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1

Ti liu
Cc h thng khng
gian thi gian
GV: nguyn quc khng
Email: la_vn@yahoo.com
Tel:0912016024
2



MC LC

CHNG 1. CC KHI NIM C BN ...................................................... 9
1.1 Thng tin v tn hiu ......................................................................................... 9
1.1.1 Tn hiu tng t: ..................................................................................... 9
1.1.2 Tn hiu s: ............................................................................................ 10
1.1.2.1 1.2.1 Tn hiu iu ch PAM .......................................................... 11
1.1.2.2 Tn hiu iu ch QAM: ................................................................. 13
1.2 Mi quan h gia tc bit v rng bng tn truyn dn ..................... 14
1.2.1 Cng thc Shannol ................................................................................. 14
1.2.2 Quan h gia tc bit v s mc iu ch .......................................... 15
1.3 Nhiu truyn dn v li bit. ............................................................................ 16
1.3.1 Xy dng cng thc tnh t l li bit ..................................................... 16
1.3.2 V d tnh gi tr z cho mt s tn hiu ................................................. 19
1.4 S khi ca h thng thng tin ................................................................. 20
CHNG 2. KNH V KHI PHC KNH VT ..................................... 23
2.1 H thng mt anten thu pht - knh SISO .................................................... 23
2.2 H thng nhiu anten thu pht - knh MIMO .............................................. 27
2.3 c lng knh v khi phc d liu trong h thng thng tin ................. 31
2.3.1 Khi nim ............................................................................................... 31
2.3.2 c lng knh trong h thng OFDM ................................................ 34
2.3.2.1 c lng knh cho h thng SISO-OFDM .................................. 35
2.3.2.2 c lng knh cho h thng MIMO-OFDM ............................... 36
CHNG 3. H THNG MIMO .................................................................. 40
3.1 Phng php kt hp vi t l ti a MRC .................................................. 41
3.1.1 Gii m trung bnh .................................................................................. 41
3.1.2 MRC ....................................................................................................... 41
3

3.2 H thng nhiu anten pht mt anten thu beamforming ......................... 44
3.3 Kh nhiu knh MIMO .................................................................................. 45
3.3.1 MIMO with Zero Forcing Successive Interference Cancellation equalizer
Error! Bookmark not defined.
3.3.2 MIMO with ZF SIC and optimal ordering ............................................. 49
3.4 STBC ................................................................................................................. 50
3.4.1 Trng hp hai pht mt thu .................................................................. 51
3.4.2 Trng hp 2 pht 2 thu - Alamuoiti 2x2 ............................................. 54
3.5 Tin m ha Precoding ................................................................................ 62
3.5.1 Tin m ha cho h thng SISO............................................................. 63
3.5.2 Tin m ha cho h thng MIMO .......................................................... 63
3.5.3 Tin m ha cho h thng MIMO-OFDM ............................................. 64
3.5.4 Thit k bng m .................................................................................... 67
3.5.5 La chn ma trn tin m ha ................................................................ 68
3.6 M ha khng gian-thi gian li STTC ...................................................... 71
CHNG 4. OFDM V MIMO OFDM .................................................... 78
4.1 OFDM ............................................................................................................... 78
4.2 MIMO-OFDM ................................................................................................. 81
4.3 STBC-MIMO-OFDM ..................................................................................... 82
4.4 ALAMOUTI ..................................................................................................... 82


4


CC T VIT TT

AMC Adaptive Modulation and Codding M ha v iu ch thch ng
AWGN Additive White Gaussian Noise Nhiu trng (nhiu cng)
A/D Analog/Digital Chuyn i Tng t/S
BER Bit Error Ratio T l bit li
BS Base Station Trm thu pht gc
CCI Co-Channel Interference Nhiu ng knh
CDMA Code Division Multiple Access a truy nhp phn chia theo m
CP Cyclic Prefix Tin t lp
CSI Channel State Information Thng tin trng thi ca knh
truyn
CSMA/
CD
Carrier Sense Multiple Access with
Collision Detect
a truy nhp theo cm nhn sng
mang c pht hin xung t
DAB Digital Audio Broadcasting Pht thanh s
DCA Dynamic Channel Allocation Cp pht knh ng
DSA Dynamic Subcarrier Allocation Cp pht sng mang ng
DL DownLink ng xung
DSP Digital Signal Processing B x l tn hiu s
DVB-T Digital Video Broadcasting
Terrestrial
Truyn hnh s mt t
FDD Frequency Division Duplex Song cng phn chia theo tn s
FDM Frequency Division Multiplexing Ghp knh phn chia theo tn s
FFT Fast Fourier Transform Chuyn i Furier nhanh
GI Guard Interval Khong bo v
HIPER
LAN/2
High Performance Local Area
Network type 2
Mng cc b cht lng cao kiu 2
IEEE Institute of Electrical and
Electronic Engineers
Vin ca cc k s in v in t
5

ISI Inter-Symbol Interference Nhiu xuyn k t
ICI Inter-Channel Interference Nhiu xuyn knh
LS Least square Bnh phng nh nht
MAI Multiple Access Interference Nhiu a truy nhp
MIMO Multiple Input Multiple Output H thng nhiu u vo nhiu u
ra
MISO Multiple Input Single Output H thng nhiu u vo mt u ra
MMSE Minimum Mean Square Error Trung bnh bnh phng ti thiu
MS Mobile Station Trm di ng
OFDM Orthoganal Frequency Division
Multiplexing
Ghp knh phn chia theo tn s
trc giao
OFDMA Orthoganal Frequency Division
Multiple Access
a truy nhp phn chia theo tn s
trc giao
QAM Quadrature amplitude modulation iu ch bin cu phng
RF Radio Frequency Tn s v tuyn
SER Symbol Error Ratio T l li k hiu
SISO Single Input Single Output H thng mt u vo mt u ra
SIMO Single Input Multiple Output H thng mt u vo nhiu u ra
SNIR Signal to Interference-plus-Noise
Ratio
T l tn hiu trn tp m cng
nhiu
SNR Signal to Noise Ratio T l tn hiu trn tp m
STC Space-Time Coding M ha khng gian thi gian
TDD Time Division Duplex Song cng phn chia theo thi gian
TDMA Time Division Multiple Access a truy cp phn chia theo thi
gian
UL Up Link ng ln
Wifi Wireless Fidelity Mng khng dy chun 802.11
WF Water Filling Phng php nc
WiMax Worldwide Interoperability for
Microwave Access
Kh nng khai thc lin mng trn
ton cu i vi truy cp vi ba
6

ZF Zero Forcing B lc p khng

7

CC K HIU S DNG TRONG LUN N

T s gia cng sut tn hiu trn cng sut nhiu (SNR)
k
T s gia bn knh hai vng trong trong mt
Tr truyn dn ca knh truyn
Hiu qu ti s dng tn s
Gi tr k d ca ma trn
Bc ca tn hao trong khng gian t do
Bin c gi tr thay i ty thuc vo mi trng biu din tn hao knh
truyn

2
Biu din phng sai ca nhiu cng
L
c
di knh v tuyn tnh bng s mu tn hiu
N
FFT
S lng sng mang con ca h thng OFDM
N
p
di khong bo v mi k hiu OFDM
M
ms
Tng s thu bao MS trong ton h thng
N
bs
Tng s BS bng tng s trong ton h thng
M
T
S lng anten pht
M
R
S lng anten thu
|.| Php tnh det ca ma trn
||.||
p
Tnh norm cp p ca ma trn
(.)
H
Chuyn v v ly lin hip phc cho ma trn hay mt bin
Php nhn Kronecker cho ma trn
Vec(H) Php tnh bin ma trn thnh vector
H
t+
Nghch o Moore-Penrose ca ma trn
|M|
i vi tp M th dng tnh s phn t ca tp M Biu thc cng
dng tnh gi tr tuyt i
CN(0,
2
)
Biu din phn b chun c gi tr trung bnh bng khng v phng sai
l
2
8


Gio trnh mn cc h thng khng gian thi gian
Dnh cho sinh vin i hc v cao hc

Hc phn gii thiu cc kin thc v lnh vc x l tn hiu kt hp ca min thi
gian v khng gian bao gm: Cc vn v tnh cht knh truyn min khng gian
v thi gian, m hnh h thng a ng ten pht v thu MIMO, m hnh h thng knh
MIMO, cc phng php m ha khng gian v thi gian c bn (s m ha v
gii m STBC ca Alamouti). S kt hp ca cng ngh MIMO vi cc k thut
anten thng minh, k thut iu ch trcgiao OFDM. Cc ng dng ca k thut x
l tn hiu khng gian v thi gian trong cc h thng thng tin tin tin.
The course introduces the knowledge of the space-time signal processing which
include: the charateristics of channels in the space and time domain, the MIMO
system with multipe transmit and receive antenna, the methods of space and time
encoding and decoding(Scheme of Alamouti STBC). The combination of MIMO
with OFDM technology to enhance the channel capacity and spectrum efficiency.
The combination of MIMO technology with smart antenna for avanced
communication systems. Beamforming technique and antenna array design
methods for MIMO sytem

9


Chng 1. Cc khi nim c bn
- Mt s khi nim c bn
- n v tnh, db, mdb, v,
- Cts, disc
- Orthonormal PAM, 1-D 2-D signal
- Mc nng lng (Cng sut) trung bnh trn mt tn hiu
- Es,Eb,SNR, spectral efficiency
- Shannol theory
- Power limited regime, bandwidth limited regime, ultimated shannol limited
- BER,SER, Q function ca knh AWGN, v RL
- MAP, ML, MDD,.
- TDM,FDM,CDM,OFDM
- ng b
- c lng knh truyn
- nhm m bo ti u ha qu trnh thu pht thng tin.
1.1 Thng tin v tn hiu
Thng tin l nhng ci m con ngi mun trao i vi nhau. Trong thc t thng tin
trong cc h thng thng c chia ra lm ba dng thun tin cho vic x l v
truyn dn l m thanh- hnh nh v thng tin d liu.
Tn hiu truyn tin c th c chia thnh hai dng l tn hiu tng t v tn hiu s.
1.1.1 Tn hiu tng t:
nh ngha tn hiu tng t l tn hiu c bin thay i lin tc theo thi gian nh
hnh v 1.






X(t
)
t
10


Hnh 1-1: Tn hiu tng t
c trng cho tn hiu tng t bi hai tham s l bin ca tn hiu v di tn lm
vic W=[f
min
-f
max
]. Bin ca tn hiu cho ta bit cng tn hiu l mnh hay yu,
cn di tn lm vic cho ta bit tn hiu c truyn i tn s cao hay thp. Ngoi ra
ta cn c tham s l rng bng tn ca tn hiu B=f
max
-f
min
. rng bng tn th
hin lng thng tin m tn hiu mang l nhiu hay t, V d tn hiu m thanh ca
con ngi c di tn t 16-20000hz. Tuy nhin tn hiu in thoi, l tn hiu m
thanh khi ni vo my in thoi v c lc bt cc thnh phn tn s khng cn
thit ch c di tn t 300 3400 hz.
1.1.2 Tn hiu s:
Tn hiu s trong thng tin c hiu nh l vic truyn i cc bit 0,1. truyn tn
hiu s ngi ta s dng cc tn hiu ri rc, tn hiu ri rc l cc tn hiu c s thay
i v pha, tn s hoc bin ca tn hiu mt cch khng lin tc. Hnh v

(a) Tn hiu iu ch pha

(b) Tn hiu iu ch tn s

11


(c) Tn hiu iu ch bin

Hnh 1-2: Mt s dng tn hiu iu ch s
c trng cho tn hiu s bng hai tham s. Th nht l s mc ca tn hiu ti thiu
bng 2. Ty thuc vo s mc iu ch tn hiu m mi mt tn hiu c th i din
cho log2M bit. V tham s th 2 l tc bit. Trong thng tin, tn hiu iu ch theo
tn s t c s dng do kh nng chng nhiu v iu ch nhiu mc km. Cc tn
hiu iu ch pha v bin c s dng nhiu hn.
biu din cc tn hiu v phng thc iu ch, ngi ta thng t chng trong
mt khng gian tn hiu N chiu gi l chm sao. Thc t s lng chiu ca khng
gian N thng bng 1 hoc 2. Trng hp N=1 ta c tn hiu iu ch PAM cn N=2
ta c tn hiu iu ch QAM. Tuy nhin iu ch PAM thc ra l trng hp c bit
ca iu ch QAM khi gi tr cc tn hiu theo mt chiu l bng khng.

