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DKK 2453 UNIT OPERATION

CHAPTER 2: EVAPORATION
Prepared by:
SITI NORAISHAH ISMAIL
Lecturer,
Gas Engineering Department, FKKSA, UMP

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At a glance
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2
3.Type of Evaporator
1. Concept/basic
operation
4.Method of Operation
2. Processing Factor
1. Concentration in liquid
2. Solubility
3. Temperature sensitivity of materials
4. Foaming or frothing
5. Pressure and temperature
6. Scale deposition and materials
7. of construction


1. Single effect evaporators
2. Forward feed multiple effect evaporators
3. Backward feed multiple effects evaporators
4. Parallel feed multiple effect evaporators


1. Open kettle or pan
2. Horizontal-tube natural circulation evaporator
3. Vertical-type natural circulation evaporator
4. Long-tube vertical-type evaporator
5. Falling-film type evaporator
6. Forced-circulation-type evaporator
7. Agitated-film evaporator
8. Open-pan solar evaporator

5. Calculation of single
& multiple effect
3
Introduction
Evaporation is achieved by adding heat to the solution to vaporize
the solvent.
Vapor (usually water) from a boiling liquid solution is removed and
a more concentrated solution remains.
Heat is provided by the condensation of a vapor (such as steam)
on one side of a metal surface with the evaporating liquid on the
other side
The normal heating medium is low pressure exhaust steam from
turbines, special heat transfer fluids or flue gases.
Example: concentration of aqueous solutions of sugar, sodium
chloride, glue, milk and orange juice.
In some case, the purpose of evaporation is to concentrate the
solution so that upon cooling, salt crystal will be formed and
separate

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Basic Operation of Evaporator
The typical evaporator is made up of three functional
sections: the heat exchanger, the evaporating
section, where the liquid boils and evaporates, and
the separator in which the vapour leaves the liquid
and passes off to the condenser or to other
equipment.
In many evaporators, all three sections are contained
in a single vertical cylinder.
In the center of the cylinder there is a steam heating
section, with pipes passing through it in which the
evaporating liquors rise.
At the top of the cylinder, there are baffles, which
allow the vapours to escape but check liquid droplets
that may accompany the vapours from the liquid
surface.
In the heat exchanger section, called a calandria in
this type of evaporator, steam condenses in the outer
jacket and the liquid being evaporated boils on the
inside of the tubes and in the space above the upper
tube plate.
The resistance to heat flow is imposed by the steam
and liquid film coefficients and by the material of the
tube walls.
5
http://www.nzifst.org.nz/unitoperations/evaporation1.htm
Basic Operation of Evaporator
The circulation of the liquid greatly affects evaporation rates, but
circulation rates and patterns are very difficult to predict in any detail.
With dissolved solids in increasing quantities as evaporation proceeds
leading to increased viscosity and poorer circulation, heat transfer
coefficients in practice may be much lower than this.
As evaporation proceeds, the remaining liquors become more
concentrated and because of this the boiling temperatures rise. The
rise in the temperature of boiling reduces the available temperature
drop, assuming no change in the heat source. And so the total rate of
heat transfer will drop accordingly.
Also, with increasing solute concentration, the viscosity of the liquid will
increase, often quite substantially, and this affects circulation and the
heat transfer coefficients leading again to lower rates of boiling.
Yet another complication is that measured, overall, heat transfer
coefficients have been found to vary with the actual temperature drop,
so that the design of an evaporator on theoretical grounds is inevitably
subject to wide margins of uncertainty.

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http://www.nzifst.org.nz/unitoperations/evaporation1.htm
Processing Factor in Evaporation
7
1. Concentration in liquid
2. Solubility
3. Temperature sensitivity of materials
4. Foaming or frothing
5. Pressure and temperature
6. Scale deposition and materials of
construction

8
1. Concentration in liquid
Usually liquid feed to evaporation is relatively dilute and has a
lower viscosity and higher heat transfer coefficient, h
As evaporation proceeds, the solution become more concentrate
and high viscosity, then will drop the heat transfer coefficient value.
Therefore, adequate circulation and turbulence must be present to
keep the h value becoming too low.
2. Solubility
As solutions are heated, the concentration of solute increase and
solubility is decrease and can be exceed the solubility limit of the
solution, then the crystal formed.
Solubility is increase as temperature increase. This means when
hot concentrated solution from evaporation is cooled to room
temperature, crystallization may occur.
3. Temperature sensitivity of materials
Many food products or biological materials may be temperature
sensitive and degrade at higher temperatures or after prolonged
heating.
Must be considered in the operation of evaporation.
Processing Factor in Evaporation
9
Processing Factor in Evaporation
4. Foaming and frothing
Caustic solutions, some food solutions such as milk, some fatty
acid solutions form foam/froth during boiling.
This foam will losses from the solution by the vapor comes out
from the evaporation.

