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L. Mihet-Popa, X. Han, H. Bindner

Department of Electrical Engineering

Technical University of Denmark

Roskilde, Denmark

lmih@elektro.dtu.dk

J. Pihl-Andersen

*

, J. Mehmedalic

**

SEAS-NVE

*

, Dansk Energi

**

Svinninge

*

, Copenhagen

**

, Denmark

jop@seas-nve.dk, jme@danskenergi.dk

AbstractThis paper presents the modeling, analysis and

simulation of a low-voltage distribution grid model based on the

real data designed for evaluation of a future smart grid. The

grid model is built measuring the distribution lines length and

considering the cable dimensions and lengths, the grid age, the

number of cabinets and customers and the load per customer.

The aim of the model is to design, implement and test the

proposed configuration and to investigate whether the low-

voltage distribution grid is prepared for the expected future

increase of PV penetration, heat pumps and electric cars. The

model is implemented in NEPLAN and DIgSILENT Power

Factory and different scenarios are developed and analyzed. A

time series simulation is conducted for a specific scenario with a

comparison between different voltage and load profiles along the

feeders.

Index TermsLow-Voltage Distribution Grid; NEPLAN;

DIgSILENT Power Factory; PV Penetration.

I. INTRODUCTION

One of the main goals in the Danish energy policy is to

increase the amount of renewable energy in the energy mix to

30% of the energy in 2025 [1]. Last year, the Danish

parliament approved an even more ambitious target: to have

renewable supply 35 % of the countrys total energy needs-not

just electricity but also heating and transportation-by 2020,

and an incredible 100 % by 2050 [2].

The increase in solar penetration will affect operation and

design of distribution systems [3]. More than that, due to

changes in the way electrical energy is produced and used,

distribution network operators must adapt to changing usage

patterns: the penetration of renewable energy will continue to

grow and electricity is expected to increasingly substitute

fossil fuel in areas such as transportation and building heating

[1-3].

Increased distribution generation is becoming more

important in the current power system. In the future it will rely

more on distribution energy resources and on smart-grids [4]-

[5]. In the future smart-grid distribution systems must be

flexible and to be able to import/export the power from/to the

grid, to control the active and reactive power flows and to

manage the storage of energy [4-9].

This paper presents the design and implementation of a

representative low-voltage distribution grid model, based on

real data for summer and detached houses, for evaluation of a

future smart-grid. The aim of the model is to design,

implement and test the proposed configuration and to

investigate whether the low-voltage distribution grid is

prepared for the expected future increase of PVs, heat pumps

and electric cars. The model was implemented in NEPLAN

and DIgSILENT Power Factory to study different scenarios. A

steady-state and a dynamic analysis of the models have also

been presented with a comparison between different voltage

profiles.

II. LOW-VOLTAGE GRID MODEL

The aim of this section is to design and build a representative

low-voltage grid for summer houses and detached houses.

The grid model contains many components, such as: PV

systems, EV systems, heat pumps and conventional loads and

will be designed and tested to find out whether the proposed

low-voltage distribution grid is prepared for the expected

future increase of PV penetration, heat pumps and electric

cars connected along the feeders.

A. Grid Model Setup and Database Building

Many representative areas have been looked through for low-

voltage feeders containing the two types of houses (summer

houses and detached ones). The length of the low-voltage

feeders is measured using a GIS (Geographical Information

System) map. The number of customers, number of cable

cabinets and the number of customers per cable cabinet for

each feeder are collected and the maximum load per customer

is calculated using the Velander correlation [16] which

assumes that the load along the feeders is normally

distributed. Then a grid model was constructed from the data

using a statistical percentile.

To build a database for the grid model the data from 334 low-

voltage feeders was mapped. The following parameters are

taken into consideration: cable dimensions and lengths, the

grids age, category, substation no., no. of customers, no. of

cabinets and the load per customer. The measured feeder

length for the 85 % was 500 m for detached houses and 730

m for summer houses. We consider only two types of cables

(with a cross-section of 150 mm

2

AL and 95 mm

2

AL)

because 240 AL and 50 AL cables represent a very small part

of the total cable length investigated.

