm vic ca ngi
s dng, ni t cc thit b in thoi, thit b cm tay v cc h thng my tnh.
Trong thut ng ca Softswitch, chc nng chuyn mch phn vt l do MG - Media
Gateway m nhim, cn phn iu khin cuc gi thuc v MGC. C mt s l do chnh m
da vo ngi ta tin rng phn chia hai chc nng nh trn l gii php tt nht:
Vic tch chc nng iu khin v chuyn mch to c hi cho mt s cng ty nh v
linh hot vn vn ch tp trung vo cc phn mm x l cuc gi hoc vo phn mm
chuyn mch gi gy c nh hng trong ngnh cng nghip vin thng ging nh
cc nh cung cp ln t trc ti nay vn kim sot th trng.
Cho php c mt gii php phn mm chung cho x l cuc gi ci t trn rt nhiu
loi mng khc nhau, bao gm c mng chuyn mch knh v mng gi s dng cc
khun dng gi v phng thc truyn dn khc nhau.
L ng lc cho cc h iu hnh, cc mi trng my tnh chun, tit kim ng k
trong vic pht trin v ng dng cc phn mm x l cuc gi.
Cho php cc phn mm thng minh ca cc nh cung cp dch v iu khin t xa cc
thit b chuyn mch t ti tr s ca khch hng, mt yu t quan trng trong vic
khai thc ht tim nng ca mng trong tng lai.
Trong mng NGN cc tng i TDM s c thay th bng cc tng i chuyn mch mm.
Kt ni cc softswitch l mng chuyn mch gi a dch v IP/ATM/MPLS. Phn tip cn
thu bao ca mng NGN l cc nt truy nhp bng rng BAN (Broadband Access Node) v
thit b truy nhp tch hp IAD (Integrated Access Device) h tr cc loi u cui nh my
tnh, my in thoi IP v my in thoi thng thng. Mng NGN giao tip vi cc mng
khc nh mng PSTN v mng di ng qua cc MG.
4.6.3. M hnh kin trc chuyn mch mm
r hn kin trc chuyn mch mm, ta xem xt m hnh tham chiu cc thc th chc
nng c bn trong mng NGN nh th hin trn hnh 4.22 di y gm:
- Chc nng iu khin cng phng tin (MGC-F)
- Chc nng nh tuyn cuc gi v tnh cc (R-F, A-F)
- Chc nng cng bo hiu v chc nng bo hiu cng truy nhp
- Chc nng Server ng dng
- Chc nng cng phng tin (MG-F)
- Chc nng Server phng tin.

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S
I
G
T
R
A
N

Hnh 4.22: M hnh tham chiu cc thc th chc nng trong NGN
(i) Chc nng iu khin cng phng tin (MGC-F)
c thc hin bi thc th vt l MGC (Media Gateway Controller). y l mt thit b
rt quan trng c bit n nh cc tn Call Agent, Call controller hay ph bin nht l
chuyn mch mm. Chc nng MGC-F to logic dch v v bo hiu iu khin cuc gi cho
MG. N c cc c im:
Duy tr trng thi cuc gi vi mi MG.
iu khin giao tip cuc gi gia MG v cc thit b u cui (my vi tnh, in
thoi..) cng nh gia cc MG vi nhau.
L trung gian tho thun cc tham s kt ni gia cc u cui thuc cc MG.
Nhn v khi to cc bn tin i/ ti cc im kt cui v cc mng bn ngoi.
Qun l mt s ti nguyn mng nh: cc MG, bng thng ..
Tng tc vi server ng dng cung cp cc dch v ti khch hng.
Giao tip vi cc chc nng nh tuyn v tnh cc h tr cho AAA.
C th lm nhim v qun l trong mi trng di ng.
Bao gm cc giao thc ng dng Megaco/ H248 v MGCP.
Chc nng Call- Agent (CA-F) v Internetworking (IW-F) l cc chc nng thuc MGC-F.
CA-F th hin khi MGC x l iu khin cuc gi hay qun l trng thi cuc gi. IW-F c
th hin khi MGC thc hin chc nng bo hiu gia cc mng bo hiu khc nhau.
(ii) Chc nng nh tuyn cuc gi v tnh cc (R-F, A-F)
A-F thc hin nhim v thu thp cc thng tin phc v cho tnh cc cn R-F cung cp
thng tin nh tuyn cuc gi cho MGC-F. Hai chc nng ny c cc c im sau:
Hai chc nng ny thng c tch hp trong chc nng MGC-F.
Cung cp chc nng nh tuyn cho cc cuc gi cn nh tuyn qua lin mng.
Cung cp kh nng qun l phin v di ng.
Tng tc vi AS-F cung cp cc dch v hay ng dng cho khch hng.
Cp nht cc thng tin nh tuyn t bn ngoi.
(iii) Chc nng cng bo hiu(SG-F)&bo hiu cng truy nhp (AGS-F)

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AGS-F to cng phng tin cho vic bo hiu gia mng IP v mng truy nhp da trn
chuyn mch knh. Chc nng chnh ca AGS- F l ng gi v truyn cc bn tin bo hiu
V5 hay ISDN, BSSAP, RANAP qua mng IP.
SG-F cung cp cng phng tin cho vic bo hiu gia mng IP v PLMN, PSTN
(thng l bo hiu CCS7). Chc nng chnh ca SG-F l ng gi v truyn i cc bn tin
bo hiu s 7 ca PSTN (l ISUP hay INAP) hay PLMN (MAP hay CAP) qua mng IP. Cc
c im ca SG-F:
ng gi v truyn cc bn tin bo hiu ca mng PSTN (SS7) (s dng giao thc
SIGTRAN) ti cc MGC-F hay mt SG-F khc.
Mt SG-F c th thc hin vic phc v cho nhiu MGC-F.
Khi SG-F v MGC-F khng ci t chung th SG-F thc hin chc nng giao din giao
thc (nh SIGTRAN).
Cc giao thc ng dng ca chc nng ny gm: SIGTRAN, TUA, SUA hay M3UA
trn SCTP.
Cc c im ca AGS-F:
ng gi v truyn cc bn tin bo hiu V5 hoc ISDN ti MGC-F.
Mt MGC-F c th phc v cho nhiu AGS-F.
Khi AGS-F v MGC-F khng c ci t chung, AGS-F thc hin chc nng giao
thc giao din (nh SIGTRAN).
Cc giao thc ng dng ca chc nng ny gm: SIGTRAN, IUA, V5UA hay M3UA
trn SCTP.
(iv) Chc nng Server ng dng (AS)
AS c chc nng chnh l cung cp cc logic dch v ng dng. Cc c im ca AS-F bao
gm:
C th thay i cc m t v lu lng thng qua giao thc m t phin SDP.
iu khin MS-F khi thc hin chc nng x l lu lng.
C cc giao din Web v c th kt ni ti cc ng dng Web.
C giao din lp trnh ng dng to cc dch v mi.
Giao tip vi MGC-F hay MS-F.
C th s dng cc dch v ca MGC-F iu khin cc ngun ti nguyn bn ngoi.
Cc giao thc ng dng bao gm: SIP, MGCP, H248, LDAP, HTTP, CPL, XML.
Cc giao din lp trnh ng dng m gm: JAIN v Parlay.
S kt hp gia AS-F v MGC-F to ra cc nng lc iu khin cc dch v tng cng
nh: in thoi hi ngh, ch cuc gi. Cc nh khai thc thay v s dng mt giao din gia
AS v MGC s dng mt giao din lp trnh ng dng. Khi AS c mt tn gi khc l my
ch tnh nng (Feature server). Khi AS-F thc hin iu khin logic dch v s c chc nng iu
khin dch v.
(v) Chc nng cng phng tin (MG-F)
MG giao tip vi mng IP thng qua cc ng im truy nhp hay trung k mng, hay MG-F hot
ng nh mt cng giao tip gia mng IP v mng ngoi (mng ngoi c th l mng PSTN hay
PLMN..). MG-F c th cung cp cc cng giao tip gia mng IP v mng chuyn mch knh hay gia

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mng chuyn mch gi vi nhau (IP v 3G hay ATM). Cc chc nng c bn ca n nh l: chuyn lu
lng t mt dng khung truyn dn ny sang mt dng khung truyn dn khc, thng thng l gia
chuyn mch knh sang chuyn mch gi hay gia gi IP v gi ATM, ..v..v. c im ca MG-F:
Duy tr mi quan h ch/t vi MGC-F thng qua giao thc MGCP hay MEGACO/
H248.
C th thc hin chc nng x l lu lng nh chuyn m, loi b ting di, ng gi
cho cc thng tin thoi qua IP.
C th thc hin chn lu lng nh to m bo tin trnh cuc gi, to DTMF.
Gim st v pht hin s thay i trng thi ca cc u cui.
T phn b ti nguyn thc hin cc chc nng nu trn.
Phn tch cc con s nhn c t u cui da trn k hoch nh s v quay s do
MGC gi ti.
Cung cp c ch thay i trng thi v nng lc ca cc im kt cui.
Cc giao thc ng dng gm: RTP/RTCP, TDM, H248, MGCP.
(vi) Chc nng my ch a phng tin..
p ng cc yu cu ca AS-F v MGC-F v x l lu lng trn cc dng lu lng ng
gi.
Thnh phn chnh ca chuyn mch mm l b iu khin cng thit b Media Gateway
Controller (MGC), ngoi ra cn c cc thnh phn khc h tr hot ng nh: Cng bo hiu
SG, cng a phng tin MG, My ch a phng tin MS v cc my ch ng dng nh
trnh by trn. Trong Cng a phng tin MG l thnh phn nm trn lp phng tin,
cng bo hiu SG l thnh phn trn cng lp vi MGC, MS v AS nm trn lp ng dng.
S kt ni v giao thc s dng gia cc thnh phn trn c m t nh sau:

Hnh 4.23: Kt ni MGC vi cc thnh phn khc ca NGN
Trong cc thit b thuc mng IP l cc router, cc chuyn mch thuc mng ng
trc truyn ti cc gi tin i. Mng khng IP l cc mng c cc u cui khng phi thuc
mng IP v cc mng v tuyn khng dy. Cc thit b u cui khng thuc mng IP nh:
thit b u cui ISDN, thit b truy nhp tch hp IAD cho mng DSL..v..v.
MGC l thnh phn chnh ca chuyn mch mm v thng c gi l Softswitch hay Call
Agent. Cc chc nng chnh ca MGC c th hin hnh sau:

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Hnh 4.24: Chc nng ca b iu khin cng a phng tin MGC
CA-F v IW-F l hai chc nng con ca MGC-F. CA-F c kch hot khi MGC-F thc hin
iu khin cuc gi. IW-F c kch hot khi MGC-F thc hin cc bo hiu gia cc mng bo
hiu khc nhau. Thc th chc nng Inter- operator Manager c nhim v lin lc, trao i thng
tin gia cc MGC vi nhau. MGC c nhim v to ra cu ni gia cc mng c c tnh khc
nhau gm PSTN, SS7,IP. Cc chc nng chnh ca MGC gm:
iu khin cuc gi, duy tr trng thi mi cuc gi trn mt MG
iu khin v h tr hot ng ca Media Gateway, Signalling Gateway.
Trao i cc bn tin c bn gia hai MG-F
X l bn tin SS7 (khi s dng SIGTRAN)
X l bn tin lin quan QoS
Pht hoc nhn bn tin bo hiu
nh tuyn: gm bng nh tuyn, phn tch s v dch s
Tng tc vi AS-F cung cp dch v hay c tnh cho ngi dng
C th qun l cc ti nguyn mng (cng, bng tn)
Cc giao thc ca MGC c s dng:
thit lp cuc gi: H.323, SIP
iu khin Media Gateway: MGCP, MEGACO/ H248
truyn thng tin: RTP, RTCP
iu khin Signalling Gateway: SIGTRAN (SS7)
4.6.4 Cc ng dng ca chuyn mch mm
i, ng dng lm cng bo hiu SG
ng dng ny nhm vo cc nh khai thc dch v thoi cnh tranh, nhng doanh nghip
ang tm kim mt gii php gi thnh thp thay cho chuyn mch knh truyn thng cung
cp giao din tc c s cho cc nh cung cp dch v Internet (ISP) phc v cc ng truy
nhp dial-up. S bng n truy cp Internet (qua ng dial-up) v khuynh hng ca cc ISP
mun kt ni cc Modem Server ca h vi cc lung trung k tc c s (PRI) lm cho cc
nh cung cp dch v nhanh chng cn ht cng PRI hin c. Bn cnh vic lm cn kit cc
knh PRI, lu lng truy cp Internet qua ng dial-up lm qu ti v tc nghn cho mng
chuyn mch knh. Bi v chuyn mch knh vn c thit k phc v cc cuc gi c

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di trung bnh khong 3 pht, nn khong thi gian trung bnh tng thm do truy cp Internet
ln hn rt nhiu nn c xu hng lm suy kit ti nguyn tng i, tng s lng cuc gi
khng thnh cng. V duy tr cht lng thoi cho cc khch hng s dng dch v in
thoi thc s, cc nh khai thc phi chn mt trong hai phng n: mua thm tng i, hoc
cung cp cho cc ISP cc knh PRI c lu lng ti thp; c hai phng n ny u tng
ng nhau v mt u t.
Phn bn tri trong hnh 4.25 minh ho m hnh mng hin nay ca cc nh khai thc
tng i ni ht, n cho thy cc knh PRI phc v thng tin thng thng v phc v cc ISP
l nh nhau. V bi v phn ln thu bao Internet nm pha thit b ca nh khai thc cp cao
hn nn phn ln lu lng s liu t modem s i qua cc knh kt ni gia thit b ca nh
khai thc cp cao v nh khai thc cnh tranh, hn na khng c s phn bit gia lu lng
thoi v lu lng s liu Internet, iu dn n tnh trng chuyn mch ca nh khai thc
cnh tranh tr thnh mt nt c chai trn mng. Modem vn s l phng tin thng dng
kt ni Internet trong mt thi gian na, thc t i hi cc nh khai thc tm ra mt gii
php kinh t cung cp knh PRI cho cc ISP v chuyn cc knh PRI h ang dng cho cc
khch hng in thoi truyn thng.

Hnh 4.25: ng dng lm cng bo hiu SS7 ca chuyn mch mm
ng dng chuyn mch mm lm SG l mt trong nhng gii php trong tnh hung ny.
Nh phn bn phi ca hnh trn cho thy, MGC v MG c t trung k lin tng i gia
nh khai thc cp cp v nh khai thc cnh tranh. Chuyn mch knh kt ni vi MG bng
giao din TDM chun cn lin lc vi MGC thng qua bo hiu s 7. Cc modem server ca
ISP v th s c chuyn sang kt ni vi MG , gii phng cc lung PRI cho chuyn mch
knh TDM truyn thng. Khi cuc gi Internet (dial-up) hng ti ISP t pha tng i cp
cao, n s i qua trung k ti MG ri c nh hng ti ISP t pha tng i cp cao, n s
i qua trung k ti MG ri c nh hng trc tip ti modem server m khng qua chuyn
mch knh nh trc. Cc cuc gi thoi vn din ra nh bnh thng. Bn cnh vic cung cp
cc knh PRI gi thnh thp, chu c cc cuc gi thi gian trung bnh lu hn so vi trc
y, ng dng SS7 PRI Gateway cn c kh nng cung cp cc dch v mi VoIP.
(ii) ng dng cho tng i tandem
Gim ti cc tng i chuyn tip
ng dng Tandem hng vo cc nh cung cp dch v thoi truyn thng vi mong mun
gim vn u t v chi ph iu hnh cc tng i qu giang chuyn mch knh hin nay,
ngoi ra cn cung cp cc dch v mi v s liu. Gii php chuyn mch TDM hin nay ang
bc l dn nhc im trc nhu cu ngy cng tng nhng rt tht thng ca lu lng
thng tin thoi ni ht (pht sinh do truy nhp Internet), v tuyn v ng di.

126
Phn bn tri ca hnh 4.26 cho thy mt mng tng i TDM cp thp nht (lp 5, tng
i ni ht, MSC ca mng di ng) c ni vi nhau v ni ti tng i chuyn tip cp
cao hn (lp 3, 4) bng mt mng li trung k im - im kh phc tp. Khi mt cuc gi
din ra gia hai tng i cp thp, thng tin s i trn trung k ni trc tip gia hai tng i,
nu ng ni trc tip s dng ht, cuc gi c th c nh tuyn thng qua tng i
chuyn tip. Mt s cuc gi (v d nh truy nhp hp thoi hay quay s bng ging ni) li
c nh tuyn trc tip ti tng i chuyn tip s dng cc ti nguyn tp trung phc v
cho cc dch v cao cp. Kin trc ny c s dng nhiu nm nay, v cng c ci
tin rt nhiu nhm phc v cc ng dng thoi, tuy nhin vn c mt s gii hn nh sau:
Chi ph iu hnh v bo dng cao, mt thi gian; vic nh li cu hnh v nng cp
mng li phi thit lp mng ln hn nhu cu thc t cho cc tng i chuyn tip. V
d, khi mt tng i ni ht c thm vo mng li, phi xy dng cc nhm trung
k t tng i ti tng i chuyn tip v ti mt s tng i ni ht khc.
Cc trung k im - im hot ng vi hiu sut khng cao v chng c thit k
hot ng c trong cc vng ca mng (v d khu doanh nghip l ban ngy cn
khu dn c li l bui m).
Nu c nhiu tng i chuyn tip trong mng, mi tng i li ni vi mt nhm
cc tng i ni ht, cuc gi c th chuyn qua nhiu tng i chuyn tip n c
ni lu gi ti nguyn mng (nh trong trng hp dch v hp th thoi).
-
Hnh 4.26: ng dng lm tng i Tandem
Tt nhin l s c gii php cho vn ny. Softswitch l mt trong nhng gii php nh
vy. Trong hnh 4.26 pha bn phi cho thy softswitch cng vi cc MG thay th chc nng
ca cc tng i chuyn tip chuyn mch knh trc y, cc tng i ni ht kt ni ti cc
cng a phng tin bng giao din chun TDM thng thng v vi softswitch bng bo hiu
s 7.
M hnh ny mng li mt s li ch so vi m hnh mng chuyn mch knh:
Loi b li trung k hot ng hiu sut khng cao, thay th chng bng cc ng
dn tc cao trong mng IP/ATM phc c cho cc cuc gi cn chuyn tip, gim ti
cho cc tng i chuyn tip truyn thng hoc loi b chng hon ton.
Gim c chi ph vn hnh v gim c s tng i chuyn tip, s trung k t hn
(so vi mng li trc y), v trnh khng phi thit k cc mch TDM phc tp.
Gim c mt s lng cc cng chuyn mch dng cho cc trung k gia cc tng
i ni ht vi nhau.
Truy nhp cc ti nguyn tp trung mt cch hiu qu hn.