5. Pressure and temperature
Higher operating pressure, higher boiling temperature of the
solution
As concentration of the solution increased by evaporation, the
temperature of boiling may rise- called boiling point rise (BPR)
To keep the temperatures low in heat sensitive materials, it is often
necessary to operate under 1 atm (i.e under vacuum)

6. Scale deposition and materials of construction
Some solid material can be deposit on the heating surface of the
evaporation, this will reduce the overall heat transfer coefficient
and cleaning is necessary.
Material for construction of evaporation must be minimize
corrosion phenomena.

Rate of Evaporation
The basic factors that affect the rate of evaporation are the:
rate at which heat can be transferred to the liquid
quantity of heat required to evaporate each kg of water
maximum allowable temperature of the liquid
pressure at which the evaporation takes place
changes that may occur in the foodstuff during the course of the
evaporation process.
Important practical considerations in evaporators are the:
maximum allowable temperature, which may be substantially below 100C.
promotion of circulation of the liquid across the heat transfer surfaces, to
attain reasonably high heat transfer coefficients and to prevent any local
overheating,
viscosity of the fluid which will often increase substantially as the
concentration of the dissolved materials increases,
tendency to foam which makes separation of liquid and vapour difficult.
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http://www.nzifst.org.nz/unitoperations/evaporation1.htm
Type of Evaporator
Open kettle or pan
Horizontal-tube natural circulation evaporator
Vertical-type natural circulation evaporator
Long-tube vertical-type evaporator
Falling-film type evaporator
Forced-circulation-type evaporator
Agitated-film evaporator
Open-pan solar evaporator

11
Open Kettle/Pan Evaporator
heat is supplied by
condensation od steam in a
jacket or in coils immersed in
the liquid
in some cases, kettle is direct
fired
inexpensive and simple to use
heat economy is poor
in some cases, paddles or
scrapers are used for agitation
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http://rpaulsingh.com/animated%20figures/fig8_4.htm
Horizontal Tube Natural Circulation Evaporator
The horizontal bundle of heating tubes
similar to heat exchanger is used
The steam enters the tubes, where it
condenses, leaves at the other end of the
tubes.
The boiling liquid solution covers the
tubes.
The vapor leaves the liquid surface, often
goes through some de-entraining device
such as baffle to prevent carryover of
liquid droplets, and leaves out the top.
Relatively cheap, used for non-viscous
liquids with high heat-transfer coefficient
and liquid that do not deposit scale.
13
Vertical Type Natural Circulation Evaporator
The liquid is inside the tubes and
the steam condenses outside the
tubes
Because of boiling and decreases
in density, the liquid rises in the
tubes by natural circulation, and
flows downward through a large,
central open space or
downcomer.
Often called as short-tube
evaporator

14
Long Tube Vertical Type Evaporator
The tubes are 3 to 10 m long
and the formation of vapor
bubbles inside the tubes
causes a pumping action,
which gives quite high liquid
velocities
Liquid passes through the
tubes only once and is not
recirculates. Contact time can
be quite low in this type of
evaporator.
In some cases, as when the
ratio of feed to evaporation
rate is low, recirculation is
made by adding large pipe
connection between the outlet
concentrate line and the feed
line

15
http://rpaulsingh.com/animated%20figures/fig8_5.htm
http://rpaulsingh.com/animated%20figures/fig8_6.htm
Falling Film Type Evaporator
Liquid is fed to the top of the tubes and flows down the walls as thin film
V-L separation take place at the bottom
widely used for concentrating heat sensitive materials such as fruit juices
16
http://rpaulsingh.com/animated%20figures/fig8_7.htm
http://www.niroinc.com/evaporators_crystallizers/falling_film_ev
aporators.asp
Forced Circulation Type Evaporator
Used pump to circulate the liquid
Increase liquid-film heat transfer
Use for viscous liquids
17
http://www.niroinc.com/evaporators_crystallizers/forced_circulation_e
vaporator.asp
Agitated Film Evaporator
Mechanical agitation of liquid
film to increase turbulence in
this film, and hence the heat
transfer coefficient
Modification of falling film
evaporator with only a single ,
large, jacketed tube containing
an internal agitator.
Liquid enters at the top of the
tube and as it flows downward,
it is spread out into a turbulent
film by vertical agitator blades.
The concentrated solution
leaves at the bottom and vapor
leaves through a separator and
out the top.
18
http://www.technoforce.net/agitated-thin-
film-evaporators.html
http://distilleryplants.tradeindia.com/agitated-thin-
film-evaporator-355261.html
Method of Operation of Evaporators
Single effect evaporators
Forward feed multiple effect
evaporators
Backward feed multiple effects
evaporators
Parallel feed multiple effect evaporators