Based on measurements a regression analysis could establish

a statistical correlation between the consumers annual energy

consumption and the maximum load of the grid caused by

their consumption. The feeders aggregate load was

calculated using the Velander correlation:

w w P + =

max

(1)

In which P

max

represents the maximum load (measured in

kW), w is the annual consumption (measured as MWh), and

are the Velander constants. We used the following values for

Velander constants: =0.29 and =2.09 for detached houses

and =0.32 and =3 for summer houses.

B. Grid Model Components

The grid model contains conventional residential loads

(houses), heat pumps (with 1 and 3 phases), electric cars (1

phase and 3 phases) and PV systems (1, 2 and 3 phases). In

the case of one phase appliances it is assumed that all the

devices are connected to the same phase. Similarly 2 phase

PV systems are assumed to be connected to the same 2

phases.

For PV systems 3 parameters were considered: rated voltage,

tap position of the 10/0.4 kV transformer and the number of

phases (1, 2 or 3). The position of the tap-changer normally

depends on the primary voltage level on the 10 kV side. If the

distribution transformer is located at the end of a long 10 kV

feeder, the tap-changer is used to normalize the voltage level

on the secondary side. In this study the tap changer position is

used to allow a larger voltage drop/rise in some of the

scenarios.

The connection of heat pumps and electric cars to the low-

voltage grid, along the different feeders, will cause a voltage

drop.

C. Scenarios Developed to Design and Test Grid Model

The grid model was designed, based on SEAS-NVEs supply

area and was analyzed and tested for various load scenarios

through connection of appliances such as heat pumps, EVs

and PV systems.

23 scenarios were developed using 2 different voltage limits,

+6%/-10% and +10%/-10%. The first limit is based on DEFU

recommendations no. 16/2001 [12]. These limits were used in

Denmark during a grace period after EU legislation changed

nominal voltage from 220 V to 230 V in order to allow for

older 220 V household appliances to be phased out. The

+10%/-10% limit is based on the latest version of DEFU

recommendation 16, which closely mirrors European norm

EN 50160 [13].

It is estimated that the worst case scenarios is a summer day

with low load (20 % of max.) with the PVs connected to the

grid.

In the first four scenarios it is investigated how many solar

cells can be connected to the grid along the feeder without to

exceed the voltage limits defined in [12] and [13], when the

PV systems have three-phases and 6 kW each with the

residential load at 20 % of the maximum load. In the next five

scenarios it is investigated what happens in the same

conditions when one phase and 4 kW and two phases and 6

kW PV systems are connected along the feeder. In the next

seven scenarios we investigated how many electric cars (3

phases EV of 11 kW and one phase EV of 3.7 kW each) can

be connected to the grid, when the residential load is at the

maximum load, without exceeding the lower voltage limit.

We have investigated in the last five scenarios the connection

of heat pumps (3 phases HP of 2.8 kW each and one phase

HP of 1.5 kW each), to the grid, evenly distributed along the

feeder, with the residential loads at maximum load. In one of

these last five scenarios we considered a mixed load case (the

worst case scenario) when heat pumps (one phase and three

phases) and electric cars are connected simultaneously on the

same distribution grid.

III. GRID MODEL IMPLEMENTATION

Based on investigations, calculations and assumptions

presented in the last section a grid model for implementation

of all 23 scenarios has been designed. The model contains an

external grid, a distribution substation with a medium voltage

transformer (10/0.4 kV) and with ten cabinets (switch boards)

at which PV panels, residential loads, EVs and heat pumps

are connected.

The grid model was implemented in two different tools,

NEPLAN and DIgSILENT Power Factory, to study load

flow, steady-state voltage stability and dynamic and transient

behavior of the power system. These tools have been selected

as they have the ability to simulate load flow and RMS

fluctuations in the same software environment [14, 15].

In Fig. 1 is presented the implementation of the grid model

for a low-voltage distribution system in NEPLAN (a) and

DIgSILENT Power Factory (b).

a)

PowerFactory 14.1.6

Project:

Graphic: Grid10

Date: 1/21/2013

Annex:

Load Flow Balanced

Nodes

Line-Line Voltage, Magnitude [kV]

Voltage, Magnitude [p.u.]

Voltage, Angle [deg]

Branches

Active Power [kW]

Reactive Power [kvar]

Current, Magnitude [A]

SingleBusbar(5)/BB4 Ul=0,4..

u=1,13..

phiu=-..