1.1.2.1 1.2.1 Tn hiu iu ch PAM
Trng hp ny tn hiu theo mt chiu. V d nh hnh v

Hnh 1-3 (a)iu ch PAM 2 mc, (b)iu ch PAM 4 mc, (c)iu ch PAM 8 mc

Trong iu ch PAM m bo xc sut li tn hiu l ng u nhau th khong
cch gia cc tn hiu c t bng 2a.
12

Nhn xt rng s bt iu ch trn mi mt tn hiu bng log
2
M l s mc iu ch.
Trng hp iu ch 2 mc ta c log
2
2=1 bit/1 mc, Trng hp iu ch 4 mc ta
c log
2
4=2 bit/1 mc,
Trng hp iu ch 8 mc ta c log
2
8=3 bit/1 mc, . T vic iu ch ny ta c
khi nim tc tn hiu (baud). v
b
=1/log
2
M v
b
.

Tham kho . Vi s iu ch M mc (M l s chn) -(M-1) -5, -3, -,
+,3, 5,,(M-1). E[M-PAM]=(2/M)1
2
+3
2
++M
2
). (Cng thc tng qut tnh
mc nng lng ca mt tn hiu: Es=2
2
(M
2
-1)/3
V d vi M=1, chun ha gi tr =1. Trng hp iu ch 2 mc E=2, M=2 iu
ch 4 mc E=10,..
i khi trong thng tin ta c th biu din nng lng ca mt bit bng thng s E
b
.
V mt tn hiu c th l mt hoc nhiu bit thng tin nn quan h gia E
b
v E
s
l
E
b
=Es/log
2
M (1-1)
C/N vs. Eb/No

Eb/No = C/N + 10Log(Symbol Rate/Bit Rate)
Eb is the Energy in a bit - Determines Bit Error Rate (BER)
Bit Rates >= Symbol Rates
Eb/No <= C/N

For C/N = 14.49 dB
BPSK Modulation (1 Bit/Symbol)

Eb/No C/N = 14.49 dB
Approximation is due different Forward Error Correcting
(FEC) used to correct bit errors

QPSK Modulation (2 Bit/Symbol)
Eb/No C/N 3dB = 11.49dB

8PSK Modulation (3 Bit/Symbol)
Eb/No C/N 5dB = 9.49 dB -
13

1.1.2.2 Tn hiu iu ch QAM:
Cc tn hiu ny nm trong mt phng gm c hai chiu mt chiu l trc thc v
mt chiu l trc o. Do mi mt tn hiu nm trong mt phng s c biu din
bi mt s phc. Mi mt im c biu din bi hai ta thc v o, khong
cch t im n tm mt phng chinh l bin ca tn hiu v gc pha ca tn hiu
c to bi ng ni gia im vi tm mt phng v trc thc nh hnh v


BPSK QPSK

8PSK 16QAM

Hnh 1-4 Cc dng chm sao iu ch

Ch rng vic b tr cc chm sao ph hp c th gim t l li bit khi truyn thng
tin. Thng thng ngi ta c th s dng m gray m bo hai tn hiu bt k
nm cnh nhau ch khc nhau mt bit.

Cch tnh mc nng lng trung bnh tng t nh PAM nhng trn cc chm sao
M-QAM l E
s
=2(M-1)/3
V d vi QPSK E
s
=2, 16-QAM th E
s
=10, 64-QAM E
s
=42
14

1.2 Mi quan h gia tc bit v rng bng tn truyn dn
1.2.1 Cng thc Shannol
y ta lin h vi tc ti a ca h thng theo cng thc shannol
v
max
=Blog
2
(1+SNR) bits/2D (1-2)
y SNR=E
s
/N
0
l t s gia cng sut ca tn hiu trn tp m. y N
0
l nhiu
Gauss c phn b trung bnh bng khng v mt ph cng sut N
0
/2 k hiu
(0,N
0
/2).
Hiu qu s dng ph truyn dn c k hiu
=v/B (bit/s/Hz) (1-3)
Nh vy l mt hm ph thuc B ngha l ph thuc SNR. Mi quan h gia v
SNR c biu din hnh

Hnh 1-5: Quan h gia SNR v
T cng thc ta c trong trng hp SNR nh tn hiu gn gc ta gn nh tuyn
tnh
C=log
2
(1+SNR)SNRlog
2
e=E
s
log
2
e (1-4)
Nhn xt rng dung lng knh truyn t l thun vi mc cng sut pht ca tn hiu
0 20 40 60 80 100
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
p

(
b
i
t
/
s
/
H
z
)
SNR
15

SNR/C (2
C
-1)/C
(1-5)
Ly gii hn khi cho C tin n 0

)
(1-6)
Nh vy SNR/C-1.59dB chnh l gii hn Shannol cui cng biu din mi quan h
gia t s tn hiu trn tp m v dung lng ca knh thng tin.
Ta nh ngha SNR chun ha
SNR
norm
=SNR/(2
C
-11 =0dB (1-7)
SNR
norm
cho ta bit khong cch ti dung lng cc i

V d: cho h thng bng tn B=1MHz vi mc cng sut pht tn hiu P=1, bit
nhiu Gauss N0=10^-6/Hz. Hy thit k tn hiu truyn 2-PAM m bo t l li
bit Pe<10^-3. V so snh vi gii hn shannol
Gii:
Gii hn shannol V=Blog2(1+P/N0W)=106 b/s
Thi gian ly mu tn hiu T=1/2B, do vi tn hiu iu ch PAM 2 mc
a=PT th mc nng lng Eb/N0=a2/N0
Do Pe=Q(sqrt(2Eb/n0)))=Q(1)=0.17
Trong trng hp cho Pe=10-5 ta c th tnh ngc li tc bit ti a l
50kb/s

1.2.2 Quan h gia tc bit v s mc iu ch
Ngoi cng thc Shannol biu din dung lng h thng, ngi ta cng c th biu
din mi quan h gia tc bit v rng bng tn vi s mc iu ch. Trong
trng hp tn hiu PAM l tn hiu mt chiu (1-D)
v
max
=2Blog
2
M (bits/s) (1-8)
Trong trng hp tn hiu QAM, v tn hiu QAM thc cht l tng ca hai tn hiu
PAM nn ta c mi quan h gia tc bit v rng bng tn vi s mc iu ch
v
max
=Blog
2
M (bits/s) (1-9)
16

1.3 Nhiu truyn dn v li bit.
T l li bit (BER) hoc li k t (SER) l mt thng s rt quan trng trong truyn
thng tin. Vi mi h thng, t l li c th tnh ton c v n l mt hm s biu
din mi quan h gia s mc iu ch v t s tn hiu trn nhiu.
Trc tin ta bt u bng v d vi trng hp tn hiu hai mc.
V du: Truyn hai s nhi phn 0,1 vi xc sut ln lt l 0,6 v 0,4. Bit xc xut
thu ng tn hiu l 0,9.
Cu hi:
+ Tnh xc sut nhn c 0 v 1 pha thu tn hiu
+ Tnh xc sut nhn c bit 0 trong trng hp bn pht pht tn hiu 0 i
Gii:
Ta k hiu tn hiu pht i l x, x bng 0 hoc 1 v tn hiu thu c l y, y cng bng
0 hoc 1.
Xc sut nhn c bit 0 l
P(y=0)=0.6*0.9+0.4*0.1=0.58
Xc sut nhn c bit 1 l
P(y=1)=0.42
Xc sut nhn c bit 0 trong trng hp bit 0 pht i
P(y=0|x=0)=0.6*0.9/0.58=0.9310
1.3.1 Xy dng cng thc tnh t l li bit
Bit tn hiu truyn i s(t) mt trong hai gi tr s1 hoc s2. Hnh di y l s
khi b thu tn hiu

Hnh 1-6: S h thng pht v nhn tin 2 mc

Trong w(t) l nhiu trng
17

y(t)=(s(t)+w(t))*h(t) (1-10)
Vn t ra l h(t) v A c chn nh th no ti u ho hot ng ca h
thng v gim t l li bit xung ti thiu. P
E
l t l li, N l mc nhiu tc ng
theo phn b Gaussian. (0,N
0
/2).
ta c
y
1
=S1+N Nu s1 c truyn
y
2
=S2+N Nu s2 c truyn
(1-11)
Variance ca n(t) c tnh

df f H N df
N
f H
} }
+

+

= =
2
0
0 2 2
| ) ( |
2
| ) ( | o

(1-12)
Nu s1 l tn hiu vo th mt hm xc sut ca y
1
vi s xut hin ca s1

to
o
2
) 1 | (
2 2
2 / ) 1 ( S v
e
s v p

=

(1-13)
v ca s2

to
o
2
) 2 | (
2 2
2 / ) 2 ( S v
e
s v p

=

(1-14)

Hnh 1-7: Quan h gia hai tn hiu
A l mc ngng dng xc nh, nu s1 c gi v>A hoc s2 c gi v<A.
Theo hnh v th xc sut li cho bi s1 l

}
+
=
A
dv s v p s E p ) 1 | ( ) 1 | (

(1-15)
v cho s2
18


}

=
A
dv s v p s E p ) 2 | ( ) 2 | (

(1-16)
Tng xc sut li s l
P
E
= pP(E|s1) + qP(E|s2) (1-17)
y p l xc sut s1 c gi i v q=1-p l xc sut s2 c gi i
Gi tr A ti u nhn c P
E
min khi hm t cc tr, ly vi phn P
E
theo bin A
v t bng 0 khi nhn c gi tr ti u ca A

2
2 1
ln
1 2
2
S S
q
p
S S
A A
opt
+
+

= =
o

(1-18)
Nu q=p th A ti u s l A
opt
= (S1+S2)/2
Nu p=q v A=A
opt
thi xc sut li trung bnh c th biu din di dng hm

|
.
|

\
|
= |
.
|

\
|
=
o
o
2
1 2
2 2
1 2
2
1 S S
Q
S S
erfc P
E

(1-19)
y erfc(x)=1-erf(x)

}
= =

x
t
x Q dt e x erf
0
) 2 ( 2 1 ) 2 ( ) (
2
t

(1-20)
Trong trng hp tng qut khi H(f) c chn ti u vi tn hiu s nh phn
T s tn hiu /nhiu c tnh
}
=
T
dt t s t s
N
0
2
0
2
max
)] ( 1 ) ( 2 [
1

(1-21)
Thay cho (S1-S2)/o cng thc P
E
trn ta c

) 2 ( ) (
2
1
z Q z erf c P
E
= =

(1-22)
y
4 /
2
max
= z
(1-23)
19

1.3.2 V d tnh gi tr z cho mt s tn hiu
V du1: Cho tn hiu hai mc m dng s1(t)=-A s2(t)=A T
b
l thi gian truyn mt
bit
s1-s2=2A th ta s c z=A
2
T
b
/N
0
=Eb/N
0


V d 2: Tn hiu PSK-2P ta c trong khong 0<t<T
b
Tng ng vi iu
ch PAM hai mc c cc mc l [,+]
s1(t)= - cos2f
c
t
s2(t)= cos(2*f
c
t)
tnh tch phn v ta c z= 2T
b
/2N
0
=E
b
/N
0

trong trng hp ny 2T
b
/2=E
b
v y l tn hiu hnh sin

V d 3: tn hiu ask 2 mc ta c trong khong 0<t<tb tng ng vi tn hiu
iu ch PAM hai mc c cc mc l [0,+]
s1(t)= 0
s2(t)= cos(2*f
c
t)
Tnh tch phn v thu c z= 2T
b
/8N
0
=E
b
/2N
0

y l im khc vi psk-2p v tn hiu ch truyn trong mt na khong thi gian
tnh vi s xut hin trung bnh ca bit 0 v 1 l bng nhau.
Nh vy nu so snh iu ch pha hai mc BPSK vi ASK th hiu qu ca ASK km
BPSK 3dB c cng t s SNR

V d 4: tn hiu FSK c trong khong 0<t<t
b

s1(t)= - cosf
c
t
s2(t)= cos2(f
c
+ Af)t
y Af=m/2t
b
vi m l mt s nguyn v s1(t) s2(t) c coi l trc giao nu
tha mn iu kin
}
=
b
T
dt t s t s
0
0 ) ( 2 ) ( 1