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1. Single Effect Evaporators
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Single Effect Evaporators
The solution in the evaporator is assumed to be completely mixed, the
concentrated product and the solution in evaporator have the same
composition and temperature T
1
, which is the boiling point of solution at P
1
.
The temperature of the vapor is also at T
1
, since it is equilibrium with the
boiling solution.
The pressure is P
1
, which is the vapor pressure of the solution at T
1
.
Often used when the required capacity of operation is relatively small and
the cost of steam is relatively cheap compared to the evaporator cost
However, energy utilization is poor since the latent heat of the vapor leaving
is not used but is discarded.
23
Feed, F
T
F
, x
F
, h
F
.
Steam, S
T
S
, H
S


Concentrated liquid, L
T
1
, x
L
, h
L

Condensate, S
T
S
, h
S

Vapor, V
T
1
, y
V
, H
V

P
1

T
1

heat-exchanger
tubes
to condenser
The rate of heat transfer (q : W, btu/h)



U : overall heat transfer coefficient, W/m
2
.K;
btu/h.ft
2
.F
A : heat transfer area, m
2
; ft
2
T
s
, T
1
: in K; F
Ts is temperature of condensing steam
q =UA T =UA(T
s
T
1
)
2. Forward Feed Multiple Effect Evaporators
The fresh feed is added to the first effect and flows to the next in the same
direction as the vapor flow.
Used when the feed hot or when the final concentrated product might be
damaged at high temperature.
At steady-state operation, the flow rates and the rate of evaporation in each
effect are constant.
The boiling temperature decrease from effect to effect, cause pressure also
decrease (e.g. if first evap is at 1 atm the last evap. will be under vacuum).
24
steam, T
S

feed, T
F

concentrate
from first
effect.
vapor T
1

(1)

T
1

(2)

T
2

(3)

T
3

concentrate
from second
effect.
concentrated
product
condensate
vapor T
2
vapor T
3

to vacuum
condenser
1 kg of steam will evaporate 1 kg of
water in each evaporation
The 1
st
evap. operates at a T high
enough that the evaporated water
serves as the heating medium to the
2
nd
evap.
Very rough estimation, 3kg water will
be evaporated for 1 kg steam
Steam economy (kg vapor
evaporated/kh steam used) is
increased
3. Backward Feed Multiple Effect Evaporators
Fresh feed enters the last and coldest effect and continues on until
the concentrated product leaves the first effect.
Advantageous when the fresh feed is cold or when concentrated
product is highly viscous.
Liquid pump are used in each effects, since the flow is from low to
high pressure.
The high temperature in the first effect reduce the viscosity and give
reasonable heat-transfer coefficient.


25
steam, T
S

feed, T
F

vapor T
1

(1)

T
1

(2)

T
2

(3)

T
3

concentrated
product
condensate
vapor T
2
vapor T
3

to vacuum
condenser
4. Parallel Feed Multiple Effect Evaporators
Involves the adding of fresh feed to each
effect and the withdraw of concentrated
product from each effect.
However, the vapor from each effect is still
used to heat the next effect
Mainly used when the feed is almost
saturated and solid crystal are the product, as
in the evaporation of brine to make salt

26
Overall Heat Transfer Coefficients in Evaporator
Components contribute to the overall heat transfer coefficient , U in
evaporator
steam-side condensing coefficient can be predicted using Eqs 4.8-20 to
4.8-26.
metal wall resistance usually negligible due to high thermal conductivity
of metal; increase velocity to decrease the rate of scale formation
resistance of the scale on the liquid side cannot be predicted
liquid film coefficient, h - usually inside the tube - can be predicted using
various eq depend on type of tubes configuration/evaporator type

27
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Calculation Method for Single Effect Evaporator
(additional notes)
31
MATERIAL BALANCE
Total mass balance
F = L+V
Balance on solute/solids
Fx
F
= Lx
L
h
F
and h
L
often not available, enthalpy-
concentration data are available for
only few substance, some
approximation are made:
Using latent heat of evaporation of
1 kg water from from steam table
at solution boiling temperature, T
1
Calculate using heat capacity, c
pF

and c
pL
if available
32
) (
evaporator for eqution design general Also
S = ) h - S(H = q
evaporator the fer to Heat trans
) h - H = ( steam of heat latent is ;
steam condensed in Heat + in vapor Heat + liquid ed concentrat in Heat = steam in Heat + feed in Heat
1
s s
s s
T T UA T UA q
VH Lh S Fh
Sh VH Lh SH Fh
S
v L F
s v L s F