SingleBusbar(11)/BB10

Ul=0,46500 kV

u=1,16251 p.u.

phiu=-146,17348 deg

SingleBusbar(10)/BB9

Ul=0,4..

u=1,16..

phiu=-..

SingleBusbar(9)/BB8

Ul=0,4..

u=1,15..

phiu=-..

SingleBusbar(8)/BB7

Ul=0,46220 kV

u=1,15549 p.u.

phiu=-146,24109 deg

SingleBusbar(7)/BB6

Ul=0,4..

u=1,14..

phiu=-..

Ul=0,4..

u=1,14..

phiu=-..

SingleBusbar(4)/BB3 Ul=0,4..

u=1,13..

phiu=-..

SingleBusbar(3)/BB2 Ul=0,4..

u=1,13..

phiu=-..

SingleBusbar(2)/BB1 Ul=0,4..

u=1,06..

phiu=-..

Busbar(1)/BB_LV

Ul=0,40087 kV

u=1,00217 p.u.

phiu=-149,42033 deg

usbar/BB_HV

Ul=10,00000 kV

u=1,00000 p.u.

phiu=0,00000 deg

Line(1)

P=-58,..

Q=3,63..

I=79,3..

P=62,1..

Q=-2,3..

I=79,3..

Line

P=-47,..

Q=5,06..

I=68,7..

P=50,4..

Q=-4,1..

I=68,7..

PV10

P=0,00..

Q=0,00..

I=0,00..

PV9

P=-23,..

Q=-0,0..

I=29,7..

PV8

P=-23,..

Q=-0,0..

I=29,8..

Static Ge..

P=0,00..

Q=0,00..

I=0,00..

PV7

P=-23,..

Q=-0,0..

I=29,9..

Static Ge..

P=0,00..

Q=0,00..

I=0,00..

Low-Volta..

P=1,71..

Q=-0,4..

I=2,19..

Line(9)

P=-4,3..

Q=-0,4..

I=5,46.. P=4,3793 kW

Q=0,4664 kvar

I=5,4681 A

Static Ge..

P=6,02..

Q=0,01..

I=7,48..

Static Ge..

P=0,00..

Q=0,00..

I=0,00..

Low-Volta..

P=1,45..

Q=-0,3..

I=1,85..

Line(8)

P=-26,..

Q=-0,8..

I=33,5..

P=27,0..

Q=0,87..

I=33,5..

Low-Volta..

P=1,45..

Q=0,36..

I=1,86..

Line(7)

P=-49,..

Q=-0,5..

I=61,7..

P=49,6..

Q=0,54..

I=61,7..

Low-Volta..

P=1,37..

Q=0,34..

I=1,76..

Line(6)

P=-71,..

Q=-0,1..

I=90,1..

P=72,1..

Q=0,19..

I=90,1..

Static Ge..

P=0,00..

Q=0,00..

I=0,00..

Low-Volta..

P=2,73..

Q=0,68..

I=3,53..

Line(5)

P=-68,..

Q=0,66..

I=86,7..

P=69,0..

Q=-0,5..

I=86,7..

Static Ge..

P=0,00..

Q=0,00..

I=0,00..

Low-Volta..

P=1,45..

Q=0,36..

I=1,89..

Line(4)

P=-66,..

Q=1,10..

I=84,8..

67,2..

1,0..

4,8..

Static Ge..

P=0,00..

Q=0,00..

I=0,00..

Low-Volta..

P=1,45..

Q=0,36..

I=1,90..

Line(3)

P=-65,..

Q=1,54..

I=83,0..

P=65,5..

Q=-1,4..

I=83,0..

Low-Volta..

P=1,45..

Q=0,36..

I=1,91..

PV1(..

P=6,01..

Q=0,00..

I=7,67..

Line(2)

P=-63,..

Q=1,98..

I=81,1..

P=63,8..

Q=-1,9..

I=81,1..

Low-Volta..

P=1,45..

Q=0,36..

I=1,91..

PV2

P=-6,0..

Q=-0,0..

I=7,67..

Low-Volta..

P=1,82..

Q=0,45..

I=2,55..

PV1

P=-6,0..

Q=-0,0..

I=8,16..