Ta tnh c
z= 2t
b
/4N
0
=E
b
/2N
0

Nh vy FSK cng ging ASK
20


So snh t l li bit ca mt s tn hiu iu ch vi cng mc nng lng E
s
/N
0


Ch rng nu tnh theo Eb/No th t l li bt
BPSK bng QPSK hay 4-PAM bng
16QAM. Bi v thc cht iu ch QAM chnh
l 2 tn hiu PAM
Es/No (DB)
Hnh 1-8: T l li ca mt s tn hiu

1.4 S khi ca h thng thng tin
Hnh 1-9 L s tng qut ca mt h thng thng tin in hnh













W
ir
el
es
s
c
h
a
n
n
el
M ha ngun M ha knh iu ch
Gii M
ngun
Gii m knh Gii iu ch
c lng
knh
Noise
21




Hnh 1-9: S tng qut ca h thng thng tin
Trong
Khi m ha ngun c chc nng thay i khun dng ca tn hiu gc cho ph hp
vi tn hiu truyn trong h thng. V d trong trng hp tn hiu vo l tn hiu
thoi hoc video tng t th khi m ha ngun c chc nng bin i A/D. Cn
trng hp tn hiu vo l d liu s th khi m ha ngun c th thc hin chc
nng m ha tn hiu bo mt hoc n gin l khng thc hin chc nng g
Khi m ha knh: nhm mc ch pht hin li v sa li khi truyn thng tin. Trong
truyn thng, k thut sa li c chia lm hai loi:
mt l k thut dng pht hin ra li nhng khng t sa c li. Vic sa li
c thc hin n gin bng cch yu cu bn pht truyn li cho n khi khng cn
li na mi tip tc truyn d liu tip theo. V d cc m nh kim tra chn l
(parity), hay m kim tra d vng (CRC), thuc nhm ny.
K thut th hai l s dng cc loi m c kh nng pht hin ra li v t sa li. u
im ca loi m ny l gim thi gian truyn do khng yu cu bn pht pht li
thng tin khi c sai li. Tuy nhin nhc im ca n li chnh l trong trng hp t
sa li th cng s xy ra hai kh nng l sa xong th ng m cng c khi sa xong
th vn c sai m cn c th sai nhiu hn. Nhng m thuc loi ny c rt nhiu v
c th c chia m hai nhm
Mt l m khi nh cc m Hamming, BCH,
Hai m m chp hay m xon nh cc m ReedSolomon, turbo, LDPC,..
Vic s dng loi m no cho ph hp th li ty thuc vo yu cu ca tn hiu
truyn. V d vi cc tn hiu c yu cu truyn trong thi gian thc (Real Time) nh
tn hiu m thanh hay hnh nh th nht thit phi s dng cc m c kh nng pht
hin v t sa li. Cn vi cc tn hiu l d liu khng c yu cu cao v thi gian
tr nhng li i hi chnh xc khi truyn tin th thng s dng cc loi m sa
li bng cch yu cu bn pht truyn li.

Khi iu ch v gii iu ch: y l khi chuyn i t tn hiu s nh phn u
ra khi m ha knh thnh tn hiu tng t ph hp vi knh truyn dn. Tn hiu
truyn i c th chia thnh hai dng dng th nht l bng tn c bn. dng ny
tn hiu c dng xung vung nhiu mc nh tn hiu iu ch PAM, QAM,OFDM,
Cc tn hiu truyn dn m ng dy nh HDB3, BnZs,CMI,. L mt dng ca tn
hiu iu ch PAM. Cc tn hiu ny c th c truyn trc tip trn ng truyn
c dy. Trong trng hp truyn v tuyn, cc tn hiu bng tn c s phi c
22

iu ch ln tn s cao bng cch nhn vi sng mang cao tn. Trng hp ny tn
hiu truyn i di dng cc sng mang hnh sin. Hnh . M t dng sng ca cc
tn hiu


23


Chng 2. Knh v khi phc knh VT
Chng ny gii thiu v
Khi nim knh vt
Knh phadinh nhanh chm
Phn x, tn x, nhiu x
Suy hao
Phn b rice, rayleigh
Dung lng knh vt gauss, rl
Knh mimo
Dung lng knh mimo
Knh tng quan v khng tng quan
c lng v ng b knh


Hnh 2-1: M hnh h thng v tuyn
-MT=MR=1 SISO H thng mt u vo mt u ra
-MT=1 v MR>1 SIMO H thng mt u vo nhiu u ra
-MT>1 v MR=1 MISO H thng nhiu u vo mt u ra
-MT>1 v MR=1 MIMO H thng nhiu u vo nhiu u ra
2.1 H thng mt anten thu pht - knh SISO
c im phn b v dung lng knh truyn knh Gaussian
(bps/Hz) SNR) (1 log
2
+ = C

(2-1)
c im phn b v dung lng knh truyn knh Rayleigh

24



Hnh 2-2 Minh ha tnh cht truyn dn a ng ca tn hiu v tuyn

Hnh 2-3 (a) p ng xung (b) p ng tn s ca knh truyn
Hm mt xc sut ca phn b Rice

<
>
|
.
|

\
|
=
+

0 0
0
) ( 2
0
2
) (
2
2
2 2
v
v
v
I e
p
v
o


(2-2)
y

l thnh phn trung bnh tn hiu tng hp, v l bin nh ca thnh phn
LOS,
o
l phng sai ca cc bin ngu nhin c lp c cng phn b Gauss, I0: l
hm Bessel sa i loi 1 bc 0.
Phn b Rice thng c m t bi thng s K c nh ngha nh l t s gia
cng sut tn hiu xc nh thnh phn LOS v cng sut cc thnh phn a ng:
2
2
2o
v
K =

(2-3)
Hay vit di dng dB ta c:
25

) (
2
log 10 ) (
2
2
dB
v
dB K
o
=

(2-4)
H s K xc nh phn b Rice v c gi l h s Rice. Khi v tin n khng, dn
n K tin n [dB thnh phn LOS b suy gim v bin , phn b Rice tr
thnh phn b Rayleigh (xem Hnh 2-4). Hm ton hc m t phn b Rayleigh nh
sau:
2
2
2
2
) (
o


= e p

(2-5)

Hnh 2-4: th hm mt phn b xc sut Rice
v Rayleigh

Hnh 2-5: So snh dung lng knh Rice v Rayleigh

dung lng knh truyn thng tin c tnh
(bps/Hz) ) (
| |
1 log
0
2
2
2
dh h p
h P
C
}

|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
o

(2-6)
Trong P l cng sut tn hiu nhn c, 2 l cng sut nhiu Gauss, h l h s
ca knh truyn,
= h P
, p(h) v p() c cng phn b xc sut. T s
2
/ o P SNR =

gi l t s gia cng sut tn hiu trn cng sut nhiu.

Dung lng cc h thng a sng mang SISO-OFDM
Trong trng hp cc h thng a sng mang (v d OFDM), dung lng ca ton b
h thng c tnh bng tng dung lng ca tt c cc sng mang
26

(bps/Hz)
| |
1 log
1
0
2
2
2

=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
FFT
N
k
k k
H P
C
o

(2-7)
Thut ton nc - Dung lng ti u ca h thng Error! Reference source not
ound. c tnh
(bps/Hz)
| |
1 log
1
0
2
2 *
2

=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
FFT
N
k
k k
opt
H P
C
o

(2-8)
Trong
*
k
P
l cng sut pht trn sng mang con k c tnh theo cng thc
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
2
2
*
k
| |
1
k
H
P
o


(2-9)
y du biu thc (.)+ tng ng vi nh ngha x+:=max(x,0) ngha l x+ c
tnh bng gi tr ln nht gia gi tr ca x v gi tri khng
Trong c tnh theo cng thc
0
1
0
2
2
| |
1 1
P
H N
FFT
N
k
k FFT
=
|
|
.
|

\
|

=
+
o


(2-10)
Trn Hnh 2-6 l kt qu so snh hiu qu s dng ph tn ca h thng trong trng
hp c v khng s dng thut ton nc (WF)

Hnh 2-6 So snh dung lng knh Rayleigh trong trng hp c v khng p dng
thut ton nc- Water filling trong trng hp
1 = o

27

2.2 H thng nhiu anten thu pht - knh MIMO
.
Hnh 2-7. H thng nhiu anten thu pht
Ta gi s rng mi knh truyn hij gia anten pht i v thu j tun theo phn b
Rayleigh. Ma trn knh truyn c kch thc MRMT trong min tn s c dng
y H() c bc Lc l di knh v tuyn. di knh v tuyn Lc c tnh
bng s lng mu p ng xung ca knh truyn (xem Hnh 2-3(a)). Khong thi
gian gia cc mu ny bng nhau v bng thi gian ly mu ca tn hiu OFDM
1 0 , ) (
1
0
s s =

e
e e
c
L
l
jl
l
j
e h e H

(2-12)
Gi
x

l vector tn hiu pht c kch thc MT1,


y

l vector tn hiu thu c c


kch thc MR1. Biu thc biu din s lin h gia tn hiu pht thu v knh truyn
nh sau
n x H y

+ =

(2-13)
n

l vector nhiu Gaussian c kch thc MR1.


Dung lng knh MIMO c tnh nh sau Error! Reference source not found.
(

|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
H
HQH I
T
M
M
C
R

det log
2
bps/Hz
(2-14)
(
(
(
(
(

=
) ( ....... ) ( ) (
...... ....... ....... ......
) ( ....... ) ( ) (
) ( ....... ) ( ) (
2 1
2 22 12
1 21 11
e e e
e e e
e e e
R T R R
T
T
M M M M
M
M
H H H
H H H
H H H
H

(2-11)
28

y I l ma trn n v kch thc MRMR, l t s gia mc tn hiu nhn c
trn nhiu (chnh l
2
/o P SNR =
). Q l hip phng sai ca tn hiu pht
Q=cov(E[xxH]), HH l chuyn v v lin hp phc ca ma trn H.
UVD' H =

(2-15)
Trong V l ma trn ng cho
) 0 ,..., 0 , ,...., , (
) , min( 2 1
R T
M M
Diag
kch thc
MRMT cha cc gi tr k d (singular) ca H. cn hai ma trn U kch thc
MRMR, ma trn D kch thc MTMT l cc ma trn n nht (unitary matrix)
cha ln lt cc vector cc gi tr k d bn tri v bn phi ca H. Nh vy knh
MIMO trong trng hp ny c phn tch thnh min(MT,MR) knh truyn n
l song song vi h s knh truyn chnh l cc gi tr k d i.
Tm quan trng ca gi tr k d nh nht
Gi tr k d nh nht c mt ngha rt quan trng trong h thng, n c c im l
cc s dng v gim dn
0 ....
) , min( 2 1
> > > >
R T
M M

trong gi tr nh nht l
) , min(
R T
M M

. Theo cch tnh i s v ma trn, vi mt vector


x

bt k ta c Error!
eference source not found.:
|| || || ||
) , min(
x x H

R T
M M
>

(2-16)
Vi {S} l tp hp gm {
i
s

} cc vector tn hiu truyn i th tp {R} cha tp hp


cc
} {
i i
s H r

=
l vector tn hiu nhn c. Bng phng php khi phc ti a ha
s ging nhau gia hai k hiu th khi t l li bt ca h thng ph thuc vo
khong cch ti thiu gia cc thnh phn ca R. K hiu dmin l khong cch ti
thiu gia cc thnh phn tn hiu thu:
|| ) ( || min || || min
min j i
j i
j i
j i
d s s H r r

= =
= =

(2-17)
T phng trnh (2-16) ta c
|| || || ) ( ||
) , min( j i M M j i
R T
s s s s H

>

(2-18)
Do
0 ) , min( ) , min( min
|| || d d
R T R T
M M j i M M
> > s s


(2-19)
Vi d0 l khong cch ti thiu gia hai t m nm trong tp {S}.
T phng trnh (2-19) ta thy rng t l li bt ca h thng lin quan mt thit vi
gi tr k d nh nht ca knh truyn. Do vy vic nghin cu c tnh phn b ca
khong cch ti thiu gia hai t m l c bit quan trng trong h thng MIMO.
29

Dung lng h thng ng (Closed loop) - knh khng tng quan
thut ton Water Filling (WF)
(bps/Hz) ) ( log
1
2
=
+
= =
m
i
i WF CL
C C

(2-20)
y c chn t thut ton

=
+
=
m
i
i
1
1
) (

(2-21)
Biu thc (.)+ biu th ch ly gi tr dng v vi m= min(MT,MR).
Vi vic s dng bt k mt ma trn thng tin Q l ma trn n nht, bn pht c th
tng dung lng ca h thng m MIMO vi min(MT,MR) ln ln hn h thng
SISO.

