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TECHNIQUES TO RAISE STUDENTS
MOTIVATION IN CLASS

Workshop



Booklet






School Term 2013-2014














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Administracin Federal de Servicios Educativos en el Distrito
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DIRECTORY

Dr. Luis Ignacio Snchez Gmez
Administrador Federal de Servicios Educativos en el Distrito Federal


Jenny Taboada Coblentz
Coordinadora del Programa de Ingls en el Distrito Federal









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Administracin Federal de Servicios Educativos en el Distrito
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PURPOSE:

1. To gain a better understanding of motivation in general.
2. To learn about one model of motivation in detail.
3. To identify practical techniques for applying that model to
language/teaching/learning.

CONTENTS

1. Understanding motivation in general
1.1 Impact of Motivation
1.2 Motivation Research
1.2.1 Drive Theories
1.2.2 Behaviorism
1.2.3 Cognitive Approaches
1.2.4 Socio-cognitive Approaches
1.2.5 Language Learning
2. Motivation Achievement
2.1 Vrooms Theory
3. The Conversation Game

Glossary

Bibliography

Annex
1. Cycle 1 Social Practice 4B (1st Grade)
2. Cycle 2 Social Practice 4B (3th Grade)
3. Cycle 3 Social Practice 3B (6th Grade)






















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1. UNDERSTANDING MOTIVATION IN GENERAL

1.1 The Impact of Motivation
Motivation is the force that initiates, guides and maintains goal-oriented behaviors. It is what
causes us to take action, whether to grab a snack to reduce hunger or enroll in college to earn a
degree. The forces that lie beneath motivation can be biological, social, emotional or cognitive
in nature.
Researchers have developed a number of different theories to explain motivation. Each
individual theory tends to be rather limited in scope. However, by looking at the key ideas
behind each theory, one can gain a better understanding of motivation as a whole.


1.2 Motivation Research
1.2.1 Drive Theories
The terms Drive Theory and Drive Reduction Theory refer to a diverse set of motivational
theories in psychology.
In Freudian psychoanalysis, Drive Theory refers to the theory of drives, motivations, or
instincts that have clear objectives.

Learning theory
According to such theorists drive reduction is a major cause of learning and behavior. Primary
drives are innate drives (e.g. thirst, hunger, and sex), whereas secondary drives are learned by
conditioning (e.g. money). Doris Kraeling and Byron Campbell experimented to determine if
reduction would be more effective as a reinforcer if the initial drive were lower than if the
initial drive were higher. Their findings are quite surprising; Changes in stimuli are more
discriminable at low levels of stimulus intensity than at higher levels of stimulus intensity.
Multiple drives are what happen when an organism is faced with more than one need at the
same time. Research has shown that this condition has an impact on learning. In psychological
vernacular generalized conditioned reinforcement has greater learned reward value than a
simple conditioned reinforcement. These findings mean that multiple drives lead to quicker
learning than a singular drive.

Early Attachment Theory
In early attachment theory, behavioral drive reduction was proposed by Dollard and Miller
(1950) as an explanation of the mechanisms behind early attachment in infants. Behavioral
drive reduction theory suggests that infants are born with innate drives, such as hunger and
thirst, which only the caregiver, usually the mother, can reduce. Through a process of classical
conditioning, the infant learns to associate the mother with the satisfaction of reduced drive
and is thus able to form a key attachment bond. However, this theory is challenged by the work
done by Harlow, particularly the experiments involving the maternal separation of rhesus
monkeys, which indicate that comfort possesses greater motivational value than hunger.

Social Psychology
In Social Psychology, Drive Theory was used by Robert Zajonc in 1965 as an explanation of the
phenomenon of social facilitation. The audience effect notes that in some cases the presence of
a passive audience will facilitate the better performance of a task, while in other cases the
presence of an audience will inhibit the performance of a task. Zajonc's Drive Theory suggests






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that the variable determining direction of performance is whether the task is composed of a
correct dominant response (that is, the task is perceived as being subjectively easy to the
individual) or an incorrect dominant response (perceived as being subjectively difficult).


