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Greek and Barbarian Peoples on the Shores of the Black Sea

Author(s): J. G. F. Hind
Source: Archaeological Reports, No. 30 (1983 - 1984), pp. 71-97
Published by: The Society for the Promotion of Hellenic Studies
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Reports30, I983-84, 71-97. Printedin Great Britain


The present survey is intended to be a continuation of the (AntichnoyeObschestvo[1967] 219) and Joseph Brashinsky in
reportsby Boardman(AR 1962-63,34-51) and Gorbunova(AR Leningrad (VDI 1968, 3, I5I and 1970, 2, 129-37) that they
1971-72,48-59). The former covered work done since 1945and stressedthe Black Sea as a geographical and economic unit,
up to 1962 in all the modem states which have a Black Sea albeit one having differing but complementary coastlinesand
coastline, while the latter surveyed work done in the Soviet hinterland (Fig. I). Since 1969-70 Brashinsky continued to
Union only between 1965 and I970. Thus for Bulgaria, develop his interestin the evidence for cross-Pontictrade(VDI
Rumania and Turkey this present report will include at least I973, 3, I24-33 on piracy; Tskhaltuboiii, Pontos in Hellenistic
some finds and studiesof the I96os. The section on the Soviet times); sadly he died in 1982. Shelov has added to his studies
Union will begin with 1971, but include some items found or on the Asiatic side of the KimmerianBosporos by working on
discussed in I962-64 which fell outside the limits of Gor- the late Hellenistic 'Pontic Empire' of Mithridates Eupator
bunova's report. The closing date is 1981 for finds, but publi- (VDI 1980, 3, 28-43; Tskhaltubo iii I02-5).
cationsof I982 and 1983have been includedwhere appropriate. In the latter years of the period under review, two seriesof
A bibliography exists for Russian work between 1958 and symposiahave begun to be held, one at Tskhaltuboin Georgia,
1971 (BICS xi [1975] IO-3I) compiled by T. Sulimirski. and one in Sozopol (Apollonia) in Bulgaria. TskhaltuboI, held
Recently new chaptershave appearedin Englishon the period in May 1977, was on the theme Problemsof GreekColonization
of colonization and subsequentconsolidation within the area of the NorthandEastBlackSea Regions,and has been published
of the Black Sea, one in J. Boardman, The GreeksOverseas3 in Tbilisi (Metsniereba,1979). Section I of these symposium
(1980) 238-64, 280-2, and one by A. J. Graham in CAH iii 3 proceedingsis on generalmattersof colonizationpractice,andon
(1982) 122-30. certainspecificproblemsrelatedto the Western Mediterranean.
There are four modem political states ranged around the Tskhaltubo II took place in May I979 and the proceedingswere
Black Sea, divided by languageswhich are very differentfrom published in Tbilisi, 1981, under the title, The Demographic
one another,and when the Georgianand Abkhazianlanguages Situationin the BlackSea Area in the periodof the Main Greek
are taken into account the situationis even more complicated. ColonizationMovement.The title clearly points to the contents,
Traditionally, archaeological studies have been carried out embracingall shoresof the Black Sea, and including, in section
independently,if not in isolatedfashion,in Bulgaria,Rumania, I again, papers on Emporion and Massalia. This time the
the Soviet Union and Turkey. At the same time scholars emphasis was on reciprocalrelations with the native people,
engaged in archaeologicalactivities around the shores of the not merely on Greek influence upon barbarians.A third
Black Sea from the Neolithic period onwardshave realizedthe symposium has been held at Tskhaltubo in May 1982, but as
Pontic dimension of what they were doing, but to a large yet the papersare unpublished.However, the summariesof the
extent it was the contribution of D. B. Shelov in Moscow reports (published in Tbilisi, 1982) give a good idea of the

Fig. I
72 J. G. F. HIND

general theme and the thrustof the individual papers.The title GREEK CITIES and the PEOPLES of the HINTERLANDof the
was Hellenismn and the Black Sea Area, and most papers were
concernedwith aspectsof the Spartokidson the Bosporos,with [/» / .ODNfST ^
Hellenistic Olbia and Khersonesos,the coast of Kolkhis in the SO X S

Hellenisticperiod, and the archaeologicaland historicalaspects

of Mithridates''All-Pontos' policy. A fourth symposium in the CZ 0 \ .(\ Q ^F KOM?--

Tskhaltuboseriesis promised for I985, devoted to the archaic \p -ATIPHIL/ ,* TURRI$S "___

and classicalperiods.
The second seriesof symposiais less wide in its scope, but of ^d \ ^ i ^ 'DANUBE

great interestnevertheless.Since 1979 the BulgarianInstituteof AGATHYRSOI (DACI) \


Archaeology and the Burgas District Committee have com- , ^./3> ^L)(
bined to host two symposia at Sozopol under the title Thracia j L~~~~ln A

Pontica,both devoted to the history and archaeology of the

western shore of the Black Sea. Thracia Pontica i (I979)
~ ~ I.
DI m Q so

appeared in 1982, and Thracia Pontica ii (1982) will appear in

the next year or two. In scope they range from coastal links
of the Black Sea settlementswith the Aegean in the EBA, to
the archaeology and numismaticsof the Greek cities. <c
^ ^f^GL
NIA^S P -,~
Since this series of conferences a general book on Greek G E T A

colonization has appeared under the authorship of V. P.
A ...........UIYAI-
"'~"L*s AM9 N
Yailenko, Greek Colonization in the VII-III Centuries B.C. _(MESEMBRIA[o

(1982). Whilst the major part of the book is concernedwith re- T H RA C I A S _ OM _ _ _-

lations between colony and mother city in areas outside the
Black Sea, there is a long chapteron the historiographyof the __CI NfA ENDGLu,
KI u N]
subject, and a discussion about the colonization process in
Kolkhis, as well as an extensive publication of graffiti from
Berezan. All these last have reference to past and current U-Y !

debates about the development of the Greek colonial process

within the Black Sea area.
Before turning to the region-by-region descriptionof finds
and researches,I should first mention recent studies in two Fig. 2
fields, which throw considerablelight on the conditions ob-
taining at the time of the first colonization and later. It now History and Archaeology has been based since I973. Under-
appearsthat in the first millennium B.C. the Black Sea was water explorationprecedingthis startedat MaslenNos in 1960,
considerablylower in level (by I to Io m.). This was the so- and was directed in two surveys, along the Apollonia-
calledPhanagorianregression(K. K. Shilik, in Palaeogeographia: Strandzha coast since I972, and on the Mesembria-Haimos
OtlozheniyePleistocenaYuzhnykhMorei SSSR, 1977) and the coast since 1974 (Thracia Pontica i 3 11-16). A number of LBA
underwaterpartsof a number of cities are to be explained thus stone anchorsand some copper ingots have been found in the
(P. V. Feodorov, PleistocenePonto-Caspia,I978). Recent work Gulf of Burgasand off the Black Sea coaststo N and S. Under-
by Zolotaryev has traced the pattern of major currentswithin water surveyshave been made in the two port areasof ancient
the Black Sea. He estimates the aid obtained by sailing ships Apollonia. Among other finds from the sea-bed near Sozopol
from the prevailingcurrents,which formed two systemsflow- are a complete early amphora with S-shaped decoration in
ing anti-clockwise around the two halves of the Black Sea a brown paint (I.N.M. Varnaxi [1975] i). The excavations carried
few km. out to sea. Minor counter-currentsalso exist, immedi- out in the necropolis at Apollonia in 1947-49 have been pub-
ately off-shorefrom the Bulgarianand Rumanian coasts,to aid lished in a handsomevolume, Apolonia(Sofia, 1963). Over 760
the knowledgeable pilot. (M. I. Zolotaryev, Tskhaltuboi graves were excavateddating from the late 6th to the mid 3rd
94-Ioo). Most recent on the changes in sea level is N. Panin cents B.C. Item 780 is a fragmentof a bird or rosettebowl, and
(Dacia xxvii [1983] I75-I84). 781 has the remainsof two registersof Late Wild Goat Style
Going around the Black Sea in a direction opposite to the animals(early 6th cent. B.C.). Dating from the earliestperiod
major currentsjust mentioned, but following the precedentof of the apoikia,though a chance find and not from a known
Boardman in the report for 1962-63, we start with the west part of the necropolis, is a fine Wild Goat style oinochoe c.
coast of the Black Sea (Fig. 2). 62o-600 B.C. (Sozopol Mus. 249; Dmitrov, Izkusstvo, 1975,
3-4, 30-I) (Fig. 3). Typically, these oinochoai bear protomes
BULGARIA of birds or wild goats as their main decoration. The pre-
dominant imported fine ware, however, is late Attic rf and,
The stretch of coast in modern Turkey-in-Europewas nearly of bulk-carryingamphorae,Thasianand Herakleiantypes. An
harbourless,and between the Kyaneai Rocks, at the entrance unpublishedrich burialexcavatedby G. Boyadzhiev contained
of the Bosporos into the Pontos, and the site at Ahtopol, there severalrf kraters.
was no significant township. Present-day Midie and Igneada The silver coinage of Apollonia, with its anchor and
were probably villages of Thracian 'wreckers', the Melino- gorgoneion types, has recently been discussed(ThraciaPontica
phagoi of the notorious SalmydessianShore (Hdt. iv 93; Xen. ii, forthcoming), and the later bronze issues are treated by
Anab.vii 4.12). At Ahtopol (Aulaiouteikhos, later Agatho- Stephanova (ibid.). Further, the weight system of the silver
polis) the substantialremainingwalls areof the earlyByzantine coinage was analysed some years ago by Zaginailo (Numiz-
period. The first site with significantGreekremainsis Sozopol matikai Epigraphikaxi [I974] 49-50). A typology has been
(Apollonia in Thrace). Here the Centre for Maritime worked out for the large hoard of arrow-money from the

phoraehave been found before at Apollonia (Apolonia,41), and

are not uncommon at Istros and Olbia.
The minor township on the N shore of the Bay of Burgas
at Pomorye (Ankhialos, a polikhnion of Apollonia) has
been subjected to underwater survey to find traces of the
extensive ancient salt-workings (Thracia Pontica i 201-6).
Nearby, and on land, a rich tumulus, with at least two
cremationswithin was found in 1975 (Arkheologiaxxi [I979]
3, 23-32). Jewellery includes a necklace with acorn pendants,
and earringsin the form of sphinxes, one bearing an incised
Thracianname (Izkusstvo,1976, 4, 28-32). Vases and bronzes
dated them to the Ist cents B.C.-A.D. Most recently, at the
head of the bay near Burgas, excavations(by Damianov I980-
82) have turned up early Greek imported pottery in another
native cemetery.

Mesembria (Nesebar) is a classicpeninsulasite, now joined

to the mainlandby a very narrow isthmus,the whole peninsula
being the site of the ancient town (Fig. 4). Byzantine churches

Fig. 3

peninsulasite at Attia, some km. to the W (ThraciaPonticai

40-56). Controversy smouldersas to whether they were used
by the Thracian, Getic or Scythian peoples behind the NW
Pontic coast (B. Grakov, VDI 1971, 3, I25; Dmitrov, Arkheo-
logiaxviii [I974] 2, 43-7). Perhapsthey have something to do
with the Scythianking Ariantas'censusof his subjects,held by
dropping arrow-heads(unfinished?)into a huge cauldron kept
at the sacred site of Exampaios (Hdt. iv 81). For 'arrow- Fig. 4
money' and Olbian 'dolphins' see V. Ruban, NAP (1982)
I5-20, and, for a hoard from Kamenka, Zaginailo, NAP are the main present attraction, and the small tourist town
(1982) 20-8. leaves little room for excavation, except at the ends of the
A settlementnear Burgas at Sladkite Kladentsi has yielded causeway-isthmus. Settlement here by the Megarian Greeks
a fair amount of rf pottery (Izv. N.M. Burgasi [1950] 24I-50). was relatively late - at the turn of the 6th-5th cents B.C.,
In earlierwritings this hasbeen interpretedas an emporionof the probably because a strong Thracian township preceded them
Apolloniatai. Its character may become clearer with a full on the site. The wreck of a ship found at Ravdi near Nesebar
publication of further finds of the I96os (excavations of M. containeda cargo of Chiot amphorae(Vekove1975, 3, 48). The
Lazarov). It clearly was of some importance as an outpost of small silver coin issues of the 5th and 4th cents B.C. have
Apollonia in the second half of the 5th cent. B.C., controlling been studied, so far as their weight standardis concerned, by
the route by the head of the Bay of Burgas. Zaginailo and placed in a scheme alongside the other West
Relations between Apollonia and Istros,her Milesian sister Pontic cities (Num. i Epig. xi [I9741 50-I). Jewellery of
city situatedsouth of the Danube delta, have been discussedon Hellenistic date from the necropolis has been publishedby Jiri
the basisof an inscriptionof the lattercity (Dacia1959, 235-58), Frel, (Acta AntiquaPhilippopolitana1963, 61-9). Inscriptions
Over the period 1977-78 some 250 burialswere excavated in mentioning a temple of Dionysos of 3rd to 2nd cents B.C.
the Marine Park areaof Sozopol, dating c. 550-275 B.C. Some (found in 1964), and another, somewhat later, mentioning a
displayThraciancharacteristicswith elements found also at the temple of Serapis (found in 1969) have been published by
hill-top Thracian site at Malkoto Kale, 14 km. to the SW Velkov (Klio lii [1970] 465-47I). The west Pontic coinage of
(ThraciaPonticai 197-200).Native settlementswere quite thickly MithridatesEupatorwas discussedin 1968 by M. Price, and he
spread,perhaps the Skyrmiadaiand Nipsaioi tribes in the 5th tentatively takes some to have been minted at Mesembria(NC
cent., who latermerged into the Astai. They arenoted on Attia viii [1968] 7-9). Two monographs have appeared in recent
peninsula, St. Kiriak island, Maslen Nos, Malkoto Kale and years on materialfound at Mesembria:Nessebrei (Sofia, 1969)
Lobodovo Kale. In early 1982 an interesting find was made, contains an account of inscriptionsfound from 1954-63, and
some 5 km. from Sozopol, where a tumulus was broken open Nessebre ii (I980) contains amphora stamps, pottery and
by a bulldozer,and a rich 4th cent. burialwas found. A striking architecturalterracottas.
feature was a double circle of amphorae surrounding the Perhapsthe most startlingfactabout Mesembria,drawnfrom
mound, of which one part-circlewas upside down (to be pub- the work of recent years, is that it was a fortified Thracian
lished by Zaneva in ThraciaPonticaii). From burials in the site from the LBA, and already possessedtwo harbours.The
same area at Kolokita Nos comes also a bg fish plate, with a melon-shaped enceinte is found as far as 300 m. out into the
graffito of ownership or dedication. Graves circled by am- sea, and to a depth of 4-7 m. Pottery of a type associatedwith
74 J. G. F. HIND

Troy VIIb2has also been found at Mesembria(ThraciaPonticai

69-81). The excavator,Ognenova, links thesephenomenawith
the Thracian period of sea-power which is mentioned by
Diodoros in his 'thalassocracylist'. About thirty stone anchors
of the period, a gold ingot discovered in the sea off Cape Kali
Akrain 1966, and a copper ingot of Mediterraneanform found
in the I970s near the Burgas copper mining area, all serve to
draw interest back into the I2th-8th cents B.C. on this part
of the Bulgarian coast. Finally, for the classical period, an
estimate of the population of Mesembria has been made at
3,000-4,000 inhabitants (of whom about 700-800 might be
hoplites), disposing of a city area of about 300 hectares, and
with a capability of launching up to 50 ships (ThraciaPontica
i 97-Io7). Dmitrov and Orichev discuss the harbours of the
Thracian coast (Arch. 1982.1, I-I2).