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Hp nht thng tin thoi v s liu vo mt mng duy nht, qua gim vn u t v
chi ph so vi cc mng ring bit hin nay cho thoi v s liu.
Dch v ng di
Dch v ny hng ti cc nh cung cp dch v in thoi ng di ang mong mun c
mt gii php gi thnh thp hn so vi phng php chuyn mch knh truyn thng cung
cp cc dch v gi ng di trong nc v quc t. Gii php s dng softswitch cng vi
MG c th cung cp dch v thoi ng di mt cch hiu qu. Cc nh khai thc ni tng i
ca h vi MG thng qua giao din TDM chun, cn ni vi softswitch qua giao din bo hiu
s7. Cc tng i PBX cng c ni ti MG thng qua giao din ISDN PRI. Tu thuc yu
cu ca nh khai thc, softswitch c th cung cp nhiu loi dch v thoi ng di khc
nhau, v d nh: bn li dch v (resale), dch v gi quc t t tng i PBX, dch v thoi
gia cc thu bao trong cc tng i PBX vi nhau, hay dch v ng di cung cp cho cc
nh khai thc cp thp hn.
(iii) ng dng trong cng ngh VoIP
Trong l trnh tin ti NGN, tip cn hi t cc dch v trn nn mng IP c coi l chin
lc cho mng hi t. Cng ngh truyn thoi qua IP c nh gi l cng ngh c kh nhiu
im li th khi h tng mng vin thng cha chuyn i hon ton sang mng gi. VoIP l
cng ngh c xy dng trn m hnh H.323 l m hnh h tr truyn thng a phng tin
trn nn mng gi, m hnh ny bao gm c cc phn t thuc tiu chun H.323 quy nh v
cc mng khc nh PSTN, ISDN v mng di ng nh ch ra trn hnh 5.10.

Hnh 4.27: Kt ni cc phn t trong mng VoIP
Chuyn mch mm c ng dng trong cng ngh VoIP th hin qua cc thnh phn chc
nng sau: Gateway GW v Gatekeeper.
Gateway (GW)
GW mt im cui trong mng thc hin cc chc nng chuyn i v bo hiu v d liu,
cho php cc mng hot ng da trn cc giao thc khc nhau c th phi hp vi nhau.
Trong mng VoIP, Gateway H.323 cho php kt ni mng VoIP vi cc mng khc. N cung
cp cc kh nng truyn thng thi gian thc v song hng gia cc u cui H.323 trong
mng gi vi cc u cui trong mng khc hay vi cc Gateway khc. Trong khuyn ngh
H.323, Gateway H.323 l mt phn t tu chn v c s dng nh l mt cu ni gia cc
u cui H.323 vi cc u cui H.310 (cho B-ISDN), H.320 (ISDN), H.321 (ATM), H.324M
(Mobile). Cc chc nng chnh ca Gateway gm:
Cung cp phin dch gia cc thc th trong mng chuyn gi ( mng IP) vi mng
chuyn mch knh (PSTN).

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Cc Gateway cng c th phin dch khun dng truyn dn, phin dch cc tin trnh
truyn thng, phin dch gia cc b m ho/gii m hoc phin dch gia cc u cui
theo chun H.323 v cc u cui khng theo chun ny.
Ngoi ra, n cn tham gia vo vic thit lp v hu b cuc gi.
Cc thnh phn ca mt Gateway gm Cng a phng tin MG, b iu khin MG v
cng bo hiu SG c m t trong hnh sau:

Hnh 4.28: Chc nng c bn ca Gateway H.323.
Cng a phng tin MG.
Cng a phng tin MG cung cp phng tin thc hin chc nng chuyn i m ho.
N chuyn i gia cc m truyn trong mng IP (truyn trn RTP/UDP/IP) vi m ho truyn
trong mng chuyn mch knh (PCM, GSM).
MGW bao gm cc chc nng sau:
Chc nng chuyn i a ch knh thng tin: cung cp a ch IP cho cc knh thng
tin truyn v nhn.
Chc nng chuyn i lung: chuyn i gia cc lung thng tin gia mng IP v
mng chuyn mch knh bao gm vic chuyn i m ho v trit ting vng.
Chc nng dch m ho: nh tuyn cc lung thng tin gia mng IP v mng SCN.
Bo mt thng tin: m bo tnh ring t ca knh thng tin kt ni vi GW.
Kt cui chuyn mch knh: bao gm tt c cc phn cng v giao din cn thit kt
cui cuc gi chuyn mch knh, n phi bao gm cc b m ho v gii m PCM lut
A v PCM lut .
Kt cui chuyn mch gi: cha tt c cc giao thc lin quan n vic kt ni knh
thng tin trong mng chuyn mch gi bao gm cc b m ho/gii m c th s dng
c. Theo chun H.323 th n bao gm RTP/RTCP v cc b m ho gii m nh
G.711, G.723.1, G.729
Giao din vi mng chuyn mch knh: Kt cui cc knh mang (v d nh DSO) t
mng chuyn mch knh v chuyn n sang trng thi c th iu khin bi chc nng
x l knh thng tin.
Chc nng chuyn i knh thng tin gia IP v mng chuyn mch knh: chuyn i
gia knh mang thng tin thoi, fax, d liu ca mng chuyn mch knh v cc gi d
liu trong mng chuyn mch gi. N cng thc hin chc nng x l tn hiu thch
hp v d nh: nn tn hiu thoi, trit ting vng, trit khong lng, m ho, chuyn
i tn hiu fax v iu tit tc modem tng t. Thm vo , n cng thc hin
chuyn i gia tn hiu DTMF trong mng chuyn mch knh v cc tn hiu thch
hp trong mng chuyn mch gi khi m cc b m ho tn hiu thoi khng m ho

129
tn hiu DTMF. Chc nng chuyn i knh thng tin gia IP v mng chuyn mch
knh cng c th thu thp thng tin v lu lng gi v cht lng knh i vi mi
cuc gi s dng trong vic bo co chi tit v iu khin cuc gi.
OA&M: vn hnh, qun l v bo dng, thng qua cc giao din logic cung cp cc
thng tin khng trc tip phc v cho iu khin cuc gi ti cc phn t qun l h
thng.
Chc nng qun l: giao din vi h thng qun l mng.
Giao din mng chuyn mch gi: kt cui mng chuyn mch gi.
B iu khin cng a phng tin MGC
Mi GW c phn iu khin c gi l b iu khin cng a phng tin MGC ng vai
tr phn t kt ni MGW, SGW v GK. N cung cp cc chc nng x l cuc gi cho GW,
iu khin MGW, nhn thng tin bo hiu mng chuyn mch knh t SGW v thng tin bo
hiu t IP t GK. B iu khin cng a phng tin c th bao gm cc khi chc nng sau:
Chc nng GW H.225.0: truyn v nhn cc bn tin H.225.0.
Chc nng GW H.245: truyn v nhn cc bn tin H.245.
Chc nng xc nhn: thit lp c im nhn dng ca ngi s dng thit b hoc phn
t mng.
Chc nng iu khin GW chp nhn lung d liu: cho php hoc khng cho php mt
lung d liu.
Bo hiu chuyn mch gi: bao gm tt c cc loi bo hiu cuc gi c th thc hin
bi cc u cui trong mng. V d nh theo chun H.323 th bao gm: H.225.0, Q.931,
H.225.0 RAS v H.245. i vi mt u cui H.323ch nhn th n bao gm H.225.0
RAS m khng bao gm H.245.
Giao din bo hiu chuyn mch gi: kt cui giao thc bo hiu chuyn mch gi (v
d nh H.323, UNI, PNNI). N ch lu li va cc thng tin trng thi qun l
giao din. V thc cht, giao din bo hiu chuyn mch gi trong MGWC khng kt
ni trc tip vi MGW nh l cc thng tin truyn t MGWC ti MGW thng qua chc
nng iu khin cuc gi.
iu khin GW: bao gm cc chc nng iu khin kt ni logic, qun l ti nguyn,
chuyn i giao din (v d nh t SS7 sang H.225.0).
Gim st ti nguyn t xa: bao gm gim st kh dng ca cc knh trung k ca
MGW, gii thng v kh dngca mng IP, t l nh tuyn thnh cng cuc gi.
Qun li ti nguyn MGW: cp pht ti nguyn cho MGW.
Chc nng bo hiu: chuyn i gia bo hiu mng IP v bo hiu mng SCN trong
phi hp hot ng vi SGW.
Chc nng ghi cc bn tin s dng: xc nh v ghi cc bn tin bo hiu v cc bn
thng tin truyn v nhn.
Chc nng bo co cc bn tin s dng: bo co cc bn tin s dng ra thit b ngoi vi.
OA&M: vn hnh, qun l v bo dng thng qua cc giao din logic cung cp cc
thng tin khng trc tip phc v cho iu khin cuc gi ti cc phn t qun l h
thng.
Chc nng qun l: giao din vi h thng qun l mng.