Hnh 2-8 Dung lng knh MIMO


Hnh 2-9 Hm mt phn b cc gi tr k d (i) ca
ma trn knh MIMO

Trng hp knh c tng quan (Correlated channel)
Mt ma trn knh MIMO c th phn tch thnh 2 thnh phn
g m
H H H + =

(2-22)
Trong Hm l thnh phn phc trung bnh ca knh truyn cn Hg l thnh phn
bin i ngu nhin theo phn b Gauss. Hip phng sai ca knh c tnh
]
0
H
h [h R
g g
=

(2-23)
30

Trong hg=vec(Hg), R0 l ma trn na dng (HPS). Hip phng sai R0 thng
c gi s cho n gin vi cu trc Kronecker Error! Reference source not
ound.. M hnh Kronecker gi s rng hip phng sai ca knh v hng nhn t tt
c MT anten pht ti mt anten thu n (tng ng vi mt hng ca H) l ging
nhau cho bt k mt anten nhn no v bng ma trn Rt kch thc (MTMT). t
t
i
h

l hng i ca Hg th Error! Reference source not found.
] [
H
h h E R
i i t
=

(2-24)
i vi i bt k. Tng t vi knh v hng nhn t mt anten n pht ti MR
anten thu (tng ng vi cc ct ca H) l ma trn Rr kch thc (MRMR). t
j
h
l
ct j ca Hg th
] h E[h R
H
j j r
=

(2-25)
C hai Rt, Rr u l ma trn na dng (HPS). Hip phng sai ca knh by gi c
th nh ngha
r t
R R R
T
=
0

(2-26)
y

c nh ngha l php nhn Kronecker Error! Reference source not


ound.. Do knh truyn trn c th biu din nh sau
2 / 1 2 / 1
t w r m
R H R H H + =

(2-27)
y Hw l ma trn MRMT vi gi tr trung bnh bng khng v phng sai bng
n v vi cc gi tr phc Gaussian.
2 / 1
t
R
l cn bc hai ca
t
R
, ngha l
t t t
R R R =
2 / 1 2 / 1
. iu ny tng t vi
2 / 1
r
R
.
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

1 ) ( ) ( ) (
1 ) (
1
1
2 2 2
2
2
2
) 3 ( *
3
) 2 ( *
2
) 1 ( *
1
) 3 (
3
*
32
4 *
31
) 2 (
2 23
*
21
) 1 (
1
4
13 12

T
T
T
T
t
T
T
T
T
T
Tt
T
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
t
r r r
r r r
r r r
r r r
R

(2-28)
31

(
(
(
(
(
(
(

1 ) ( ) ( ) (
1 ) (
1
1
2 2 2
2
2
2
) 3 ( *
3
) 2 ( *
2
) 1 ( *
1
) 3 (
3
*
32
4 *
31
) 2 (
2 23
*
21
) 1 (
1
4
13 12

R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
r
r r r
r r r
r r r
r r r
R

(2-29)
y (*) l lin hip phc. Cc gi tr rij th hin s tng quan gia hai anten i v j,
n c gi tr t 0 n 1. Trong trng hp rij=0 ngha l hon ton khng tng quan.
Trng hp bng 1 l tng quan hon ton.
Kt qu trong Hnh 2-10 l dung lng ca h thng MIMO 22 trong trng hp
knh tng quan c tng quan khc nhau. Trong trng hp knh c tng quan
th dung lng ca h thng s b gim i. Ma trn tng quan Rt, Rr cho h thng
22 c dng


Hnh 2-10. Dung lng knh MIMO c tng
quan vi =1 =2
(

=
(

=
1
1
1
1
2
2
1
1


t r
R R

2.3 c lng knh v khi phc d liu trong h thng thng
tin
2.3.1 Khi nim
Mc ch ca c lng knh l trit nhiu ISI gy ra bi hiu ng a ng. Trong
cc h thng thng tin v tuyn, nhiu a ng l khng th trnh khi do tnh cht
ca knh. Nhiu ny lm mo tn hiu pht i khin bn thu khng th khi phc
c thng tin ban u nu khng thc hin khi phc li chnh xc thng tin trng
32

thi knh truyn (CSI). Vic khi phc thng tin trng thi knh truyn c thc
hin ngay sau khi cc khung thng tin c tch ra bc ng b.
Mi quan h gia thng tin pht thu v knh truyn c ch ra hnh 3.



Hnh 3: Mi quah h gia cc tn hiu thu v pht

o x(t): l tn hiu pht
o h(t): l p ng xung ca knh
o y(t): l tn hiu thu trc khi qua b cn bng knh
) ( * ) ( ) ( t x t h t y =
( 2-30)
Trong min tn s ta c
) ( ) ( ) ( e e e j X j H j Y =
( 2-31)
T phng trnh (1.2) trn c th thy rng, do ) ( e j Y l tn hiu bn thu nhn c
nn bit trc, khi phc c tn hiu truyn i ) ( e j X th cn phi tnh
c ) ( e j H l thng tin trng thi knh truyn t phng trnh (1.3):
) ( / ) ( ) ( e e e j H j Y j X =
( 2-32)
Trong chiu ngc li, tnh c ) ( e j H ta phi bit ) ( e j X t phng trnh (
2-31):
33

) ( / ) ( ) ( e e e j X j Y j H =
( 2-33)
y l mt mi lin h hai chiu, v vy cc h thng thng tin phi c thit k
c th tnh c c ) ( e j H v ) ( e j X mt cch ln lt. Tuy nhin ) ( e j H bao gi
cng c tnh trc khi tnh ) ( e j X . Vic s dng cu trc khung truyn gm hai
phn cha phn tiu v d liu nh hnh 2 s cho php ta thc hin vic ny. Cc
thng tin nm trong phn tiu ca khung c cha cc thng tin dn ng (pilot k
hiu l ) (t x
p
) c nhn bit trc bi bn thu. Tn hiu thu c tng ng l
) ( e j Y
p
s cho php ta tnh c ) ( e j H gi tr ca knh truyn qua phng trnh
) ( e j H = ) ( e j Y
p
/ ) ( e j X
p
. Phn cn li ca khung l thng tin ngi s dng tng
ng vi d liu ) ( e j X
d
s c tnh ton theo phng trnh ) ( e j X
d
= ) ( e j Y
d
/ ) ( e j H .
) ( e j Y
d
l tn hiu thu c tng ng vi tn hiu pht ) ( e j X
d
ca bn pht.

Nh vy khi nim c lng knh y l cng vic bn thu phi tnh ton li cc
thng tin trng thi knh truyn.
Cn th no l cn bng knh. Nh hnh v ..
o z(t): l tn hiu sau khi qua b cn bng knh
) ( * ) ( * ) ( ) ( t g t x t h t z =
( 2-34)
Tn hiu thu c sau b cn bng z(t) chnh l tn hiu pht i x(t). Do b cn
bng knh l tng phi tha mn iu kin:
( )* ( ) ( ) h t g t t o = hay ( ). ( ) 1 H j G j e e =
1
( ( ) )
( )
G j
H j
e
e
=

( 2-35)

Nh vy thc cht ca b cn bng knh chnh l nghch o ca thng tin trng thi
knh truyn H.
Do thc cht ca k thut cn bng knh cng chnh l k thut khi phc knh
truyn H (channel estimtion). Tuy nhin khi p dng trong cc h thng thc t th c
th hiu khc mt cht. i vi vic cn bng knh l ta tnh G cn vi k thut c
lng knh th ta tnh trc tip gi tr ca Heq. Ty thuc vo thit k ca tng h
thng thng tin m ta c th tnh G hoc H cho ph hp.
Cc b cn bng v c lng knh truyn c hai dng l: Preset (Thit lp trc)
hoc adaptive(Thch ng) Trong trng hp Preset, cc tham s ca b cn bng
c iu chnh bi vic o dc p ng xung v gii cc phng trnh s dng kt
qu cc php o. i vi b cn bng thch ng th n t ng iu chnh bng cch
gi cc tn hiu bit thng qua knh v cho php b cn bng t ng iu chnh
cc h s ca n da trn cc tn hiu bit.
34



Hnh 4: Cc loi b cn bng knh

C nhiu phng php c lng hoc cn bng knh nh
- c lng knh trc tip phng php gii chp trong min thi gian
- c lng knh trc tip phng php tnh ton knh trong min tn s
- Zero forcing
- MMSE hay lc Winer
- LMS
- RLS
- Kalman filter

2.3.2 c lng knh trong h thng OFDM
1
1
1
2
1
max
> >
t
s f S t D
f D
v
T D f

(2-36)
y fD l tn s Doppler, Ts l thi gian mt k hiu OFDM, fs l tn s ly mu
ca tn hiu OFDM v max l tr truyn sng ln nht ca knh truyn.

35

Hnh 2-11: Cu trc tn hiu truyn trong h thng OFDM Error! Reference source
ot found.
2.3.2.1 c lng knh cho h thng SISO-OFDM
c lng theo phng php bnh phng nh nht (LS)
(
(
(
(
(

) 1 )( 1 ( 1 ) 1 ( 0 ) 1 (
) 1 ( 0 01 00
...
.... .......... ... ......... ..........
.... ... .... .....
...
FFT FFT
FFT
FFT
FFT
FFT
FFT
FFT
FFT FFT FFT
N N
N
N
N
N
N
N
N N N
W W W
W W W
F

(2-37)
Cc thnh phn ca F:
FFT
FFT
N nk j
FFT
nk
N
e
N
W
/ 2
1
t
=

Phng trnh thc hin c lng LS c biu din bi:
y X H

) (
1
= diag
LS

(2-38)
c lng theo phng php ti thiu ha sai li bnh phng nh nht (MMSE)
c lng knh
MMSE
h

c xy dng t ma trn t tng quan Ryy v ma trn tng


quan cho Rhy. Gi s rng ma trn t tng quan ca knh truyn Rhh v phng
sai nhiu (noise phng sai) 2 c bit. Ta c:
H
hh
H H
HH
E E F FR h )(F h F H H R = = = } ) {( } {


(2-39)
H H H H
hy
E E X F R n h (XF h y h R
hh
= + = = } ) { } {


(2-40)
I X F XFR y y R
2
} { o + = =
H H
hh
H
yy
E


(2-41)
Ta c cng thc tnh c lng MMSE nh sau:
y R R h

1
=
yy hy MMSE

(2-42)
Ly bin i IFFT ta c p ng tn s Error! Reference source not found.:
LS
H
HH HH MMSE MMSE
H XX R R h G H

] ) ( [
1 2
+ = = o

(2-43)
Trong
LS
H

l c lng bnh phng cc tiu LS. K thut c lng MMSE c


hiu qu tt hn so vi c lng LS c bit di iu kin SNR thp. Tuy nhin,
36

MMSE c phc tp tnh ton cao hn do yu cu phi ly ma trn nghch o mi
ln X thay i.

Hnh 2-12: So snh kt qu gia hai phng php c lng knh LS v MMSE
2.3.2.2 c lng knh cho h thng MIMO-OFDM
S h thng MIMO-OFDM nh trn Hnh 2-13

Hnh 2-13 S khi h thng MIMO-OFDM
D
liu
D
liu
1
M
T
M
R

Knh truyn H l ma trn c kch thc M
R
x M
T

Mod-OFDM
Chia
thnh M
T

dng d
liu
Mod-OFDM
Demod-OFDM
Demod-OFDM
Gii iu
ch kt
hp
MIMO
1
H
37

vi cc h thng MIMO 22, tn hiu dn ng c b tr nh sau
(

=
(

2 0
0 1
2 Anten
1 Anten
S
S

(2-44)
n gin trong vic phn tch ton hc, ta gi s rng di khong bo v GI
(Guard Interval) ln hn tr ln nht ca tt c cc ng truyn dn gia anten pht
v thu. bn pht, tn hiu dn ng c chn vo trong dng d liu c min
thi gian v tn s. Tn hiu dn ng c bn pht truyn i u n theo chu k
thi gian. bn thu, tn hiu dn ng nhn c s c tch ra t dng tn hiu
thu c v a ti b c lng knh. Coi nh tn hiu dn ng nhn c trong
min tn s, ngha l sau khi p dng bin i Furier ri rc. K hiu
k
r
Y
l tn hiu
dn ng nhn c t sng mang con ph k anten thu r. K hiu ny c th c
vit theo phng trnh

=
+ =
T
M
t
k
r
k
t
k
r t
k
r
n X H Y
1
,

(2-45)
y
k
r t
H
,
l cc h s knh truyn trong min tn s gia anten pht t v anten thu r.
Trong cng thc (2-45),
k
t
X
v
k
r
n
tn hiu dn ng v nhiu trng Gauss. MT l s
lng anten pht (xem Hnh 2-13).
biu din tn hiu dn ng nhn c ca tt c cc sng mang con ,
k=0,....,NFFT-1 ta nh ngha vector tn hiu dn ng nhn c cng nhiu
anten thu r Error! Reference source not found.:
T
FFT r r r
N Y Y ]] 1 [ ],...., 0 [ [ = Y


(2-46)
T
FFT r r r
N n n ]] 1 [ ],...., 0 [ [ = n


(2-47)
Trong phng trnh trn, NFFT l s sng mang con. Ton hng (.)T l ton hng
chuyn v ma trn. Cc h s knh truyn gia tt c anten pht v anten thu th r l
mt vector (MT.NFFT)1
T
r M r t r r
T
] ,.... ,...., [
, , , 1
H H H H

=

(2-48)
y
T
r t r t r t
H H ] ,...., [
, , ,
= H

l p ng tn s knh truyn gia anten pht t v thu r.


