Está en la página 1de 6

www.tjprc.org editor@tjprc.

org
International Journal of Electronics,
Communication & Instrumentation Engineering
Research and Development (IJECIERD)
ISSN(P): 2249-684X; ISSN(E): 2249-7951
Vol. 4, Issue 2, Apr 2014, 75-80
TJPRC Pvt. Ltd.

MIMO-AN EVOLUTION TO 4G
ABDUL RASHID S. PATEL
1
& R. D. PATANE
2

1
M.E Student (EXTC), ARMIET College of Engineering, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India
2
Associate Professor, Department of Electronics, Terna Engineering College, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India

ABSTRACT
The explosion of wired and wireless telecommunication systems marked the end of the second millennium.
The number of subscribers to the second-generation mobile network has increased exponentially. Hence, the users of both
systems have augmented expectations in services and capacity. To improve the quality of service and increase the capacity,
OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing) was introduced which is an efficient technique but works in
combination with MIMO (Multiple Input Multiple Output). Wireless systems with antenna elements at both edges are
referred to in the literature as Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) systems in contrast to Single Input Single Output
(SISO) antenna systems that have one transmit and one receive antenna. Wireless digital communication system has an
advantage of implementing intelligent antennas and with the use OFDM and Space-Time Block Code (STBC) this paper
presents a scheme to achieve high bit error rate. Alamouti scheme using MIMO has also been compared with multiple
antennas. The results show that Bit Error Rate (BER) is being reduced. Furthermore, it also gains maximum diversity when
we increase the number of antennas on either side. Due to these there is an error free transmission in Wireless environment.
KEYWORDS: Space Time Block Code (STBC), Multiple, Input Multiple Output (MIMO), Orthogonal Frequency
Division Multiplexing (OFDM), Bit Error Rate (BER)
INTRODUCTION
Wireless communication is one of the most vivacious areas in the communication field now a days. There are two
fundamental aspects of wireless communication that make the problem demanding and motivating as compared to wire
line communication. First is the phenomenon of fading: the time variation of the channel strengths due to the small-scale
effect of multipath fading, as well as larger-scale effects such as path loss via distance attenuation and shadowing by
obstacles. Second, unlike in the wired world where each transmitterreceiver pair can often be thought of as an isolated
point-to-point link, wireless users communicate over the air and there is significant interference between them. In wireless
environment the signal is propagating from the transmitter to the receiver along number of different paths, collectively
referred as multipath. While propagating the signal power drops of due to three effects: path loss, macroscopic fading and
microscopic fading. Fading of the signal can be mitigated by different diversity techniques. To obtain diversity, the signal
is transmitted through multiple (ideally) independent fading paths e.g. in time, frequency or space and combined
constructively at the receiver. Multiple input- multiple-output (MIMO) exploits spatial diversity by having several transmit
and receive antennas. Hence MIMO is of greatest importance in todays scenario, especially in 4G.The reason for interest
is that multiple antennas offer an efficient way to increase the spectral efficiency by exploiting the resource space.
Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing(OFDM) is a wideband wireless digital communication technique that
is based on block modulation. OFDM has been adopted in several wireless standards such as digital audio broadcasting
76 Abdul Rashid S. Patel & R. D. Patane


