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UACJ- IIT

Calculo Integral-Ejercicios Resueltos


Alumno: Julio Cesar Gaytn Ruiz
Profesor: Carlos Lpez Ruvalcaba
1

Integrales de Monomios Algebraicos

-


2


-


3

Integrales que conducen a la funcin logaritmo natural

-

|| |

|

-

|| |

|

-

||

-

||

-

|| |

|

-

||

-

||

-

||





4

Calculo de aproximaciones usando la diferencial

Determinar la ecuacin de la recta tangente a la grfica de f en un
punto dado. Utilizar esta aproximacin lineal para completar la tabla.
-


m = F(x) = 2x m en x=2 = 4 y-4=4(x-2) y=4x-8+4
y = 4x-4

-


m = F(x) =

m(2) = 3





-
c e c


Utiliza la informacin para evaluar y comparar y y dy.
-

X = 2 x = dx = 0.1

X = -1 x = dx 0.01


5



dy=4(

)(0.01) dy=-.04

Determinar la diferencial dy de la funcin indicada.
-

] {

]}

)]
[

]
- c


{ [

} (




6

-

c (

((

)) (

)


Emplear diferenciales y la grfica de f para aproximar a)f(1.9) y
b)f(2.04).


a)





b)












1
1 2
0 2
) 0 , 1 ( ), 1 , 2 (
) ( '
) 04 . 2 (
) 9 . 1 (
=

=
= =
m
ndx dx x f dy
f
f
04 . 0
) 04 . 0 ( 1
04 . 1 04 . 0 1
) 2 ( ) 04 . 2 (
) 1 . 0 (
) 1 . 0 ( 1
9 . 0 1 . 0 1
) 2 ( ) 9 . 1 (
=
=
= + =
+ =
=
=
= =
+ =
dy
dy
dy f f
dy
dy
dy f f
2
1
0 2
2 1
) 1 , 2 ( ) 2 , 0 (
) 04 . 2 (
) 9 . 1 (
=

=
=
m
mdx dy
y
f
f
98 . 0 02 . 0 1
02 . 0 ) 04 . 0 (
2
1
) 2 ( ) 04 . 2 (
05 . 0
) 1 . 0 (
2
1
05 . 1 5 . 0 1 ) 9 . 1 (
) 2 ( ) 9 . 1 (
= =
= =
+ =
=
=
= + =
+ =
dy
dy f f
dy
dy
f
dy f f
7



- Area. Se encuentra que la medicin del lado de un cuadrado es
igual a 12 pulgadas, con un posible error de
64
1
de pulgada. Usar
diferenciales para aproximar el posible error propagado en el
calculo del area del cuadrado.







- Area. Se mide el radio del extremo de un tronco y se encuentra
que es igual a 14 pulgadas, con un posible error de de pulgada.
Utilizar diferenciales para aproximar el posible error propagado en el
calculo del area del extremo del tronco.











erroraprox in dv
in in xdx dv
in dx
x v
> =
= =
=
=
3
2
375 . 0
))
64
1
)( 12 ( 2 2
64
1
erroraprox in in in xdx da
in dx
x a
> = = =
=
=
2
2
99 . 21 )
4
1
)( 14 ( 2 2
4
1
t t
t

Radio=
14in
8


- Area. La medicin del lado de un cuadrado produce un valor igual
a 15 cm, con un posible error de 0.05 cm.
a) Aproximar el error porcentual en el calculo del area del
cuadrado.
b) Estimar el mximo error porcentual permisible en la medicin
del lado si el error en el calculo del area no fue mayor de 2.5%
A)
% 66 . 0 100 .
5 . 2
5 . 1
_
_ 15 ) 05 . 0 )( 15 ( 2 2
05 . 0
2
= =
> = = =
=
=
porcentual Error
area error in in xdx dx
in dx
x a


B)













% 25 . 1 max _ _
% 25 . 1 187 . 0
% 100 15
1875 . 0
30
625 . 5
_
625 . 5 ) _ )( 15 ( 2
625 . 5 )
100
% 5 . 2
( 25 . 2 _
100 .
25 . 2
_
% 5 . 2
=