Tn hiu dn ng X c kt hp trong ma trn NFFT (MT.NFFT) biu din di
dng
}] { },..., { },..., { [
1
T
M t
diag diag diag X X X X

=

(2-49)
k
r
Y
38

y
T
FFT t t t
N X X ]] 1 [ ],..., 0 [ [ = X

v
} {
t
diag X

l ma trn ng cho vi cc thnh


phn ca vector
t
X

trn ng cho ca n.
Cui cng vector tn hiu dn ng nhn c c th vit
r r r
n X H Y


+ =

(2-50)
Quan h gia p ng thi gian
T
r t r t r t
L h h ]] 1 [ ],..., 0 [ [
, , ,
= h

v tn s ca knh
r t ,
H

c th m t bng phng trnh


r t r t , ,
H F h
L
=


(2-51)
y FL l ma trn cha L ct u tin ca ma trn F kch thc NFFTNFFT
(
(
(
(
(

1 , 1 1 , 1 0 , 1
1 , 1 1 , 1 0 , 1
1 , 0 1 , 0 0 , 0
...
.... .......... ... ......... ..........
...
...
FFT FFT FFT FFT
FFT
FFT
N N N N
N
N
F F F
F F F
F F F
F

(2-52)
Cc thnh phn ca F: Fp,q=e-j2t(pq/NFFT). p ng thi gian ca knh c di
Lc tng ng vi di ti a ca tr pht knh dng ri rc nhng phi nh hn
di NFFT. Bng vic din t p ng thi gian ca knh (2-51), vector gii iu
ch trong (2-45) c th vit li
r r r
n h Q Y


+ =

(2-53)
y
] } { ,..., } { [
1 L M L
T
diag diag F X F X Q

=

(2-54)
v
T
r N r t r r
T
] ,.... ,...., [
, , , 1
h h h h

=

(2-55)
Vic c lng vector p ng thi gian ca knh c th nhn c bng c lng
LS theo Error! Reference source not found.
r r
Y Q Q Q h
H H

1
) (

=

(2-56)
y (.)H l chuyn i Hermitian. Vic c lng thnh cng LS ph thuc vo s
tn ti ca ma trn nghch o (QHQ)-1. Nu ma trn QHQ l singular (hoc gn
singular) th gii php LS khng tn ti hay khng tin cy
39

c lng knh ZF c tnh theo cng thc sau Error! Reference source not
ound.
H 1 H
ZF
H H) ( W H

=

(2-57)
V trong trng hp c lng knh MMSE (Minimum Mean Square Error)
H 1
N
T H
MMSE
H ) I H ( W H

+ =

M

(2-58)

Hnh 2-14 So snh cc phng php c lng knh khc nhau- Trng hp knh
khi phc hon ho


40

Chng 3. h thng MIMO
H thng nhiu anten thu pht c s phn tp v khng gian gia cc tn hiu. Ty
thuc vo s lng anten thu, pht m ngi ta c cc phng php khc nhau x
l tn hiu thu sao cho c hiu qu nht. Trong chng ny gii thiu mt s k thut
c bn sau
- MRC cho h thng 1 anten pht nhiu thu
- H thng nhiu phat mt thu beamforming
- MIMO - MIMO ZF SIC Vblash
- Alamouti
- Phn tp m trelils
- Precoding
- TCM+OSTBC
- SOSTTC
- KTPT thi gian- x dng cc k thut xo trn ci xen, lp bit.
-

41

3.1 Phng php kt hp vi t l ti a MRC
K thut ny p dng cho h thng c 1 anten pht nhiu thu nh hnh v
Maximal Ratio Combining (MRC)


Hnh 3-1 H thng mt pht nhiu thu
Ta c quan h gia tn hiu pht thu v knh truyn
Y=HX+N
Trong X l tn hiu pht, knh truyn H=[H1Hmr] v tn hiu thu c ti Mr
anten thu Y=[Y1.Ymr]. N l nhiu
C nhiu cch gii m tn hiu ny
3.1.1 Gii m trung bnh
L phng php gii m tn hiu trn tng anten ring l ri cng kt hp tn hiu ly
gi tr trung bnh


3.1.2 MRC
Gii m tn hiu thu c theo phng php MRC

Vi
42


Hiu qu ca t s tn hiu trn nhiu Eb/No trong trng hp MRC

Vi

T cng thc c th thy rng hiu qu ca t s cng sut tn hiu trn tp m trong
trng hp N anten ln hn N ln trong trng hp ch c mt anten

Hnh 3-2 Effective SNR with Maximal Ratio Combining in Rayleigh fading channel



Error rate with Maximal Ratio Combining (MRC)
From the discussion on chi-square random variable, we know that, if is a Rayleigh
distributed random variable, then is a chi-squared random variable with two
degrees of freedom. The pdf of is
.
43

Since the effective bit energy to noise ratio is the sum of such random variables,
the pdf of is a chi-square random variable with degrees of freedom. The pdf of
is,
.
If you recall, in the post on BER computation in AWGN, with bit energy to noise
ratio of , the bit error rate for BPSK in AWGN is derived as
.
Given that the effective bit energy to noise ratio with maximal ratio combining is ,
the total bit error rate is the integral of the conditional BER integrated over all
possible values of .
.
, where
.


Hnh 3-3 BER plot for BPSK in Rayleigh channel with Maximal Ratio Combining
Beamforming
44


3.2 H thng nhiu anten pht mt anten thu beamforming

Hnh 3-4: h thng nhiu pht mt thu
Khi thc hin beamforming, ta nhn tn hiu pht i t mi anten vi mt s phc
tng ng vi nghch o pha ca knh truyn. Vic ny m bo tn hiu nhn c
bn thu vi bin ti a. Phng trnh biu din tn hiu pht

y


Nh vy tn hiu nhn c

T y c th tnh tn hiu pht i mt cch n gin

45


Hnh 3-5 BER plot for 2 transmit 1 receive beamforming for BPSK in Rayleigh
channel

3.3 Gii m kt hp trit nhiu knh MIMO

22 MIMO channel

with and .
7. The channel is known at the receiver.
46

Zero forcing equalizer for 22 MIMO channel
Let us now try to understand the math for extracting the two symbols which interfered
with each other. In the first time slot, the received signal on the first receive antenna
is,
.
The received signal on the second receive antenna is,
.
where
, are the received symbol on the first and second antenna respectively,
is the channel from transmit antenna to receive antenna,
is the channel from transmit antenna to receive antenna,
is the channel from transmit antenna to receive antenna,
is the channel from transmit antenna to receive antenna,
, are the transmitted symbols and
is the noise on receive antennas.
For convenience, the above equation can be represented in matrix notation as follows:
.
Equivalently,

To solve for , The Zero Forcing (ZF) linear detector for meeting this constraint
. is given by,
.

i vi h thng MIMO, vic gii m tn hiu theo phng php ZF,MMSE c
trnh by phn trc. Trong phn ny trnh by thm mt k thut kh nhiu kh l
thng dng c nhiu ngi bit n p dng cho h thng MIMO. K thut ny do
phng th nghim Bell pht minh ra nm .. c tn gi l VBLAST.
- MIMO kh nhiu ZF, ZF opt, MMSE,..
c im ca k thut trit nhiu VBLAST l vic gii m thng tin c tin hnh
tng bc mt. V d vi h thng c Mt anten pht vi Mt tn hiu pht. Bn thu s
ln lt gii m tng tn hiu pht mt ch khng thc hin gii m ng thi nh
phng php ZF hay MMSE thng thng. Mi khi mt tn hiu pht c gii m
47

xong. N s c loi tr i nh hng ca n n tn hiu thu tng hp. Bn thu li
tip tc gii m tn hiu tip theo cho n ht. C hai gii php khi thc hin thut
ton VBLAST : mt l gii m mt cch tun t, ngha l cc tn hiu X1,X2,XMt
s c gii m ln lt ti bn thu. Phng php ny cha cho hiu qu ti u v nh
hng ca cc tn hiu n cc tn hiu khc l khc nhau. Trong gii php ti u,
thut ton VBLAST s la chn tn hiu c cht lng tt nht gii m trc, sau
khi loi b nh hng ca tn hiu ny n h thng, n s li tip tc gii m tn hiu
tt nht trong s nhng tn hiu cn li cho n tn hiu cui cng.
.
Simulation Model

Figure: BER plot for 22 MIMO channel with ZF equalizer (BPSK modulation in
Rayleigh channel)

3.3.1 Trit nhiu lin tip vi b lc p khng (ZF)
Vic gii m tn hiu c thc hin vi vic s dng b lc ZF. Gi s h thng c
Mt anten pht tng ng vi Mt tn hiu pht i. u tin x1 s c gii m,
To do the Successive Interference Cancellation (SIC), the receiver needs to perform
the following:
Zero Forcing with Successive Interference Cancellation (ZF-SIC)
48

Using the Zero Forcing (ZF) equalization approach described above, the receiver can
obtain an estimate of the two transmitted symbols , , i.e.
.
Take one of the estimated symbols (for example ) and subtract its effect from the
received

The above equation is same as equation obtained for receive diversity case. Optimal
way of combining the information from multiple copies of the received symbols in
receive diversity case is to apply Maximal Ratio Combining (MRC).
The equalized symbol is,
.
This forms the simple explanation for Zero Forcing Equalizer with Successive
Interference Cancellation (ZF-SIC) approach.
49


Figure: BER plot for BPSK in 22 MIMO channel with Zero Forcing Successive
Interference Cancellation equalization
3.3.2 MIMO with ZF SIC and optimal ordering


50


Figure: BER plot for BPSK in 22 MIMO equalized by ZF-SIC with optimal ordering
Observations
Compared to Zero Forcing equalization with successive interference cancellation
case, addition of optimal ordering results in around 2.0dB of improvement for B

3.4 STBC
Vic truyn tn hiu MIMO nhm khai thc c ti a hiu qu tnh phn tp khng
gian v thi gian ca h thng ch khi k thut STC c p dng m ngi u tin
s dng l m alamouti. V d cu trc tn hiu pht phn tp theo khng gian v
thi gian cho trng hp hai anten pht c ch ra hnh di

Hnh 3-6 Phn tp khng gian thi gian vi hai anten pht
Ch rng vic x l tn hiu thu hon ton ph thuc vo s lng anten thu.
51

3.4.1 Trng hp hai pht mt thu
In the first time slot, the received signal is,
.
In the second time slot, the received signal is,
.
where
, is the received symbol on the first and second time slot respectively,
is the channel from transmit antenna to receive antenna,
is the channel from transmit antenna to receive antenna,
, are the transmitted symbols and
is the noise on time slots.