Impact Factor (JCC): 4.9467 Index Copernicus Value (ICV): 3.0
(DAB), digital video broadcasting (DVB-T), the IEEE 802.11a LAN standard and the IEEE 802.16a MAN standard[1].
OFDM has become a popular technique for transmission of signals over wireless channels OFDM systems are attractive
for the way they handle ISI, which is usually introduced by frequency selective multipath fading in a wireless environment.
Each sub-carrier is modulated at a very low symbol rate, making the symbols much longer than the channel impulse
response [2]. In this way, ISI is diminished. Moreover, if a guard interval between consecutive OFDM symbols is inserted,
the effects of ISI can completely vanish. This guard interval must be longer than the multipath delay. Although each
sub-carrier operates at a low data rate, a total high data rate can be achieved by using a large number of sub-carriers.
ISI has very small or no effect on the OFDM systems hence an equalizer is not needed at the receiver side. OFDM has
been adopted in the IEEE802.11a LAN and IEEE802.16a LAN/MAN standards. The combination of multi-antenna system
with multicarrier system i.e OFDM gives an excellent performance. Therefore MIMO-OFDM systems are boon for 4G
networks.
REVIEW OF STATE OF ART
Multicarrier transmission, also known as OFDM is a technique with a long history back to 1960 that has recently
seen rising popularity in wireless and wire line applications. The recent interest in this technique is mainly due to the recent
advances in digital signal processing technology. For wireless applications, an OFDM-based system can be of interest
because it provides greater immunity to multipath fading and impulse noise, and eliminates the need for equalizers, while
efficient hardware implementation can be realized using FFT techniques. MIMO-OFDM technology delivers significant
performance improvements for wireless LANs, enabling them to serve the existing applications more cost-effectively as
well as making new, more demanding applications possible.
Current applications of MIMO-OFDM is IEEE 802.16 (WiMax) and UMTS LTE which is more popular.
Performance of BER and channel estimation errors in OFDM-MIMO are determined by using single input single
output(SISO),with rate convolution coding QPSK modulation [3]. The performance of Alamouti code is compared with
system in a Rayleigh Fading Channel using BPSK modulation in the reference [4], where the performance of BER with
two transmitters and a single receiver found to be better when compared to (SISO).
PROBLEM STATEMENT AND MAIN CONTRIBUTION
The problems which are associated with the wireless communications is fading and interference. When the signal
is propagated from transmitter to receiver the signal power drops due to path loss and fading. To overcome fading issues
diversity techniques are used. MIMO exploits multipath takes advantage of the spatial diversity obtained by spatially
separated antennas in a dense multipath scattering environment. Also due to use of ofdm multicarrier modulation technique
the ISI can be mitigated because of insertion of cyclic prefix between the symbols. Combination of MIMO-OFDM gives
better performance. Question that comes to mind is How can be BER improved? A hypothesis was put forward and this
can be done by using multiple antenna technology with Alamouti scheme (Space time block code). The combination of
Alamouti scheme with MIMO maximizes the diversity gain and this in return gives improvement in BER when the number
of antennas are increased
PROBLEM SOLUTION
In 4G technology for better QoS, we need to know how to improve the BER. There are different proposed
techniques that are used to improve the BER. In this paper we will discuss the Alamouti (Space time block code) for
MIMO-An Evolution to 4G 77

www.tjprc.org editor@tjprc.org
improving BER. Alamouti space time block code is used for multiple antenna technology. The code works orthogonally
and doesnt work if the number of transmitting antennas increases from two. A diversity gain achieved through space-time
coding (STC) can be used either to improve the connection quality or to increase modulation gradation [5].
The transmit diversity technique proposed by Alamouti was the first STBC [6]. The encoding and decoding
operation is carried out in sets of two modulated symbols. First, the modulation of information data bits are done and
mapping is done in corresponding constellation points. Therefore, let us denote by X
1
and X
2
the two modulated symbols
that enter the space-time encoder. Usually, in systems with only one transmit antenna, these two symbols are transmitted at
two consecutive time instances t1 and t2. The times t1 and t2 are separated by a constant time duration T. Then, the
encoder takes a block of two modulated symbols X
1
and X
2
in each encoding operation and maps them to the transmit
antennas according to a code matrix given by
X = _
X
1
X
2

X
2
X
1

_
The encoder outputs are transmitted in two consecutive transmission periods from two transmit antennas.
During the first transmission period, two signals X
1
and X
2
are transmitted simultaneously from antenna one and antenna
two, respectively. In the second transmission period, signal X
2

is transmitted from transmit antenna one and signal


X
1

from transmit antenna two, where x


1

is the complex conjugate of X


1.
It is clear that the encoding is done in both the space and time domains. Let us denote the Transmit sequence from
antennas one and two by X
1
and X
2
, respectively.
X
t1
= |X
1
X
2

]
X
t2
= |X
2
X
1

]

Figure 1: STBC Encoder
The key feature of the Alamouti scheme is that the transmit sequences from the two transmit antennas are
orthogonal, since the inner product of the sequences x1 and x2 is zero, i.e.
X
t1
. X
t2
= X
1
X
2