130
Giao din mng chuyn mch gi: kt cui mng chuyn mch gi.
MG v MGC khc nhau cc phn t ti nguyn mc thp v mc cao. MGC chu trch
nhim qun l cc ti nguyn mc cao, n c th hiu c tnh sn sng ca cc ti nguyn v
quyt nh s dng chng mt cch hp l (v d nh cc b trit ting vng c t trong
GW VoIP chu s qun l ca MGC). MG chu trch nhim qun l cc ti nguyn mc thp
nh l cc thit b phn cng chuyn mch v x l lung thng tin trong mt GW.
Cng bo hiu SG
SG cung cp knh bo hiu gia mng IP v mng chuyn mch knh. N c th h tr
chc nng knh bo hiu gia mng IP (v d nh H.323) hoc bo hiu trong mng chuyn
mch knh (v d nh R2, CCS7). SG c th bao gm cc khi chc nng sau:
Kt ni cc giao thc iu khin cuc gi trong chuyn mch knh.
Kt ni bo hiu t mng chuyn mch knh: phi hp hot ng vi cc chc nng
bo hiu ca MGWC.
Chc nng bo hiu: chuyn i gia bo hiu mng IP vi bo hiu mng chuyn
mch knh khi phi hp hot ng vi MGC.
Bo mt knh bo hiu: bo m tnh bo mt ca knh bo hiu t GW.
Chc nng thng bo: ghi cc bn tin s dng, xc nh v ghi cc bn tin thng bo ra
thit b ngoi vi.
OA&M: vn hnh, qun l v bo dng thng qua cc giao din logic cung cp cc
thng tin khng trc tip phc v cho iu khin cuc gi ti cc phn t qun l h
thng.
Chc nng qun l: giao din vi h thng qun l mng.
Giao din mng chuyn mch gi: kt ni mng chuyn mch gi.
SG s lm nhim v phn tch v chuyn cc bn tin bo hiu trong mng PSTN vo mng
H.323. Cc bn tin bo hiu nh ISUP, SCCP, TSUP c chuyn i thnh dng hp l
ti GW bo hiu v chuyn vo mng IP.
Gatekeeper
Gatekeeper l mt thc th tu chn trong mng H.323 cung cp cc chc nng bin dch
a ch v iu khin truy nhp mng cho cc thit b u cui H.323, cc Gateway v cc
MCU. Ngoi ra, Gatekeeper cng c th cung cp cc dch v khc cho cc phn t mng trn
nh qun l bng thng hay nh v cc Gateway.
V mt logic, Gatekeeper l mt thit b c lp nhng trong thc t n thng c tch
hp vi cc phn t mng khc trong cng mt thit b vt l. Mi GK qun l mt vng
mng, nu trong mng c mt GK th cc im cui phi ng k v s dng cc dch v do n
cung cp. Mt vng mng H.323 c hiu nh mt tp hp cc node nh u cui, Gateway
hay MCU. Mt vng c qun l bi mt GK v cc im cui trong mng phi ng k vi
GK ny.
Khi s dng Gatekeeper s ch c duy nht mt Gatekeeper trong mt vng H.323 ti bt k
thi im no cho d c nhiu thit b c th cung cp chc nng ny trong vng . Nhiu
thit b cung cp chc nng bo hiu RAS cho Gatekeeper c cp n nh l cc
Gatekeeper d phng. Gatekeeper cung cp cc dch v c bn sau y:

131
Bin dch a ch: GK c th bin dch t a ch nh danh sang a ch truyn ti.
iu c thc hin bng mt bng bin dch. Bng ny thng xuyn c cp
nht bng cc bn tin ng k ca cc im cui trong vng qun l ca Gatekeeper.
iu khin ng nhp: GK qun l qu trnh truy nhp mng ca cc im cui bng
cc bn tin H.225.0.
iu khin bng thng: GK qun l bng thng ca mng bng cc bn tin H.225.0.
Qun l vng: GK s cung cp cc chc nng trn cho cc u cui c ng k vi
n.
Ngoi ra, Gatekeeper cn cung cp mt s dch v tu chn khc:
Bo hiu iu khin cuc gi: GK quyt nh c tham gia vo qu trnh bo hiu cho
cuc gi hay khng.
Cp php cho cuc gi: GK GK quyt nh c cho php cuc gi c tin hnh hay
khng.
Qun l bng tn
Qun l cuc gi
Sa i a ch nh danh
Bin dch s c quay: GK s chuyn cc s c quay sang s E.164 hay s mng
ring.
Qun l cu trc d liu
iv, ng dng chuyn mch mm trong di ng
Kin trc chuyn mch mm c ng dng trong di ng th hin qua kt ni chc
nng gia phn h IMS v mng chuyn mch knh. Phn h IMS cung cp mt kin trc
chuyn mch mm phn tn nh hnh 4.29 bao gm cc phn t mng nh sau:
Signalling Gateway (SGW): Cng bo hiu c s dng kt ni cc mng bo
hiu khc nhau, nh cc mng bo hiu da trn SCTP/IP v cc mng bo hiu
SS7. SGW thc hin chuyn i bo hiu (c hai chiu) ti mc truyn ti gia
truyn ti bo hiu da trn SS7 v da trn IP (SCTP/IP, SS7MTP). SGW din gii
cc bn lp ng dng (BICC, ISUP).
IM Media Gateway (IM-MGW): Chc nng iu khin cng ni xuyn BGCF chu
trch nhim chn ni ni xuyn n min CS. Kt qu ca la chn ny l nu ni
xuyn xy ra ngay trong cng mt mng ni t BGCF th BGCF chn mt chc nng
iu khin cng phng tin (MGCF) x l phin. Nu ni xuyn xy ra ti mng
khc th BGCF chuyn phin n BCGF khc trong mng c chn. Quy tc chn
thc t khng c c t. Ngoi ra BGCF c kh nng bo co thng tin thanh ton
cho CCF v thu tp thng tin thng k.

132

Hnh 4.29: Kin trc kt ni lin mng IMS CS
Chc nng iu khin cng phng tin (MGCF): MGCF l mt cng h tr thng
tin gia cc ngi s dng IMS v min CS. Chc nng iu khin cng phng tin
MGCF v cng phng tin IM (IM MGW) chu trch nhim cho bo hiu v chuyn
i cc phng tin gia min mng PS v cc mng chuyn mch knh (PSTN chng
hn). MGCF giao tip vi S-CSCF (hoc BGCF) qua giao thc SIP. Bo hiu cuc gi
(SS7/ISUP) c chuyn t cng bo hiu ca mng CS n MGCF qua giao thc
SIGTRAN. MGCF phi phin dch cc bn tin gia SIP v ISUP m bo tng tc
gia hai giao thc ny. Tt c cc bo hiu iu khin cuc gi t cc ngi s dng CS
u c a n MGCF chuyn i ISUP (hay BICC) vo cc giao thc SIP, sau
chuyn phin n IMS. Tng t tt c cc bo hiu phin khi ngun t IMS n
cc ngi s dng CS c gi n MGCF. MGCF cng iu khin cc knh phng
tin trong thc th lin quan ca mt phng ngi s dng: CIMS-MGW ca cng
phng tin IMS. Ngoi ra MGFC cng c kh nng bo co thng tin thanh ton cho
CCF.
Chc nng iu khin cng chuyn mng (BGCF): Quyt nh ni kt ni lin mng
xy ra khi mt phin khi to t mt ngi dng IMS. Nu kt ni lin mng xut
hin trong cng mng, BGCF s la chn mt MGCF, trong trng hp ngc li,
n lin lc vi mt BGCF thuc mng ca nh khai thc khc, ni kt ni lin mng
s thc hin.
Tm tt chng 4
Trong chng 4 trnh by v cc kha cnh lin quan ti cc gii php cng ngh chuyn
mch tin tin, ni dung chng tp trung vo cc vn lin quan ti mng IP/ATM v cng
ngh chuyn mch nhn a giao thc MPLS. Cc vn lin quan ti cc k thut nh tuyn
v bo hiu m bo cht lng dch v QoS c a ra trong chng, nhm kt hp vi
cc c ch chuyn mch trong chng 3 nhm gip ngi c nhn nhn tng quan v cc ng
dng v pht trin ca k thut chuyn mch tin tin hin nay. Trong chng ny cng trnh
by mt hng pht trin k thut chuyn mch thng c coi l chin lc cho mng hi t
trn nn IP - chuyn mch mm. Cc ng dng ca cng ngh chuyn mch mm c trnh
by trong phn cui ca chng l cc ng dng c bn nht ca chuyn mch mm hin nay.