1.2.2 Behaviorism

a) Pavlov
The school of psychology called "behaviorism" dominated the earliest research into learning
and motivation. In 1903, Russian psychologist Ivan Pavlov reported that he could train dogs to
salivate at the sound of a bell and other cues normally unrelated to this otherwise instinctual
behavior, an association later called "classical conditioning."

b) Skinner
B.F. Skinner's radical behaviorism brought the movement to its greatest extreme, removing the
role of human thought and feeling. In "Verbal Behavior," published in 1957, Skinner
summarized the brain as a simple input-output system, where even the complexity of language
was simply a byproduct of environmental feedback.

c) Maslow
Humanistic theories of motivation are based on the idea that people also have strong cognitive
reasons to perform various actions. This is famously illustrated in Abraham Maslow's
hierarchy of needs, which presents different motivations at different levels. First, people are
motivated to fulfill basic biological needs for food and shelter, as well as those of safety, love
and esteem. Once the lower level needs have been met, the primary motivator becomes the
need for self-actualization, or the desire to fulfill one's individual potential.


1.2.3 Cognitive Approaches
It is a theory that seeks to explain human behavior in terms of the examination and
consideration of received information, as opposed to an inbuilt set of instructions that govern
responses to different situations. In other words, a human action results from a process of
thought, rather than an automated response based on preprogrammed rules.
Psychologists and behavioral scientists generally recognize two forms of motivation, although
this is not universally accepted. Intrinsic motivation refers to tasks that are rewarding in and
of themselves, such as the pleasure of solving a puzzle, learning, or playing a game. In these
cases, the motivating factor is internal. Extrinsic motivation involves engaging in a task
because of external factors, such as working for money and food, or taking actions to avoid
harm. Theories of motivation attempt to explain how behavior directed by these factors comes
about.













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1.2.4 Socio-Cognitive Approaches
It refers to a psychological model of behavior that emerged primarily from the work of Albert
Bandura (1977; 1986). Initially developed with an emphasis on the acquisition of social
behaviors, SCT continues to emphasize that learning occurs in a social context and that much
of what is learned is gained through observation. SCT has been applied broadly to such diverse
areas of human functioning as career choice, organizational behavior, athletics, and mental
and physical health. SCT also has been applied extensively by those interested in
understanding classroom motivation, learning, and achievement (Pajares, 1996; Schunk &
Zimmerman, 1994; 1998).


1.2.5 Language Learning
Identified as the learner's orientation with regard to the goal of learning a second language; it
means the learner's positive attitudes towards the target language group and the desire to
integrate into the target language community.
Integrative orientation refers to a learners desire to learn more about the cultural community
of the target language or to assimilate to some degree in the target community. Integrative
orientation refers to a desire to increase the affiliation with the target community.
Instrumental orientation, in contrast, is a more utilitarian orientation; it refers to learners
desire to learn the language in order to accomplish some non-interpersonal purpose such as to
pass an exam or to advance a career.







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2. ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION

Psychologist David McClelland studied workplace motivation extensively and theorized that
workers as well as their superiors have needs that influence their performance at work. One of
these needs is Achievement Motivation - which can be defined as an individual's need to meet
realistic goals, receive feedback and experience a sense of accomplishment.

1.3 Vrooms Theory

The Expectancy Theory of Motivation (Porter & Lawler, 1968; Vroom, 1964) is one of the
process theories, proposed by Victor Vroom at Yale School of Management in 1964.
Vroom stresses and focuses on outcomes, and not on needs unlike Maslow and Herzberg; it
states that the intensity of a tendency to perform in a particular manner is dependent on the
intensity of an expectation that the performance will be followed by a definite outcome and on
the appeal of the outcome to the individual; it assumes that behaviour results from conscious
choices among alternatives whose purpose is to maximize pleasure and minimize pain.
Together with Edward Lawler and Lyman Porter, Victor Vroom suggested that the relationship
between people's behaviour at work and their goals was not as simple as was first imagined by
other scientists. Vroom realized that an employee's performance is based on individual factors
such as personality, skills, knowledge, experience and abilities.

The theory suggests that although individuals may have different sets of goals, they can be
motivated if they believe that:
There is a positive correlation between efforts and performance
Favourable performance will result in a desirable reward
The reward will satisfy an important need
The desire to satisfy the need is strong enough to make the effort worthwhile

We can see this theory as a model of behavioural choice, that is; as an explanation of why
individuals choose one behavioral option over the others. In doing so, it explains the
behavioural direction process. It does not attempt to explain what motivates individuals, but
rather how they make decisions to achieve the end they value. What follows is a brief summary
of this model.









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The theory is based upon the following beliefs:

Expectancy
Employees have different expectations and levels of confidence about what they are capable of
doing. Management must discover what resources, training, or supervision employees need.