BALANCE ENERGY
Calculation Method for Single Effect Evaporator
(additional notes)
Example 8.4-1
Heat-Transfer Area in Single-Effect Evaporator.
A continuous single-effect evaporator concentrates 9072 kg/h of a 1.0 wt % salt
solution entering at 311.0 K (37.8 C) to a final concentration of 1.5 wt %. The
vapor space of the evaporator is at 101.325 kPa (1.0 atm abs) and the steam
supplied is saturated at 143.3 kPa. The overall coefficient U = 1704 W/m2 .K.
calculate the amounts of vapor and liquid product and the heat-transfer area
required. Assumed that, since it its dilute, the solution has the same boiling point
as water.


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Effect of Processing Variables on Evaporator
Operation.
Feed temperature, T
F

T
F
< T
bp
, some of latent heat of steam will be used to
heat up the cold feed, only the rest of the latent heat of
steam will be used to vaporize the feed.
feed is under pressure & T
F
> T
bp
, additional
vaporization obtained by flashing of feed.

Evaporator pressure, P
1

desirable T [q = UA(T
S
T
1
)], A & cost .
T
1
depends on P
1 -
will P
1
T
1
then T (e.g under
vacuum) .

Steam pressure, P
S

P
S
will T
S
but high-pressure steam is costly.
Optimum T
S
by overall economic balances are need.


38
Boiling Point Rise & Heat of Solution
Majority cases, solutions in evaporator are not
dilute, thus thermal properties of the solution being
evaporated may differ considerably with water.
Dhrings rule a straight line of solution boiling
point against water boiling point at the same
pressure for a given concentration at different
pressures
Heat of solution must be considered in heat
balance for the substance that give a considerable
temperature rise during dissolve in water.



39
Duhrings
Plot
(example)
40
Enthalpy-Concentration Chart (example)
41
Example 8.4-3
An evaporator is used to concentrate 4536 kg/h of a 20 % solution of
NaOH in water entering at 60 C to a product of 50 % solid. The
pressure of the saturated steam used is 172.4 kPa and the pressure in
the vapor space of the evaporator is 11.7 kPa. The overall heat-transfer
coefficient is 1560 W/m
2
.K.

Calculate:
1. steam used
2. steam economy in kg vaporized/kg steam used
3. heating surface area in m
2

42
U = 1560 W/m
2

T
1
A = ?
P
1
= 11.7 kPa


F = 4536 kg/h
T
F
= 60 C
x
F
= 0.2
h
F
.
S = ?
T
S
, H
S

P
S
= 172.4 kPa
L, T
1
, h
L

x
L
= 0.5
S, T
S
, h
S

V, T
1
, H
V

Solution Example 8.4-3
Refer to Fig. 8.4-4, for flow diagram for this solution.
For the total balance, F = 4536 = L + V
For the balance on the solute alone, F x
F
= L x
L

4536 (0.2) = L (0.5)
L = 1814 kg/h of liquid
Substituting into total balance and solving,
V =2722 kg/h of vapor



43
Solution Example 8.4-3
44
Duhrings
Plot
45
Solution Example 8.4-3
46
Solution Example 8.4-3
47
Solution Example 8.4-3
48
Calculation Method for Multiple Effect Evaporator
The calculation are done using material
balance, heat balance and heat
capacity equation (q=UAT) for each
effect. Normally using trial and error
method.
Objective to calculate
Area (A) in each effect
Amount of steam (S) need
Amount of vapor (V) leaving each
effect




Usually given or known value
Steam pressure in first effect
Final pressure in the vapor space of last
effect (P3)
First condition and flow to first effect (F,
X
F
)
Final concentration of the liquid leaving
on the last effect (X
3
)
Physical properties such as enthalpies
or heat capacity of the liquid and vapor
Overall heat transfer coefficient on each
effect, normally the value is same in
each effect, U

49
(3)
U3
(2)
U2
S
P
S1

T
3

T
1

T
2

F
x
F

T
F

T
1
, L
1
, x
1

V
1
= F L
1

(1)
U1
V
2
= L
1
L
2

V
3
= L
2
L
3
T
S1
T
S3
T
S2

T
2
, L
2
, x
2

T
3

L
3

x
3

P
3

Calculation Method for Multiple Effect Evaporator
Assumption made in operation;
no boiling point rise.
no heat of solution.
neglecting the sensible heat necessary to heat the feed to the boiling point.
Heat balances for multiple/triple-effect evaporator.
Heat is same in all effect: q =U
1
A
1
T
1
=U
2
A
2
T
2
=U
3
A
3
T
3