X
2

X
1

The code matrix has the following property:
X. X
H
= _
|X
1
|
2
+ |X
2
|
2

|X
1
|
2
+ |X
2
|
2
_
= (|X
1
|
2
+ |X
2
|
2
)I
2

Where i2 is a 2 X 2 identity matrix
At the receive antenna, the received signals over two consecutive symbol periods, denoted by r1
78 Abdul Rashid S. Patel & R. D. Patane


Impact Factor (JCC): 4.9467 Index Copernicus Value (ICV): 3.0
And r2 for time t and t + T, respectively, can be expressed as
r1 = h1X
1
+ h2X
2
+ n1
r2 = -h1X
2

+ h2X
1

+ n2
Where n1 and n2 are independent complex variables with zero mean and power spectral densityN0/2 per
dimension, representing additive white Gaussian noise samples at time t and t + T respectively.

Figure 2: STBC Based Decoder
In the combiner aided by the channel estimator which provides perfect estimation of the diversity channel in this
example simple signal processing is performed in order to separate the signals x1 & x2. Specifically the maximum
likelihood detector minimizes the decision metric for all received code words over all possible values of x1 & x2.
The process was implemented with Mat lab for 2x1 MIMO, 2x2 MIMO, 2X3 MIMO and bit error is compared.
Figure 3 shows the simulated results of MIMO systems.BER performance for 2x3 MIMO is better than 2x1 MIMO and
2x2 MIMO. Since 2x3 MIMO have 3 receiving antennas so it receives multiple copies of information signal thus
improving diversity gain. So as the number of antennas increases on receivers side BER improves proportionally.

Figure 3: Comparison of 3 Simulated Results
CONCLUSIONS
This paper providesa basic information of MIMO system. It also shows how the space time coding done by
Alamouti scheme. The channel will distort the signal more severely at lower values of SNR (signal to noise ratio).
These distortions will cause the shifting of the constellation points of the signal and this will cause the demodulator to
MIMO-An Evolution to 4G 79

www.tjprc.org editor@tjprc.org
produce the degraded results at its output. But as SNR is increased the effect of the distortions introduced by the channel
will also goes on decreasing, as a result of this the BER will also decreases. In this way large data capacity can be achieved
over the existing channels by using higher order modulations, the only thing that should be kept in mind is the extent to
which we can increase the values of the SNR. Higher the SNR higher will be the data capacity. What will be the effect on
BER if number of antennas are increased on both transmitting and receiving end. Also the work can be extended by using
different modulation schemes.
REFERENCES
1. L. J. Cimini, Analysis and simulation of a digital mobile channel using orthogonal frequency division
multiplexing, IEEE Transaction on Communications, Vol. 33, Issue 7, pp. 665675, July 1985.
2. Roger B. Marks, Ken Stanwood and Chang IEEE Standard for Local and Metropolitan Area Networks Part16:
Air Interface for Fixed Broadband Wireless Access Systems, IEEE802.16-2004, 1 October, 2004.
3. Jan Erick H, and Knut Grythe, Effects of Channel Estimation Errors in OFDM-MIMO-Based Underwater
Communications, International conference on Advanced Information Networking and Applications Workshops,
pp.1130-1135, May 2009.
4. Fernando H. Gregorio, Space time coding for MIMO systems, [Online] Available:
http://www.comlab.hut.fi/opetus/333/2004_2005_slides/space_time_codes_text.pdf. [Accessed Oct.08, 2009]
5. Y. Wu and R. Calder bank, Code Diversity in Multiple Antenna Wireless Communication, IEEE Journal of
Selected Topics in Signal Processing, Vol. 3, Issue 6, pp 928-937, 2009.
6. A.Slaney and Y. Sun: Space-time coding for wireless communications : an overview, IEEE
Proc.-Communication., Vol. 153, No. 4, August 2006
AUTHORS DETAILS

Abdul Rashid S. Patel, He received his B.E degree in Electronics Engineering from Rizvi College of
Engineering, MUMBAI in 2009. He is currently pursuing M.E degree in Electronics and Telecommunication from
AlamuriRatnamala Institute of Engineering and technology, SHAHAPUR, MUMBAI, INDIA.
R. D. Patane, He is working as ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR in Terna Engineering College, Nerul, Navi Mumbai,
INDIA. He received Bachelor of engineering in 1989 and Master of engineering in 1999.He is having a work experience of
22 years in teaching.