Odessos, the modern holiday town of Varna, had a name

that has recently been interpreted as 'waters' (Beschevlyev,
IVAD 1979, 1980). Occupation levels up to 7 m. deep hinder
the study of wide areas of the earliest town. In the 'Roman
Baths' area, however, a thin archaiclayer and three ritual pits
of the mid to late 6th cent. have been found. Pottery, including
Corinthianand East Greek, rosette bowls, Fikelluraware, and
Attic bfskyphoi and lekythoi, has been publishedby Toncheva
(IBAI xxx [1967] I57-60). Burials of a later period, c. 375-350
B.C., contained Attic rf bell-kratersand aryballoid lekythoi,
disproving an earlieridea that Odessos was in decay in the 4th
cent. B.C. (IBAI xxvii [1964] 111-29). There is also a frag-
mentary dedicationinscriptionof the 5th cent. B.C. in honour
of Apollo Delphinios - a chance find from Varna, and
In the 'Roman Bath' areaa possible shrineand temenos of a
local variant of the Thracian rider god was found (Actes du
premiercongresdes etudesBalkaniques,1970, 353-6). It existed
from the end of the 4th cent. down to the mid Ist cent. B.C.,
perhaps being destroyed by the Dacians of King Burebistas.
From here came a votive to Heros Karabasmos(Fig. 5), and a
second to Phosphoros of the late 3rd or early 2nd cent. B.C.
(VI Conferenceint. desetudesclassiquesdespays socialistes[Sofia,
1963] 7I-9). The iconography of the Thracian rider god has
been studied on the basis of this votive, and also of the 14
similarreliefsfound at a shrinenear Galata,a site in the region
of Odessosbut clearly Thracian(I.N.M. Varna1968, 17-26). It
is probably no accident that it is also from the 3rd cent. that Fig. 5
inscriptionsstartto attestThraciannamesamong the citizensof
Odessos; in the region of fifty are known (Bull. Soc. Arch.
Varnax [1956] 59). Some Alexandrianfaience pottery (5 frag- mentary amphorae,including stamps,of Hellenisticdate found
ments) is reported from Odessos, dating to the early 3rd on the plateauabove the town (apparentlythe contents of a pit
cent. (IBAI 1972, 103-II). Over the last ten years about six or pits). But these have yet to be sorted. There seem to be over
Hellenistic burials have come to light at intervals in or near 350 Herakleiot stamps, but also some of Rhodes and Sinope
Vara. Some are published (.N.M. Varnaxi [1975] 136-40; xiv (excav. A. Salkin).From Cape Kaliakra comes an inscription
[1978] A. Minchev) but the latest was found in Feb. 1983. Some of Hellenistic date, to be published in ThraciaPonticaii by
splendid gold jewellery has been found, the finest examples Lazarovand Popov. Beneath a pilastercapitalis a dedicationto
being a necklace with bull-head pendantsand two beautifully the Dioskouroi Soteres by one Antigonos son of Herakleitos
fashionedearringsin the shape of Nikai (Muzei i Pametnitsina Tubetaios. It was made on behalf of King Sariakes,a dynast of
Kulturata1971, 3, 4-9). Offshore, the cargo of a ship consisting Scythia Minor of the 2nd or Ist cent. B.C. This Kaliakrais a
of 300 amphorae was found at Lazurny Bereg off Varna in well-researched late Roman and Byzantine town excavated
1964, allowing the study of whole amphorae, stamps and over a number of years (A. Balkanska,Klio Ixii [1980] 27-45;
graffiti (SA 1968, I, 233; I.N.M. Varna 1963, 3-52; 1974, I9-58; Arkheologia xvi [I974] 71-2).
1975, 46-103). For the Mithridatic period the article by Price With Bizone the known coastal townships within Bulgaria
refers to the Odessitan coinage of late Lysimachean types come to an end. But there should be mentioned here a series
(NC 1968, 6-7). of articles dealing with the economic ties between the west
N of Varna the minor town of Krounoi/Dionysopolis Pontic cities (Brashinsky,Arkheologiaxii [1970] i-II), with the
(modernBalchik) hasproducedlittle that is pre-Roman. From import of archaic pottery into the area in the archaic period
Bizone (Kavarna) there are very recent reportsof many frag- (Lazarov, Tskhaltuboii, 61-8), or analysing the direction of

trade in Hellenistic amphorae (LN.M. Varna 1977, I, 1-47). (Dacia xiii [1969j 127-283; Istros i [1980] I37-55). Inscriptions,
The last two collect materialrelating also to Istros,Tomis and recently found, include a 4th cent. graffito on a bg vase
Kallatis,to which we shall shortly turn. But first some general (Epigraphica [Bucarest, 1977] 25-32, with corrections, Dacia
works on the Thracianpeople should be mentioned. Of the xxiii [1979] 313), and decrees for citizens of Paros and Tyras
Russians,T. D. Zlatkovskayahas written on the emergence of have been published,the former of the 3rd cent. B.C. and the
the Thracianstate in a monograph publishedin 1971 (Voznik- latterdating to the 4th (D. Pippidi, ScythicaMinora[1975] 123-
novenie Gosudarstvau TrakiitsevVII-V vekakh do n.e.). C. 8). For the Roman period mention of T. Plautius Silvanus,
Danov's Drevnya Trakia(Sofia, 1969) and A. Fol's Trakia i (op. cit. 122 ff.), and of cives Romani consistentesat Kallatis
Balkaniteprez ranneelinisticheskata
epokha,Sofia, 1975, are two (SCIV 1962, 275) is of interest. A general account is given by
of the most fundamental Bulgarian works. Two books by C. Preda, Callatis(I968). The date of the Rome-Kallatis treaty
R. F. Hoddinott have made Thracian material more readily has been placedat the time of Lucullus'campaignsin 72/I B.C.
available to English readers- Bulgariain Antiquity(1975) esp. (Pippidi, Polis and Imperium [i974, ed. Evans] 183-200). H. B.
24-I08; and The Thracians (1981). To these should be added Mattingly now argues for c. 1I4-Io7 B.C. (AncientBulgaria
ThracianTreasuresfrom Bulgaria(London, 1976), being the [Nottingham, 1983] 243-6).
printed catalogue (text by Venedikov) accompanying the Buildings recently discoveredinclude a late Hellenistichouse
Thracianexhibition held in the British Museum. For Thracian from the southern part of the town, which contained a two-
art there is also the splendid volume by I. Venedikov and T. colour mosaic with the backgroundin green andwhite pebbles,
Gerasimov, TrakiiskotoIzkustvo(1973), with its many plates and bordersof greenishtesserae.Lead castingmoulds had been
devoted to sculpturefrom Apollonia,jewellery from Mesem- left in situ by those who laid the floor (C. Scorpan, Callatis
bria, as well as the gold plate and horse trappingsfrom hoards [1976] 20). The Romano-Byzantine cemetery is published by
and Thraciantombs in the interior.Two Bulgarianworks have C. Preda (Callatis- NecropolaRomana-Byzantina[1980]). A
appeared in the BritishArchaeologicalReports, Supplementary female burial,very interestingfor the stateof preservationof its
Seriesrecently, and may be familiar to English scholars- Y. organic contents, was found in 1970 at Mangalia Nord. This
Youroukova, Coins of the Ancient Thracians,BAR iv (1976); was in a marble sarcophagusof the 2nd cent. A.D. Clothes,
D. Dimitrov and M. Chichikova, The Thracian City of pillows, leather objects, wood and even parts of body tissue
Seuthopolis,BAR xxxviii (1978). This last is seen as one of the such as thigh muscles and lungs were remarkablypreserved.
greatestdiscoveriesof Bulgarianarchaeology in the last thirty There was also a gold wreath, bronze mirror, bone comb,
years,being the palaceof SeuthesIII, who maintainedan often sponge, musical instrument and pieces of myrrh (Scorpan,
successful independence from Lysimachus c. 325-280 B.C. Callatis [1976] 23-4).
Thraceand the Thracian3by A. Fol and I. Marazov (Cassel, The site of Tomis, Tomeus (Constanta) is now overlaid
1977) gives a well illustratedsurvey of Thracianreligion, art, by the moder town, the present name being a derivative of
and their 'ideology of kingship'. For the fourth-centurycity of Constantia, the late Roman name. A revised guide to the
Kabyle see V. Velkov in AncientBulgaria(Nottingham, 1983; Archaeological Museum was published in 1969 by Canarache
ed. A. Poulter) 233-8. (II MuseoArcheologico di Constanza),describingmainly Roman
and Byzantinematerial,and architecturalelements and pottery
RUMANIA of the 4th and 5th cents A.D. were collected in the grounds of
the Orthodox cathedralin I971. From the earliestperiod there
Kallatis is the closest of the cities to the Bulgarian border is little, but Chiot wine amphoraeof the early 5th cent. B.C.
(Mangalia).Much of the ancient town has fallen into the sea, take the archaeologicalrecord back, perhaps, to the first or
which has risen relative to the land by over 2 m. Excavation second generationof settlers,and a sherdof Corinthianpottery
has been largely confined to the Hellenistic necropolis to N is reported (Pontica viii 34). Between 1958 and I966 the
and NW of Mangalia (Dacia xvi [1972] 271-80; Pontica vii Hellenisticnecropoliswas excavated,andpublishedthe follow-
[I974] 167-89). The earliestmaterialis pottery of the early 4th ing year (M. Bucovala, Necropoleelenisticela Tomis,1967). The
cent. B.C. This also applies to that from the town, especially earliestburialswere of the 4th cent. (Nos I-4); in No. 3 a silver
terracottasin great abundance.It is still a common assumption coin of Apollonia was found. Most were of the 3rd or 2nd
that Kallatis was founded c. 540-500 B.C. (in the time of cents, with 'Megarian bowls', lagynoi, bronze ladles, bal-
Amyntas I of Macedon). But the lack of archaeologicalevi- samaria,lamps and strigilsbeing the most characteristicgrave
dence for this may suggest that its foundation from Herakleia goods. Scorpanhas publisheda study of relief sculpturesof the
was actuallyin the early 4th cent. B.C., during a period of civil ThracianRider God or Hero, CavalerulTrac(Constanta,1967).
strife in the mother city, and the actual date was during the Most of his examples are Roman, but the religious syncretism
reign of Amyntas III, fatherof Philip (389-359 B.C.). It would involved was already operating in the Hellenistic period. The
then be a somewhat younger sister city of Khersonesos glass vases from the Roman necropolis are published with
(founded c. 422 B.C.). illustrationsof some 300 items (Bucovala, VaseAnticedi Sticla
The town flourishedquickly, as inscriptionsof the 4th to ist la Tomis, 1968). A summary of over a century of work on
cents B.C. show. Kallatian silver coinage has recently been Tomitan inscriptionswas given by Stoian in I967 (Acta,Fifth
studied, and is said to be on the Aeginetan standardin the 4th Epigraphical Congress[Cambridge 1971] 336-9). A volume of
cent. (Num. i Epig. xi [1974] 50-I). Several hundred late inscriptionswas published under the title Tomitana- Contri-
classicaland Hellenisticterracottafigurinesare publishedby V. butionsa l'histoirede la citede Tomisin 1962. Furtheritems have
Canarache(TanagraFigurinesmadein the Workshops of Kallatis, appearedin Epigraphica (Constanta,1977),mainly of the Roman
1969). They come from a veritable montetestacciofound near period, especially the 2nd and 3rd cents A.D. The main
the Post Office; other lesser deposits, where moulds and a monument to be seen at present in Constanta is the great
pottery workshop were found, testify to local manufacture, Roman building with mosaic floors found in I959-60, and the
especiallyin the 3rd cent. ImportedHellenisticamphorastamps bath building found in 1964, belonging to the 4th cent. A.D.
found at Kallatis have also been published in recent years - (Mareleedificiuromancu mozaicde la Tomis[I977]).
Thasian,Sinopian,Herakleian,KhersonesiteandKoan all figure The most outstandingfind from Tomis is again of the late
76 J. G. F. HIND

Roman period,but containsitems which are classicisingor by C. Preda and H. Nubar, is a study of the coinage of Istros,
Hellenisticin tradition.This is a cacheof 24 piecesof pagan and of coins of other cities found there between 1914 and 1970.
sculpture,of varyingstylesand datesdown to the 4th cent. Histria iv (1978) by Alexandrescu,deals with the archaicand
A.D., whichwasfoundin 1962.A rangeof deitiesis offered- classicalpottery from the second half of the 7th to the 4th cent.
Glykon, the sheep-headedsnake-god of Alexander of B.C. Istros has the greatestamount of Wild Goat style pottery
Abonouteikhos(the only known representation),Tykhe- of any ancient settlement site in the Black Sea area except
Fortuna,Nemesis,the Dioskouroi,Hekate,Isis and Kybele Berezan, from which much of the pottery is still unpublished.
(StudiiClasicevi [1964] 155-78; Eireneiv [I965] 67-79). The local pottery workshops found in excavationsup to 1977
The statueof Tykhe-Fortuna is life-sizeandis accompanied are the subject of Histriav - Les ateliersceramiques (1979, edd.
by a smallbeardedfigure- Pontus,who wearsa muralcrown M. Coia and P. Dupont). Futurevolumes in the seriesthat are
with five facetsand holdsa warshipprow with his left hand promised are on the Hellenistic pottery and Roman and
(Fig. 6). This statuegroup may be the one representedon Byzantine pottery, and on the Baths Area etc.
Tomitancoinsof the early3rdcent. A.D. It is interestingto Work has gone apace on the inscriptions from Istros, in
see for the firsttime in sculpturean ancientrepresentationof which matter Pippidi, the doyen of Rumanian classical
Pontus,especiallyin view of therecentmovesto seethePontic archaeological studies, has been very active. Several articles
areaasaneconomicandculturalregion.Thepersonification of appearedin the collection ScythicaMinora(1975) on the cults
Pontus,perhaps,showsa similarawareness. worshipped at Istros, on relationswith the Getai, on military
organizationand on worship of the gods of Samothrace.One
refers to Istros' position in the west Pontic koinon,and deals
with the so-called 'second foundation' of the city, which is
assignedto the period after the sackby the Getai in the mid Ist
cent. B.C. A collection of papersbyJ. Stoian(Etudeshistriennes -
CollectionLatomusciii [1972]) brings forward mainly epi-
graphical studies (see review by Pippidi, Dacia xvii [1975]
451-2), but also oddly includesthe excavation of a late Roman
house found at Istros. Of exceptional interest is an article by
Pippidi on the earliestinscriptionsfound at Istros(Epigraphica
1977,9-24). Some late archaicdedicationsareconsidered,found
in the temenos area and E of the Roman bath buildings. The
family-tree of the 5th cent. worthy Theoxenos, son of Hippo-
lokhos and his dedicationto Apollo Ietros is also re-considered.
The autonomous silver coinage of Istroshas been studiedby
C. Preda.He wishes to date the earliestissuefrom the early 5th
cent. B.C., and gives a distribution map for the 5th and 4th
cents within the Dobrudzha, Moldavia, and along the coastal
strip between Istros and the Dniepr (Dacia xix [1975] 77-85).
The coin-type with the two heads full-face, one reversed,has
been discussedseparatelyby H. Hommel (Festschrift Altheimi
[1969]261-71), byJ. Hind (NC 1970, 7-17) and by V. Alexeyev
(NAP [1982] Io6-II4). The weight system has been treatedby
Zaginailo (Num. i Epigr.xi [I974] 5I-4).
The course of the campaigns of excavation was assessedin
general terms up to I969 by Pippidi. He also sketched in the
main periods of construction,destructionand reconstruction-
c. 657/6 B.C. or slightly later- late 6th cent. B.C. - c. 55 B.C. -
c. A.D. 240-50 (Klio lii [I970] 355-63). A fuller treatment
appeared a year later in D. M. Pippidi, I Greci nel Basso
Danubio(Milan, I971).
The most outstandingfinds made recently at Istros were in
the tenmenos areain the NE point of the city overlooking Lake
Sinoe (Fig. 7). Here was excavated from 1965-66 until 1977
Fig. 6 a small temple of Aphrodite, to set beside those of Zeus Polieus
and Theos Megas. This new Aphrodite temple was a tetrastyle
Istros, while taking its name from the R. Danube, is sited prostyle building, which was destroyed eventually, perhapsin
some 80 km. S of the S arm of the delta, and 65 km. N of the Getic sack c. 55-48 B.C. (G. Bordenache, Studii Clasiceix
Constanta.It is a site (Karanasuf)free of modem buildings, but [1967] I43-7; D. Theodorescu, Dacia xii [1968] 26I-303; RA
with heavy overlay of the late Roman and early Byzantine 1970, 29-48). In 1977 the final corner (SE) was uncovered.
town. Since 1914 it has been subjected to repeated, almost The earliest destruction of the temple proved to date to the
annual, excavations, at first of the impressive later buildings. late 6th or early 5th cent. B.C. Partsof its roof, found collapsed
But in 19I5, in the 1950s, and again in 1970-79, interesting as a resultof fire (excav. 1976), sealeda graffitoinscriptionwith
finds have been made in layers of the archaic, classical and a dedication to Aphrodite. Earlier, in 1972, to the E of the
Hellenistic periods. In recent years, moreover, the pace of temple was found an 'altar'of the 6th cent. B.C., with the base
publication of materialsfound there has accelerated.Histriaii of an archaicvotive column on its platform, and the bases of
appeared in 1964, edited by E. Condurachi. More recently five Hellenistic votive stelai (Dacia xvi [I972]; xx [I976]). By
thematic monographs have been published; Histriaiii (I973), 1979 it was realisedthat the 'altar'was the crepidoma of a small