= =
=
= =
=
porcentual Error
lado error
lado error
area error
area error
9

Integral de la potencia de una suma

- / d / / d //
1)3 x dx=
1/28 * (7x2 1)4/4= 1/112 *(7x2 1)4 + c

- d * / c

- d / * d / * /
1/12 * (x3 + 2)4 +c

- - (4- d -(4-x)3 dx = 2 * (4-x)4/4 = (4-x)4 + c

- u

du u * - 2u2)1/2 du = -/ u * - 2u2)1/2 du =
-1/4 * (3-2u2)3/2 / 3/2 = -1/6

3 + c

- d/ d * - / d * -2 =
3/2 * (x2 + 3)-1/-1 =-3/2 * 1/(x2 + 3) + c

- d /

d * a b-1/2 = 2/3b * (a +
bx3)1/2/ =
4/3b *

+ c
- dv /

dv * -v/2)-1/2 = - dv * -v/2)-1/2 = -2 * (1-


v/2)1/2/ =
10

-4 *

+ c

- d / -10 dx * (x+2)-2 = x + 14
/(x+2) + c

-

d -x2)1/2 dx =

3 / 3 + c


Integrales de las funciones exponenciales

- / * d / / c

- -3a5x * 5 dx = (-3a5x / lna) + c

- ba^ d *ba^ / a c

- ^ d * ^ / c

- d / - * 7-4x / ln7 = (-1 / (4*74x * ln7)) + c

- et dt * et / e et / c

- ea d /a * ea / e ea / a c

11

-

* x-1/2 dx = 2

+ c

-

d e^/ d *

+ c

-

*

) dx /

= (2 *(

) / (ln2 + lne) + c

- e d e^ e d e e c

- e/ d / e e/ d / e d / e -2 /

)
(4 /

) + c
Integrales en que intervienen la tangente, cotangente,
secante y cosecante.
- tg d / |ec | c

- ctg d / |e | c

- ctg

dx /

= 2 ln |sen

| + c

- ec / d / |ec/ tg /| c

- a ec a d / a * |eca tga| +c

- -2 csc (3-2x) dx = ln |csc(3-2x) - ctg(3-2x)| + c

12

- ec / tg / d ec / d - tg/ d
2 ln |sec(x/2) + tg(x/2)| - 2 ln |sec(x/2)| + c

- e d / c -/ e d / c
-1/2 ln |3 + cos 2x|+ c

- cc u du / -ctg u) = ln |3-ctg u| + c

- b dt / ctga bt) = - tga- bt) b dt = -ln |sec(a bt)| + c

- a d /

csc

a dx = 2a ln |csc

ctg

| +
c

- e^ d / ctg e^ tg e^ e^ d |ec e^| c

Integrales que conducen a las funciones
trigonomtricas

- c / d c/ d e/ c

- c - x2) x dx = -/c -x2) x dx = -1/2 sen (1-x2) +c

- / e a x/2) dx = (2/3)*(- e a x/2) dx =4/3 cos (a-x/2)
+c

13

- cc -

) dx /

cc -

) dx /

= 2 ctg (1 -

) + c

- ec e-x tg e-x e-x dx = -Sec e-x + c

- d / c d/ -cos 2x)) * ((1+cos 2x) /(1+cos2x))
dx =
/ c /-c c / e
cc ctg * cc -ctg 2x csc 2x + c

- d / e d / - e /
1+sen2x/(cos22x) ) =
/ ec d / tg * ec d / tg / ec c

Integrales de las formas


- =
+
}
5 4
2
2
4
2
x
dx


-
-
}
=

4 2
7 x a
xdx
c
ax
arcsen
x
+ =
7 2
1
2


-


}
=
+ 5 4
4
2
x
dx
}
=
+
2 2
1 u a
bdu
}
=
+
4 2
7 x a
xdx
}
=

2
2 3 v
dv
}
=

x
x
e
dx e
2
1
-
c
x
arctg +
5
2
5
2
}
=
+
2 2
1 au
du
b = + c
au
arctg
a
b
1
c au arctg
a
b
+ ) (
=

}
v
dv
2 3
2
2
1
c
v
arcsen +
3
2
2
1
c arcsene
x
+
14




}
=

2
) 3 ( 4
3
x
dx
( ) ( )
} }
=

=

2 2 2
3 2
3
3 4
3
x
dx
x
dx
c
x
arcsen +

2
3
2
1
3






( )
( )
} }
=
+
=
+ +
2 2
2
1 2
3
4 2 3
3
x
dx
x x
dx ( )
c
x
arcsen +
+
2
1
3












}
=
1 9
2
y y
dy
-
( )
}
= + =

c
y
arc
y y
dy
1
3
sec
1
1
1 3
3
1
3
2 2
c y arc + 3 sec
}
=
2 3
2
x x
dx
-
} } }
=
|
.
|