Instrumentality
The perception of employees as to whether they will actually get what they desire even if it has
been promised by a manager. Management must ensure that promises of rewards are fulfilled
and that employees are aware of that.

Valence
Valence refers to the emotional orientations people hold within the outcomes (rewards). The
depth of the want of an employee for extrinsic (money, promotion, time-off, benefits in
general) or intrinsic (satisfaction) rewards. Management must discover what employees find
valuable.
Vroom suggests that an employee's beliefs about expectancy, instrumentality, and valence
interact psychologically to create a motivational force such that the employee acts in ways that
bring pleasure and avoid pain.







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3. THE CONVERSATION GAME

Read the passage below and answer the questions.

WORLD LANGUAGE
Currently, the world does not have a common language. However, long periods of peace have
typically been accompanied by a common language. When the Roman Empire expanded, many
people in that area of the world learned to speak Latin or Greek, and the use of these common
languages enabled people to conduct business more easily. Today, are faced with the possibility
of having a worldwide common language, and many have debated what language this should
be.

There are several obvious advantages to having a common language. Were we to all speak the
same language, we could communicate with people from other cultures more easily. And thus
perhaps reduce conflicts? Similarly, if works of literature were translated into a common
language, anyone who understood the common language could access works of literature from
around the globe.

Another obvious advantage to having a common language is the ability of people to travel and
study in foreign countries. Currently, most academic work is done in English. Most
international journals are published in English, and many universities, even outside of English
speaking countries, conduct course work in English, so having a common language has
definitely enabled people from around the globe to study diverse subjects ranging from
mathematics, science, and engineering to music, art, and literature.

However, there are also many arguments against having a common tongue. Perhaps the most
convincing argument to not having a common tongue is the fact that many languages would be
lost as people would begin communicating only the common tongue and leaving the language
of their region or country behind. In fact, over the last few hundred years, thousands of
languages have already disappeared, and this alarming trend is expected to continue. Scholars
who study languages have pointed to the great loss in human knowledge: different languages
may function completely differently, and we could learn a great deal by studying many of these
languages, but once the languages are dead (not spoken by anyone anymore, they can no
longer be studied), at least in their spoken forms cannot be studied.

Others have argued that ones identity is deeply tied to ones language. By forcing everyone to
speak the same language, we would lose a great deal of diversity, and more importantly, works
of literature would lose much of their meaning when translated into a foreign tongue. This is
particularly an issue with religious texts. Many Christians spend a great deal of effort learning
the languages that the Bible was written in order to better understand it. The holy book of
Muslims, The Quran, should not be translated but rather read only in its original form.

Finally, choosing one language over all other language would unfairly favor one culture group
or groups over others. Thus, for example, selecting English would favor the UK, the US and
other English speaking countries over all non-English speaking countries.







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1. Do you think that the world should have a common language? If so, what language
should it be?

______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________

2. Would a common language help international commerce? Do you see any
disadvantages to having a common language for the business world?

______________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________

3. Would having a common language help to resolve or limit cultural conflicts among
peoples? Would we have fewer wars?

_____________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________

4. Would it be beneficial for all literature to be translated into a common language?
Should literature be kept in its original language? Why or why not?

______________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________

5. Does selecting one language as a common language (e.g. English) unfairly favor people
from countries who speak that language? If so, is this a reason not to have a common
language? In other words, should we avoid creating a common language in order not to
favor particular countries?

___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________


















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GLOSSARY

Expectancy
That individuals feel they can be successful at whatever task they try to do or whatever they try
to learn.

Need (instrumentality)
That individuals feel that there is a distance or gap between where they are or what they know
and where they need to be.

Value (valence)
That individuals feel that is some incentive to do or learn.








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BIBLIOGRAPHY

R. C. Gardner, Social Psychology and Second Language Learning: The role of Attitudes and
Motivation. London: Edward Arnold. (1985).

F. Keblawi, A Review of Language Learning Motivation Theories.Jameea. (12). 23-57.

Management and Motivation, Vroom, V.H., Deci, E.L., Penguin 1983 (first published 1970)

Drive: The surprising truth about what motivates us (Hardcover) by Daniel H. Pink
(Goodreads Author)

R. C. Gardner, (2001). Language Learning Motivation: The Student, the Teacher, and the
Researcher. Texas Papers in Foreign Language Education, (2001). 7, 1-18. E-mail:
gardner@uwo.ca.Web page: http://publish.uwo.ca/~gardner/

Play and play Reader`s book. Susana Ramirez Feliz. Programa Nacional de Ingles en
Educacin Bsica. Editorial Nuevo Mxico.