133
MC LC
Tiu
Trang
Mc lc i
Danh sch cc k hiu, t vit tt iii
Danh sch bng biu, hnh v viii
Li ni u

1
CHNG 1: GII THIU CHUNG V K THUT CHUYN MCH
1.1 Nhp mn k thut chuyn mch 2
1.2 Cc khi nim v l thuyt c bn 2
1.2.1 Mt s khi nim c s 2
1.2.2 Cc m hnh ton hc ca lu lng 4
1.2.3 L thuyt hng i 12
1.3 Qu trnh pht trin ca k thut chuyn mch 14
1.3.1 Chuyn mch mm v hng tip cn my ch cuc gi CS 16
1.3.2 Hng tip cn phn h a phng tin IP (IMS) 17
CHNG 2: K THUT CHUYN MCH KNH
2.1 C s k thut chuyn mch knh 19
2.1.1 K thut iu ch xung m PCM 19
2.1.2 Cu trc khung tn hiu PCM 23
2.1.3 Trao i khe thi gian ni TSI 26
2.2 Kin trc trng chuyn mch knh 27
2.2.1 Trng chuyn mch khng gian s 27
2.2.2 Trng chuyn mch thi gian s 29
2.2.3 Trng chuyn mch ghp TST 30
2.3 nh tuyn trong chuyn mch knh 34
2.3.1 K hoch nh s trong mng PSTN 34
2.3.2 Cc phng php nh tuyn trong mng chuyn mch knh 35
2.4 Mt s trng chuyn mch trong thc tin

37
CHNG 3: K THUT CHUYN MCH GI
3.1 C s k thut chuyn mch gi 40
3.1.1 M hnh kt ni h thng m OSI 41
3.1.2 Nguyn tc c bn ca chuyn mch gi 43
3.2 Cc kin trc ca trng chuyn mch gi 46
3.2.1 Tng quan v kin trc trng chuyn mch gi 48
3.2.2 Cc trng chuyn mch mng Banyan 53
3.2.3 Cc chin lc s dng b m trong trng chuyn mch 56
3.3 K thut nh tuyn trong mng chuyn mch gi 62
3.3.1 Cc thut ton tm ng ngn nht 63
3.3.2 Cc giao thc nh tuyn ni min v lin min 64
3.3.3 nh tuyn h tr cht lng dch v QoS 67
3.4 Mt s bi ton v cht lng dch v 72

134

CHNG 4: K THUT CHUYN MCH TIN TIN
4.1 Gii thiu tng quan v cng ngh IP/ATM 75
4.1.1 Tng quan v IP/ATM 75
4.1.2 Cng ngh chuyn mch IP 79
4.1.3 Cng ngh chuyn mch MPLS/GMPLS 81
4.2 K thut chuyn mch ATM 83
4.2.1 M hnh phn lp ATM 83
4.2.2 Nguyn l chuyn mch ATM 86
4.3 K thut nh tuyn trong mng tc cao 90
4.3.1 nh tuyn PNNI 90
4.3.2 Cc gii php chuyn mch v nh tuyn IP/ATM 95
4.3.3 K thut nh tuyn m bo QoS trong MPLS 105
4.4 K thut lu lng trong MPLS 108
4.4.1 Tng quan v k thut lu lng 108
4.4.2 iu khin qun l v truy nhp 109
4.4.3 iu khin chng tc nghn trong MPLS 111
4.4.4 iu khin lu lng a lp 111
4.5 Cc gii php nng cao hiu nng chuyn mch 112
4.5.1 Bo hiu m bo cht lng dch v 112
4.5.2 nh tuyn v chuyn tip m bo QoS 113
4.5.3 Cc gii php thc tin 114
4.6 Cc khi nim v NGN v chuyn mch mm 115
4.6.1 Mng th h k tip NGN 115
4.6.2 M hnh phn cp chuyn mch trong NGN 118
4.6.3 M hnh kin trc chuyn mch mm 120
4.6.4 Cc ng dng ca chuyn mch mm 124
TI LIU THAM KHO 133


135
DANH MC CC HNH V

Danh mc
Trang

Hnh 1.1 Cc kiu mng chuyn mch c bn 4
Hnh 1.2 Hm mt xc sut ca phn b Erlang 6
Hnh 1.3 Chuyn tip hai trng thi chui Markov ri rc 8
Hnh 1.4 S chuyn i trng thi trong chui Markov thi gian lin tc 9
Hnh 1.5 Lu chuyn trng thi cuc gi 9
Hnh 1.6 Hm phn b mt xc sut ca phn b Poisson 11
Hnh 1.7 Thi gian tr ph thuc vo tc n v tc phc v ca hng i 14
Hnh 1.8 Xu hng hi t cng ngh mng cng cng 15
Hnh 1.9 Cc thit b chuyn mch trong m hnh mng cng cng in hnh 16
Hnh 2.1 Mt h thng PCM in hnh 20
Hnh 2.2 Cc bc bin i trong nguyn l PCM 20
Hnh 2.3 c tuyn nn lng t theo lut A 22
Hnh 2.4 Cu trc a khung PCM 24 23
Hnh 2.5 Cu trc khung v a khung PCM 30 24
Hnh 2.6 Nguyn l trao i khe thi gian ni TSI 26
Hnh 2.7 Nguyn l chuyn mch khng gian S 27
Hnh 2.8 Nguyn l chuyn mch thi gian T 29
Hnh 2.9 Ma trn kt ni 3 tng chuyn mch 31
Hnh 2.10 Trng chuyn mch ghp TST 33
Hnh 2.11 Phng php chn knh ri theo mt n chn knh 34
Hnh 2.12 nh tuyn lun phin 35
Hnh 2.13 Cu trc phn h chuyn mch tng i NEAX-61 37
Hnh 2.14 S cu trc ca CCX 38
Hnh 2.15 Ma trn chuyn mch phn chia thi gian ca SMX 39
Hnh 3.1 M hnh phn lp OSI RM 41
Hnh 3.2 Cc phng php chuyn mch c bn 44
Hnh 3.3 ng gi d liu theo m hnh OSI 44
Hnh 3.4 Chuyn mch Datagram v chuyn mch knh o 45
Hnh 3.5 Kin trc b nh tuyn th h u tin 46
Hnh 3.6 Kin trc b nh tuyn th h th hai 47
Hnh 3.7 Kin trc b nh tuyn th h th ba 47
Hnh 3.8 Phn loi trng chuyn mch gi 48
Hnh 3.9 Cu trc trng chuyn mch chia s phng tin 49
Hnh 3.10 Kin trc trng chuyn mch chia s b nh 50
Hnh 3.11 Kin trc ma trn chuyn mch Crossbar 51
Hnh 3.12 Chuyn mch khng gian kiu kt ni y 51
Hnh 3.13 Cc trng chuyn mch trong h Banyan 52

136
Hnh 3.14 Kin trc cc trng chuyn mch a ng 52
Hnh 3.15 V d v mng Banyan (8x8) 54
Hnh 3.16 Hin tng nghn ni trong chuyn mch Banyan 55
Hnh 3.17 Mng phn l kt ni kiu Banyan 55
Hnh 3.18 Trng chuyn mch b tr m u vo 57
Hnh 3.19 Lu x l 3 giai on chng tranh chp 59
Hnh 3.20 Trng chuyn mch m u ra 60
Hnh 3.21 Trng chuyn mch m trung tm 61
Hnh 3.22 Cc kha cnh ca cht lng dch v 72
Hnh 3.23 M hnh h thng knh trung k 73
Hnh 4.1 M hnh tham chiu TCP/IP vi OSI 79
Hnh 4.2 Cu trc tiu gi tin IP v ATM 81
Hnh 4.3 Thit b chuyn mch IP 83
Hnh 4.4 M hnh kt ni theo chuyn mch IP 84
Hnh 4.5 M hnh tham chiu ca ATM-BISDN v OSI 88
Hnh 4.6 Chuyn mch VP v VC 91
Hnh 4.7 Nguyn l chuyn mch ATM 92
Hnh 4.8 M hnh phn cp nh tuyn PNNI 96
Hnh 4.9 M hnh chuyn mch IP iu khin lung 100
Hnh 4.10 Giao thc gii bc k tip 101
Hnh 4.11 Chuyn mch IP iu khin topo 102
Hnh 4.12 nh tuyn PNNI m rng 104
Hnh 4.13 Proxy-PAR 105
Hnh 4.14 PNNI tch hp 107
Hnh 4.15 Nguyn l nh tuyn da trn cc iu kin rng buc 110
Hnh 4.16 Thit lp CR-LSP dng RSVP m rng 111
Hnh 4.17 V tr ca LDP trong chng giao thc ca MPLS 112
Hnh 4.18 Sp xp lu lng ti LER trong mng MPLS 114
Hnh 4.19 M hnh mng a lp 115
Hnh 4.20 M hnh phn lp mng NGN ca ITU-T 117
Hnh 4.21 Cc phn t c bn trong mng NGN 123
Hnh 4.22 M hnh tham chiu cc thc th chc nng trong NGN 125
Hnh 4.23 Kt ni MGC vi cc thnh phn khc ca NGN 127
Hnh 4.24 Cc chc nng ca cng iu khin a phng tin MGC 128
Hnh 4.25 ng dng lm cng bo hiu SS7 ca chuyn mch mm 129
Hnh 4.26 ng dng lm tng i Tandem 130
Hnh 4.27 Kt ni cc phn t trong mng VoIP 131
Hnh 4.28 Chc nng c bn ca Gateway H.323 132
Hnh 4.29 Kin trc kt ni lin mng IMS-CS 136