necropolisandits planof intersectingroadways,but also the
studiesforthetopographyof the
coastalandunderwater partsof the town and settlement,are
article'Notesde topographie
well displayedin Alexandrescu's
histriennes' (Dacia xxii [I978] 331-42).
Relations with the Getic peoples are by now well attested,
with the massive importationof wine amphoraeand of a con-
siderableamount of decoratedpottery throughout the 5th and
4th cents. The evidence from the burials in the tumulus
necropolis shows that some local Getai were drawn into the
close environs of Istros, and many became fairly wealthy on
the proceeds (of slave sales?)(Alexandrescu,Histriaii [1964]
Th 133 ff.; VIII CongresInternationalClass. Arch., [Paris, 1965]
336-9). On the other hand few of the remoter settlements
importedGreekpottery in the archaicperiod.In the Dobrudzha
there is Tariverde, 14 km. W of Istros, Corbu and Cape
,z ...
2 2?
4 _. n _i Dolozhman, and a necropolis beneath the present-dayHistria
village (Pontica v [I972] 77-88; iv [1971] 41-56; Buletin
/ monumenteloristorice xli 3 [I9721 3). The Tariverde settlement
(Z2S) - = has been thought to be an emporionof Istros,but it may rather
have been simply under heavy Greek influence from the
nearby city.
. i/,'.< plateau Ouest For the Hellenistic period, a welcome insight is offered into
the precariousposition of Istroson the fringes of Scythian and
Getic power by an inscriptionrecordinga treaty,made by three
:\· ambassadors,with Zalmodegikos, a Getic chieftain of the 3rd
I·· · ··;i
y,, I\
cent. B.C. (Pippidi, EpigraphischeBeitrdgezur Geschichte Histrias
[1962]75-88). In the 2nd cent. she had a furthertreatywith one
ii.'I limile du platfeau
i-, plage acfuelle Rhemaxos, but was destroyedin the mid 1st cent. B.C. by the
: .-T wallum
Daci and Getai of Burebistas. The second ktisis under the
Fig. 7 Roman aegis did not restoreher to her former strength,which
was probably taken up by Tomis. The ancient period came to
an end in the 240s A.D. But the massive walls of the 5th-6th
sanctuaryor gateway-propylon(Daciaxxiii [I979] 357-8; xxiv cents A.D. show thas Istroswas still an ideal site for trade, and
[1980] 360). the Byzantinesappreciatedit as such down to the beginning of
Meanwhile, excavations between 1970 and 1977 laid open a the 7th cent.
potter'squarter(Z2) of the 4th cent. B.C. (Histriav [I979]), and A few general works should be mentioned in conclusion of
work continued in 1977-79 on the W fringes of the Greek this section on Rumania. D. Berciu's book Arta Traco-Getilor
settlement(X) along the shoresof Lake Sinoe 600 m. W of the (Bucharest, I969) is a basic study of the metalwork products
acropolisand temenos. Here an archaicdefensive line has been of the Thraco-Geticpeoples, and an illustratedcatalogueof the
identified, stone blocks 1-1.2 m. long, and possibly part of a British Museum (Treasures from Romania [I97I] 48-64) gives
gateway. Two streetswere followed up along a length of 9 m. a briefer, but useful survey. The general history of the
(Dacia xxiii [I979] 357-8; xxiv [1980] 360). A destruction of the Dobrudzha was re-written in the I96os by D. Berciu and
wall is linked with Darius' Scythian expedition and with the D. M. Pippidi, Din IstoriaDobrogei(Vol. i, 1965), and by R.
Scythian retaliatoryraid S of the Danube c. 513-5Io B.C. Vulpe andJ. Bamea (Vol. ii, 1968). A brief English account of
Imported Greek pottery has been intensively studied by the Dobrudzhan cities is to be found in E. Condurachi and
Rumanian specialists.P. Alexandrescuhas studied the early E C. Daicoviciu, Romania-Archaeologia Mundi (I97I) 73-99.
Greek pottery (LesCeramiques de la Grecede l'Est- Bibliotheque Rusyaeva publishes terracottasof the archaic to Hellenistic
Naples No. 4 [1978] 52-6I), and, jointly with M. Coia, the periods, found in the cities of the Dobrogea and as far north as
Attic pottery imported down to c. 480 B.C. (RA 1973, 23-38). Olbia (A. S. Rusyaeva, AntichnyeTerrakotySevero-Zapadnovo
A new classificationof the imported archaicE Greek pottery Prichernomorya[Kiev, 1982]).
from Istros is published by P. Dupont (Dacia xxvii [1983]
I9-44). M. Lazarov was concerned with archaic pottery gene- U.S.S.R.
rally in the west Pontic cities, but Istros figured large in his
paper.Useful is his inclusionof the bulk-carrying(wine and oil) The next city northwardswas Tyras (Belgorod Dniestrov-
amphorae found on these sites (Tskhaltuboii 6I-8). For the sky) across the national boundary in the Ukraine (Fig. 8). It
classicaland Hellenisticperiods V. Sirbucontinuesthe work of lay some I9 km. up the estuaryof the river of the same name
Canaracheby publishing the Thasian, Rhodian, Herakleian (Dniestr).Between the Danube delta and the estuary,and along
and Sinopian amphora stamps from Istros (Istros i [1980] the coast to the N were four or five minor settlements -
137-55). Isiak6n Limen, Istrian6n Limen, Ordessos, Skopeloi, which
Some topographical studies of Istros have appeared. The have recently been the subject of a topographical study
water supply by aqueduct is discussedby Botzan (Ponticaxiii (Agbunov, VDI 1981, I, 124-48). From a study of ancient sea
[1980] 303 ff.), and aerial photography has been used on the levels the estuaryof the Dniestr is now argued to be the result
area by Alexandrescu and Dorutsiu-Boila (Peuce ii [1971] of flooding of a low-lying island between two arms of the
27-46). The uses of aerial photography for the layout of the ancient river (Agbunov, VDI 1979, 2, 128-38). The present
78 J. G. F. HIND


Fig. 8

Belgorod was the late classical,Hellenistic and Roman city of cents was found in 1975-76, and a plan of Nik6nion has ap-
Tyras, while on the other side of the estuary(former delta) lies peared in KSIA clvi (1978) 27-32. There is a considerable
Nik6nion at Roxolanskoye, a site of the 5th to 3rd cents B.C., amount of Attic imported fine ware including a 'Kerch style'
with a later Roman period of occupation (Karyshkovsky, vase ofc. 400-390 B.C. found in 1974, but also Thasian, Chiot,
MASP v [1966] I49-62). A third city, Ophiussa,is mentioned Lesbianand other amphorafragmentsare numerous.Zaginailo
by Pliny as an earliername of Tyras, but Agbunov arguesthat has discussedthe evidence for Istrianinfluencereaching up the
it lay on the island and was then desertedas water levels rose. coast, and includes the native sites at Mayaki and Nadliman-
The excavations carriedout almost every year at Belgorod skoye on the Dniestr estuary(Tskhaltuboi 88-9). Minor settle-
in the fortressareahave brought to light a stretchof Hellenistic ments tentatively located on the estuary are Turris
defensive wall and the basementsof houses of the 3rd to 2nd Neoptolemi, Hermonaktos kome and Physke, which last
cents B.C. (AO 1979, 276-7). Tiles of a vexillation of legion I is set at the large ancient site at Bugaz, at the N end of the
Italica are found regularly in Roman layers and attest the estuary mouth (Agbunov, VDI 1978, I, 112-23).
stationing there of a Roman detachmentin the 2nd cent. A.D. Some 45 km. out in the sea from the N arm of the Danube
Trade is studied from ceramic imports by Okhotnikov and delta is Zmeiny Island (Phidonisi), the ancient Leuke. Some
Samoilova (PDKSP 42-62). A little known monograph by recent excavation has been carried out by Pyatysheva, but
A. N. Zograph merits mention (Monety Tiry [I957] 1-32, without much success,because of Igth cent. building disturb-
64-77) for numismatists and archaeologists alike. Zaginailo ance. Finds of coins have long been known from what was a
considers the weight system of the 4th cent. coinage (Num. i sanctuaryof Achilles, but more recently the graffiti on vases
Epig. xi [I974] 54). A new hoard from Dorotskoye multiplies found on Leuke have been discussedby Yailenko, along with
many times the known silver coins of Tyras (Num. i Sphrag.iv those from Berezan and Olbia (VDI 1980, 2, 72-99; 3, 75-I 6).
[1971] 78-82). Generalaccounts of the history of the city, and Achilles, the God or Hero (Pontarkhes or Heros)is honoured on
of excavations there, can be found in AntichnyGorod, 1963, inscriptions from Leuke, but also from Beykush and from
40-50, and in ArkheologiaUSSR Vol. VIII (by Furmanskaya Berezan Island.The cult is discussedby Homlmel (VDI I98I,
and Pruglo). I, 53-76). Part of the island'ssignificancemay have been that
The interestinglate archaicand classicaltown of Nik5nion it is the only such island out in the deep of the Pontos, but it
(Roxolanskoye) was excavatedover some eight seasonsup to also lay on the direct route from Istros to the W part of the
1965 (MASP v [1966]),and again for severalseasonsup to 1976 Crimea (Gaidukevich, KSIA cxvi [1969] I1-19). For the evi-
(AO 1969, 236; I972, 280-I; I974, 288, 308-9; I976, 293, 372). dence of Ps.-Skylax and Ps.-Skymnos, Arkh. K. xxxv (1980)
The building sequence seems to be 'semi-pit dwellings' of the 25-38.
late 6th cent., mud brickbuildingsof the early 5th, stone build-
ings by the late 5th. A smallhoardof the Istriancastbronzecoins Olbia/Borysthenes Polis and Emporion. The area of the
with the wheel-type andthe lettersIZTwas found in 1969,andin Bug and Dniepr river estuarieshas been the subjectof some of
I976 a rarefind was made of the small Olbian cast bronze coin the most intensive work in classicalarchaeology within the
with an owl. Of structures,a defensive wall of the 5th to 4th Soviet Union. Excavation started at Olbia in I896, with the

LI ISLAND beenexhaustedby thelargescalediggingsby Skadovskyat the
Height above sea level B-5m. beginning of the century (Kopeikina, SA I98I, I, 192-208;
AO I977, 334-5; AO I978, 345-6; AO 1980, 263-4). Kopeikina
(1962-66) excavatedsome 20,000sq.m.up to I977. Twenty-foursemi-
/^^^'^^^^^'^^ i^ FORTIFICATION pit-dwellingswerefound- oval(3 x 4m.), or round(2.8x 3m.)
andhollowedout to a depthof about0.7 or o.9 m. Thistype
Icropol is rn

7 ExcOV.Boltanko
of dwellingwastypicalof a firstbuildingphaseof thelater7th
1960 \Lc
1 p i n )
1,60 (Lapin) i1903-9
1927-33. 46-51 and firsthalf of the 6th cent. B.C. In a laterarchaicphase,
streetsalignedSW-NE, andpavedareasappeared, rectangular
Gorbunova 1962-66 stonebuildingsandstone-constructed basements.Drainagewas
. olt.n ko
installed.A smallshrinewith an altaris noted (SA I975, 2,
t_^B1 B23 \\^
1960 (3) (Yarovaya) 960-1 (4)(Lapin)
The large amountof archaicimportedpottery has been
causefor admirationsincethe beginningof the century.East
(2) (Lop60(n) S3
Lapin) 1960 (5) (Lap
in) GreekandAthenianworkshopspredominate. Hereit is neces-
sarysimplyto remarkon someunique,or unusualfinds- bird
1960 (1)(Lapin)
bowls(SA 1973,3, 240),a fineLakoniancup(HermitageB 76
ioo; SA I98I, I, 206 fig. iob). There is also a fragmentary
Chiotchalicewitha horsemanon it, anda Corinthian
Height above sea level ofc. 650-625 B.C., both unpublished,and in Kiev (Tskhaltuboi
II2 n.8).
FORTIFlCATION haspublisheda numberof bird,rosetteandlotus
I980, 20-32). Archaic terracottasare
bowls (Arkheologia
published by Kopeikina (VDI 1977, 3, 92-104). Still un-
850m x 350mn published,I believe,arethe two largefragmentsof Athenian
'SOS'amphoraeseenby me in the OdessaMuseumin 1963
Fig. 9 (Inv. AB 62-431) (Fig. io). Of great interest is the hoard of

beginning of the career of Pharmakovsky. Appropriately

enough a volume in commemoration of his contribution to
Russian Archaeology appeared in 1976 (Khudozhestvennaya
Kulturai ArkheologiaAntichnovoMira). Thirteen of the papers
discuss various aspects of the history and archaeology of
Berezanand Olbia. Two monographshave appearedrecently,
neither written by a Russian. E. Belin de Ballu has produced
a book which is largely a compilation of materialdrawn from _·

old excavationsand studies(Olbia- citepontiquedu littoralnord Ie3e

de la nier noire,Leiden I972, see reviews in JHS xciv [I974]
251 ff.; Gnomonxlix [I977] 617 if.). By contrastA. Wasowicz
gives a detailedstudy of one aspectof Olbia, the development
of the polis and territory of the Olbiopolitai. She appends a
useful gazetteer of settlementsin what she terms the 'micro-
region' of Borysthenes (Olbia Pontiqueet son territoire,Paris,
Berezan is now an island, but is thought to have been a
peninsulajutting S from the mainland at Viktorovka near
Ochakov (Fig. 9). For an understandingof the ancientenviron-
ment of Berezan, Olbia and the Bug-Dniepr estuary, the
palaeogeographicalstudiesby Shilik, showing a great intrusion Fig. io
here by the Black Sea, are essential(K. K. Shilik, Olvia [Kiev,
I975] 5I-9I; M. Agbunov, VDI I98I, I, I27-9). 11 piecesof arrow-money found in 1977,stressingthe economic
The ancientsettlementon Berezanwas in the NE and north- links reaching up the W coast of the Black Sea from the gulf
centralpart of the presentisland,and the necropoliswas in the of Burgas to the Dniepr. Individual finds of arrow-money
NW corner. By the E shore, where is the sole landing place, were frequently made here even before this hoard (Tskhaltubo
remainsof all periodshave been found, including Roman, and ii, I73 n.I4). Finally, among the finds, pride of place must go
mediaeval of the ioth to i th cents A.D. FurtherW and even to the small hoard of electrum coins found with gold jewellery
in the central parts of the settlement the main periods are of in a decoratedjug of E Greek style of the early 6th cent. B.C.
the first half and second half of the 6th cent. though there are This remains unpublished, to the best of my knowledge,
hundredsof fragmentsof the late 7th. though it was found in 1975 (Lapin and Karyshkovsky,
From I970-75 Lapin carriedout excavations, following up Tskhaltuboi, 105-6). The hoard consisted of a stater with a
his earlier work of I959-65. These were mainly on the E protome of a lioness or panther on the obverse (I3.6 gm.) and
coast of the island by the landing place. During 1970-77, and three tritaiwith rosettes as obverse types (4.67 gm., 4.52 gm.,
again in I978 and 1980, work was carriedout by Kopeikina in 4.38 gm.). The reverses are irregular incuses. With the full
the NW of the island,on the W margin of the settlement,and publicationof this find a closer date (it may well be in the first
in the necropolis on the NW coast. This proved not to have half of the 6th cent.) should be establishedfor some of the
80o J. G. F. HIND

early electrum coinage of Ionia. The likeliest origin of the know what dealings were done between them. Report these
coins is in Miletos, but the excavatorsleave open the possibility things to Anaxagoras and his wife. And he tells you another
of other E Greek cities (e.g. Erythrae). thing. He is sending to your mother and brothersin Arbinatai
As to the social structure and political status of Berezan to take them to the city. But Goneoros (or Eoneoros) will
therehas in the pastbeen disagreement.Marchenkonow shows come to me, and go down to the sacrifices'(or 'go down
that the native hand-madepottery need not precede the Greek directly').
settlement,and points to the connections of the incised pottery What exactly is the nature of the businessbetween Matasys
with the Thracian landsjust N and S of the Danube (Sbornik and Anaxagoras is by no means clear, nor is the role of
PharmakovskyI57-65). Kopeikina notes the small percentage Protagoras and his father. But the phortegesios,or carrier of
of hand-madepottery from Berezan(8-14%) and of crouched merchandise, makes it clear that one part concerns property,
burials(21%), and draws the conclusion that a small number slaves and otherwise, and another part of the letter involves a
of mixed barbarians,including Scythians from the mid 6th family residing in Arbinatai, and being moved to the city. It
cent. B.C. were attractedto live in the new settlement. offers a fascinatinginsight into life on Berezan in the early 5th
The question whether Berezan was a part of the Olbian cent. B.C.
state, and its exact relationshipwith Olbia, has been discussed At Olbia itself in recent years excavations have taken place
by Karyshkovsky,(KSOGAM ii [I967] 85 ff.), who believes in four areas in the lower city and underwater(SA 1962, 3,
that the emporionof the Borysthenites,and the asty(town) and 228 ff.; SA 1968, 4, 126-37), by the agora in the upper city,
polis (city-state), which was Olbiopolis, were one and the near the dikasterionand the gymnasium (KSIA cxxx [1972]
same. Against this, Vinogradov argues that Berezan was the 35-44), in the W range of buildings excavated by Rusyayeva,
emporionfor Olbia, once the site at Parutinohad been appropri- and Leipunskaya,and in the quarter beyond Hare's Ravine.
ated (SbornikPharmakovsky 75-84). Kopeikina, the excavator An overall survey of recent work, 1972-76, within the polis
of Berezan,seems to agree, while pointing out that the Berezan and khorais given by Kryzhitsky(KSIA clix [I979] 9-16). The
settlement ceased to flourish towards the beginning of the 5th emphasishere is on dwellings, and on the spreadof occupation
cent. B.C. In my view, the settlement on Berezan was un- from period to period, including two very interesting plans.
doubtedly the first in the Dniepr estuary and the whole north The likely population of the town by the late archaicperiod
Black Sea area, and was an embryo polis from the start, is given as 6,ooo-Io,ooo, in view of the large number of semi-
gradually (by the early 6th cent.?) becoming a significant pit dwellings found in almost all sections of the upper city
emporionfor substantialtraders.The terms used by Herodotus over some II-I6 hectares. It seems that the archaic material
for settlements,or a settlement,in the estuary,all should apply becomes prolific from the second quarterof the 6th cent. B.C.,
to the mid 5th cent. B.C. or thereabouts - the time of although individual pieces of earlier Wild Goat style pottery
Herodotus' own visit (ThraciaPonticaii, forthcoming). At that are found, and are now published(KSIA cxxx [1972] 45-52).
time Berezan was seemingly of little account, except perhaps Although a very early settlement on the southern acropolis
as a landmark, 38 km. before reaching Olbia. The terms area or in the submergedpart of the lower city is possible,it is
Borystheneiteon asty, polis (Hdt. iv 78-9), and Borystheniteon still to be proved, and it may seem more likely that the few
emporion,and Borysthenesemporionseemnto apply to different
aspectsof the same city (the latter perhapseven to its harbour
area), which was by this time known as Olbiopolis. On the
other hand, it is easy to understandhow the Olbiopolitans had
come to be called loosely Borysthenites, if the first polis had
been in the estuaryof the Borysthenes.It would merely be the
retention of an earliername, and indeed still relevant in view
of the fact that territoryon both estuarieswas held by the polis.
It is also possible that the emporionmay have referred to the
wider 'market' offered by the polis in the Dniepr estuary, in-
cluding such manufacturingsettlementsas Yagorlyk.
The Berezanlead letter which was found in 197I, mentioned
by Gorbunova, and immediately published by Vinogradov
(VDI 1971, 4, 74-Ioo), continues to attractthe furtherinterest
of scholars, including Chadwick (Proc.Camb.PhilologicalSoc.
cxcix [1973] 35-7), B. Bravo (Dialoguesd'histoireanciennei
[I974] III-87, and Yailenko (VDI 1974, I, 133-51; 1975, 3,
133-50). The latter dates it to the end of the 6th cent. or early
5th on the strength of the letter fornns, and seeks to find a
place-name, Arbinai or Arbinatai referring to somewhere
within the Olbian khora, maybe even Berezan. The text is
given - in the English translation:
'Achillodorus'lead [letter] to his son and to Anaxagoras.
'O Protagoras,your fathertells you that he is being wronged
by Matasys,for he is deceiving him and has deprivedhim of the
phortegesios. Go to Anaxagoras,and tell him that Matasys says
that the (phortegesios) is the slave of Anaxagoras. He declares
that Anaxagoras has his things, slaves, slave-women and
houses. But he (the phortegesios)protests, and says that he has
nothing to do with Matasys.He says that he is free and has no
bond with him, but that Matasys and Anaxagoras themselves Fig. ii