English and Me. Antonio Fernndez Freire. programa de Educacin Bsica. CENGAGE. Julio
2011

The Conversation Game. Curt Reese. Austin, Texas. August 2012

WEB SITES
Theories of Motivation. A Closer Look at Some Important Theories of Motivation By Kendra
Cherry http://psychology.about.com/od/psychologytopics/tp/theories-of-motivation.htm
The princess and the pea. http://childhoodreading.com/?p=5








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ANNEX 1
Cycle 1 Social Practice 4B (1st Grade)

The Lion and the Mouse
By Aesop.

One day, a lion was sleeping. A noise woke him. The angry lion put his big paw on the little
mouse. The mouse was scare. The mouse said, Please, let me go. Ill help you someday. The
lion laughed, but let the mouse go.

A few day later, the lion was trapped in a hunters net. The sad lion roared. The whole forest
trembled with his roars.

The mouse helped the lion. The mouse used his sharp little teeth to cut the strong ropes. The
lion was free. The lion and the mouse became friend and were happy.










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ANNEX 2
Cycle 2 Social Practice 4B (3th Grade)

The princess and the pea
By Hans Christian Andersen

There was once a prince, and he wanted a princess, but then she must be a real Princess. He
travelled right around the world to find one, but there was always something wrong. There
were plenty of princesses, but whether they were real princesses he had great difficulty in
discovering; there was always something which was not quite right about them. So at last he
came home again, and he was very sad because he wanted a real princess so badly.
One evening there was a terrible storm; it thundered and lightened and the rain poured down
in torrents; indeed it was a fearful night. In the middle of the storm somebody knocked at the
town gate, and the old King himself sent to open it.

It was a princess who stood outside, but she was in a terrible state from the rain and the storm.
The water streamed out of her hair and her clothes; she ran in at the top of her shoes and out
at the heel, but she said that she was a real princess.
Well we shall soon see if that is true, thought the old Queen, but she said nothing. She went
into the bedroom, took all the bed clothes off and laid a pea on the bedstead: then she took
twenty mattresses and piled them on top of the pea, and then twenty feather beds on top of the
mattresses. This was where the princess was to sleep that night. In the morning they asked her
how she had slept.

Oh terribly bad! said the princess. I have hardly closed my eyes the whole night! Heaven
knows what was in the bed. I seemed to be lying upon some hard thing, and my whole body is
black and blue this morning. It is terrible!
They saw at once that she must be a real princess when she had felt the pea through twenty
mattresses and twenty feather beds. Nobody but a real princess could have such a delicate skin.
So the prince took her to be his wife, for now he was sure that he had found a real princess, and
the pea was exhibited the Museum, where it may still be seen if no one has stolen it.
Now this is a true story.






















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ANNEX 3
Cycle 3 Social Practice 3B (6th Grade)

Problems at school
At school, some students are victims of problems such as physical or verbal violence, and
bullying. It is very important to know about these problems in order to prevent them.
Some children think that it is fun to bother their classmates; however, it is not fun but
dangerous.
Everybody in the school should share nice experiences helping each other to learn new things
every day.
Unfortunately, nowadays bullying is becoming common at schools.

What`s bullying?
Bullying involves physical, verbal and psychological attacks. It is when someone intimidates a
victim who cannot defend himself or herself, usually because of size or strength.
Bullying has different forms: hitting, kicking, using nicknames, saying or writing bad things
about the other, making them feel uncomfortable or scared, and taking or damaging their
things.

Physical Bullying
It is normal to play with classmates and friends; but, when someone hurts while playing and he
or she does it on purpose, it can be dangerous.
Physical bullying includes hitting, kicking, slapping, pinching, and pushing and even
destroying personal belongings.

Verbal Bullying
This kind of bullying is when someone uses language to gain power over over others. It usually
includes insults and bad words; for example, when someone makes fun of others` physical
appearance, culture, race, or religion; or when someone spreads rumors about others.

Gesture Bullying
It is non-verbal kind of bullying. It is when someone uses unkind gestures that can be
frightening. If someone usually looks at you and makes you feel uncomfortable, you should
talk about it with other people around you, especially your teachers and parents.

Extortion Bullying
Some children receive money from their parents to buy a snack at school during lunch time.
However, some students force others to give them their money or even their food. Remember
that nobody can force you to do anything that you don`t like. Everybody should respect
other`s belongings.