137


138
DANH MC BNG BIU

Danh mc
Trang

Bng 1.1 Mt s m hnh v hm phn b cho cc ng dng c bn 5
Bng 2.1 Bit F trong cu trc a khung 24 24
Bng 2.2 Cu trc TS0 ca a khung PCM30 s dng CRC-4 25
Bng 3.1 So snh mt s c im ca dch v thoi v d liu 40
Bng 3.2 Tm tt chc nng cc lp trong m hnh OSI 42
Bng 3.3 Cc giao thc nh tuyn v tiu ch so snh 65
Bng 4.1 Phn loi cc dch v lp tng thch ATM 85
Bng 4.2 Cc dch v c PNNI h tr 102
Bng 4.3 Cc lp dch v lu lng 109
































139

TI LIU THAM KHO


1. Roger L. Freeman , Telecommunication System Engineering, John Wiley & Sons,
2004.
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3. Dng Vn Thnh, Hong Trng Minh, Tng i in t s, bi ging, Hc vin
cng ngh bu chnh vin thng, 1999.
4. H.Jonathan Chao, Broadband packet switching technologies, John Wiley &son inc,
2002.
5. Christopher Y.Metz, IP switching Protocols and Archirtectures, Mc Graw
Hill,1999.
6. L Hu Lp, Hong Trng Minh, Cng ngh chuyn mch IP, bi ging, Trung
tm o to 1, Hc vin CNBC vin thng, 2001.
7. Pred Halsall, Data communication computer networks and Open Systems, Addison
Weysley, 1996.
8. Thomas M. Chen, Stephen S. Liu, Atm Switching Systems, Artech House
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10. Nguyn Thanh Tr, Bo hiu m bo cht lng dch v trong MPLS, lun vn
cao hc TVT, Hc vin CNBC vin thng, 2006.
11. Dng Hng Sn, Hong Trng Minh, Hong c Hi, K thut in thoi qua IP
v Internet, NXB Lao ng, 2002.
12. Ts. Nguyn Phm Anh Dng, ng dng IP v cc giao thc bo hiu trong 3G
IMS, bi ging; Hc vin Cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng, 2006.
(Mt s bi bo, tin tc tng hp t: http://www.itu.int/ITU-T/, www.ietf.org,
www.vnpt.com.vn, www.wikipedia.com, www.itpapers.com, v..v)



iii

T VIT TT


3G Thirth Generation Th h th 3
3GPP Thirth Generation Partnership Project D n cho cc i tc mng th h 3
AAA Authentification, Authorization, Accounting Nhn thc, cp php, tnh cc
AAL ATM Adaptation Layer Lp tng thch dch v
ADM Add/Drop Multiplexing B ghp tch lung
ADSL Asymetric Digital Subscriber Line ng dy thu bao s khng i xng
AF Address Filter B lc a ch
A-F Acounting Function Chc nng tnh cc
AMG Access Media Gateway Cng phng tin truy nhp
API Application Programable Interface Giao din lp trnh ng dng
AS Autonomous System H thng t tr
AS Application Server Server ng dng
ASG Access Signalling Gateway Cng bo hiu truy nhp
ATCA Advanced Telecom Computing Architecture Kin trc my tnh vin thng tin tin
ATM Asynchorous Transfer Mode Phng thc truyn ti khng ng b
AuC Authentification Centre Trung tm nhn thc
BAN Broadband Access Node Nt truy nhp bng rng
BGCF Border Gateway Control Function Chc nng iu khin cng ng bin
BGP Border Gateway Protocol Giao thc cng ng bin
BICC Bearer Independent Call Control iu khin cuc gi c lp knh mang
B-ISDN Broadband Intergrated Service Digital Network Mng s tch hp dch v bng rng
CA Call Agent Agent cuc gi
CAP CAMEL Application Part Phn ng dng Carmel
CBR Constraint Bit Rate Tc bit rng buc
CCF Charging Collector Function Chc nng tp hp thng tin cc
CLP Cell Loss Priority u tin tn tht t bo
COPS Common Open Policy Service Dch v chnh sch m chung
CoS Class of Service Lp dch v
CQ Class-based Queuing Hng i theo yu cu
CR-LDP
Constraint-Based Routing-label Distribution
Protocol
Giao thc phn b nhn nh tuyn rng
buc
CS Call Server My ch cuc gi
CS (ATM) Convergence Sevice Hi t dch v
CS (IMS) Circuit Switched Chuyn mch knh
CSCF Call Session Control Function Chc nng iu khin phin cuc gi
CSPF Constraint Shorted Path First nh tuyn rng buc tm ng ngn nht
DG DataGram D liu
DSL Digital Subscriber Line ng dy thu bao s
DSLAM Digital Subcriber Line Acess Multiplexer B ghp knh truy nhp DSL
DTL Designated Transit List Danh sch ng i nh sn
iv
DTMF Dual Tone Multi Frequency a tn m kp
DVA Distance Vector Algorithm Thut ton vect khong cch
EGP Exterior Gateway Protocol Giao thc nh tuyn min ngoi
FEC Forward Equivelent Class Lp chuyn tip tng ng
FIB Forward Information Base C s thng tin chuyn tip
FIFO First In First Out Vo trc ra trc
FLC Fible Line Concentrator B tp trung quang
FR Frame Relay Chuyn tip khung
FTP File Transfer Protocol Giao thc truyn file
GFC General Flow Control iu khin lung chung
GMPLS Generalized MultiProtocol Label Switch MPLS suy rng
GPRS General Packet Radio Service Dch v v tuyn gi chung
GSM Global System for Mobile Communication H thng ton cu cho thng tin di ng
HDB3 High-Density Bipolar 3 M lng cc mt cao
HDLC High level Data Link Control protocol Giao thc iu khin ng d liu mc cao
HLR Home Location Registor B ng k nh
HOL Head Of Line Nghn u dng
HSS Home Subscriber Server Server thu bao nh
HTTP Hyper Text Transfer Protocol Giao thc chuyn giao siu vn bn
IAD Integrated Access Device Thit b truy nhp tch hp
ICMP Internet Control Message Protocol Giao thc bn tin iu khin Internet
IFMP Ipsilon Flow Management Protocol Giao thc qun tr lung ca Ipsilon
IGP Interior Gateway Protocol Giao thc nh tuyn min trong
IM CN IMS- Core Network IMS- mng li
IMS IP Multimedia Subsystem Phn h a phng tin IP
IMS-CS IMS- Circuit Switching IMS- chuyn mch knh
IM-SSF IMS- Service Switching Function Chc nng chuyn mch dch v IMS
IN Inteligent Network Mng thng minh
IOT Interoperability Testing Kim tra lin iu hnh
IP Internet Protocol Giao thc Internet
IPCP IP Control Point im iu khin IP
I-PNNI Intergated PNNI PNNI tch hp
IPX Internetwork Packet Exchange Giao thc trao i gi lin mng
ISC IMS Service Control iu khin dch v IMS
ISDN Integrated Service Digital Network Mng s a dch v tch hp
IS-IS Intermediate System to Intermediate System Giao thc nh tuyn lin mng
ISP Internet Service Provider Nh cung cp dch v Internet
ISR IP Switching Router B nh tuyn chuyn mch IP
ISUP ISDN User Part Phn ngi dng ISDN
ITU-T
International Telecommunication Union sector
T Hip hi tiu chun vin thng quc t
IW-F InternetWorking Function Chc nng kt ni lin mng
LAN Local Area Network Mng ni ht
LDP Label Distribution Protocol Giao thc phn phi nhn
v
LER Label Edge Router B nh tuyn bin (LSR bin)
LGN Logical Group Node Nt i din nhm logic
LOC LOcal Controler B iu khin ni b
LSA Link State Algorithm Thut ton trng thi ng
LSP Label Switched Path ng chuyn mch nhn
LSR Label Switching Router B nh tuyn chuyn mch nhn
M3UA MTP3 User Adaptation Layer Lp tng thch ngi dng MTP3
MAP Mobile Application Part Phn ng dng di ng
MG Media Gateway Cng phng tin
MGC Media Gateway Controler iu khin cng phng tin
MGCP Media Gateway Control Protocol Giao thc iu khin cng phng tin
MHA Min Hop Algorithm Thut ton bc nhy ti thiu
MIRA Min Interference Routing Algorithm Thut ton nh tuyn nhiu ti thiu
MMAS Multi Media Application Server Server ng dng a phng tin
MMCS Multi Media Call Server Server gi a phng tin
MMG Mobile Media Gateway Cng phng tin cho mng di ng
MMPP Markov Modulete Poisson Process Tin trnh Poisson m phng Markov
MNO Mobile Network Operator Nh iu hnh mng di ng
MoS Mean of Service Thang im nh gi trung bnh
MPLS MultiProtocol Label Switch Chuyn mch nhn a giao thc
MPOA MultiProtocol over ATM a giao thc qua ATM
MRFC Media Resource Function Control
iu khin chc nng ti nguyn a phng
tin
MRFP Media Resource Function Processor
B x l chc nng ti nguyn a phng
tin
MSF MultiService Forum Din n a dch v
MTU Maximum Transfer Unit n v truyn bn tin ln nht
NGN Next Generation Network Mng th h k tip
NHC Next Hop Client Trm con bc k tip
NHRP Next Hop Resolution Protocol Giao thc gii bc k tip
NHS Next Hop Server Trm ch bc k tip
OMA Open Mobile Alliance Lin minh dch v di ng m
OSA Open Service Architecture Kin trc dch v m
OSPF Open Shortest Path First Giao thc ng ngn nht trc tin
OXC Optical Cross-Connect B u ni cho quang
PAM Pulse Amplitude Modulation iu bin xung
PAR PNNI Augmented Routing nh tuyn PNNI m rng
PCM Pulse Code Modulation iu xung m
P-CSCF Proxy- CSCF CSCF i din
PDF Policy Decicion Function Chc nng quyt nh chnh sch
PDU Protocol Data Unit n v d liu giao thc
PG Peer Group Nhm ngang hng
PGL Peer Group Leader Trng nhm trong nhm cng cp
PLMN Public Land Mobile Network Mng di ng mt t
vi
PM Physic Medium Mi trng vt l
PNNI Private Network to Network Interface Giao din mng - mng ring
PPP Point to Point Protocol Giao thc im ti im
PQ Priority Queuing Hng i u tin
PSTN Public Switched Telephone Network Mng chuyn mch in thoi cng cng
PT Payload Type Kiu ti tin
PTSE PNNI Topology State Element Phn t trng thi cu hnh PNNI
PTSP PNNI Topology State Packet Gi tin trng thi cu hnh PNNI
QoS Quality of Service Cht lng dch v
RANAP Radio Access Network Application Part Phn ng dng mng truy nhp v tuyn
RAS Registration Admistion and Status Protocol Giao thc trng thi, qun l v ng k
R-F Routing Function Chc nng nh tuyn
RIP Routed Information Protocol Giao thc thng tin nh tuyn
RMG Remote Media Gateway Cng phng tin xa
RSVP Resource Reservation Protocol Giao thc dnh trc ti nguyn
RSVP-TE RSVP Traffic Engineering RSVP cho k thut lu lng
RTCP Realtime Transport Protocol
Giao thc truyn ti iu khin thi gian
thc
RTP Realtime Transport Protocol Giao thc truyn ti thi gian thc
SAP Service Access Point im truy nhp dch v
SAR Segmentation Reassembly Sublayer Phn lp ct mnh to gi
SCP System Control Point im iu khin h thng
SCIM Service Capability Interaction Management Qun tr tng tc kh nng dch v
SCS Service Capability Server Server kh nng phc v
S-CSCF Serviced-CSCF CSCF phc v
SCTP Stream Control Transport Protocol Giao thc truyn ti iu khin lung
SDH Synchronous Digital Hierarchy Phn cp s ng b
SDS Space Division Switching Chuyn mch phn chia khng gian
SG Signalling Gateway Cng bo hiu
SIGTRAN Signalling Transport Giao thc truyn ti bo hiu
SIN Ship - in - the - Night Con thyn trong m
SIP Session Initiation Protocol Giao thc khi to phin
SMTP Simple Message Transfer Protocol Giao thc truyn th n gin
SNMP Simple Network Management Protocol Giao thc qun tr mng n gin
SPC Stored Program Control iu khin theo chng trnh ghi sn
SSF Service Switching Function Chc nng chuyn mch dch v
SPVC Soft Permanent Virtual Chanel Knh o c nh mm
SUA SCCP User Adaptation layer Lp tng thch ngi dng SCCP
SVC Switched Virtual Chanel Knh o chuyn mch
SWPA Shortest Widest Path Algorithm
Thut ton tm ng rng nht v ngn
nht
TC Transmision Convergence Hi t truyn dn
TCP Transport Control Protocol Giao thc iu khin truyn ti
TDM Time Division Multiplexing Ghp knh theo thi gian
vii
TDS Time Division Switching Chuyn mch phn chia thi gian
TE Traffic Engineering K thut lu lng
TL Total Length Tng di
TLV Type/ Length/ Value Cc tham s kiu/ di/gi tr
TMG Trunk Media Gateway Cng phng tin trung k
TOS Type Of Service Kiu phc v
TTL Time to Live Thi gian sng
TUA TCAP User Adaptation Layer Lp tng thch ngi dng TCAP
UA Common Signalling User Adaptation Layer Lp tng thch ngi dng bo hiu CCS
UDP User Datagram Protocol Giao thc d liu ngi dng
UE User Equipment Thit b ngi dng
UMTS Universal Mobile Telecommunication System H thng vin thng di ng ton cu
UNI User-Network Interface Giao din ngi dng - mng
VBR Variable Bit Rate Tc bit thay i
VC Virtual Chanel Knh o
VCC Virtual Chanel Connection Kt ni knh o
VCI Virtual Chanel Identifier Nhn dng knh o
VoIP Voice over IP Thoi qua IP
VPI Virtual Path Indentifier Nhn dng lung o
WAP Wireless Application Protocol Giao thc ng dng khng dy
WCDMA
R4
Wireless Code Division Multiple Access
Release 4
a truy nhp phn chia theo m phin bn
4
WDM Wavelength Division Multiplexing Ghp knh phn chia theo bc sng
WFQ Weighted Fair Queuing Hng i cn bng trng s
WLAN Wireless LAN Mng ni ht khng dy
WSPA Widest Shortest Path Algorithm
Thut ton tm ng ngn nht v rng
nht