Fig. I2

7th cent. pieces of pottery were brought as heirlooms from In the area overlooking Hare's Ravine on the W edge of
nearby Berezan when the main settlement was transferred,if the city an inscription dedicated to Zeus Eleutherios by
that is what happenedc. 575 B.C. (Vinogradov, SA 1971, 237; Heuresibioswas found in 1977 - a temple of that deity seems
Kopeikina,SA 1975, 2). Kopeikinahas given a generalaccount to be indicated(AO 1977, 349-50; AO 1978, 358). Somewhat
of what is known of Olbia in the archaic period (Sbornik to the N of this, and W of the court building, an inscriptionof
Pharmakovsky,131-42). A fascinating local variant of the the 3rd cent. B.C. came to light, mentioning the 'College of
kouros style of sculpturehas been published by Chubova and Seven', magistrates charged with building and repair of the
Lesnitskaya(ibid.2I0-16) (Fig. II). Still in the Upper City the walls (AO 1977, 376-7). In all this area Hellenistic buildings
western gateshave been discovered(AO 1978, 358; 1980, 274) - of the 3rd to 2nd cents B.C., often with deep basements,
the layer foundations of two towers and a curtainwall of the filled the quarterW of the main street.
late 4th cent., which survived until the 2nd or perhaps mid At two points recent excavations are thought to illustrate
Ist cent. B.C. In the area of the agoraand temenos,further passages in Herodotus. A dismantled building in the NW
excavationsto the N and NW of the dikasterion have produced corner of the city, overlaid by ruined buildings of the 3rd to
a late archaicstone building, of a sub-megaronplan andpseudo- 2nd cents B.C., has left fragmentaryarchitecturalterracottas,
polygonal construction. Near the gymnasium arrangements an Ionic column base of Asiatic type and a griffinhead in lime-
for its water supply, and the water supply of the theatredown stone. All this brings to mind Herodotus' tale of the palace of
the slope to its east have been found (AO 1972, 302). A hoard Skyles in Olbia and its ornamentationof griffins(Hdt. iv 78-9).
of the mid 4th cent. (12 bronze asses) was found in 1968 in (KSIA clix [1979] 11-13). Outside the city, across Hare's
section (E3 (Nuni. i Ep. x [I972] 74-8) (Fig. 12). In 1979 Ravine, was the now well-known extra-mural settlement,
interesting finds appeared in Section AGD (to the N of the dating from the early to late 5th cent., and a cemetery of
Agora/Temenos).Here it seems that a second religious enclosure Roman date (Ist cent. A.D. onwards). This proasteionhas been
was laid over a number of semi-pit dwellings. Two bothroi excavated byJ. Kozub since 1964, and was continued in 1972,
were found, one containing 15 whole Thasianamphorae,with 1974, 1978, I979. Although some structuresof the 4th cent.
the graffitoIEP.There was also a fish bowl with a dedicationto have been found (AO I978, 340), the basic period of this
Hermes. A second bothroscontained even more interesting settlement is within the 5th cent. and it seems reasonableto
material- numerousarchitecturalterracottas- tiles, keramtydes, suppose that this is the proasteion,at which Herodotus says
kalypteres,antefixes, akroteria.They seem to have been from a Skyles left his Scythian entourage when he entered the city
small decoratedtemple of E Greek style. Some of the kalypteres (Kozub, XIV EireneConf. [Yerevan,1979] ii 3 6). Vinogradov
also bear the graffitoIEP. In addition to the small temple, it is argues that at this time Olbia was a Scythian protectorate
thought that some terracottavolutes come from an altar, and (Cheironx [1980] 76-7). For an early shrine found in this area
other elements (a gorgoneion with curling snake locks) are and functioning for about three-quartersof a century, see
from votive stelai. The whole deposit bids fair to be very Kozub (SbornikPharmakovsky124-30). Full studies of the
informativeabout E Greek polychrome terracottadecoration. necropolis in two successive periods have been published
Elsewhere in the section, to the W, was found a statue base (Julia Kozub, NekropolOlvii v 5-4 vekakhdo nasheiery, Kiev,
dedicated to Apollo letros by an Olbiopolitan, Xanthos, and I974; S. M. Parovich-Peshikan,NekropolOlvii v ellinsticheskuyu
to the S a double-sided Ionic capital of c. 550-525 B.C. - the epokhu,Kiev, I974).
earliestelement of an architecturalorder found in the N Black Other materialfrom Olbia recently made availableis in the
Sea area (AO 1979, 332-3). monograph on imported amphorae by N. A. Leipunskaya,
82 J. G. F. HIND

(Keramicheskaya Taraiz Olvii, Kiev, 198I), and an article and

monograph on the Hellenistic houses in the Upper and Lower
cities by Kryzhitsky (Dacia xiii [1969] 101-25; Zhilye Doma
AntichnykhGorodov SevernovoPrichernomorya, Kiev, 198I).
Imported Hellenistic pottery is discussed by Zaitseva in
SbornikPharmakovsky97-108, and a string of earlier publi-
cations on Olbian coinage is continued by Karyshkovsky in
the same volume, 109-117, with an article dealing with the
crisisissuesof coinage by the 'College of Seven' in the late 3rd
cent. B.C. A corpus of the inscriptions from Olbia found
between I916 and I965 is published in Nadpisi Olvii
(Leningrad, 1968). Very recently inscriptionshave been used
to study the chief magistratesand eponyms at Olbia (F. Graff,
Museum Helveticumxxxi [I974] 209-13 - the Molpoi; P.
Karyshkovsky, VDI 1978, 2, 85 if. - priests of Apollo; Ju.
Vinogradov, Actes du VII congresd'eYpigraphie [Bucarest,Paris,
1979] 311 - archons).
Archaeological techniques of a more scientific kind have
been brought to bear at Olbia. Aerial photography of the area
to the W of Olbia has confirmed the existence of the road net-
work in the necropolis worked out by Karasyov on the Fig. I3
evidence of antiquarianmaps (K. Shishkin, SA 1982, 3). In the
submerged area of the lower city two large dumps of stones
and pottery fragments have been found. Large numbers of Two prize finds from this huge areaare firstly the discovery in
amphorae were involved, and even a bronze oinochoe of the I960-6I of I5 complete bronze vases in a wooden boat on a
5th cent. B.C. (AO 1972, 299-300; AO 1976, 318; AO I977, tributary of the R. Supoi at Pischanovo (Fig. 13). The boat
343-4). The so-called submerged 'mooring-place' is thought was probably lost in the early 4th cent., the date of one of the
to be perhapsa dump for ships' ballast, and the huge piles of latest bronzes, but some of them seem to be of the early part
pottery to be the remains of a port-side store (K. K. Shilik, of the 5th cent. - I krater, 3 amphorae, 5 hydriai, I stamnos,
Olvia [Kiev, I975] 51-91; KSIA cxxiv I09-I4). 3 louteria, 2 situlae (0. D. Ganina, Arkheologiaxvi [I964];
The territory of Olbia was mainly on the W bank of the AntichniBronziz Pischanovo,Kiev, I970). This chancefind has
R. Bug, but also along the Berezan, Sosyk and Tiligul limans, greatly increased our knowledge of classical bronze vessels.
on the E bank of the Bug opposite Olbia, and at a few points The second astonishingfind is that of a largehoard of Kyzikene
on the Dniepr estuary. It has been intensively studied, some- electrum statersfound in I967, and given preliminary publi-
times with two or three sections of the Olbian expedition per cation in I969 and 1970 (SA I969, I, 274-7; VDI 1970, 2,
year operating in the area(L. M. Slavin, SbornikPharmakovsky 73-86). It comes from Orlovka near Reni, Odessa Region,
I8I-6; AO 1974, 262-3, 274, 346-7; AO 1979, 319; I980, the coins being found in a bronze oinochoe ofc. 475-50. B.C.
279). There has been some disagreement as to whether the There were at least 71 statersof varied type (there may have
closer settlementson the limans belonged to Greek settlersor originally been three more), and the latestseem to go down to
to hellenized Kallipidai on whom Herodotus remarks, as c. 340-30 B.C. when Kyzikenes ceased to be a major trading
being nearest to Olbia on the R. Hypanis (Bug). The settle- currency. As Kyzikene coins are usually found, if at all, in
ments seem to commence in the second half of the 6th cent. single specimensin the coastalcities (Istoriai KulturaAntichnovo
B.C., some seventy in number, and carry on until abandoned Mira [I977] 38), this hoard is an outstandingfind, both for its
in the early 5th. There was a later occupation in the early 4th economic and artisticimplications.The smallfind of Kyzikenes
cent. with increasing tempo throughout the 4th cent. and recently made at Olbia (8 staters)hardly breaks this generalis-
another abandonmentin the early 3rd. In the Roman period ation (SA 1970, 2, 222-4). For a classification of types and
occurred another flourishing period in the ist and 2nd cents chronology by Bulatovich see PDKSP (I98I) 114-8; NAP
A.D. ('Olviiskii Polis i Kallipidy', VDI 1979, 4, 25-36; 'Model (I982) 98-105.
grecheskoi Kolonizatsii Nizhnevo Pobuzhya', VDI 1980, I, Finally, a recent book on Olbia by a Soviet scholar is Juri
131-43). The natural resources in minerals - iron, copper, gold, Vinogradov's Olbia - Geschichteeiner altgriechischen Stadt am
quartzitesandsfor glass, but also in timber - have been studied SchwarzenMeer(XeniaHeft I, Konstanz, I98I). This is a small
by Ostroverkhov (VDI 1979, 3, 115-26). The idea that there book, based on a lecture given by the author at Konstanz.
was in the area a native population with a strong Thracian Primarily it is a stimulating series of speculationsconcerning
admixtureis gaining considerableground, based on distinctive the history of Olbia, particularlyin the 5th cent. B.C. (review
types of handmade pottery and on crouched burials by Graham, Gnomon I983.5, 46I-2).While the theory here
(Marchenko, Sbornik Pharmakovsky 157-65; VDI 1980, I, I42). presented - of a tyrant at Olbia under the protection of the
Some of the excavatorsinsiston the Greeknessof all these local Scythiansduring the later 5th and early 4th cents B.C. - may
settlements (VDI 1979, 4, 25 if.). Further up the R. Bug an not in the long run prove acceptable, there is no doubt that
attempt has been made to localise the Kallipidaiand Alazones his treatment of the graffito on the Fikellurasherd (p. 14 if.)
(Otreschko, SA 1981, I, 27-4I). and the Apatourioslead letter (p. I9), as well as the inscription
More deep-probing into the interior are Onaiko's second publishedby him in 'Sinopa i Olvia', VDI 1981, 2, 65-90 will
volume on ancient Greek imported objects in the Dniepr and causeinterestand controversyfor some yearsto come. Equally
Bug areas (N. A. Onaiko, AntichnyImportv Pridnieprovyei controversial will be his dating, and interpretation of, an
Pobuzhe v IV-II vekakh do n.e., I970. SAI D 1-27), and inscription(VDI I98I, 3, 67 ff.), which he takes to be honour-
Alexandrescu'sreview article on the same in RA I975, 63-72. ing a liberatorfrom the tyrant in the early 4th cent. B.C.

Fig. I4

The North-West Crimea and Tarkhankut Peninsula. B.C. at Kalos Limen is provided by Scheglov in Sbornik
Moving into the Crimea we may note the recent (I977) find Pharmakovsky 232-8. A settlement near Eupatorialighthouse
of a Wild Goat style oinochoe ofc. 625-600 B.C. in a Scythian was destroyed, at a time fixed archaeologicallyby a hoard of
tumulus at Philatovka, near Krasnoperekopon the narrow 20 bronze coins of the early 3rd cent. B.C., and this date may
isthmus between the Ukraine and the Crimea (Korpusova, also mark the beginning of native pressure on Khersonesos
VDI I980, 2, I00-4) (Fig. I4). This is an outstanding find, (AO 1980, 246). In 1978 and 1980 Yatsenko excavated further
comparable to the discovery of an oinochoe at Temir Gora at 'Chaika', one of the fortified settlementsnear Eupatoria;in
nearKerch in the last century. Interestingly,also in VDI (1980, one large multi-roomed building numerous roofing tiles of
4, 155-60) is an article discussingthe route takenby the nomad Sinope and Khersonesos were found, dating to the 4th-3rd
Scythians from their western regions to the Kimmerian cents B.C. A necropolis at Zaozernoye is now linked with the
Bosporos area, and in winter across the frozen Bosporos into 'Chaika' site (AO 1977, 409; 1980, 328-9). It is fashionableto
the lands of the Sindoi (Hdt. iv 28). call the 'Chaika' site an emporion(trading station) which it
Recent work on the coastal area of the north-west Crimea probably was not, and the series of settlements teikhe ('the
has involved the small city Kerkinitis, the even smallerKalos forts'), but the teikheof Khersonesoswere probably the walls
Limen and a chain of fortified coastalsettlements.These were across the isthmus on the Mayachny Peninsula near
apparently part of the territory of Khersonesos from the Khersonesositself. A splendidfind from 'Chaika'is the bronze
early 4th to the mid 2nd cents B.C. (after that destroyed), to statuette of an Amazon rider (Fig. 15), found in I964, but
become Scythian settlementsuntil the mid ist cent. B.C., e.g. published in 1972 by Kobylina (AntichnayaSkulptura,1972,
Belyaus, Chaika. Concerning Kerkinitis Dashevskaya argues pl. XIII).
that Herodotus' Kerkinitis on the R. Hypakiris is the site at It is known that the Scythians moved down into the
Eupatoriaon Lake Donuslav, and further derived the name Crimea in the late 4th or early 3rd cents B.C. (after defeats at
from a personal name Karkinos (VDI 1970, 2, 121-8) - all the hands of Philip of Macedon, and under pressurefrom the
other Karkine towns are on lakes, which may suggest a Sarmatians).Their capital from the 3rd cent. was at Kermen-
different, topographical meaning. Recent excavations in chik, near Simferopol, a site usually identified with Neapolis.
Eupatoria (Kerkinitis)have discovered burials of the 4th to Rayevsky advancesfurtherreasonsfor acceptingDashevskaya's
3rd cents (SA 1981, 3, 181-92). Discussion has largely centred suggestion that this capital was in fact called Palakion (VDI
on the identity of the native population of the area,who may 1976, I, I02-7). Vysotskaya reviews the cults observed at this
have been first Satarkhai,then Scythian nomads (Tskhaltuboii late Scythian capital and other sites (VDI 1976, 3, 51-73). The
218-26, 227-32). Excavations since 1980 have turned up population of the Crimea in Scythian times is studied by
mainly Hellenisticmaterial(AO 1980, 246; Tskhaltubo iii 28-9). Olkhovsky (SA 1981, 3, 52-65; SA 1982, 4, 61-81). On the
A general periodisationof Kerkinitis,Kalos Limen and the basis of the literary sources and archaeologicalevidence from
other settlements is given by Scheglov (Sbornik Zhebelyov the regions he places the Taphrioi in the Siwash area and, in
332-42), and full studiesof the areahave now appeared(A. N. part, in the KerchPeninsula,the Satarkhaiin the West Crimea,
Scheglov, Severo-ZapadnyKrym v AntichnuyuEpokhu,1978; and the Tauro-Skythaiin the foothill areasof the S Crimea.
Polis i Khora, Simferopol, 1976). A full reconstruction of a Khersonesos was a relativelylatefoundationfrom Herakleia.
house of the late 4th to second half of the 3rd (or 2nd) cent. It is universally, and almost certainly rightly, assigned to c.
84 J. G. F. HIND

4, Io8-I6). Zedgenidze and Savelya have now studied the late

5th and 4th cent. necropoleis, including ones by Quarantine
Bay, the southern defensive walls, by the theatre, etc. The N
cemetery, with its poor inventory, and 40% of crouched
burials, is seen as something of an anomaly, and as the last
resting place of a dependent section of the population (KSIA
clxviii [I98I] 3-9). Perhapsthey were dependentnon-citizens-
like the Mariandynoi at Herakleia- some mixed Tauroi and
Satarkhaiused as serfsby the citizens.
Other fields in which recent advanceshave been made are in
the study of Khersonesitecoinage. Here the work of Anokhin
is most important: V. A. Anokhin, The Coinageof Khersonesos
fromtheFourthCenturyB.C. to the TwelfthCenturyA.D. (B.A.R.
Suppl. lxix [1980]) II-88; Grandmezon (NAP [1982] 34-42).
Amphora capacities in Hellenistic Khersonesos have been
analysed in VDI 1981, I, I50-61, stamps and magistrates in
VDI 1979, 2, 139-59 and 1979, 3, 127-45, and graffiti have
been studied in VDI I976, 3, 121-41. Probably the most
interesting branch of study at Khersonesosis that of the late
5th and 4th cent. land division of the khorainto allotments on
HerakleiskyPeninsula(Fig. I6). Both the system of laying out