The term,
52


If you compare the above equation with the estimated symbol following equalization
in Maximal Ratio Combining, you can see that the equations are identical.
BER with Almouti STBC
Since the estimate of the transmitted symbol with the Alamouti STBC scheme is
identical to that obtained from MRC, the BER with above described Alamouti scheme
should be same as that for MRC. However, there is a small catch.
With Alamouti STBC, we are transmitting from two antennas. Hence the total
transmit power in the Alamouti scheme is twice that of that used in MRC. To make
the comparison fair, we need to make the total trannsmit power from two antennas in
STBC case to be equal to that of power transmitted from a single antenna in the MRC
case. With this scaling, we can see that BER performance of 2Tx, 1Rx Alamouti
STBC case has a roughly 3dB poorer performance that 1Tx, 2Rx MRC case.
From the post on Maximal Ratio Combining, the bit error rate for BPSK modulation
in Rayleigh channel with 1 transmit, 2 receive case is,
, where
.
With Alamouti 2 transmit antenna, 1 receive antenna STBC case,
53

and Bit Error Rate is
.
Key points
The fact that is a diagonal matrix ensured the following:
1. There is no cross talk between , after the equalizer.
2. The noise term is still white.
.


54

3.4.2 Trng hp 2 pht 2 thu - Alamuoiti 2x2


55


56



57



Receive diversity in AWGN
by Krishna Sankar on August 19, 2008
Some among you will be aware that in a wireless link having multiple antennas at the
receiver (aka receive diversity) improves the bit error rate (BER) performance. In this
post, let us try to understand the BER improvement with receive diversity. And, since
we are just getting started, let us limit ourselves to additive white Gaussian noise
(AWGN) channel (i.e assume that the channel gains are unity).
Single receive antenna case
Effective bit energy to noise ratio in a N receive antenna case is N times the bit
energy to noise ratio for single antenna case.
.
So the bit error probability for N receive antenna case is,
.
58


3.4.3 Higher order STBCs
Tarokh et al. discovered a set of STBCs
[6][7]
that are particularly straightforward, and
coined the scheme's name. They also proved that no code for more than 2 transmit
antennas could achieve full-rate. Their codes have since been improved upon (both by
the original authors and by many others). Nevertheless, they serve as clear examples
of why the rate cannot reach 1, and what other problems must be solved to produce
'good' STBCs. They also demonstrated the simple, linear decoding scheme that goes
with their codes under perfect channel state information assumption.
3.4.3.1 3 transmit antennas
Two straightforward codes for 3 transmit antennas are:
59

.
These codes achieve rate-1/2 and rate-3/4 respectively. These two matrices give
examples of why codes for more than two antennas must sacrifice rate it is the only
way to achieve orthogonality. One particular problem with is that it has
uneven power among the symbols it transmits. This means that the signal does not
have a constant envelope and that the power each antenna must transmit has to vary,
both of which are undesirable. Modified versions of this code that overcome this
problem have since been designed.
3.4.3.2 4 transmit antennas
Two straightforward codes for 4 transmit antennas are:
.
These codes achieve rate-1/2 and rate-3/4 respectively, as for their 3-antenna
counterparts. exhibits the same uneven power problems as . An
improved version of is
[8]

,
60

which has equal power from all antennas in all time-slots.
3.5 Decoding
One particularly attractive feature of orthogonal STBCs is that maximum likelihood
decoding can be achieved at the receiver with only linear processing. In order to
consider a decoding method, a model of the wireless communications system is
needed.
At time , the signal received at antenna is:
,
where is the path gain from transmit antenna to receive antenna , is the
signal transmitted by transmit antenna and is a sample of additive white Gaussian
noise (AWGN).
The maximum-likelihood detection rule
[7]
is to form the decision variables

where is the sign of in the
th
row of the coding matrix, denotes
that is (up to a sign difference), the element of the coding matrix, for
... and then decide on constellation symbol that satisfies
,
with the constellation alphabet. Despite its appearance, this is a simple, linear
decoding scheme that provides maximal diversity.
3.6 Rate limits
Apart from there being no full-rate, complex, orthogonal STBC for more than 2
antennas, it has been further shown that, for more than two antennas, the maximum
61

possible rate is 3/4.
[9]
Codes have been designed which achieve a good proportion of
this, but they have very long block-length. This makes them unsuitable for practical
use, because decoding cannot proceed until all transmissions in a block have been
received, and so a longer block-length, , results in a longer decoding delay. One
particular example, for 16 transmit antennas, has rate-9/16 and a block length of 22
880 time-slots!
[10]

It has been proven
[11]
that the highest rate any -antenna code can achieve is
,
where or , if no linear processing is allowed in the code
matrix (the above maximal rate proved in
[11]
only applies to the original definition of
orthogonal designs, i.e., any entry in the matrix is , or , which
forces that any variable can not be repeated in any column of the matrix). This rate
limit is conjectured to hold for any complex orthogonal space-time block codes even
when any linear processing is allowed among the complex variables
[9]
. Closed-form
recursive designs have been found
[12]
.
3.7 Quasi-orthogonal STBCs
These codes exhibit partial orthogonality and provide only part of the diversity gain
mentioned above. An example reported by Hamid Jafarkhani is:
[13]

.
The orthogonality criterion only holds for columns (1 and 2), (1 and 3), (2 and 4) and
(3 and 4). Crucially, however, the code is full-rate and still only requires linear
processing at the receiver, although decoding is slightly more complex than for
orthogonal STBCs. Results show that this Q-STBC outperforms (in a bit-error rate
sense) the fully orthogonal 4-antenna STBC over a good range of signal-to-noise
ratios (SNRs). At high SNRs, though (above about 22dB in this particular case), the
increased diversity offered by orthogonal STBCs yields a better BER. Beyond this
point, the relative merits of the schemes have to be considered in terms of useful data
throughput.
Q-STBCs have also been developed considerably from the basic example shown.
62


3.8 Tin m ha Precoding
K thut tin m ha l k thut m ha d liu trc khi truyn i. Nhc im ca
k thut ny l i hi bn pht phi nhn bit c cc c im ca knh truyn.
Trong trng hp ny, bn pht s thc hin m ha d liu pht mt cch thch hp
cho ph hp vi c im v suy hao cng nh s bin thin theo thi gian v tn s
ca knh. K thut ny c th p dng vi tt c cc h thng thng tin c M
T
anten
pht v M
R
anten thu, (M
T
,M
R
c gi tr nguyn dng ln hn hay bng 1).
thc hin c tin m ho th iu kin tin quyt l bn pht phi nhn bit
c c im trng thi knh truyn. Do vy bn thu sau khi khi phc li thng tin
trng thi ca knh truyn (CSI) s phi truyn tr li cho bn pht v bn pht da
vo CSI nhn c thc hin tin m ho cho d liu [Error! Reference source
ot found.].
Phng php ny c th ci thin ng k hiu qu truyn dn thng tin tuy nhin n
cng c nhiu nhc im, l vic truyn li thng tin trng thi knh truyn s
chim mt dung lng nht nh ca knh truyn dn. iu ny ng ngha vi s
lng ph bng thng ca h thng. S lng ph ny tr ln v ch nu nhng li ch v
tc truyn dn thng tin khng c ci thin hn. Thm ch trong nhiu trng
hp vic tin m ho cn lm gim tc truyn dn ca knh. Mt nhc im khc
ca vic s dng c tuyn knh truyn m bn pht va nhn c thc t tr nn
li thi theo thi gian v khng cn c tnh cht thc t do vy tin m ho trong thc
t khng bao gi l hon ho. Tuy nhin vic tin m ho vn c th c tin hnh
nu m bo c rng n c li hn so vi khng tin m ho v k thut ny
thng p dng vi cc h thng c knh truyn c nh hay bin i chm theo thi
gian. V vy vic la chn tin m ha c th c coi l mt la chn trong truyn
dn thng tin v tu thuc iu kin knh truyn vic p dng phi linh hot.
63

Ta c th phn ra thnh hai loi tin m ha ty thuc vo s lng anten thu pht
Tin m ha cho h thng mt anten thu mt anten pht (M
T
=M
R
=1) SISO v tin m
ha cho h thng nhiu anten thu pht (M
T
hoc M
R
hoc c hai>1) MIMO.
3.8.1 Tin m ha cho h thng SISO
i vi h thng mt anten thu pht SISO, hiu qu ti u ca phng php tin m
ha chnh l k thut nc (WF) nh m t mc 0. Thut ton nc thc
hin thay i mc cng sut pht tn hiu trn mi sng mang con mt cch lin tc
nhm ti u ha v mt dung lng. Tuy nhin cng c nhiu phng php khc thc
hin tin m ha [Error! Reference source not found.], [Error! Reference source
t found.], [Error! Reference source not found.], [Error! Reference source not
found.] nhm ti u cc thng s khc trong h thng nh m bo tc bit truyn
l ti a trong khi cng sut pht l ti thiu hay m bo t l li bit truyn trn cc
sng mang con l nh nhau. Cc k thut nhm thay i mc cng sut pht v s
mc iu ch trn mi sng mang con trong cc h thng OFDM c bit nh k
thut iu ch thch ng AOFDM (Adaptive-OFDM). Hoc trong [Error! Reference
ource not found.] s dng phng php nghch o knh truyn kt hp vi vic tin
m ha thch ng. Trong [Error! Reference source not found.] s dng k thut
iu ch ghp knh cc xung ch nht trc giao p dng cho mi trng knh
Rayleigh pha-dinh phng nhm tng hiu qu s dng ph tn ca h thng.
3.8.2 Tin m ha cho h thng MIMO
i vi h thng nhiu anten thu pht, k thut tin m ha c th c chia thnh
hai loi th nht l phng php la chn tp anten con v phng php th hai l
tin m ha d liu. Trong k thut la chn tp anten con, th ngi ta ch s dng
M
F
trong tng s M
T
anten pht (M
F
M
T
). i vi k thut tin m ha d liu, M
S

dng d liu c sp xp ln M
T
anten pht i.
64

C hai k thut la chn tp anten con hay tin m ha u c thc hin bng cch
nhn vector tn hiu pht vi mt ma trn F kch thc M
T
M
F
. Trong trng hp la
chn tp cc anten con th ma trn F ch c hng bng M
F
vi cc phn t bng 0 hoc
1 v ch c duy nht mt s 1 trong hng tng ng vi s th t ca anten c la
chn pht thng tin.
3.8.3 Tin m ha cho h thng MIMO-OFDM
S cu trc tin m ha cho h thng MIMO nh Hnh 2-1. H thng gm M
S

dng d liu, M
T
anten pht, M
R
anten thu tho mn iu kin M
S
min(M
T
,M
R
). Ta k
hiu | | ,... ,
, 2 , 1 ,
S
M k k k k
S S S = S

l vct d liu vo ca sng mang con th k,


] ,... , [
, 2 , 1 ,
T
M k k k k
x x x = x

l vector d liu sau khi tin m ho s c pht i trn M


T

anten pht. Ta c
k k k
S F x

= (3-1)
F
k
(k=1..) l ma trn tin m ho c kch thc M
T
M
S
nm trong bng m (trong
trng hp M
T
=1 hoc M
S
=1 th F
k
l mt vector). Bng m l tp F cha cc ma trn
tin m ha F = [F
1
, F
2
,... F

] c kch thc =2
q
, q l s bt cn thit nh s th
t cc ma trn F
k
nm trong bng m. Ch rng m bo iu kin cng sut pht
tn hiu khng thay i th ma trn F
k
phi tho mn iu kin
I F F
H
=
k k
(3-2)
Trong I l ma trn n v.
65


Hnh 3-7 S h thng tin m ha MIMO-OFDM
Bng m F l mt hm ca c tuyn ph thuc knh truyn H
) (H F f =
(3-3)
Trong H l ma trn m t c tnh ca knh truyn (2-11) c kch thc M
R
M
T
.
i vi mt ma trn bt k, theo cch tnh i s ma trn u c th phn tch thnh
tch ca ba ma trn UVD nh cng thc (2-15). Theo [Error! Reference source not
ound.], vic tin m ha c ti u hiu qu hot ng ca h thng (ngha l
F
k
=F
tiu
) th ma trn tin m ha F
k
phi tha mn iu kin
S
M k
D F = y
S
M
D l
ma trn to bi M
S
ct u tin ca ma trn D trong (2-15) cha vector cc gi tr k
d bn phi ca H.
] ,... , [
, 2 , 1 ,
R
M k k k k
y y y = y

l vector d liu thu c ti M


R
anten thu s bng
n S F H y

+ =
k k k k
(3-4)
n

l nhiu Gaussian c phn b CN(0,


2
).
Dung lng h thng trong trng hp c tin m ha s c tnh
66

(bps/Hz) det log
1
1
2
=
(

|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
FFT
R
N
k
k k
H
k
H
k
T
M
FFT
M N
C F H F H I