\
|

=
(
(

|
.
|

\
|

=
|
.
|

\
|
+ +
2 2
2
2
3
4
1
4
1
2
3
2
4
9
4
9
3
x
dx
x
dx
x x
dx
= +
|
|
.
|

\
|

=
|
.
|

\
|

|
.
|

\
|
=
}
c
x
arcsen
x
dx
2
1
2
3
2
3
2
1
2 2
( ) c x arcsen + 3 2
}
=

2
2 3
3
x x
dx
-
}
=

2
4 5
3
t t
dx
-
-
-
-
}
=
+
2
3 5 2 x x
dx
}
=
+ + 5 2x x
dx
}
=
+ + 5 4 4
2
x x
dx
}
=

dx
x
x
2
9
2 3
-
-
( ) ( )
} } }
=
+
=
+ +
=

2 2 2
2 3
3
8 8 4 5
3
4 5
3
t t
dx
t t
dx
t t
dx
c
t
arcsen +
+
3
2
3
( ) ( ) ( )
} } }
=

=
+ +
=
+ +
2 2 2
5 6 2
3
1
1 1 5 1
3
1
1 1 5 1 3 x
dx
x x
dx
x x
dx
c
x
arcsen +

=
7
5 6
3
1
( ) ( )
} }
=
+ +
=
+ + +
2 2 2
2 1 5 1 1 2 x
dx
x x
dx
c
x
arctg +
+
2
1
2
1
( ) ( )
=
+ +
=
+ + +
} }
2 1 2
4
4
1
5 2 2 4 4
2 2
x
dx
x x
dx
c
x
arctg +
+
2
1 2
4
1
( ) ( )
} } } }
=


2
2
1
2
2 2
9
3 9 2
9 9
3
2
x
dx
dx x x
x
dx
x
xdx
c
x
arcsen x + =
3
2 9 3
2
15











( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
} } }
=

=
+ +

=
+

7 2 3
3 2
5 12 12 12 9
3 2
5 12 9
3 2
2 2 2
x
dx x
x x
dx x
x x
dx x












}
=

+
dx
x
x
2
16 1
3 5
-
}
=

dx
x x
x
5 4 12
3 8
2
} } }
|
.
|

\
|

=
(
(

|
.
|

\
|

=
|
.
|

\
|
+ +
=
2
2
2
2
2
3
1
2
9
1
2
3
2
9
4
5
4
9
4
9
3
2
9
x
dx
x
dx
x x
dx
( )
c x arcsen
x x
+
|
.
|

\
|
+

=
2
3
2
9
2
1
5 4 12
2
1
2
-
}
=
+

dx
x x
x
5 12 9
3 2
2
}
=

+
dx
x x
x
2
3
5 4
-
-
( ) ( )
} } } }
=


2
2
1
2
2 2
16 1
5 16 1
4
3
16 1 16 1
5
3
x
dx
dx x x
x
dx
x
xdx
c x arcsen x + +

= 4
4
3
16 1
16
5
2
c
a
v
arctg
a
a v
a a v
dv
a v
vdv
a v
dv v
+ + + =
+
+
+
=
+
+
} } }
3
) ln(
1
3
3
2 2
2 2 2 2 2 2
( ) ( ) c x arctg x x + + = 2 3 5 12 9 ln
9
1
2
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
c
a
v
arcsen v a
v a
dv
dv v v a
v a
dv
v a
vdv
v a
dv v
x
dx x
x x
dx x
+ + =

+ =

+
=

+
=
+ +
+
} } } } }
} }

4
4 2
2
1
4
4
3 2 3
5 4
3 3 3
5 4
2 2
2 2
2
1
2 2
2 2 2 2 2 2
2 2
c
x
arcsen x x +

+ =
3
3 2
3 4
2
( )( )
} } }
|
.
|

\
|
+
=

+ +

4
5
3 4
9
5 4 12
9 5 4 12 12 8
2
2
2
1
2
x x
dx
x x
dx
dx x x x
16

Integrales de las formas

|
-


| c


|
-

/ | /
| c
- du / (9-6u-3u
2
) = - du/(3u
2
+ 6u-9) = du/-(3u
2
-6u+9) -9 +9 =- du/(3u-
3)*(u+3) = 1/12 ln| (3+u)/(1-u)| + c
-


d/ d /
/ | / | c


Integrales de las formas:

|
|

|
V=x+1 a=2
-

()

ta ecd

taecd

ecd

ec

|ec ta| c

| c


17

-

|

Integrales de las formas.