Fig. IS

422/I B.C. as a joint colony of Herakleia with the Boeotians

of Delion (Tyumenev, VDI 1938, 2, 245 ff.). Attention has
centred on the small amount of pottery of E Greek type of the
late 6th and early 5th cents (Belov, T. Gos. Hermit.xiii [1972]
23 ff.), but such as there is might have been left by shipsplying
northwardsto the alreadyexisting Kerkinitis,and, on the way,
trading some wares with a small Taurian settlement, or they
may have been brought with them by the first settlers. The
most recent study of the earliestmaterial from Khersonesosis
by Zedgenidze (KSIA clix [I979] 26-34), an article following
up an earlier study of the rf pottery from the site (KSIA clvi
[I978] 69-78), and followed in its turn by a discussionof the
5th-4th cent. necropolis of Khersonesos(KSIA clxviii [1981]
3-9). Zedgenidze's conclusions are that the vast mass of
materialfrom the necropoleis in the N of the city, and by the
theatre, dates from the late 5th or 4th cents B.C. (KSIA cxlv
[1976] 29). The earliestpieces of sculpture,architecturalfrag-
ments and the remarkablecache of painted stelai found during
the excavations of tower XVII, all point to the same date
(KSIA cxlv [1976] 3 ff.). An Olbian gorgon-type heavy cast
coin, the earliestof non-Khersonesitecoins found at Kherso-
nesos, also belongs to the late 5th cent. B.C. or the early 4th.
What is more, no early 5th cent. native Taurian settlements
seem to have existed, to trade with the hypothetical emporion
or proto-colony. Finally, the earliest development of the
territory of Khersonesos,that on Mayachny Peninsula Io km.
W of Khersonesos, seems to belong to the early or mid 4th
cent. B.C. (V. I. Kats, AntichnyMir i Arkheologiai [Saratov, Fig. I6
1971] 36; A. N. Scheglov, 'Stary Khersones Strabona' - 150
Let Odesskomy Arkh. Museyu [Kiev, 1975] 136; Zherebtsov, the network on the large scale, and the internal plans of
KSIA cxlv [1976] I5). This area seems to be Strabo's 'Old individual allotments have been plotted, analysed and exca-
Khersonesos', perhaps an intensively developed part of the vated (A. N. Scheglov, Polis i Khora[Simferopol, 1976]). From
khorabehind a double line of walls, which could serve as a the resultsof archaeologicalwork, done largely between 1974
strong point and refuge, if the then hostile Bosporansmade an and 1979, some 408 plots have been planned on the peninsula,
attempt on the city. The varied motives for the colonization and eight holdings excavated. Normally allotments seem to
of Khersonesosand the circumstancesaiding the venture are have been 630 x 420 m; in the 4th cent. they were equippedwith
discussed by Zedgenidze in Tskhaltuboi 89-94. Another rectangulartowers. In the mid 2nd cent. B.C. defences were
question much debated has been whether the crouched burials strengthenedagainstthe Crimean Scyths, and again in the 3rd
found in the early necropolis by the N shore within the city and 4th cents A.D. reconstruction and further fortification
implied a pre-existingTauriansettlement(Kadeyev, VDI 1973, took place, aimed against Gothic and Hunnic incursions

(Kruglikova, KSIA clxviii [1981] 9-16). Kruglikova also offers Pantikapaion (modern Kerch) is best known as the capital
an interesting history of the study of these allotments, and of the archons, later kings, of Bosporos (Fig. I7). There is,
Zherebtsov has picked out five for detailed study of sub- however, a good deal of discussionabout the early role of the
division and planting arrangements(KSIA clxviii 17-26). A site, and its relationship with other townships, in particular
by-product of the work on these allotments has been the Nymphaion, some miles to the S, and with Hermonassaon
scientific study of grape seeds, wheat, barley and other grains the Asiatic side of the Kimmerian Bosporos. The prevailing
(Nikolayenko and Yanushevich, KSIA cxlviii 26-34). The theories are that the Arkhaianaktidai,who, according to
grapes used are thought to be not far removed from the wild Diodoros, ruled on the Bosporos c. 480-438/7 B.C., were
varieties found in the Crimea; a soft-grainedvariety of wheat rather of Mytilenian extraction from Hermonassa, than
is common at Khersonesos,apparently,while barley is more Milesian from the missing Apollonia on the Bosporos
common in the NW Crimea(e.g. at Tarpanchiand Panskoye). (Blavatsky, Klio lii [1970] 33-6). The Spartokidai, who
A fascinating,unique, discovery was the find in 1969 of two succeededthem were, it is supposed,ratherThracian-Maeotian
stelai of the late 4th cent. B.C., among a cache found built into nobles from the population of the Asiatic Bosporos than the
curtain wall XX of the Khersonesite defensive wall. These descendants of intrusive Thracian mercenaries, or Scythian
two stelai belonged to doctors, and both have painted re- or even Greek population elements (Boltunova, VDI 1964, 3,
presentationsof medical instruments(forceps,pincers, spatula,
cupping-glass). One is of Leskhanoris, son of Eukles, a
physician of Tenedos, the other is that of Dionysios, son of GREEKS ON KIMMERIAN BOSPOROS IN ARCHAIC PERIOD

Pontagnotos. (VDI 1974, I, 94-I05). A collection of o08

inscriptions from Khersonesos was published by E. I.
Solomonnik (Novye Epigraphicheskiye PamyatnikiKhersonesa,
Kiev, 1964). Two articlesdiscussthe cross-Pontoscontacts of
a military and political characterin the mid 2nd cent. B.C.
(Saprykin,VDI 1979, 3, 43-59), and in the first three centuries
A.D. (Kadeyev, VDI 1979, 2, 55-76). At all times, at the first
foundation, in the 4th cent. B.C., in the 2nd cent. B.C. at SU K
the time of Pharnakesof Pontus, later when Diophantos, the / L.UZUNLARSKOYE -

general of Mithridates, relieved the city from Scythian

pressure,and again in the Roman period, Khersonesosreaped
the benefit of being at the N end of the short cross voyage , NER
over the Black Sea. E PO S°
4DX) s
Work on the cultureof the Tauroi has become much better
based with the accumulationof archaeologicalmaterial from SETTLEMENTS AND TUMULI
Herakleisky Peninsula, and from coastal Crimea and the ..... ANCIENT LINES OF MOUNDS AND DITCHES

Piedmont area of the Crimea (Leskov, Corny Krym v I a


Tysacheletiido n.e., Kiev, 1965). Relations between the Greeks Z:- ANCIENT COURSE OF RIVER KUBAN

and the Tauroi, and the development of the khoraof Kherso-

nesos have recently been sketched out by Savelya (Tskhaltubo Fig. 17
i 166-76), and by Scheglov (Tskhaltuboii 204-18). There
seem to have been some ten native settlementson Herakleisky 136-49; J. B. Brashinsky, VDI I965, I, 118-27; Blavatsky,
Peninsulabefore the colony. These were then swept away, and Pantikapei[1964] 55-6). But there is still much to be said for
replacedby about 30 of the 4th to 3rd cents B.C., situatedat the view that the Arkhaianaktidaiwere Milesian and the
i to 1.5 km. away from the citizen allotment system. Spartokidsof Thracianstock.
Pantikapaionin the long period from the 6th cent. B.C. to
Theodosia started as an independent city, and was even the 4th cent. A.D. has been given monograph treatment by
aided by Khersonesosand Herakleia against the encroaching Blavatsky in Pantikapei - Ocherki Istorii Stolitsy Bospora
archons or tyrants of Bosporos. It was situated at the very (Moscow, I964), and this can be set alongsidethe new German
edge of the mountains of S Crimea at the western end of the edition of V. F. Gajdukjevich'sDas Bosporanische Reich(I97I).
curving Bay of Theodosia, and almost in the Kerch Peninsula. There are two brief articlesin English by T. Noonan, on the
Recent archaeologicalwork (1975-79) has been carriedout by earliest stages of Pantikapaion (AJA lxxvii [1973] 77-8I), and
Katyushin, Peters, Zaginailo and Belyaev, within the area of on the grain trade between Athens and Bosporos (AJP xciv
mediaevalKaffa,but also in a necropolisat Tepe Oba, 1.5 km. [I973] 231-42). Also recently available in English are two
W of Theodosia, and at minor settlements to the S and W, numismatic monographs, translatedinto the British Archae-
including a fortified farm of the 4th cent. B.C. (AO 1977, 328, ological Reports series: D. B. Shelov, Coinageof the Bosporus
373-4; 1978, 334-5; I979, 273-4). Amphora stamps, mainly VI-II cent. B.C. (BAR S xlvi [1978]) and N. A. Frolova,
Herakleiot and Sinopian,from here are publishedin SA 1981, The Coinageof the Kingdomof the BosporusAD 69-238 (BAR
2, 207-22. A historical sketch of the circumstances of Theo- S lvi [I979]). In German there is the articleby D. P. Kallistov
dosia'sforcible unificationwith Bosporos c. 389/8 B.C. and of in Hellenische Poleis ii [Berlin, 1974] 587-607, on the cities
the coinage, with its odd legend 'Theodeo', is attempted by which made up the Bosporan Kingdom.
Blavatsky (SA 1981, 4, 21-9). An archaeological and archi- The long-known oinochoe from Temir Gora, N of Kerch
tecturalparkwas opened at Theodosia in 1976, a year in which has at last been fully published by Kopeikina (VDI 1972, I,
a considerableamount of 4th and 3rd cent. pottery was found I56) (Fig. i8). Belonging to c. 650-625 B.C., it helps to date
in the lowest layers within the citadel (AO 1976, 353-4). The the Scythian objects found in it (SA I972, 3). Probably this
death of V. D. Blavatsky in 1980 was a sad loss to studentsof burial is of a Scythian notable engaged in that west-to-east
the area. journey which ended at the KimmerianBosporos, but in time
86 J. G. F. HIND

a considerableamount of the citadel,curtainwalls with internal

corridors, towers and gateways (AO 1972, 307-8; 1976,
330-I; 1977, 39I; I978, 412; 1979, 346; I980, 315). Traces of
the destruction by earthquakein 63 B.C. were noted, and a
destructionby fire at the end of-the 2nd cent. A.D.
Architecturaldetails, such as an Ionic capital(VDI 1974, 2),
and a study of temples and other 'ordered' buildings (VDI
1975, I, 117-37) are published by Pichikyan. More archi-
tectural elements have been found very recently, a large
Ionic capital of 5th cent. form (AO I979, 346), and a piece of
cornice with egg-and-dart, bead-and-reel motifs and a
Lesbian cymation (AO 1980, 315), seemingly of late 5th to
4th cent. B.C. form.
For relations between Pantikapaion under the Spartokids
and Athens in the early to mid-4th cent. B.C. C. Tuplin
contributes a paper on 'IG II2 212 and Isokrates I7.57' in
Zeitschriftfir PapyrologieundEpigraphikxlix (1982) 121-8 and
a recent paper at the EpigraphicCongressin Athens(1982, 33-4),
deals with decrees found in Pantikapaion, Phanagoria and
elsewhere (T. V. Chelov-Kovedjayev, 'Les decretsbosphorans
et l'histoire du Bosphore cimmerien au 4eme siecle avant
J.C.'). The most exciting recent find is that of a marble ritual
table. This dates to the end of the 2nd cent. B.C., and shows
some unexpected alliances. One Dedmotis, daughter of
Fig. 18 Skilouros, the Scythian king, and wife of one Herakleides,
dedicated to a Scythian goddess Dithagoia for the health of
of winter crossedover into Sindike(Tskhaltuboi 78; VDI I980, Pairisades,the last Spartokidking ofBosporos (AO 1979, 346).
4, 155-60). There is doubt as to where the silver coin mint of Later,c. I09 B.C. Pairisadeswas to abdicateand the Bosporans
Apollonia (APOL on reverse)of the 5th cent. B.C. was located, to call in Mithridatesof Pontus against the Scythians.All this
whether at what was later to become Pantikapaion, or at had been called forth by a rebellion within the Bosporan
Nymphaion or Phanagoria.Without actually identifying this cities of a group led by a Scythian called Saumakos. The
Apollonia on Bosporos, an article by Dyukov gives a good status of Saumakos, whether leader of an oppressed social
description of this short series (VDI 1975, 4, 7I-4). My own group or of a group rivalling the Spartokids,has been much
feeling (ThraciaPonticaii forthcoming), is that Pantikapaion debated, including recent articles by Gaidukevich (Sbornik
was, up to the time of Herodotus (c. 440 B.C.), the place called Zhebelyov 81-95; Epigraphic Congress [Athens, I982] I74-9).
Kremnoi by him (iv 20; IIo), and labelled by him an emporion Strabo's comments on the political history of Bosporos have
in the land of the 'Free Scythians.' If that was its descriptive been analysed by Gratsianskaya(DrevneishiyeGosudarstvana
name, given by sailors, it may also have had, if only briefly, SSSR [1976]II-I5).
the official name, Apollonia (Gajdukjevic, Bosporanische The smaller towns of the European side of the Bosporos,
Reich52 n. I ). But that probably changed soon after 438 B.C. mainly on the shore of the Bosporos itself were Nymphaion,
with the coming to power of the Spartokids. Myrmekion, Tyritake, Porthmia, Kytaia, but also Iluraton,
Indeed, whether or not Apollonia was on the site at Kerch, and the fort at Mikhailovka. Nymphaion was of the greatest
the name was dropped, probably as too closely associatedwith importance in the early period, as its rich 5th-cent. burials
the preceding ruling group, the Arkhaianaktidai.An article give some hint. The contents of five tumuli of various sizes
by Vinogradov (VDI 1974, 4 56-67) touches on the early which were excavated in I868 and found their way to Oxford
history of Pantikapaion,hinting at a need to re-think the view have recently been publishedby M. Vickers, ScythianTreasures
that a pre-colony trading-post may have been on the site in Oxford(1979). They contained a large number of Scythian
(65-66), but the main purpose of the article is to publish an style dress appliques, arrow-heads and horse accoutrements,
oinochoe found in an archaic pit in 1973; the fabric was of as well as numerous Greek pottery imports.
grey clay and under the handle was a graffito - 'Muniioseimi Excavations at Nymphaion by N. L. Grach are long-
prokhos','I am the prochous of Muniis.' Vinogradov takes standing (1966-69, 1972-74, I977-78). Within the town parts of
the name to be a mixture of Carian and Milesian, and to be a 4th-3rd cent. building have been explored underwater,and a
that of one of the first settlersin the colony at Kerch. In 1980 wine-pressingplant of the 4th cent. has been found, the earliest
(Chironx 63-I00) he returnedto the wider theme, attributing known within the N Black Sea area.It is interestingto note that
the unification of the Bosporan cities, first under the Ark- this early development was followed by an early destruction
haianaktidai,then under the Spartokidai (c. 480-438 B.C.), and abandonmentof the town in the 2nd cent. A.D. (AO 1972,
to necessity arising from Scythian pressure. 272-3). The emphasisin recentyearshas been on the excavation
Recent excavations on the site of Pantikapaionhave been to the SW of the town of a necropolisof non-tumulusburialsof
concentrated on the akropolison Mt. Mithridates. A late the 6th to 5th cents B.C. (N. Grach, Tskhaltuboii 260-7). The
archaic armourer's workshop (excavated in the I95os and burials, along with the high percentageof hand-madepottery
1967-68) was published in SA I97I, 2I, 148-56. A survey of found in the city, and with the rich tumulus burials of the
the results obtained on the akropoliswas done by Marchenko same period, have given rise to the belief that the Scythians,
for Ziva Antika (Skopje) xxv (I975) I-2, 318 if. During the including their nobility, participated in its life. Similar con-
period 1970-80, excavations by I. Marchenko and, since 1977 clusions, based on a wide survey of the Crimea and the Kerch
by Tolstikov, have laid bare a late Hellenisticprytaneion,and Peninsula, have been reached by Yakovenko, that it was