Areas in all effects are equal,: q/A = U
1
T
1
= U
2
T
2
= U
3
T
3

The temperature drops in evaporator (no BPR),
T = T
1
+ T
2
+ T
3
= T
S
T
3

The temperature drops in evaporator (with BPR),
T = T
1
+ T
2
+ T
3
= T
S
T
sat@P3
(BPR
1
+BPR
2
+BPR
3
)
hence we know that T are approximately inversely proportional to the values of U,


similar equations can be written for T
2
and T
3

if we assumed that the value of U is the same in each effect, the capacity equation,
q = U A (T
1
+ T
2
+ T
3
) = UA T




50
3 2 1
1
1
1 1 1
1
U U U
U
T T


Calculation Method for Multiple Effect Evaporator
For the given x
3

and P
3
and find
BPR
3
if exist
From an overall MB ,
determine V
T
= V
1
+ V
2
+ V
3

(1
st
trial assumption V
1
=V
2
=V
3
)
Calculate the amount of
concentrated solutions
(L
1
,L
2
,L
3
) & their concentrations
(X
1
,X
2
,X
3
) in each effect using
MB
Find BPR & T in each
effect & T.
If the feed is very cold, the
portions may be modified
appropriately, calculate the
boiling point in each effect.
Calculate V and L in each effect
through MEB
If the amounts differ significantly
from the assumed values in step 2;
step 2,3 and 4 must be repeated with
the amounts just calculated.
Using heat transfer equations for
each effect, calculate A required
for each effect. Then calculate A
m

= (A
1
+A
2
+A
3
)/3. Repeat second
trial if the area is not reasonably
close to each other
For second trial, using new
value of L1,L2,L3, V1,V2,V3
and calculated solid
concentration in each effect
Obtain new values T
1
=
T
1
A
1
/A
m
, , T
2
, T
3
, then
determine new T for find new
are as step 4.
51
52
Find T
3
, BPR
3
and T
S3
Assume V
1
=V
2
=V
3
Calc. L
1
,L
2
,L
3
,X
1
,X
2
,X
3
from MB
Compare A
1
,A
2
,A
3
with A
m
Calc. q
1
, q
2
, q
3
and solve A
1
,A
2
,A
3
Find A
m
Compare V
1
,V
2
,V
3
from MB with V
1
,V
2
,V
3
from EB
Find H
1
,H
2
,H
3
,
s1
,
s2
,
s3
Find T
1
,T
2
,T
3
,T
s1
,T
s2
,T
s3
Calc. T, T
1
, T
2
, T
3
Adjust for cold feed
Calc. BPR
1
, BPR
2
, BPR
3
From EB, calc. new V
1
,V
2
,V
3
, L
1
,L
2
,L
3
,
STOP
>10%
>10%
Example 8.5-1
A triple-effect forward-feed evaporator is being used to evaporate a sugar solution
containing 10 wt% solids to a concentrated solution of 50 %. The boiling-point rise
of the solutions (independent of pressure) can be estimated from (BPR C = 1.78x
+ 6.22 x
2
), where x is wt fraction of sugar in solution. Saturated steam at 205.5
kPa and 121.1C saturation temperature is being used. The pressure in the vapor
space of the third effect is 13.4 kPa. The feed rate is 22 680 kg/h at 26.7 C. the
heat capacity of the liquid solutions is c
P
= 4.19 2.35x kJ/kg.K. The heat of
solution is considered to be negligible. The coefficients of heat transfer have been
estimated as U
1
= 3123, U
2
= 1987, and U
3
= 1136 W/m
2
.K. If each effect has the
same surface area, calculate the area, the steam rate used, and the steam
economy.

53
(3)
U3=1136
(2)
U2=1987
S = ?
T
S1
= 121.1 C
P
S1
= 205.5 kPa
T
3

T
1

T
2

F = 22680
x
F
= 0.1
T
F
= 26.7 C
T
1
, L
1
, x
1

V
1
= 22,680 L
1

(1)
U1=3123
V
2
= L
1
L
2

V
3
= L
2
- 4536
T
S1
T
S3
T
S2

T
2
, L
2
, x
2

T
3

L
3
= 4536
x
3
= 0.5
P
3
= 13.4 kPa
QUESTION & ANSWER SESSION
25/02/2014 54 Siti Noraishah Ismail
THANK YOU!!