o bien

]
a=

, v=x, dv=dx
-

+

a= 2, v= (x+1), dv=dx

-

=
(

|(

|
a=

, v=(

), dv=dx




Integral de las potencias del seno y/o coseno.
18

-

c
=

=
(

) (


= (

) (


- =




-
tg

||



19

-

= (

=(

) =

) (

)
(

) =

) (

= (

)
=

* (

) (

)+ =


- =

[ ] =

)
20


cos(-A)=cosA

Integrales de las potencias de la tangente y cotangente
-

- =

||

-

||
-


-.

= ||



21

Integracin por sustitucin trigonomtrica
-
}
=
+
2
4 9 x x
dx







-






-
( )
=

}
dx
x
x
6
2
3
2
16

( )
} } }
= + = = =

c
ctg
d ctg
sen
d
x
x
5
5
16
1
csc
16
1
4
cos 16
2 4
6 2
4
6
3
2
u u u
u
u u









} } } }
= = =
+
u u u
u
u
u
u u u d d
sen
d ctg
x x
dx
csc
3
1 cos
cos
1
3
1
sec
3
1
) 2 ( 3
2 2
c ctg + = | csc | ln
3
1
u u
dx d x tg
x
tg
x
x
x
x
sen
= = =
= +
+
=
+
=
u u u u
u
u
u
2
2
2
2
sec
2
3
2
3
3
2
cos
3
4 9
4 9
3
cos
4 9
2
c
x
x
+
+
= |
2
3 4 9
| ln
3
1
2
=

}
7
2 2
x x
dx
} }
+ =

c sen d
x x
dx
u u u
7
1
cos
7
1
) 7 (
2 2 2
7 7
7
) 7 (
sec 7
cos
7 7
cos
) 7 (
2
2 2 2
2 2 2
=

=
= = =

=
x tg
x x
tg
x
x
x
x x
sen
u u
u
u
u
u
c
x
x
+

=
7
7
1
2
c
x
x
+
|
|
.
|

\
|

=
5
2 2
4
18
1
2 2
2 2
2 2
4
=
4 = cos 4
4
4
= cos
= 4
4
=
x
x
tg
x
x

x sen
x
sen

22


Integracin por partes

-
}
= dx
x
x
2
cos = =
} }
dx dx
x
sen
x
xsen dx
x
sen
x
xsen
2
1
2
) 2 )( 2 (
2
2
2
2
2
2




-
}
= xdx ln
}
= dx
x
x x x
1
ln



-
}
=

xdx x ln
2

} }

= dx x
x
x
x
dx
x x
x
2
ln 1 ln





-
}
= xdx x cos
2

}
xsenxdx senx x 2
2
| |
}
= xdx x x senx x cos cos 2
2






c
x x
xsen + + =
2
cos 4
2
2
2
2
2
cos
x
sen v
dx
x
dv
x u
dx du
=
=
=
=
c
x x
x
+ =
1 ln
1
2
ln
1

=
=
=
=
x v
dx x dv
x u
dx
x
du
c x x x + ln
x v
dx dv
x u
dx
x
du
=
=
=
=
ln
1
senx v
xdx dv
x u
xdx du
=
=
=
=
cos
2
2
x v
senxdx dv
x u
dx du
cos =
=
=
=
c senx x x senx x + + = 2 cos 2
2
23

-
}
= dx e x
x 2 2

}
dx xe e x
x x 2 2 2
2
1
=
(

=
}
dx e xe e x
x x x 2 2 2 2
2
1
2
1
2
1





-
}
= arctgxdx =
+

}
dx
x
x
xarctgx
2
1
2
2
1





-
}
= dx xArcSenx
2

} }

+ =

dx x x arcsenx
x
dx
x
x
x
arcsenx
x
4 ) 1 (
2 2
1
2
2
2
1
4 3 2
2 2
4
2
2





-
}
= xdx SenxSen3






x
x
e v
dx e dv
x u
xdx du
2
2
2
2
1
2
=
=
=
=
x
x
e v
dx e dv
x u
dx du
2
2
2
1
=
=
=
=
c e xe e x
x x x
+ + =
2 2 2 2
4
1
2
1
2
1
( ) c x arcsenx
x
+ + =
2
1
4 2
2
1
2
1
2
2
4 1
2
2
2
2
x
v
xdx dv
arcsenx u
dx
x
du
=
=
=