Scythians, not Kimmerians, Sindoi, or Greeks, who lived in adjoining one yielded a piece of plasteron which was incised
most of the settlements of the interior though perhaps some a cataphract rider, describedby the excavators as being as fine
Tauroi or Sindoi had been taken into the cities. The survey a representationas the cataphractfrom Doura-Europos (in-
included 340 settlements and 13 burial grounds (I. T. Krug- formation Goroncharovsky and Tokhtasyev). Burials and
likova, Selskoye Khozyaistvo Bospora, 1975; Yakovenko, 'ritual structures'(circularand rectangular)in the necropolis
Tskhaltuboii 248-59). Some disagreement exists among have been publishedby Kublanov (KSIA clix [I979] 90-7).
archaeologistsas to this, for Yakovenko refutes a theory that Another site, some 20 km. W of Kerch, has been subjectto
Kimmerian remnants were the basis of this population a great deal of excavationin the I960s and I970s. Mikhailovka
(Maslennikov, SA 1978, I, 30; VDI 1981, I, I50-62). A is a multi-period site, with remainsfrom the 4th cent. B.C. to
survey of the place-names, 39 for 35 towns, on both sides of the 4th cent. A.D. It is a large fortified site, about I sq. km. in
the Bosporos, has been used to show the strong post- area,rising 25-30 m. above a river, which surroundsit on three
Kimmerian and Sindian population elements (Maslennikov, sides. Peters suggests (AO 1978, 387-8) that, by the ist cent.
Tskhaltuboi 138-4I). A.D., the fort was a part of the defensive line between the
At Myrmekion burials of the Ist-2nd cents A.D. were Azov and Black Seas, which was mentioned by Strabo in his
excavated (AO 1974, 328), and published in KSIA clxviii Geographia(vii 4.3). He also suggests that earlier, towards the
[I98I] 73-6. At Kytaia at the Pontos entranceto the Bosporos, end of the 4th cent. B.C., it had been the scene of the battle,
35 km. from Kerch, excavations have been carriedout from which saw the defeat of Eumelos and Ariphernes.It took place
I972-80, on the line of the W, S and E defences. Mainly the by a river, and under a 'royal fortress', the victor being
layers were 4th or 3rd cents B.C. with a destruction in the SatyrosII (Diod. Sic. xx 22.23). The site would then be where
3rd-2nd cents. The defensive wall was strengthened from Satyros died in a subsequentsiege, and where Eumelos settled
nearly 3 m. wide to nearly 3.5 m. after this (AO 1972, 259; some immigrantsfrom Kallatis,on the Rumanian coast of the
AO g980,285). A tumulus necropolis outside the walls to Black Sea (Diod. Sic. xx 25.3; AO 1980, 302).
the NW was excavated in 1977-80; it proved to contain 4th
cent. burialsand some stone-lined vaults of the ISt cents B.C. Tanais (Nedvigovka) at the mouth of the Don, and its
to A.D. (AO 1977, 359; AO 1980, 285). seemingly less formally organized predecessor at Eliza-
Tyritake (Kamysh Burun) has been less excavated vetovskoye, some 17 km. to the SE on an island in the delta,
recently, but in 1974 some 8,500 sq. m. were excavated in the have both been the object of almost annual excavation for
NW portion of the town. The N and W walls remain for many years (Fig. I9). Brief reports have appearedregularly
lengths of I7.4 m. (including a tower) and for 20 m. respect- in AO concerning both the town areas and the necropoleis,
ively. Material dating from the 6th cent. B.C. to the end of but a series of monographs concerning Tanais has also ap-
the 4th cent. A.D. was recovered, including 53 amphora peared- AntichnyeDrevnostiPodonya- Priazovya,I969= MIA
stamps of Sinope, Rhodes, Thasos and Herakleia(AO 1974, cliv; D. B. Shelov, Tanaisi Nizhny Don v III-I vekakhdo n.e,
286). The small town of Porthmeus at the NE tip of the 1970; Tanaisi Nizhny Don v pervyevekanasheiery, 1972. These
Kerch Peninsulawas excavated in the I960s, and again in the last two give a connected account of Tanais (the site at
I970S up to I978. It is situated near the railway crossing Nedvigovka) from its beginnings in the first quarter of the
between the Kerchand TamanPeninsulas,and in ancienttimes 3rd cent. B.C. to the destruction by the Goths in the mid
was at the crossingpoint over the Bosporos, as its name shows. 3rd cent. A.D., with a brief reoccupationfrom c. 350-400 (red-
The township existed from the late 6th cent. B.C., with a glazed ware, KSIA clviii [1981] 43-7). Shelov also discusses
re-planningin the late 3rd cent. and lastingdown to c. 50 B.C. separatelythe date of first foundation of Tanais. 'West slope'
The W wall, a tower and gates have been uncovered (AO ware, coins of the early 3rd cent. B.C. and amphorae, in-
1974, 252-3). Most interesting was the regular planning into cluding a large number of Rhodian ones, all point to the same
twelve blocks, separated by streets, following the major period (Sbornik Zhebelyov 300-9). An extensive study by
points of the compass.Blocks were 42 m. long by I m. wide, Shelov of the amphorae imported into Tanais in the 3rd and
except for the two central blocks of the E half, which were 2nd cents B.C. shows a pattern,repeatedin Phanagoriaon the
63.5 m. long (AO 1978, 333-4). The town seems to have been Asiatic side of the Bosporos, rather than at Pantikapaion.Of
destroyed in the events surroundingthe end of the Mithridatic 609 amphorastamps,530 were Rhodian, 12 Knidian, 14 Koan;
dynasty. only 32 were of Sinope and 5 of Khersonesos (Shelov,
The Bosporan town of Ilouraton, mentioned by Ptolemy Keramicheskiye Kleima iz TanaisaIII-I vekov do n.e., 1975).
as situated NW of Tyritake, is identified with the fort- The fact that there were no Herakleiot stamps is probably an
township at Ivanovka, 18 km. SW of Kerch. Earlierexcava- indicatorthat the stampingof Herakleia'samphoraewas being
tions up to I96I were reported by Kublanov (KSIA cxxviii phased out in the early 3rd cent. B.C. Excavations in the
[I97I] 76-85), and those of I966 and I968 by I. G. Shurgaya necropolis between 1961 and 1971 are published by T. M.
(KSIA cxxiv [I970] 6I-9). Most recentreportsareby Shurgaya, Arsenyeva (Nekropol Tanaisa, I977). She notices a gradual
Goroncharovsky, Tokhtasyev and Vinogradov (AO 1977, 'Sarmatisation'of burialpracticeduring the Hellenisticperiod,
404-5; 1978, 426-7). Goroncharovskywill produce the report with a second wave in the 2nd cent. A.D. 'Chernyakov'
for 1982. The town lasted from the IStto the 3rd cents A.D.; cultural influencesare referredto in the last period, the later
a hoard of 66 billon Bosporan statersof Rheskuporis V was 4th and early 5th cents A.D. The activity of the museum-park
found in one house, giving a termnintspostquernof A.D. 242-67 in consolidation and display at Tanais is summarised by
for its destruction by the Goths (Frolova, VDI 1982, I, 9I-7). Arsenyeva and Kazakova(SA 1982, 2, 292-7).
The town was divided into regular blocks. The defensive The site at Elizavetovskoye, and the adjacenttumuli, gives
walls had a thickening in the lower rows (an anti-battering an impressionof a mixed population. Shelov (Tanaisi Nizhny
measure), being 8.2 m. thick up to a height of 3 m. next to Don... [I970] 69) accepted an idea, found already in Minns
the SE gates. Remains of three houses were found near the (Scythiansand Greeks, 1913), that it is to be identified with
crossing of the two main streets.Two rooms in house No. 3 Alopekia, a 'settlement of mixed people' (Strabo xi 2.3) on
are of interest; one probably stabled a cavalry horse, and an an island in front of the R. Tanais at a distanceof Ioo stades.
88 J. G. F. HIND


Fig. 19

Brashinsky,who excavated at Elizavetovskoye from 1966-78, Zapiski i [I957] 95; V. D. Blavatsky, SA

was more ambivalent in his approach to the identification, 1961, 4, 148 ff; V. F. Gaidukevich, Problemy Sotsialno-
accepting it in 1973 (KSIA cxxx 54-61), but seeming to prefer Ekonomicheskoi Istorii Drevnevo Mira [I963] 292-30I). If it
to call it an 'important trading settlement', such as Strabo were an emporionone would expect numerous contempor-
describesTanais itself in his own time, 'a market common to aneousnative villages with which the Greekstraded,but there
the Europeanand Asiatic nomads, and to men sailing up the is no sign of these in the late 6th or early 5th cents B.C.
Lake Maiotis from Bosporos'. Perhaps the katoikiamigadon Brashinsky, unlike Shelov (KSIA cxxx [1970] 96) comes out
anthroponat Elizavetovskoye was simply the remains of a againstthis idea, in favour of one that the short-livedTaganrog
former flourishing settlement, which survived after the settlementwas a fishing settlement,perhapsthe 'Klazomeniam
foundation of Tanais. The dates of the township and burial Look-Outs' mentioned by Strabo (xi 2.4) (Tskhaltuboii
ground seem to chime with this. Brashinsky sees them as 84-7). Brashinskybelieves that the population on the lower
commencing c. 475 B.C. and going on to the end of the 4th, Don down to the 6th-5th cent. was largely Scythian; an
or early 3rd cent. (Tskhaltuboii 84-92; GrecheskyKeranmichesky interesting female burial with a Scythian type of mirror
Importna Nizhnem Donu v. V-III vekakh do n.e. [Ig80] 99-IoI). appearsto illustratethis, just as an armed female of the mid
Huge numbers of Thasian and Herakleiot amphorae were 5th cent. is taken to epitomise the Sarmatianadvance (KSIA
imported, but rf pelikai, skyphoi, and large amounts of bg cxxxiii [I973] 54-60).
ware are found. Some Chiot swollen-necked amphorae and Sarmatianburialsfrom this area usually contain much later
late bf kylikes allow a starting date in the early 5th cent. A material. A good example is the rich burial of the ist cent.
small settlement at Dugino, 7 km. to the NW, has the same B.C.-Ist A.D. found in 1962 only 2 km. from where the
patternof occupationfrom the 5th to 3rd cents B.C. (AO 1972, 'Novocherkassk Treasure' was found in I864. Among the
II5; AO 1974, 99). Trade reachedup far inland to the middle contents were eight Sarmatian gold phaleraeand six silver
reachesof the Don, where many Greek objects of the 5th-3rd medallion dishes in classical style (Fig. 20) (Kaposhina,
centuries have been found (area of the Boudinoi?). An inter- Antiquity xxxvii [1963] 256-7; Sbornik Zhebelyov 163-71).
esting find was the cache of unfinished drinking horns from
Elizavetovskoye town (AO 1972, II5), and more recently the The Taman Peninsula and the Lower Kuban Area. The
excavation of a substantialstores-buildingof c. 35o-early 3rd region to the E or 'Asiatic' side of the Kimmerian Bosporos
cent. B.C. This contained, in addition to numerous amphorae, was settled by Maeotian tribes,Sindoi and by Dandarioito the
one (unique in the Black Sea area) of 'Punic' type, a large E of the mouth of the Kuban (Antikites) along the Sea of
number of glass beads, and 'Phoenician' type glass bearded Azov. Six major Hellenic or mixed settlements, as well as
head amulets (AO 1979, 99-Ioo; 1980, 97-8). Brashinsky notes some townships and necropoleis of the Sindoi have been
the raritiesamong the amphorae- Samianof the 5th cent. B.C., excavated and published recently. L. I. Korovina has pub-
Corinthian and Kolkhian (Grechesky Import... 15, 29-30, 32). lished the results of excavations in the little town and necro-
In the years between 1945 and 1965 there grew up an idea polis of Tyrambe, some 20 km. E of Phanagoria, and the
that near Taganrog (but now underwaterthrough erosion or most north-easterly Bosporan post along the Sea of Azov
rise in the water level) was a Greek emporion,representednow (SGMII iv [1968] 55-84). Overall 163 burialswere excavated,
by some late archaic pottery only (V. Lunin, Taganrog 22 of the 6th-5th cents B.C., the latest of the 3rd cent. A.D.

had been destroyed, perhapsin a Sarmatianraid, the area was

later occupied by the fortified residence of a Hellenised
Sarmatianchief, named Chrysaliskos(c. 47-17 B.C.). Later it
was downgraded into being just another of the forts of
Phantalovsky Island. It seems to have been finally destroyed
in the early 2nd cent. A.D., under Sauromates II (N. I.
Sokolsky, TamanskyTholos i ResidentsiaChrysaliska,1976).
Furtherelements of the 3rd to 2nd cent. complex were found
in 1976-78, including a peristyle building of more modest
aspect. These structures are thought to be the subsidiary
buildings, servicing a temple economy, such as are found
mentioned in Bosporan inscriptionsof a later date (AO 1976,
122; I977, 143-4; Tskhaltubo iii 90-I).
Hermonassa (Tamansk), on the N shore of the most S
part of the Taman Peninsula, is another site where the early
levels are of the greatestinterest.I. B. Zeyest alreadyhas drawn

Fig. 20

There was a strong native element among the inhabitants,and

Korovina identifies these with the Dandarioi. One fabric of
pottery found was, seemingly, from Phanagoria,and another
from a different, still unidentified, centre on the Taman
Peninsula(Tskhaltuboii 267-72). In the necropolis the earliest
burials have produced some Attic bf kylikes (on ring foot),
and some miniatureCorinthianskyphoi - pottery generallyof
the late 6th and early 5th cents B.C.
At Kepoi excavations were carried out between 1957 and
I973. This was a small colony of the Milesians, until merged
with the Bosporan state, perhaps c. 480 B.C. Some striking
finds have been made here of the early period, including the
small head of an archaic kouros (SA 1962, 2, I34-4I). The
results of excavation were summarized by N. I. Sokolsky
Acta Antiqua Philippopolitana [Sofia, 1963] 11-19). In 1973 an
earlier deposit of pottery than any yet known from the site
was found in a hollow S of an archaic house found in I97I.
Here were found fragments of rosette bowls, lotus bowls,
Chiot chalices, one with the representationof a bull's head,
and one with a siren as exterior decoration. There were also
severalflat-bottomed amphorae, one of which had decoration
in the form of a goat, running with head turned back, dating Fig. 21
to c. 600-575 B.C., and what is describedas an 'urn' of reddish
clay with concentric circle ornament. Nikolayeva dates the
foundation of Kepoi to the first third of the 6th cent. B.C. on attention to the thicknessof the archaiclevels at Hermonassa
the strength of these finds (Tskhaltuboi 142-4). Another (SbornikZhebelyovI44-8). She showed the early importance
majorfind from Sokolsky'sexcavationswas the 2nd cent. B.C. of this site, from the early 6th cent. down to the 5th, when a
temple of Aphrodite which had been destroyed by the Ist change in building layout occurred. There was, perhaps, less
cent. B.C. (SA 1964, 4, II5). But he has shown that the cult prosperity here when the Spartokidscame to power on the
of Aphrodite here dates from much earlier. The base of a Bosporos c. 438 B.C. (SA 1974, 4, 85 if.). Blavatsky, Sokolsky
kylix of late 6th or early 5th cent. date found in 1970 has on and others have all pointed up the relative early importance
it a graffitoto Aphrodite (VDI 1973, 4, 88-9). Aphrodite also of the GulfofTaman, and the ancientopening of the R. Kuban
figured in an inscriptiondedicated in the time of SpartokosII, into it. Hermonassa,Kepoi and Phanagoriawere all on this
found in 1963 (Belova, VDI, 1970, 2, 65-72). gulf, though the two latter were nearer its inner, eastern,
At Za Rodinu, 1.5 km. from the sea of Azov, an extra- recess. Since I976 excavationsat Tamanskhave been renewed
ordinary building complex was excavated between 1970 and by Korovina. In I978 more archaic material was found -
1973 by N. I. Sokolsky. A sanctuary,Apatouron, was found fragments of Chiot chalices, ring vases, Chiot amphorae
(one of three known of in the area) dating from the early 3rd (AO 1978, 131-2). But the main finds were buildings of the
cent. B.C. into the 2nd cent. It consisted of a colonnaded 4th and 3rd cents B.C. - a prytaneionbuilding, prostasin plan,
courtyardand a round tholos structure(Fig. 21). When this and a much later winery, of the 3rd to 4th cents A.D. (AO
90 J. G. F. HIND

I979, 113-14). Outstandingfinds made in the upper section of from Gorgippos, one of the Spartokidfamily, who may have
the town in I976 were a large fragment of a Panathenaic been its governor. Its earlier name is thought to have been
amphora (Athena plus shield), and two measures,bearing the Sindike, or Sindikos Limen. Excavations here in the I960s
name of an agoranomos - Apollodoros (AO I976, I05). In the were by Kruglikova (KSIA cviii [I966]), and Tsvetayeva
N sector a large public building, and an altar covered in (KSIA cxvi [I969]). Kruglikova has written a study of the
bird-skeletons came to light (AO 1980, Io5-6). Early silver position of Gorgippia in the 4th to 2nd cents B.C., during
coins of the Bosporos, found on the Taman peninsula, are which time it belonged to the archonsof Bosporos (VDI 1971,
published by Rozov (SA 1983. 2, IO9-II6). I, 89-Ioo). A proxeny decree from Anapa was published by
Boltunova (VDI 1964, 3, 136-49), leading to dispute on two
Phanagoria, a foundation from Teios of the 540s B.C., points, whether there was a Seleukos in the Spartokidfamily
eventually became the capital of the E half of the Bosporan tree, and whetherjoint rule was the norm in the dynasty from
kingdom. Some tidying-up publication of earlier finds was the start (N. Grach, SbornikZhebelyov,Io8-II4). Kruglikova
done in 1968. The rf pottery from excavations in 1936-38 has also published coin finds from Gorgippia, 1960-66, nearly
was published by Loseva (SGMII iv 94-9). More recently 240 coins from the 4th cent. B.C. down to Rheskuporis III,
excavationshave been carriedout there by Kobylina (1972-74) A.D. 233-4 (Num. i Epigr.viii [1970] 27-47).
and then by a large team of archaeologists, especially in Excavations within Anapa have been carried out by
1976-78. The late archaicperiod is well representedwith four Tsvetayeva, Kruglikova, et al. in the period. In 1972-76, in
houses uncovered on the upper plateau in 1975-77, the earliest sections 'Town' and 'Town II', buildings dating from the 4th
being ofc. 550 B.C. (AO 1976, 86; 1977, Io4). An exceptional cent. B.C. to the 3rd cent. A.D. were found, in one area
find, made in I976, was a fragmentaryproxeny decree, found retainingthe same plan throughout(AO 1972, o08).Unusually
in the territory of the city, which mentions the right of for Anapa a 5th-cent. burial was found in 1979, and in the
enktesis, as well as politeia (AO 1976, 86). In 1972-74 Kobylina following year several similar ones turned up, chiefly in the
found a large building of the 5th to 4th cents B.C., which is 'Gorgippia Park' area (AO 1979, 9I-2; 1980, 94-5). Some 67
said to be a temple; architecturaldetail, e.g. egg-and-dart burialswere excavated in the centre of Gorgippia necropolis,
moulding, was found (AO 1972, 129; 1974, III). Sculpture predominantlydating from the 4th cent. B.C. to the 2nd A.D.
has been found in some profusion - a headless,draped,statue, An interestingfind of 1979 was a bronze statuetteof Poseidon.
of the 2nd-Ist cent. B.C. (AO 1974, III), and a fragment of a Two years earlier, a fine, large bg oinochoe, with gilt decor-
large cult dish, on which is represented Aphrodite in a tall ation in the form of two drapedfigures and ivy leaves, dating
headdress. A gold stater of Lysimakhos was also found - a to the 4th cent. B.C., was found (AO 1977, I38-9).
highly unusual circumstancein excavations (AO 1974, I12). In the region around Anapa some eighty settlements and
Three articles on coins, inscriptions and sculpture from burial grounds have been plotted, mostly of the 4th and 3rd
Phanagoria help to round out the information on this city. cents B.C. (AO 1974, 94-5; Salov, KSIA clix [1979] 98-102
N. A. Frolova publishesthe coin finds of 1962-75 (VDI 1981, with map). Five coin hoards, spanning the 2nd cent. B.C. to
100-I3); Belova discusses the recent finds of inscriptions the 4th A.D. are discussedby Nesterenko (KSIA clxviii [198I]
(VDI 1977, 3, 105-I7), and Sokolov discusses the stone reliefs 85-7). The necropolisof the native Sindoi at 'Rassvyet', I2 km.
of 'archaistic style', which were found near Phanagoria in NE of Anapa,was excavatedbetween 1965 and 1972, and 1975
1970, and are dated by him to c. 200-I50 B.C. (VDI 1975, 3) and I977. About 145 burials of the period c. 550 B.C. to 250
(Fig. 22). It may be worth adding that much of the lower B.C. were excavated. Of pottery among the grave goods,
towns of both Phanagoria and Kepoi is under the waters of hand-made wares predominated. Burials containing weapons
the gulf. The early layers of Phanagoria, excavated 1959-72, were common (AO 1972, 131-2). The excavators conclude
are discussed by Kobylina (SA I983. 2, 5i-6I). that 'Hellenization'was marked, though maybe not deep, and
different only in degree from that among the more remote
Gorgippia (modern Anapa) was the most SE of the major Maeotae (Tskhaltuboi 101-4). In a series of articles published
towns of the Bosporan Kingdom. It probably took its name shortly before his death Sokolsky discussed the distinctive
types of stone funerary sculpture produced by the Sindoi,
in particulara series of draped half-figuresand reliefs, dating
from the 4th cent. B.C. to the Ist or 2nd A.D. (Kultura
AntichnovoMira [I966] 243-57; AntichnoyeObschestvo[1967]
I93-204; SbornikPharmakovsky187-98). The Sindian origin
of these monuments, which come mostly from Phanagoriaor
Gorgippia, seems certain (Le rayonnementdes civilisations
greque et romainesur les culturesperiphe'riques [Paris, 1965]
Considerabledebate has arisenconcerning the nature of the
Sindoi, their level of social development and even their race.
They are usually said to have been North Caucasian(KSIA
xcviii [1964] Iff.), but recently Trubachev has suggested that
they were a portion of the same people who settled in Sind in
Pakistan(VoprosyYazykoznaniya1976, 4, 39 f.), and were of
Indo-Iranianstock. On the question of their level of organis-
ation there has been a recent move away from the tendency
to regardthe Sindoi as having possesseda developed stateeven
before their incorporation in Bosporos. Both Ju. Krushkol
and D. Shelov now argue against positions which they had
Fig. 22 previously taken up (Krushkol, Drevnyaya Sindika [1971];