137
TI LIU THAM KHO


1. Roger L. Freeman , Telecommunication System Engineering, John Wiley & Sons, 2004.
2. Richard A. Thompson, Telephone Switching Systems, ARTECH house, inc, 2000.
3. Dng Vn Thnh, Hong Trng Minh, Tng i in t s, bi ging, Hc vin cng
ngh bu chnh vin thng, 1999.
4. H.Jonathan Chao, Broadband packet switching technologies, John Wiley &son inc,
2002.
5. Christopher Y.Metz, IP switching Protocols and Archirtectures, Mc Graw Hill,1999.
6. L Hu Lp, Hong Trng Minh, Cng ngh chuyn mch IP, bi ging, Trung tm
o to 1, Hc vin CNBC vin thng, 2001.
7. Pred Halsall, Data communication computer networks and Open Systems, Addison
Weysley, 1996.
8. Thomas M. Chen, Stephen S. Liu, Atm Switching Systems, Artech House
Telecommunications Library, 1995.
9. Kun I.Park, QoS in packet Network, Springer + Business Media Inc, 2005.
10. Nguyn Thanh Tr, Bo hiu m bo cht lng dch v trong MPLS, lun vn cao
hc TVT, Hc vin CNBC vin thng, 2006.
11. Dng Hng Sn, Hong Trng Minh, Hong c Hi, K thut in thoi qua IP v
Internet, NXB Lao ng, 2002.
12. Ts. Nguyn Phm Anh Dng, ng dng IP v cc giao thc bo hiu trong 3G IMS,
bi ging; Hc vin Cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng, 2006.
(Mt s bi bo, tin tc tng hp t: http://www.itu.int/ITU-T/, www.ietf.org,
www.vnpt.com.vn, www.wikipedia.com, www.itpapers.com, v..v)


i
MC LC
Tiu Trang
Mc lc i
Danh sch cc k hiu, t vit tt iii
Danh sch bng biu, hnh v viii
Li ni u

1
CHNG 1: GII THIU CHUNG V K THUT CHUYN MCH
1.1 Nhp mn k thut chuyn mch 2
1.2 Cc khi nim v l thuyt c bn 2
1.2.1 Mt s khi nim c s 2
1.2.2 Cc m hnh ton hc ca lu lng 4
1.2.3 L thuyt hng i 12
1.3 Qu trnh pht trin ca k thut chuyn mch 14
1.3.1 Chuyn mch mm v hng tip cn my ch cuc gi CS 16
1.3.2 Hng tip cn phn h a phng tin IP (IMS) 17
CHNG 2: K THUT CHUYN MCH KNH
2.1 C s k thut chuyn mch knh 19
2.1.1 K thut iu ch xung m PCM 19
2.1.2 Cu trc khung tn hiu PCM 23
2.1.3 Trao i khe thi gian ni TSI 26
2.2 Kin trc trng chuyn mch knh 27
2.2.1 Trng chuyn mch khng gian s 27
2.2.2 Trng chuyn mch thi gian s 29
2.2.3 Trng chuyn mch ghp TST 30
2.3 nh tuyn trong chuyn mch knh 34
2.3.1 K hoch nh s trong mng PSTN 34
2.3.2 Cc phng php nh tuyn trong mng chuyn mch knh 35
2.4 Mt s trng chuyn mch trong thc tin