=
}
= + xdx x x x sen 3 cos cos 3 cos 3
| | = + +
}
dx x x x x sen 4 cos ) 2 cos(
2
1
3 cos 3
c x sen x sen x x sen + + = 4
8
3
2
4
3
cos 3
x v
senxdx dv
x sen u
xdx du
cos
3
3 cos 3
=
=
=
=
x v
dx dv
arctgx u
dx
x
du
=
=
=
+
=
2
1
1
c x xarctgx + + | 1 | ln
2
1
2
24

Integracin por sustituciones algebraicas

-
}
+ xdx x 9 ( ) ( )
} }
= + = = c
m m
dm m m mdm m m
3
18
5
2 9 2 2 9
3 5
2 4 2




-
}
=
+
dx
x
x
1
} }
=
+
=
+
ds
s
s
s sds
s
s
)
1
( 2 2
1
2 2
c s s + arctan 2 ) ( 2


-
}
1
x
e
dx

( )
} } }
= + =
+
=
+
= c p
p
dp
dp
p p
p
p
dp
p
p
arctan 2
1
2
1
2
2
2 2
2






-
+
}
x
dx
9
( ) c p
p
dp p
p
dp p p
+ = =

} }
36
3
4
9 4
) 9 ( 4
3
2
2







c e
x
+ = 1 arctan 2
1
2
| 1 | ln
1
1
2
2
2
+
=
+ =
= +
=
p
p
dx
p x
e p
e p
x
x
mdm dx
m x
m x
x m
2
9
9
9
2
2
=
=
= +
+ =
( ) ( ) c x x + + + =
3 5
9 6 9
5
2
( ) c x + + + = 9 36 3 9
3
4 3
dp p p dx
p x
x p
x p
x p
) 9 ( 4
) 9 (
9
9
9
2
2 2
2
2
=
=
=
+ =
+ =
c x x + = arctan 2 2
sds dx
s x
x s
2
2
=
=
=
25

Integracin por fracciones parciales con
denominadores lineales


-
( )( )
}
=
+ +
dx
x x
x
4 1
2 2
2





Si x=0 si x= i si x
2
= -4






- =
+
+ + +
}
dx
x
x x x
2 2
2 3
) 1 (
2 2 2


) ( ) 1 )( ( 2 2 2
2 2 3
d cx x b ax x x x + + + + = + + +
Si x= 0 x= i si= 1





=
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
=
=
+
+
+
+
+
} } } }
} }
2 2 2 2 2
2 2
) 2 ( 4 1 1
2
2
4 1
x
dx
d
x
xdx
c
x
dx
b
x
xdx a
dx
x
d x
dx
x
b ax
c
x
arctg
d
x
c
arctgx b x
a
+ + + + + =
2 2
| 4 | ln
2 1
1
| | ln
2
2 2
) 1 )( ( ) 4 )( (
4 1 ) 4 )( 1 (
2 2 2
2 2 2 2
2
+ + + + + =
+
+
+
+
+
=
+ +
x d cx x b ax x
x
d cx
x
b ax
x x
x
3
4
0
3 6 4
) 3 ( 2 4
2
1 4 ) 1 ( 4 4
=
=
=
+ =
=
= = =
d
c
d ci
d ci
i x
x
0
0 3
3
1
0
3 3 1 0
=
=
=
=
+ =
a
a
b
a
b ai i d b + = 4 0
c
x
arctg x arctgx x + + + + =
2 3
4
| 4 | ln
3
1
| | ln
2 2
} } } }
} }
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
2 2 2 2 2
2 2 2
) 1 ( ) 1 ( 1 1
2
2
) 1 ( 1
x
dx
d dx
x
x
c
x
dx
b
x
xdx a
x
d cx
dx
x
b ax
2
2
=
+ =
b
d b
0
1
2 2 2
=
=
+ =
+ = + +
d
c
d ci i
d ci i i
1
0 1 ) 4 ( 2 2 7
=
+ + + =
a
a
c
x
arctgx x +
+
+ + + =
1
1
2
1
2 | 1 | ln
2
1
2
2
c
x
arctgx x +
+
+ + + =
) 1 ( 2
1
2 | 1 | ln
2
1
2
2