Hellenische Poleis ii [1974] 608-47; Shelov, Monetnoye Dyelo Bosporan Kingdom (Tskhaltuboiii 76-8I). Near Gelendzhik,
Bospora[1956] 43 if.). They argue plausibly that the Sindoi at Tonky Mys, was found a large rectangularbuilding, half-
were merely the nearestand most Hellenized of the Maeotian eroded by the sea, which has risen by some 4 m. in this area
peoples, and not an organizedstate. They now suggest that the relativeto the coast. This structurestartedin the 6th cent. B.C.;
coinage of the Sindoi belonged to the Greek settlement among the pottery was E Greek ware of the later 6th cent.
Sindike or Sindikos Limen, the precursor of Gorgippia along with 'Proto-Thasian'and Chiot amphorae.It is thought
(Krushkol, Tskhaltuboi 113-18; Shelov, Tskhaltuboii 232-47= to have been destroyed by fire in the first half of the 5th cent.
Thracia Pontica i 3I-9). Grach had already some years pre- B.C. (AO 1972, I43-4; I974, I22-4; KSIA cxlv [1976] 35 if.).
viously, in publishing a coin found at Myrmekion, argued Onaiko identifiesit as the ancientTorikos, and the headlandto
that the issuing body was Sindikos Limcn and not the tribe be the Cape of the Toretai(N. A. Onaiko, Arkhaichesky Torik-
(VDI 1972, 3, I33). But the very name is unusual for a polis Antichny Gorod na Severo - Vostokye Ponta, I980). In addition
('Sindian Harbour'). Perhaps there was an immigrant com- there have been excavationsat a number of sitesnear Novoros-
munity in the harbourwhich was dependent on the Sindoi in siisk(Myskhako),or to its north (at Tsemdolina, and Shirokaya
the 5th cent., not being sufficient in numbers to be a polis. Balka). Myskhako dates to the late 6th and 5th cents B.C.,
No 6th-5th cent. Greektown has yet been found at Anapa. On Tsemdolina from the 2nd cent. B.C. to the ist cent. A.D., and
the other hand Greek die-cutters could have worked for a ShirokayaBalkafrom Roman on to Byzantinetimes (AO I979,
developing kingdom of the Sindoi. One does not need to 121-2; I980, 14). The prize find at Myskhako was a Bosporan
overestimate the level of 'state-hood' needed to commission gold staterofKotys (A.D. 49), with Claudiuson the obverseand
coinage, since the southern Thracians put out prolific issues Britannicuson the reverse. Onaiko suggests that this seriesof
of large coins from a much earlierperiod (for Sindiancoinage, fortified agriculturalsettlements was designed to hold down
see Shelov, Coinage of the Bosporus(BAR Supp. series xlvi the area from Anapa to Novorossiisk, and that Rayevskoye
[1978] 27-32). Finally on the Sindoi, a useful collection of the inland was also an important outpost for the Bosporan
literary evidence is given by Krushkol (Studienzur Geschichte Kingdom. Many of the series, including Vladimirovka,
undPhilosophiedesAltertums,ed. J. Harmatta[1968] 293-8). Tsemdolina and the rich 'villa' at Shirokaya Balka, were
destroyed, so Onaiko suggests,in the disturbancesaccompany-
GREEK CITIES & PEOPLES OF THE HINTERLAND OF ing the war between Kotys and MithridatesVIII.
Before turning to the E coast of the Black Sea and Kolkhis
j, -O TISIAZOV SEA some more general books on ancient art in the area should be
t C
mentioned: G. Sokolov, AntiqueArt on the NorthernBlackSea
Coast (I974) and M. M. Kobylina, Antichnaya Skulptura
SevernovoPrichernomorya [Moscow, 1972] which deals in the
main with sculpturein the round and a very few reliefs. There
is also a monograph on ancient carving in wood from the
region, by N. Sokolsky, Derevo-Obrabatyvayuschee Remeslo
(MIA clxxviii [197I]), and a second on wooden sarcophagi
(N. Sokolsky, DerevyannyeSarkophagi[I969]).

Kolkhis (Abkhazia and Western Georgia). The W

boundary of Kolkhis was the E shore of the Black Sea, a coast
stretchingfrom the R. Bzyb in the N to the Chorokh in the S.
A little to the N of Kolkhis proper were Pityous (Pitzunda)
and Dioskourias(Sukhumi)in the territoryof the Heniokhoi.
Thereafter,from N to S lay Gyenos at Ochamchire,Phasisor
those settlements,near its old opening into the sea, that have
been found (at Simagre, Chaladidi,Sarkokio). South of Phasis
lay the probably Greek settlement at Pichvnari, 10 km. N
of Kobuleti, of which the ancient name is not known, and
finally Bathys Limen (Batumi) and Apsaros (Gonio). The
literaryreferencesto the cities on this coast have been collected
and discussed by Lordkipanidze (Tskhaltubo i 187-91) and by
Fig. 23
Kaukhishvili (Tskhaltubo i 294-304). This has proved a
necessary,though not sufficient,step in the current debate as
Until the last decade, the north Caucasiancoast was almost to whether these coastal towns were poleis, or trading marts
an archaeological blank for the Greek and Roman periods dependent on the Kolkhian state, the very existence of which
(Fig. 23). There appear to have been two areas of coastal in the 6th to 3rd cents B.C. is the subjectof lively debate.
settlement - one around Novorossiisk, and one near Gelend- The most northerly site has, in spite of its early-looking
zhik (SA 1970, I, 130 ff.). The more northerly,in Novorossiisk name, Pityous (Pitzunda, Bichvint), produced some fine
Bay is identified as the ancient Bata. with a port area inside Byzantine churches with mosaics, but nothing so far of the
the bay and a village on the right bank of the R. Tsemes. A ancient period, except for a Roman fort and extra-mural
big surpriseis the amount of imported Attic bf and rf pottery settlement of the ist to 6th cents A.D. The late Roman layers
from there, dating to c. 450-300 B.C. (VDI 1976, I, Io7-I6). contained a number of small bronze coins of Trapezous, and
N. A. Onaiko is the excavator here. She has also given a Roman issues of Constantine and his family. Destruction
generalaccount of this settlementin the subsequentHellenistic layers of the 3rd, 4th and 6th cents were detected (AO I976,
period in an article concerned with the SE boundariesof the 462; 1977, 484; 1978, 5oo).
92 J. G. F. HIND

Dioskouriaswas the present-daySukhumi, andprobably rather than a minor Greek colony. The possibility of an
the same site (at a higherlevel) was re-foundedin Roman apoikiaat Dioskourias cannot be ruled out even for the 6th
times as Sebastopolis. Near the mouth of the small river cent. By the late 5th cent. its influence can be traced in the
Besletkaa numberof findshavebeen made,including(7 m. nearby native settlements, though the contemporary town is
from the shore)a by now well-knowngravesteleof the late still not in evidence. A 6th-cent. burial from near Sukhumi is
5thcent.B.C., but alsoamphorae,a sarcophagus andcoins.It published by Shamba(KSIA clxxiv [1983] 33-7).
is supposedthat the necropolislay thereabouts,underwater Gyenos (Ochamchire) was almost totally ignored by the
(Pachulia,ILN April25, 1964,Arch.No. 2I18). ancient sources, except by Ps.-Skylax, who calls it a 'Greek
Remainsof towersandcurtainwallsof RomanSebastopolis city'. The place may also be Mela's Cycnus (vi I3.14), in
have been found near Sukhumifort, also underwater.On which case its status as an anciently known and named town
land,thelowestlevelswhicharchaeologists haveso farreached is assured(Lordkipanidze,DrevnyayaKolkidaI31-2). Pottery
withoutgoing below the watertableare of the ist and 2nd of the 5th to 4th cents from Ochamchire has recently been
centsA.D. Henceno layersof Classicalor Hellenisticdateat said to be predominantly Greek (Voronov, SA 1976, 4,
Dioskouriasare known, though isolated objects are (O. 42-55). It now appears that this was due to the selective
Lordkipanidze, DrevnyayaKolkhida[1979]I33-43). There is removal of imported pottery from the site to Ochamchire
dispute as to whether Dioskouriaswas a polis of a type re- Museum. A settlement mound, excavated in 1977-78, seems
quiringlandallotmentandpossessingits own civic organiza- to show the Kolkhian population on the eve of Greek contact.
tion andmanufacturing industry.Boltunovaarguesthatit, as It was situated at the mouth of the nearby R. Mokva (AO
well as Phasis,were poleisin the fullestsense of the word 1977, 474; Kvirkvelia, Tskhaltuboii 34I-7).
(Tskhaltubo i 268-9). The discovery of amphorahandles
stamped'Dioskou', and dating to the Hellenisticperiod, The city of Phasis is to be traced only by its activity in
seemsto point to some civic organizationby then(SA 1977, trade within the valley of the lower Rioni. This is rather
2, 165). A terracotta statuetteof Demeter,from nearwhere because of the silting caused by the river than because of
the stele was found, gives anotherpointer to where the erosion or rise in the sea level. The area of PataraPoti seems
necropolis lies (Tskhaltuboi 342). to have been occupied only from the 5th cent. A.D. One has
Around Sukhumi were a number of north Kolkhian to go upstream to some 18 km. E of Poti to find settlements
settlements,perhapsof the Heniokhoidatingfrom the EIA of the 6th to 2nd cents B.C. The most interesting are the
onwards.Therewas not muchGreekimporttherebeforethe large timber buildings on a mound at Simagre, on the left
mid5thcent.B.C., thoughtwo early5thcent.Chiotamphorae bank of the Rioni (Fig. 24). Attic bf pottery, including
come fromthe area.At KrasnyMayak,Guadikha,Sukhums- Little Master cups, as well as Chiot amphorae and 'Ps.-
kayaGora,andat a settlementnearSukhumirailwaystation, Samian'amphoraewere found in layersII-III.These structures,
Greekimportedpotteryis notedin increasingquantityin the which are thought to have been not far from the missing city,
mid to late 5th cent. B.C. (Tskhaltuboi 317-21; 34I-2). were destroyedc. 450 B.C. (Mikeladze,KSIA cli [1977] 12-23).
Recentlythe nearbysettlementat Esherahasproducedarchaic At Simagre there was also a group (9 houses excavated) of
pottery,includingrosettebowls. Attic bf and rf ware. The buildings of the 5th and 4th cents followed by others of the
importedpottery,takenall together,makesup some o°%of 3rd and 2nd cents. At Poti itself the earliest settlement so far
the total(AO 1978,509).This seemsto be a caseof a com- known is of the 2nd cent. A.D. (Tskhaltuboi 294-9).
munity exceptionallyinterestedin obtainingGreekobjects, In the Rioni valley Greek imported material of the early

Fig. 24

period is found only at Simagre in any quantity. Further

inland certain rich burials of the 5th and 4th cents at Vani
contained Attic imported goods, and they occur also at
Istkhvisi (Tskhaltuboii I98I, 292-314). During the Hellenistic
period the penetrationof Greekpainted pottery and amphorae
is much greater. As one example Sakanchi, I km. from Vani,
may be cited, where the settlement flourished most in the
second century B.C. A rectangularGreek-style altar here is
taken to imply the presence of Greek settlers (Tskhaltuboiii
54-5). Higher up-river, at Sairkhe, in the headwaters of the
R. Kviril, was found a stone-built temple, a Doric capital of
somewhat archaicstyle being among the finds. It is suggested
that Greek workmen may have been used in building it
(Tskhaltuboi 324).
Much discussionhas centred on the Kolkhian coinage. This
is closely linked with views on whether the Greek settlement
at Phasiswas a polis (Boltunova, Tskhaltuboi 269), an emporion
(O. Lordkipanidze, Tskhaltuboi 202), a city in which the Fig. 26
leading part was taken by the pre-existing Kolkhoi (Inadze,
Prichernomorskiye Goroda Drevnei Kolkhidy [1968] 142-58), perhaps in the decades before the sack of Miletos itself in
or one in which Greek settlerstook the leading role, and had 494 B.C.
rights of land-holding etc. (Tskhaltuboi 196). The coinage By the late 5th cent. and through into the Hellenisticperiod
itself has been studied by Boltunova (VDI 1973, 4, 92-Io2), the Rioni valley was heavily penetratedby Greek culture, as
and by G. Dundua (Tskhaltuboi 280-3). It seems that the can be traced through Attic pottery, jewellery and metalwork
didrachmsand the rarer types of small denominations belong (Matiaschvili,KSIA [I977] cli 71-4), and through coin finds
to a city mint (probablythe missing Phasis),but that the small of, for instance, Mithridatesand his Pontic cities (Dundua and
triobols of type 2, which are found in huge numbers on 4th- G. A. Lordkipanidze, Tskhaltuboiii 30-I). The general
2nd cent. Kolkhian sites may well have been struck for use theme of Hellenistic import into Kolkhis was treatedgenerally
throughout the kingdom or skeptouchiesof Kolkhis. One by 0. Lordkipanidze(SbornikZhebelyov23 7-8), and the specific
advance in this matter is the discovery of a new type of topic of the import of Athenian silverware into Vani in the
Kolkhian coin at Pichvnary in I968. Three very small coins 5th cent. B.C. was discussedalso by 0. Lordkipanidze(Sbornik
(wt. o.I50 gm.; o.III gm.; O.II0 gm.: tetartemoria or hemi- PharmakovskyI43-50). For an up-to-date survey of 'The
tetartemoria)were found, with the standardhuman head to r. Graeco-Roman World, and Ancient Georgia' see 0. D.
on the obverse but on the reverse side an unidentified bird Lordkipanidze(Coll. de L'EcoleFranfaisede Rome lxvii [1983]
(phasianaornis?)(Tskhaltuboi 281). Most of the varied types I23-I44).
of Kolkhian coins are found near the coast, though the
numbers of such coin finds are very small. Nonetheless, it Vani, some oo00 km. from the present coast has been the
appearsthat the coinage probably started at Milesian Phasis, subject of intensive excavation and now extensive publication
(O. D. Lordkipanidze, Vani i, 1972; ii, 1976; iii, 1978; iv,
I979). Something was said of this Kolkhian centre (perhaps
in the last report of 1971-72
the seat of one of the skeptoukhoi)
and much more in two reports by Lordkipanidzehimself in
two western journals (RA 1971, 259 ff.; BCH xcviii [1974]
894 if.). The town flourished most in the later 4th and 3rd
cents B.C., though a few very rich burialsof the late 5th and
early 4th centuriesfound in 1969 show a great concentration
of wealth in the hands of a few individuals (Figs 25, 26).
Vani seems eventually to have been ruined in a double disaster
at the time of Pharnakesand Mithridatesof Pergamon (49 and
47 B.C.). For Kolkhis generally the effect of Mithridates
Eupator's empire around the Pontos has been studied by
Shelov (VDI 1980, 3, 28-43). Before leaving the centre of
Kolkhis for the SE shore of the Black Sea, two general books
on the areaby 0. D. Lordkipanidzeshould be mentioned, one
on the culture of the people (KulturaDrevneiKolkhidy,1972),
and one on theirhistoryand archaeology(DrevnyayaKolkhida-
Myth i Arkheologia, 1979). Lordkipanidze's earlier book
(AntichnyMir i DrevnyayaKolkhidaVI-II vekakhdo n.e., 1966),
and that by M. P. Inadze (Prichernomorskiye GorodaDrevnei
Kolkhidy, I968) also deserve mention as dealing with the
relationsbetween the coastal Greek or mixed settlements,and
the peoples of the interior.
The remaining three townships on the coast of Kolkhis
were hardly typical Greek colonies, though some surprisingly
Fig. 25 early Greek material has been found there. At Pichvnari,
94 J. G. F. HIND