37
CHNG 3: K THUT CHUYN MCH GI
3.1 C s k thut chuyn mch gi 40
3.1.1 M hnh kt ni h thng m OSI 41
3.1.2 Nguyn tc c bn ca chuyn mch gi 43
3.2 Cc kin trc ca trng chuyn mch gi 46
3.2.1 Tng quan v kin trc trng chuyn mch gi 48
3.2.2 Cc trng chuyn mch mng Banyan 53
3.2.3 Cc chin lc s dng b m trong trng chuyn mch 56
3.3 K thut nh tuyn trong mng chuyn mch gi 62
3.3.1 Cc thut ton tm ng ngn nht 63
3.3.2 Cc giao thc nh tuyn ni min v lin min 64
ii
3.3.3 nh tuyn h tr cht lng dch v QoS 67
3.4 Mt s bi ton v cht lng dch v

72
CHNG 4: K THUT CHUYN MCH TIN TIN
4.1 Gii thiu tng quan v cng ngh IP/ATM 75
4.1.1 Tng quan v IP/ATM 75
4.1.2 Cng ngh chuyn mch IP 79
4.1.3 Cng ngh chuyn mch MPLS/GMPLS 81
4.2 K thut chuyn mch ATM 83
4.2.1 M hnh phn lp ATM 83
4.2.2 Nguyn l chuyn mch ATM 86
4.3 K thut nh tuyn trong mng tc cao 90
4.3.1 nh tuyn PNNI 90
4.3.2 Cc gii php chuyn mch v nh tuyn IP/ATM 95
4.3.3 K thut nh tuyn m bo QoS trong MPLS 105
4.4 K thut lu lng trong MPLS 108
4.4.1 Tng quan v k thut lu lng 108
4.4.2 iu khin qun l v truy nhp 109
4.4.3 iu khin chng tc nghn trong MPLS 111
4.4.4 iu khin lu lng a lp 111
4.5 Cc gii php nng cao hiu nng chuyn mch 112
4.5.1 Bo hiu m bo cht lng dch v 112
4.5.2 nh tuyn v chuyn tip m bo QoS 113
4.5.3 Cc gii php thc tin 114
4.6 Cc khi nim v NGN v chuyn mch mm 115
4.6.1 Mng th h k tip NGN 115
4.6.2 M hnh phn cp chuyn mch trong NGN 118
4.6.3 M hnh kin trc chuyn mch mm 120
4.6.4 Cc ng dng ca chuyn mch mm 124
TI LIU THAM KHO 133

iii
DANH MC CC HNH V

Danh mc Trang

Hnh 1.1 Cc kiu mng chuyn mch c bn 4
Hnh 1.2 Hm mt xc sut ca phn b Erlang 6
Hnh 1.3 Chuyn tip hai trng thi chui Markov ri rc 8
Hnh 1.4 S chuyn i trng thi trong chui Markov thi gian lin tc 9
Hnh 1.5 Lu chuyn trng thi cuc gi 9
Hnh 1.6 Hm phn b mt xc sut ca phn b Poisson 11
Hnh 1.7 Thi gian tr ph thuc vo tc n v tc phc v ca hng i 14
Hnh 1.8 Xu hng hi t cng ngh mng cng cng 15
Hnh 1.9 Cc thit b chuyn mch trong m hnh mng cng cng in hnh 16
Hnh 2.1 Mt h thng PCM in hnh 20
Hnh 2.2 Cc bc bin i trong nguyn l PCM 20
Hnh 2.3 c tuyn nn lng t theo lut A 22
Hnh 2.4 Cu trc a khung PCM 24 23
Hnh 2.5 Cu trc khung v a khung PCM 30 24
Hnh 2.6 Nguyn l trao i khe thi gian ni TSI 26
Hnh 2.7 Nguyn l chuyn mch khng gian S 27
Hnh 2.8 Nguyn l chuyn mch thi gian T 29
Hnh 2.9 Ma trn kt ni 3 tng chuyn mch 31
Hnh 2.10 Trng chuyn mch ghp TST 33
Hnh 2.11 Phng php chn knh ri theo mt n chn knh 34
Hnh 2.12 nh tuyn lun phin 35
Hnh 2.13 Cu trc phn h chuyn mch tng i NEAX-61 37
Hnh 2.14 S cu trc ca CCX 38
Hnh 2.15 Ma trn chuyn mch phn chia thi gian ca SMX 39
Hnh 3.1 M hnh phn lp OSI RM 41
Hnh 3.2 Cc phng php chuyn mch c bn 44
Hnh 3.3 ng gi d liu theo m hnh OSI 44
Hnh 3.4 Chuyn mch Datagram v chuyn mch knh o 45
Hnh 3.5 Kin trc b nh tuyn th h u tin 46
Hnh 3.6 Kin trc b nh tuyn th h th hai 47
Hnh 3.7 Kin trc b nh tuyn th h th ba 47
Hnh 3.8 Phn loi trng chuyn mch gi 48
Hnh 3.9 Cu trc trng chuyn mch chia s phng tin 49
Hnh 3.10 Kin trc trng chuyn mch chia s b nh 50
Hnh 3.11 Kin trc ma trn chuyn mch Crossbar 51
iv
Hnh 3.12 Chuyn mch khng gian kiu kt ni y 51
Hnh 3.13 Cc trng chuyn mch trong h Banyan 52
Hnh 3.14 Kin trc cc trng chuyn mch a ng 52
Hnh 3.15 V d v mng Banyan (8x8) 54
Hnh 3.16 Hin tng nghn ni trong chuyn mch Banyan 55
Hnh 3.17 Mng phn l kt ni kiu Banyan 55
Hnh 3.18 Trng chuyn mch b tr m u vo 57
Hnh 3.19 Lu x l 3 giai on chng tranh chp 59
Hnh 3.20 Trng chuyn mch m u ra 60
Hnh 3.21 Trng chuyn mch m trung tm 61
Hnh 3.22 Cc kha cnh ca cht lng dch v 72
Hnh 3.23 M hnh h thng knh trung k 73
Hnh 4.1 M hnh tham chiu TCP/IP vi OSI 79
Hnh 4.2 Cu trc tiu gi tin IP v ATM 81
Hnh 4.3 Thit b chuyn mch IP 83
Hnh 4.4 M hnh kt ni theo chuyn mch IP 84
Hnh 4.5 M hnh tham chiu ca ATM-BISDN v OSI 88
Hnh 4.6 Chuyn mch VP v VC 91
Hnh 4.7 Nguyn l chuyn mch ATM 92
Hnh 4.8 M hnh phn cp nh tuyn PNNI 96
Hnh 4.9 M hnh chuyn mch IP iu khin lung 100
Hnh 4.10 Giao thc gii bc k tip 101
Hnh 4.11 Chuyn mch IP iu khin topo 102
Hnh 4.12 nh tuyn PNNI m rng 104
Hnh 4.13 Proxy-PAR 105
Hnh 4.14 PNNI tch hp 107
Hnh 4.15 Nguyn l nh tuyn da trn cc iu kin rng buc 110
Hnh 4.16 Thit lp CR-LSP dng RSVP m rng 111
Hnh 4.17 V tr ca LDP trong chng giao thc ca MPLS 112
Hnh 4.18 Sp xp lu lng ti LER trong mng MPLS 114
Hnh 4.19 M hnh mng a lp 115
Hnh 4.20 M hnh phn lp mng NGN ca ITU-T 117
Hnh 4.21 Cc phn t c bn trong mng NGN 123
Hnh 4.22 M hnh tham chiu cc thc th chc nng trong NGN 125
Hnh 4.23 Kt ni MGC vi cc thnh phn khc ca NGN 127
Hnh 4.24 Cc chc nng ca cng iu khin a phng tin MGC 128
Hnh 4.25 ng dng lm cng bo hiu SS7 ca chuyn mch mm 129
Hnh 4.26 ng dng lm tng i Tandem 130
Hnh 4.27 Kt ni cc phn t trong mng VoIP 131
v
Hnh 4.28 Chc nng c bn ca Gateway H.323 132
Hnh 4.29 Kin trc kt ni lin mng IMS-CS 136




vi
DANH MC BNG BIU

Danh mc
Trang

Bng 1.1 Mt s m hnh v hm phn b cho cc ng dng c bn 5
Bng 2.1 Bit F trong cu trc a khung 24 24
Bng 2.2 Cu trc TS0 ca a khung PCM30 s dng CRC-4 25
Bng 3.1 So snh mt s c im ca dch v thoi v d liu 40
Bng 3.2 Tm tt chc nng cc lp trong m hnh OSI 42
Bng 3.3 Cc giao thc nh tuyn v tiu ch so snh 65
Bng 4.1 Phn loi cc dch v lp tng thch ATM 85
Bng 4.2 Cc dch v c PNNI h tr 102
Bng 4.3 Cc lp dch v lu lng 109