(3-5)
x l tn hiu thu c, c th vit
n S F H H F y F H z
H H


+ = =
k k k k
H
k
H
k k
(3-6)
Ti thiu ha li bit trung bnh ca tn hiu - t s SNR c tnh

2
2
2
H
k
H
k
k k
H
k
H
k
k
SNR
F H
F H H F
=
(3-7)
Theo [Error! Reference source not found.] v ta m rng ra tng qut i vi M
S

ng d liu. Trong trng hp gii iu ch tuyn tnh vi b lc ZF (Zero Forcing)
th t s tn hiu trn nhiu trn sng mang con k ca dng d liu th m (m=1,..,M
S
)
c tnh
1
,
,
] [

=
m m k k
H
k
H
k T
ZF m
k
M
SNR
F H H F


(3-8)
V cho trng hp gii iu ch theo phng php ti thiu ha li trung bnh bnh
phng MMSE t s SNR trn sng mang con k ca dng d liu th m (m=1,..,M
S
)
c tnh
1
] [
1
,
,

+
=

m m M k k
H
k
H
k T
MMSE m
k
S
M
M
SNR
I F H H F


(3-9)
Trong
1
,

m m
A
l phn t th (m,m) v cng chnh l gi tr k d th (m,m) ca A
-1
.
Bi v cc gi tr k d ca ma trn c xu hng gim dn
) ....... (
min( 2 1
R T
M M
> > >

nn nhiu ti thiu trn sng mang con k c tnh cho gi tr k d nh nht
S
M


S
S
M m
M
k
m
k
SNR SNR SNR
.. 1
min
) min(
=
= =
(3-10)
Thay gi tr SNR vo cng thc tnh t l li bit SER [Error! Reference source not
ound.]. Ta c t l li bit trn sng mang con k cho dng d liu th m (m=1,..,M
S
)
trong trng hp iu ch M-QAM l:


67

(
(

|
|
.
|

\
|

~
m
k
m k
e
SNR
M
Q
M
M
P
1
3
log
) / 1 1 ( 4
2
) (

(3-11)
T biu thc (3-11) trn ta thy rng trong trng hp tin m ha vi M
S
dng d
liu th t l li bt trn cc dng d liu l khc nhau. iu ny gii thch rng vic
tin m ha lm thay i chm tn hiu pht i t cc anten pht n cc anten thu.
Phn nng lng tn hiu c ch s c tp trung nhiu hn trn cc bp sng tng
ng vi cc gi tr k d ln hn v gim mc nng lng trn cc bp sng tng
ng vi cc gi tr k d nh.
3.8.4 Thit k bng m
Trong thc t, vic truyn nguyn c ma trn tin m ha F
k
th s khng hiu qu
cho vn dung lng ca h thng do s lng con s cn phi truyn mt ma trn
F l M
s
M
T
s phc. Nu truyn gi tr thc cc con s ma trn ny vi thi gian hi
tip bng ng thi gian mt k hiu OFDM th tc truyn trn knh hi tip cn
ln hn tc truyn d liu trn knh truyn i. Do h thng khng thc s hiu
qu. gim bt s bit thng tin dng truyn mt ma trn F
k
ngi ta cn lng t
ha s liu. Lng t ha s lm mt thng tin v lm sai lch thng tin thc s v
knh truyn. C hai cch lng t ha, cch th nht l lng t ha tng phn t ca
ma trn v cch th hai l lng t ha ton b ma trn F
k
. Cch th nht c u im
l t chnh xc cao nhng nhc im l vn chim mt dung lng ln truyn
mt ma trn F
k
. Trong trng hp th hai, ngi ta s dng bng m dng lu tr
cc ma trn F
k
c lng t ha. Bng m cn c bit trc c bn pht v
bn thu. Do thay v phi truyn li ton b ma trn F
k
th ta ch cn truyn li ch
s ca ma trn nm trong bng m. Cch th hai cho hiu qu r rt v s lng bit
thng tin cn m ha cho mi ma trn F
k
. Tuy nhin trong trng hp ny F
k
s
khng hon ton ging
S
M
D . Do vic la chn mt bng m tt s m bo h
thng hot ng hiu qu hn. Gi bng m F l tp hp ca ma trn F
k

F={F
1
,F
2
,.,F

}. Vic thit k bng m cn m bo sao cho khong cch gia hai
68

t m F
i
v F
k
trong bng m cng xa nhau cng tt. Vic ny s m bo cho vic la
chn phn bit gia hai t m cng chnh xc.
C nhiu phng php thit k bng m [Error! Reference source not found.],
Error! Reference source not found.], cc t m trong bng m phi m bo F l
mt ma trn n nht (unitary_matrix). Trong [Error! Reference source not found.],
ng m c xy dng bng cch pht ra mt s lng ln knh dng kim tra.
Sau phn chia d liu kim tra thnh cc vng v tnh ton bng m mi da trn
vic tm kim ma trn ti u t d phng mo cho knh truyn trn mi vng.
+ Trong [Error! Reference source not found.] c th d dng c thit lp v to
ng m vi khong cch ln ti thiu. Thut ton thc hin bi coi bng m c dng
F={F
DFT
,F
DFT
,.,
-1
F
DFT
}. y, F
DFT
l ma trn M
T
M
S
vi cc phn t c gi tr
( )
kl M j
T
T
e M
) / 2 (
/ 1
t
bin (k,l) v l ma trn ng cho c cho bi
(
(
(
(
(

=
A
A
A
t
M
u j
u j
u j
e
e
e
) / 2 (
) / 2 (
) / 2 (
.... 0 0
... .... ... ...
0 .... 0
0 .... 0
2
1
t
t
t
u
(3-12)
y 1 ,..., 0
1
A s s
T
M
u u cc gi tr cho u
1
, u
2
, c chn theo vector
T
M
T
u u ] ,..., [
1
= u

, t tp } 1 0 , { A s s Z e =
k
M
u k Z
T
u c cho bi
1 1
)) , ( min ( max arg
A s s
=
l
DFT
l
DFT
Z
d u F F u
(3-13)
Ch rng cc bng m c th c lu tr trc c bn pht v thu hoc c tnh
ton ti thi im thu pht.
Th d: i vi cc h thng 802.16 [Error! Reference source not found.] bng m
th tham kho trong trong cc mc 8.4.5.4.10.15.
3.8.5 La chn ma trn tin m ha
C nhiu cch la chn ma trn tin m ha t bng m, trong [Error! Reference
ource not found.] vic la chn ma trn F
k
t bng m F c tnh theo phng php
bnh phng ti thiu
69

(
(

|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
1
) (
k
H H
k
R
M k
M
I trace MSE
T
HF H F F


(3-14)
V t m ti u F
opt
s c chn
) ( min arg
} ,..., 2 , 1 {
k
k
opt
MSE F F
A e
=
(3-15)
l kch thc ca bng m F.
Hay trong [Error! Reference source not found.] Khng xut phng php la
hn ma trn tin m ha da trn cch tnh khong cch gia hai ma trn.
V d Trong [Error! Reference source not found.] H thng m phng p dng cho
rng hp h thng 22 matrix vi hai dng d liu.
Bng m c ly trong [Error! Reference source not found.] nh sau.


(


=
1 1
1 1
cos sin
sin cos
2 2
n n
n
j
n
j
n n
e e
V
u u
u u
| |
(3-16)
y
1 .., ,......... 1 , 0 ,........
2
1 .., ,......... 1 , 0 ,........
2
1 1
1
1
1
2 2
2
2
2
= =
= =
N n
N
n
N n
N
n
n
n
t
u
t
|

Trong =N
1
N
2
la chn ma trn tin m ha ti u. Tc gi xut phng php la chn da
trn khong cch ti thiu gia hai ma trn theo cng thc [Error! Reference source
ot found.].

=
T S
S S
k
M
i
M
j
ij
k
M
ij
k
M
D F
F F d ' ) ( ) ( D D
(3-17)
Vi k=1....
F
opt
s c la chn nh sau
)) (min( arg
D F
k opt
k
d = F
(3-18)
Kt qu c cho trn Hnh 3-8 v Hnh 3-9
70


Hnh 3-8: Trng hp knh truyn c khi phc hon ho ti bn thu [Error! Reference
ource not found.]

Hnh 3-9: Trng hp knh truyn khng c khi phc hon ho ti bn thu [Error!
eference source not found.]
Trong trng hp knh truyn do b nh hng ca nhiu v nhiu nguyn nhn khc
nh s khng ng b ng gia bn pht v thu, nh hng ca b bin i AD,
DA, nh hng ca mo phi tuyn qua cc b lc v iu ch, v cc b khuch i
hay s mt cn bng gia cc nhnh trong b iu ch IQ, nn thc t knh truyn
khng bao gi c khi phc mt cch hon ho. Tuy nhin n gin ha, kt
qu trong lun n ny (xem Hnh 3-9) ch xt n s khng hon ho ca knh truyn
trong trng hp c nh hng ca nhiu trng Gauss. Vic tnh ton c lng knh
cho h thng MIMO c tnh theo cng thc (2-56). Trong trng hp ny ma trn
tin m ha
71

S
M k
D F

= (3-19)
S
M
D

: l ma trn M
S
ct u tin ca ma trn cha cc vector gi tr k d ca
k
H

.
Tn hiu nhn c ti bn thu khi tin m ha vi
k
F


n S F H y

+ =
k k k k
(3-20)
Tn hiu sau gii m vi vic c lng knh truyn khng hon ho
n S F H H F y F H z
H H

+ = =
k k k k
H
k
H
k k
(3-21)
Nhn xt rng trong c hai trng hp knh c v khng c khi phc hon ho
ti bn thu th k thut tin m ha u nng cao dung lng knh truyn.
Trong tt c cc trng hp. Vi kch thc bng m cng ln th kt qu ca vic
tin m ha cng gn vi trng hp ti u.
Hiu qu ca phng php tin m ha ph thuc nhiu yu t. Trong vic la
chn bng m tt s cho kt qu tin m ha tt hn. Tuy nhin chn c mt
bng m ti u l mt vic kh khn. Thm vo cng mt bng m nhng vi cc
phng php tm kim khc nhau ly ra t m tt nht t bng m cng s nh
hng n hiu qu lm vic ca h thng.

3.9 M ha khng gian-thi gian li STTC
STTC cho php phn tp y v li m cao, STTC l loi m chp c
m rng cho trng hp MIMO. Cu trc m chp c bit ph hp vi truyn thng
v tr v v tinh, do ch s dng b m ha n gin nhng t c hiu qu cao
nh vo phng php gii m phc tp.
Nu nh STBC x l c lp tng khi k t u vo to ra mt chui cc
vector m c lp, th STTC x l tng chui k t u vo to ra tng chui
vector m ph thuc vo trng thi m trc ca b m ha.
B m ha cc vc tor m bng cch dich chuyn cc bt d liu qua thanh ghi
dch qua K tng mi tng c k bt. Mi b n ghp cng nh phn vi u vo l K
tng s to ra vector m n bit cho mi k bit u vo. Ti mt thi im, k bit d liu
u vo s c dch vo tng u tin ca thanh ghi dch, k bit ca tng u s c
dch vo k bit ca tng k. Mi ln dch k bit d liu vo s to ra mt vector m n bit.
Tc m l
K l s tng ca thanh ghi dch c gi l constraint length ca b m. Hnh
di cho ta thy r mi vector m trong m li ph thuc vo kK bit, b gm k bit
d liu vo tn u tin v bit ca tng cui ca b m ha,
72

tng cui ny gi l trng thi ca b m ha, trong khi ch c k bit d liu u vo
trong m khi nh hng ti vector m.

Hnh 3.8. S m li
M li c biu din thng qua li m (code trellis) hoc s trng thi (
state diagram) m t s bin i t trng thi hin ti sang trng thi k tip ty thuc
k bit d liu u vo.
V d: B m li k=1, K=3 v n=2

Hnh 3.9. B m li k=1, K=3 v n=2
Hnh 3.9 m t s m ha vi k=1, K=3 v n=2, hnh 3.9 m t li m v
s trng thi ca b m
73


Hnh 3.10. Li m v s trng thi vi k=1, K=3 v n=2
Tn hiu nhn c ti my thu s c b gii m tng quan ti a khng
gian-thi gian STMLD ( space-Time Maximum Likelood Decoder) gii m. B
STMLD s c thc hin thnh gii thut vector Viterbi, ng m no c metric
tch ly nh nht s c chn l chui d liu c gii m. phc to ca b gii
m tng theo hm m vi s trng thi trn gin chm sao v s trng thi m li,
mt b STTC c bc phn tp l D truyn d liu vi tc R bps th phc tp ca
b gii m t l vi h s .
STTC cung cp li m tt hn nhiu STBC li ca STTC tng ln khi tng s
trng thi ca li m. Tuy nhin li phc tp ca STBC thp hn nhiu phc
tp ca STTC, do STBC c m ha v gii m n gin nh vo cc gii thut x
l tuyn tnh, nn STBC c m ha v gii m n gin nh vo cc gii thut x
l tuyn tnh, nn STBC ph hp vi cc ng dng thc t trong h thng MIMO hn
STTC.