some o1 km. N of Kobuleti, by the outlet of the R. Cholok cents B.C. (Kurgany, Nakhodki, Problemy [1981] 75-I06).
into the sea, a native and what appearsto be a separateGreek Within the past ten years or so a great deal has been done
burial ground has been found. The main date of the Greek between the Danube and Dniestr, in particularto detect the
presence seems to have been from c. 460 to 340-30 B.C. The presenceof Northern Thracianswithin the NW of the Black
Greek pottery includes a rf hydria, a krater, lekythoi, a Sea area (T. D. Zlatkovskayaand A. I. Melyukova, Drevniye
'Mendean' amphora of the 5th cent. and Chiot and Thasian, Thrakiitsy v Severnom Prichernomorye,1969). The Kim-
as well as Herakleiot of the 4th cent. and glass amphoriskoi. merians themselves are thought to have been Thracian by
The total picture derived from this necropolis is very Hellenic some, becauseof their associationby Strabowith the Thracian
indeed. Excavations of I965-67 and 1972-75 have been Treres. Recently, it has been denied that there was any
reported on by Kakhidze (KSIA cli [1977] 4-12), and there movement of Kimmerians through Thrace in the 8th cent.
have been further seasons' work in Ig80 and I98I. Some 150 B.C. (Jordanov, ThraciaPonticai 183-8). The other route,
native burials were excavated, 74 Greek and 84 Hellenized through the Caucasus,along which Herodotus says they were
native, within the 4th and 3rd cents B.C. The interpretation followed by the Scythians,is much better attested(Hdt. i 15;
of the Pichvnari necropolis is that a group of Athenianswere iv 1-I2). A silver bowl found at Unye, E of Sinope on the N
attractedhere by the native skills in working the local iron- coast of Turkey is supposed to be Kimmerian (E. Akurgal,
sands and in mining in the coastal hill country. Kakhidze Antike Kunsti [1967] 328), because of its connections in style
points to the cases of Amisos and Nymphaion, where some and content with Caucasian metalwork, Phrygian pottery
Athenian settlers are attested (Tskhaltubo i 314-15), and and certainmotifs in Scythian art.
observes that coins of Amisos and Nymphaion have been For the Scythians the bibliographical list is very long.
found at Pichvnari, and that Kolkhian pithoi have been found General works are: B. N. Grakov, Skythy (1971); L. A.
at Nymphaion on the Bosporos. Yelnitsky, Skythia EuraziskikhStepei (Novosibirsk, 1977);
In the Hellenistic period the Pichvnari settlement flourished M. I. Artamonov, Kimnteriitsyi Skythy (Leningrad, I974).
greatly, reaching some 60 to 70 hectares. Trading contacts Social structure is studied by A. I. Terenozhkin (Skythy i
continued with Athens and Herakleia, but increasingly with Sarmaty, 1977, 3-28), as is the specific question of the nature
Sinope. Local potters were making tiles and amphorae of slavery among the Scyths by A. M. Khazanov (VDI 1972,
imitating Sinopian models (Brashinsky, 'Sinopa i Kolkhida', I). He has also produced a social history of the Scythians
Voprosy Drevnei Istorii [I973] 186-7; Kakhutaishvili i (SotsialnayaIstoriaSkythov,Moscow, I975). A modern study
Kakhidze, Tskhaltuboiii 96). The link with the West by sea as of Herodotus' understanding of Scythia (Bk. iv Skythikos
earlyas the 5th cent. B.C. is stressedalsoby the find at Pichvnari Logos)appearedin 1979 (Rybakov, GerodotovaSkythia).Not
(published in 1974) of imported coins consisting of two unnaturally, the magnificent finds of Scythian treasure in
Kyzikenes and an eagle-head type drachma of Sinope Haimanova Mogila in 1969-70 (AR 1971-72, 59), and in
(Kakhidze, VDI 1974, 3, 88-92). Sinope's strength by sea in Tolstaya Mogila in 1971 (ILN 1971, Arch. No. 2366), to the
the period after the fall of Athens, but undoubtedly also in NE of Solokha and W of Chertomlyk respectively, on either
the decadespreceding that, is well documented in Xenophon's side of the great bend in the Dniepr, have spurred on new
Anabasis (v II. 4-6). publications on the Scythians. Among these are I. B. Brash-
At Bathys Limen (Batumi) there was a Kolkhian settle- insky'sVPoiskakhSkythskikhSokrovysch (Leningrad,1979),and
ment, within the present-day fort precinct. It consisted of two books by A. M. Leskov, Die SkythischeKurgan- Antike
timber buildings on a defensive mound. This settlement of Welt, Sondernummer,1974, and Kurgany:Nakhodki,Problemy
the 8th and 7th cents B.C. was followed by a layer of the (Leningrad, 1981) esp. oo00-63.A new guide-book has been
early 6th cent. which contained some E Greek pottery, issued to the Hermitage Scythian Collection under the joint
including white-slipped Chiot amphorae (Voprosy Istorii authorship of J. V. Domansky, L. K. Galanina and G. I.
Narodov Kavkaza [1966] 69-72; Tskhaltubo i 312). A small Smirnova (Skythy, Iskusstvo,I98I). Two individual points of
amount of early pottery has also been found at Tsikhisdziri. identification have, if generally accepted, wider implications
At Apsaros (Gonio) a survey was done in 1961 on the left for the study of Scythian geography and politics. One is the
bank of the R. Chorokh, 8 km. S of Batumi. Some Sinopian identification of Belskoye, in the wooded steppe area N of
amphorae are noted from here, and a Kolkhian amphora ot Poltava, with the Gel5nos of Herodotus, in the lands of the
the 3rd or 2nd cent. B.C. was found in 1966 (Chkaidze, Boudinoi, to which Greeks had migrated from the coastal
Tskhaltuboiii Ioo). After the failure of Pichvnari in the later emporia(Kuzmina,Skythyi Sarmaty[I977] 73-95). Excavations
Hellenistic period Apsaros-Gonio seems to have developed, take place there annually, and the name Gelonos appearsto
being of importanceon the Roman limes(Tskhaltuboi 292-4). have settled upon the site, which is of the 7th to 3rd cents B.C.
By the 6th cent. A.D. the chief point in the area was Petra- (AO 1979, 353; 1980, 324); it has certainly produced a great
Tsikhizdziri. The original attraction to these sites on the SE deal of imported Greek pottery (Onaiko, AntichnyImiport ...
Georgian coast, it is argued, were the iron-sands and mines, 38-45, fig. 3-7). The second 'identification' is of a different
which were already worked in the pre-contact period kind. Vinogradov writes on the 'ring of Skyles', an object
(Tskhaltubo i 334-9). found Io km. S of Istros in the I930s (SA I980, 3, 92-I09). One
Before leaving the Soviet Union, a few recent books and recallsthat Skyles, in Herodotus' tale, was the son of a woman
articles on those major barbarianpeoples, the Kimmerians of Istros, who died because of his Hellenising tendencies dis-
and Scythians, should be mentioned. Two books have played at Olbia. Vinogradov'sis a bold attempt to reconstruct
recently discussed the relations between these two peoples, the 5th cent. political and dynastic history of Scythia, in
M. I. Artamonov, Kimmeriitsyi Skythy (Leningrad, 1974), particularits relations with the powerful Odrysian kingdom
and A. I. Terenozhkin, Kinmmeriitsy (Kiev, 1976). Articles by S of the Danube. Rich finds of Scythiangoldwork continue to
Chernyakov and Lyapushkinhave appearedon the theme in be found in burialmounds from the Azov Sea coast(AO I978,
Skythy i Sarmaty (Kiev, 1977: 29-36, 37-9). Leskov discusses 419) to the middle Dniepr (AO 1979, 317-19), where frontal
the problem of Kimmerians, identifying them with the Late ornamentsfor horses, and the richly decoratedcovering for a
Srubnaya (Timber-Frame) culture of the 9th to early 8th scabbardwere found.


Fig. 27

TURKEY 97-I02). The earliestcoinage of Sinope (eagle-headtype) has

been discussed recently in a paper arguing for a punning
The long northern coast contained a number of Greek significanceof the type (Hind, NC 1976, I-6); a large hoard
cities, Trapezous, Kerasous, Kotyora, Amisos, Sinope, Tios, of a 'barbarised'version of the type is now published by
Sesamosand Herakleia(see Figs i and 23). At none of these C. Kraay and P. Moorey (NC 1981, I-I9). A description of
have excavations taken place since the early I96os and the Sinop (Fig. 27) and some of the cities E of it, with an account
last report by Boardman (AR 1962-63, 5I). There have, of the collections in some of the small museumswas published
however, been some interesting studies and chance finds. some years ago (Hind, SA 1964, 3, 172-87). The eagle-on-
First should be mentioned the relatively old monograph, not dolphin coin type of Sinope, Istros and Olbia is treated by
hitherto mentioned, on the cities of the Sinopian sphere of Karyshkovsky (NAP [I982] 80-98).
influence and their Paphlagonian and Kolkhian hinterland For the earliest period of Sinope, a fragment of a late 7th
(M. I. Maximova, AntichnyeGorodaYugo-Vostochnovo Pricher- cent. B.C. dish, bearing decoration in the form of groups of
nomorya,1956). This book is a mine of information con- 6 rays alternatingwith meandersquaresand concentric circles,
cerning the literary references, the numismatic, epigraphic can be added to the publishedimported pottery (Ankara,Uni-
and antiquariansourceson this E half of the S coast. A reason versity Mus. no. I952.28: Fig. 28). The amphoraproduction of
for the early colonizing drive to that part of the Black Sea Sinope has not escapedthe notice of Soviet scholars,though al-
coast has been found in the metal-bearingregions of Anatolia most nothing has up to now been done with the materialfrom
(R. Drews, JHS xcvi [1976] 18-31; de Jesus, Anat. St. xxviii Sinope itself. The chronology and distribution of these con-
tainershas been analysedand plotted by Tsekhmistrenko(SA
1958, I, 56 f.; 1960, 3, 68 if.; 1964, I, 321-4; 1967, I, 256-61;
Num. i Epigr.vii [1968] 23-36), V. I. Pruglo (KSIA cix [I967]
I02-9), and Brashinsky (Antichny Gorod [1963] 132-45). The
measurementsof Sinopiantiles and capacitiesof the amphorae
have been worked out by Brashinsky(Istoriai KulturaAntich-
novoMira[I977] 33-7). Most recent,and still unpublished,is the
find of a depositof o Sinopianamphorastampson the S side of
Sinop peninsula. A Rhodian stamp was found among them
(D. French, ThraciaPonticaii, forthcoming). The total number
of amphora stamps from Sinop and the environs is now 56,
and three of these are Rhodian. A complete Sinopian am-
phora, with an additional stamp, has been found in South
Bay off Sinop by fishermen (inf. D. French). Some un-
published proxeny decrees deserve mention. One is for one
Sat[yros] Iaseou, a man from Kallatis, one for a Koan, Kal-
Fig. 28 lippides, and one gives ateleia up to o00 gold staters to an
96 J. G. F. HIND

anonymous person. The decree for Satyros of Kallatiswill be zur Geschichteund Philosophiedes Altertumns
(ed. J. Harmatta
published in ThraciaPonticaii. The corpus of Sinopian in- [1968] 233-7). The same theme, more fully developed, and
scriptions is to be published by D. French, Director of the seen in particularrelation to the trading links of Athens with
British School at Ankara,in BAR, Suppl. series, I984 or 1985. the Black Sea area, was published in 1963, and may have
An inscription of the 5th cent. B.C., found in two pieces at escaped the notice of readers in the West (I. B. Brashinsky,
Olbia in I960 and I963, and offering ateleiato Hietrokles, son Athiny i SevernoyePrichernomorye, 1963).
of Hekataios of Sinope, has been published by E. I. Levi
(SbornikZhebelyov227-31; InscriptionesOlbiae I968, No. I, Universityof Leeds J. G. F. HIND
I3-I4). Two fragments of a fine stoikhedonstele also found at
Olbia probably belong to the later 5th cent. B.C. and, it is
suggested by Vinogradov, are to be seen as being in honour
of the tyrant of Sinope, Timesileos and his brother(VDI 198I, I am very grateful to the following for books, offprintsand
2, 65-9o). oral or written information, and for a great deal of warm
At Amisos (Samsun) some late 7th cent. B.C. E Greek interest in, and kind assistancetowards this report: Dr J. B.
pottery has been published alongside the more numerous Brashinsky, Dr S. Boriskovskaya, V. V. Lapin, Professor
'Phrygian'pottery (Ist. Mitt. xxvi [1976]pls 6-9). The find of a O. D. Lordkipanidze,S. Tokhtasyev, Dr M. Lazarov,Dr A.
large bronze statue in the sea off Samsun is reported. Again Minchev, Dr Goranka Toncheva, Professor N. Hirsu, Dr D.
Olbia gives a hint at cross-Pontic trade. A gubernatorfrom French, T. G. Pyatyshinaand Dr D. D. Kacharava.
Amisos is mentioned in an Olbian decree. For a collection of
the coins under one cover see A. G. Malloy. The Coinageof Below is appended a list of abbreviationsnot standardin this
Amisos(South Salem, N.Y., I970). journal.

Herakleia Pontike (Eregli) has recently attracted con- AO - Arkheologicheskiye Otkrytia (Moscow, I966 etc.) for
siderable attention, partly using the coins as evidence (P. years 1965 ff.
Franke, AA 1966, 2, 130-9, Kapossy, Schweiz. Minzbldtter Arkh- Arkheologia(Sofia)
xxi [1971] 21-2) and partly the inscriptions and literary Arkh (K) - Arkheologia(Kiev)
sources(W. Hoepfner, Herakleia-Eregli Akad. Wiss.
[Osterreich. Dacia - Dacia: Revue d'archeologieet d'histoire ancienne
Phil.-Hist. Klasse lxxxix, Vienna, 1966], and D. Asheri, (Bucure§tii)
Ueberdie Frihgeschichtevon HerakleiaPontike[Ost. Akad. cvi, IBAI - Izvestiana Bulgarskoto Institut(Sofia)
Vienna, I972]). S. Burstein has produced a general book on Istros - Istros (Braila)
Herakleia, Outpostof Hellenism:The Emergence of Heracleaon Izkusstvo- Izkusstvo(Sofia)
the Black Sea (CaliforniaClassicalStudiesxiv, 1976). There is IVAD - Izvestia na Arkheologicheskoto
also from the same writer a brief account of'The City and the INMAVor I.N.M. Varna- IzvestiaNarodnovoMuzei Arkheolog.
Subjects' (The Ancient World ii [I979] 25-8). Two Soviet Varna
writers, with the all-Pontic approach increasingly evident in KSIA - KratkiyeSoobscheniya o Raskopkakhi PolevykhIssledo-
Soviet ancient history and archaeology, have recently ad- vaniyakhInstitutaArkheologiiSSSR (Moscow)
dressed themselves to the problem of the Mariandynoi, the KSIA (K) - KratkiyeSoobscheniya InstitutaArkheologii(Kiev)
dependent peoples of Herakleia (S. Saprykin, Tskhaltuboii KSOGAM - KratkiyeSoobscheniya OdesskovoGosudarstvennovo
9-22; E. Frolov, Tskhaltuboii 22-33). The conditions, ArkheologicheskovoMuseya(Odessa)
economic and political, which led Herakleia to colonise MASP - Materialypo ArkheologiiSevernovoPrichernomorya
Khersonesoson the opposite shore of the Pontos are studiedby (Odessa)
Saprykin (Tskhaltuboi I77-8). At Olbia again is an early MIA - Materialyi Issledovania
po ArkheologiiSSSR (Moscow)
proxeny decree for a Herakleiot, probably the second earliest NAP - NumizmatikaAntichnovoPrichernomorya (Kiev, 1982)
from there after the one for a Sinopian(Brashinsky,SA 1963, Num. i Epig. - Numiznmatika
i Epigraphika (Moscow)
OlbiaeNo. 2, p. I4). As part of a series
3, 191 ff.; Inscriptiones Num. i Sphr- Numizmatikai Sphragistika (Kiev)
of studies of 4th cent. B.C. tyranneis,Frolov has discussed PDKSP - Panlyatniki Drevnikh Ktiltlir Severo-Zapadnovo
that at Herakleia(AntichnyMir i Arkheologiaii [I974, Saratov] Prichernomorya(Kiev, 1981)
II7-39). Revised chronological schemes for the shapes and Peuce - Peuce (Tulcea)
stamps of Herakleiot amphorae have been produced for this Pontica- Pontica(Constania)
city no less than for Sinope, since much additional material SA - SovietskayaArkheologia(Moscow)
has been gained from the W and N Pontic cities and their SAI - SvodArkheologicheskikhIstochnikov(Moscow)
hinterland (I. Brashinsky, Numn.i Epigr. v [1965] Io-30; SbornikPharmakovsky - Khudozhestvennaya Kulturai Arkheologia
Vasilenko, SA 1970, 3; Num. i Epigr.xi 1974; V. Pruglo, KSIA Antichnovo Mira (Moscow, 1976)
cxxx [1972]; SA 1971, 3, 76-90). For the later Hellenistic Sbornik Zhebelyov - Antichnaya Istoria i Kultura Sredi-
period Saprykinshows the continuing community of interests zemnomoryai Prichernomorya (Leningrad,1968)
between Herakleia and her colony Khersonesos(VDI 1979, Istorieveche(Bucurestii)
SCIV- Studiisi cercetdri
3, 43-59). A study of the war between Herakleia and the SGH - Soobschenia GosudarstvennovoHermitazha(Leningrad)
Bosporos under Leukon I has been contributed by Burstein SGMII - Soobschenia GosudarstvennovoMuseya Izobra-
(Historiaxxiii [I974] 401-416). zitelnykhIskusstvimeniPushkina(Moscow)
Having completed a periplots past those cities and peoples ThraciaPontica- see pagesI and 2 of this report
which have attracted recent research or archaeological Tskhaltubo- ProblemyGrescheskoiKolonizatsii Severnovo i
activity, we arrive once more at the Bosporos straitswhich VostochnovoPrichernomorya, MaterialyI Vsesoyuznovosynm-
form the entrance into the Pontos. For a study of the effect posiumapo drevneiistoriiPrichernomorya, Tskhaltubo, 1977
of control or lack of control of these straits on trading into (Tbilisi, 1979)
and within the Pontos, see once again I. Brashinskyin Studien Tskhaltuboii - DemographicheskayaSituatsiav Prichernomoryev

PeriodVelikoiGrecheskoiKolonizatsii,MaterialyII Vsesoyuz- VDI - VestnikDrevneiIstorii(Moscow)

novoSymposiuma po drevneiistoriiPrichernomorya,
Tskhaltubo, ZOGAM - Zapiski OdesskovoGosudarstvennovo
I979 (Tbilisi, I981) cheskovoMuseya(Odessa).
Tskhaltuboiii - Materialy III Vsesoyuznovosymposiumapo
na temi'Ellinismi Prichernomorye',
Tskhaltubo, I982, Tezisy dokladov:soobscheniya(Tbilisi,