V d vi m k/n=2/3 vi 2 bit vo, 3bit ra theo a thc sinh G(x) nh sau
G(x)= 5 4 7
7 4 2

00 = 0
01 = 1
10 = 2
11 = 3
00 = 0
01 = 1
10 = 2
11 = 3
Trang thai
hien tai
Trang thai
ketiep
Vector ma
00, 11
11, 00
10, 01
01, 10
0
1
3
2
00
11
01
10
01 11
00 10
Ngovao
TX1
TX2
1 1 0 1 1 1
1 1 1 0 1 0
1 0 0 0 0 1
Li ma
S otrang thai
Bit vao 1
Bit vao 0
74

Mch thit k c dng hai nhnh V s ln nht trong mi hng l 7 nn D=2 ngha
l mi nhnh c 2 b tr. Cc u ra c u ni da trn cc ct ca ma trn gia
cc hng. Nh hnh v di y


Ta c kt qu trng thi dch chuyn ca mch v u ra
Trng thi tip theo u ra
numInputSymbols: 4
numOutputSymbols: 8
numStates: 16
nextStates: [16x4 double]
outputs: [16x4 double]

C th s dng lnh
t = poly2trellis([3 3],[4 5 7;7 4
2]);
trong mathLab kim tra li
0 8 2 10
0 8 2 10
1 9 3 11
1 9 3 11
0 8 2 10
0 8 2 10
1 9 3 11
1 9 3 11
4 12 6 14
4 12 6 14
5 13 7 15
5 13 7 15
4 12 6 14
4 12 6 14
5 13 7 15
5 13 7 15
0 6 7 1
3 5 4 2
1 7 6 0
2 4 5 3
4 2 3 5
7 1 0 6
5 3 2 4
6 0 1 7
5 3 2 4
6 0 1 7
4 2 3 5
7 1 0 6
1 7 6 0
2 4 5 3
0 6 7 1
3 5 4 2
75



K thut nh thng bit (Punction).
gim nh s bit thng tin truyn I ngi ta loai b bt mt s bit bng cch s
dng mt vector gi l Punction vector.
-Thnh phn u ra s tng ng vi cc bit 1 trong punction vector.
- i vi mu tn hiu u vo, dI ca n phI bng vi dI Punction vector
i vi mu tn hiu u vo, nu dI ca Punction vector b hn dI ca n
th Punction vector s c lp lI theo mu ca n ph ln tt c cc thnh phn
u vo

khI phc lI tn hiu ban u th bn thu s s dng vector zero ging ht
punction vector. N dng ch ra v tr cc s 0 s c chn thay th vo dng d
liu
- i vi mu tn hiu u vo, dI ca n phI bng vi dI Punction vector
i vi mu tn hiu u vo, nu s s 1 trong vector zero nh hn dI u vo
th h thng s lp lI vic chn cc mu 0 ti u ra
Trong v d di y Punction s dung vector [1 1 0 1] cho kt qu t l
vo/ra=16/12
1
1
0
1
0
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
0
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
0
1
0
0
1

1
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
1
0
0
1
0
76

0
1
1
0
0
1

V ngha: Phng php ny ging nh ta m ho m chp vi t l k/n sau ct b
bt cc phn tha i bin i thnh m chp k/n. V d m thc hin m chp
t l 2/3 c th thc hin bng m chp 1/2 sau dng mu punction ct b bt
mt s bit thnh m t l 2/3
V d:

Mch ny tng ng vi mch m ho t l 2/3 nh sau:

Hnh v: Mch m ho t l 2/3
M ho c hi tip
77

V d lnh poly2trellis(3,[7;5],7) trong MatLab s tng ng vi s sau

Hnh v m ho xon c hi tip
Bng trng thi
t.nextStates =
2
2 0
3 1
1 3
Bng ra
t.outputs=
0 3
0 3
1 2
1 2

Kt qu v d
St = 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 0
Out = 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 1
0 0




78



Chng 4. OFDM v MIMO OFDM

4.1 OFDM
So snh FDM v OFDM
OFDM khc vi FDM nhiu im. Tt c cc sng mang th cp trong tn hiu
OFDM c ng b thi gian v tn s vi nhau, cho php kim sot tt can nhiu
gia cc sng mang vi nhau. Cc sng mang ny chng lp trong min tn s nhng
khng gy can nhiu gia cc sng mang (ICI: inter-carrier interference) do bn cht
trc giao ca iu ch. Vi FDM, tn hiu truyn cn c khong bo v tn s ln
gia cc knh m bo khng b chng ph, v vy khng c hin tng giao thoa
k t ISI gia nhng sng mang. iu ny lm gim hiu qu ph. Tuy nhin vi
OFDM nhm khc phc hiu qu ph km khi c khong bo v (guard period) bng
cch gim khong cch cc sng mang v cho php ph ca cc sng mang cnh nhau
trng lp nhau. S trng lp ny c php nu khong cch gia cc sng mang
c chn chnh xc sao cho nh ca sng mang ny s i qua dim khng ca sng
mang kia tc l cc sng mang trc giao nhau nhng tn hiu c khi phc m
khng giao thoa hay chng ph.




















f
i

S
i

M-QAM
f
i

S
i

M-QAM

OFDM
FDM
S
i

M-QAM
S
i

M-QAM

79



Hnh 1.3: Ph ca OFDM v FDM
Tnh trc giao
Mt tn hiu c gi l trc giao nu n c quan h c lp vi tn hiu khc. Tnh
trc giao l mt c tnh cho php truyn mt lc nhiu thng tin trn mt knh chung
m khng gy ra nhiu. Chnh s mt tnh trc giao l nguyn nhn gy ra s suy
gim tn hiu trong vin thng .
OFDM t c s trc giao bng cch cp pht cho mi ngun thng tin mt s
sng mang nht nh khc nhau. Tn hiu OFDM t c chnh l tng hp ca tt
c cc sng sin ny. Mi mt sng mang c mt chu k sao cho bng mt s nguyn
ln thi gian cn thit truyn mt k hiu (symbol duration). Tc l truyn mt
k hiu chng ta s cn mt s nguyn ln ca chu k. Hnh 2.4 l trng hp ca tn
hiu OFDM vi 4 sng mang ph.

Hnh 1.4: Cu trc ca mt tn hiu OFDM
Cc hnh (1a), (2a), (3a), (4a) l min thi gian ca cc sng mang n tn vi cc ch
s 1, 2, 3, 4 l s chu k trn mi k hiu. Cc hnh (1b), (2b), (3b), (4b) l min tn
s nh s dng bin i Fourier nhanh ca tn hiu. Hnh pha di cng l tn hiu
tng hp ca 4 sng mang ph.
Tp hp cc hm c gi l trc giao nu tha mn biu thc (2.1)
80

}

= <=>
= <=>
= =
T
j i
j i
j i C
j i C dt t S t S
0
0
) ( * ) ( ) ( o
(1.1)
Nhng sng mang ny trc giao vi nhau v khi nhn dng sng ca 2 sng mang bt
k v sau ly tch phn trong khoang thi gian T s c kt qu bng khng.

S h thng


Tnh toan tn hiu ti cc im
St 1011 0001 1100 1001 0001
A A0 1 0 1 1 0
A1 0 0 1 0 0
A2 1 0 0 0 0
A3 1 1 0 1 1
B B0 1-j -1-j
B1 1+j 1-j
B2 1-j 1+j
B3 -1-j -1+j
C C0 0
C1 1-j
C2 1+j
C3 0
C4 0
C5 0
C6 1-j
C7 -1-j
D D0 0.2500 - 0.2500i
D1 -0.2500
81

D2 -0.2500 + 0.2500i
D3 0.2500 + 0.3536i
D4 0.2500 + 0.2500i
D5 -0.2500
D6 -0.2500 - 0.2500i
D7 0.2500 - 0.3536i
E E0 0.2500 + 0.2500i
E1 -0.2500
E2 -0.2500 - 0.2500i
E3 0.2500 - 0.3536i
E4 0.2500 - 0.2500i
E5 -0.2500
E6 -0.2500 + 0.2500i
E7 0.2500 + 0.3536i
E8 0.2500 + 0.2500i
E9 -0.2500
E10 -0.2500 - 0.2500i
E11 0.2500 - 0.3536i
F p/s p/s p/s
G

G1
G2
H H1
H2

4.2 MIMO-OFDM

c
o
p
y

OFDM
82






4.3 STBC-MIMO-OFDM
4.4 ALAMOUTI










DFSF



OFDM
OFDM
OFDM
ALAMO
UTI
CODE
83

Ph lc
Mt s hm c bn
HH
=
nCr = n!/(r!.(n-r)!)


84


Plot of the error function
In mathematics, the error function (also called the Gauss error function) is a special
function (non-elementary) of sigmoid shape which occurs in probability, statistics and
partial differential equations. It is defined as:

The complementary error function, denoted erfc, is defined as

\ The error function is essentially identical to the standard normal cumulative
distribution function, denoted , also named norm(x) by software languages, as they
differ only by scaling and translation. Indeed,

or rearranged for erf and erfc:

Consequently, the error function is also closely related to the Q-function, which is the
tail probability of the standard normal distribution. The Q-function can be expressed
in terms of the error function as


EbNo = 8:2:20;
M = 16; % Use 16 QAM
L = 1; % Start without diversity
ber = berfading(EbNo,'qam',M,L);
semilogy(EbNo,ber);
text(18.5, 0.02, sprintf('L=%d', L))
hold on
85

% Loop over diversity order, L, 2 to 20
for L=2:20
ber = berfading(EbNo,'qam',M,L);
semilogy(EbNo,ber);
end
text(18.5, 1e-11, sprintf('L=%d', L))
title('QAM over fading channel with diversity order 1 to 20')
xlabel('E_b/N_o (dB)')
ylabel('BER')
grid on


ber = berawgn(EbNo,'pam',M) returns the BER of uncoded PAM over an AWGN
channel with coherent demodulation.
ber = berawgn(EbNo,'qam',M) returns the BER of uncoded QAM over an AWGN
channel with coherent demodulation.
berub = bercoding(EbNo,'conv',decision,coderate,dspec)
berub = bercoding(EbNo,'block','hard',n,k,dmin)
berub = bercoding(EbNo,'block','soft',n,k,dmin)
berapprox = bercoding(EbNo,'Hamming','hard',n)
berub = bercoding(EbNo,'Golay','hard',24)
berapprox = bercoding(EbNo,'RS','hard',n,k)

Bit error rate (BER) for imperfect synchronization
Syntax
ber = bersync(EbNo,timerr,'timing')
ber = bersync(EbNo,phaserr,'carrier')
berconfint - Bit error rate (BER) and confidence interval of Monte Carlo simulation
Syntax
[ber,interval] = berconfint(nerrs,ntrials)
[ber,interval] = berconfint(nerrs,ntrials,level)


86

X Q(x) X Q(x)
0 0.5 2 0.022750132
0.1 0.460172163 2.1 0.017864421
0.2 0.420740291 2.2 0.013903448
0.3 0.382088578 2.3 0.01072411
0.4 0.344578258 2.4 0.008197536
0.5 0.308537539 2.5 0.006209665
0.6 0.274253118 2.6 0.004661188
0.7 0.241963652 2.7 0.003466974
0.8 0.211855399 2.8 0.00255513
0.9 0.184060125 2.9 0.001865813
1 0.158655254 3 0.001349898
1.1 0.135666061 3.1 0.000967603
1.2 0.11506967 3.2 0.000687138
1.3 0.096800485 3.3 0.000483424
1.4 0.080756659 3.4 0.000336929
1.5 0.066807201 3.5 0.000232629
1.6 0.054799292 3.6 0.000159109
1.7 0.044565463 3.7 0.0001078
1.8 0.035930319 3.8 7.2348E-05
1.9 0.02871656 3.9 4.80963E-05
4 3.16712E-05