External Grid

P=-47,3023 kW

Q=5,5354 kvar

cosphi=-0,9932

T

rafo 10/0.4

P=-47,..

Q=5,53..

I=2,74..

P=47,4..

Q=-5,0..

I=68,7..

D

Ig

S

IL

E

N

T

b)

Fig. 1. Comparison between a) NEPLAN and b) DIgSILENT Power Factory

implementation for the designed distribution grid.

All components of the single line diagram, presented in Fig.

1, are built with standard blocks from the library.

The blue square above the cable cabinet (Fig. 1a) shows the

voltage on each phase, while the green squares show the

power and current for each phase. Also, the arrows show that

the components are active.

In DIgSILENT Power Factory implementation (Fig. 1b)

the squares above the bus-bars contain the parameters of the

cables and below the bus-bars show the voltages of each

phase. Also, each component of the cabinet, such as PV

systems, heat pumps and EVs has its own square block able to

show internal parameters (current, power, power factor).

Fig. 1 shows a power flow calculation for scenario no. 4,

where it was investigated how many PV systems (3 phase 6

kW each and U

n

10 %) could be connected to the distribution

grid, with a residential load at 20 % of maximum load. In this

case the voltage increase may not exceed 440 V in the most

remote cable cabinet. We have connected 4 PV systems at

each cabinets of the feeder (40 PV systems in total), and a

maximum voltage (438 V) was observed.

A power flow calculation for the scenario 10 is presented

in Fig. 2. In this case it was investigated how many electric

cars can be connected to the grid before voltage decreases

below the minimum limit (U

n

-10 %). In this scenario, six

electric cars (11 kW & 3 phase each) were distributed over

the five most remote cable cabinets, two electric cars in the

last remote cable cabinet and one electric car in each of the

next four cable cabinets. A minimum voltage of 359 V was

observed.

The residential load in this case is regulated to the

maximum with the 10 kV stable voltage on the primary side

of the substation with a conversion factor of 25.

Fig. 2. Power flow calculation for scenario 10 using DIgSILENT Power

Factory.

IV. SIMULATION RESULTS

A. Steady-State Analysis

In this section a time series simulation is conducted using

DIgSILENT Power Factory. To investigate the characteristics

of the new components: PVs, EVs and HPs, we used the same

grid model proposed in the last section.

The daily time series in Fig. 3 (i.e. external grid voltage

profile, PV production, EV charging consumption, and the

detached house consumption) are the inputs of the simulation

model. The data with voltage profile (the dash curve in Fig.

4) and PV production curve (06:00 20:00) is collected on

15-05-2012 from a laboratory with real components and

renewable energy production (SYSLAB), at the Technical

University of Denmark-Ris campus. The capacities of PVs

are adopted to 6 kW. EV charging profile, from (1822), is

calculated based on the driving pattern [17] with the rated

charging power of 11 kW. The load profiles are calculated by

the load pattern, from the aggregated historical data in

Denmark, multiplying the peak power using the Velander

equation (1). By subtracting the production or adding the

consumption new household load profile can be obtained.

The time sweep load flow is executed by using DIgSILENT

programming language DPL.

Fig. 3 shows that at 19:00, the modified load has a peak

due to the EV charging (Scenario 10). However, considering

the deviation of human behaviors (smoothing effect), the over

all peak may be less than the sum of them. At 15:00, the

reversed load reach the peak where there is the largest

mismatch between load and PV production (Scenario 2). A

voltage rise can also be observed.

Fig. 4 shows the simulation results for one day with a

comparison between voltage profiles in the last node versus

voltage profile of the external grid. Using this approach (i.e.,

generate the profiles outside the power system software and

use its traditional function) the complexity of the models can

be avoided, but introducing a lot of manual work on

modifying the inputs.

P=-113.996

Q=-12.005

cosphi=-0.995

P=-31.037

Q=-2.257

cosphi=-0.997

P=106.732

Q=10.187

cosphi=-0.995

P=-105.883

Q=-9.909

cosphi=-0.996

P=87.630

Q=8.096

cosphi=-0.996

P=-86.736

Q=-7.900

cosphi=-0.996

P=68.498

Q=6.091

cosphi=-0.996

P=-67.940

Q=-5.969

cosphi=-0.996

P=49.693

Q=4.158

cosphi=-0.997

P=-49.394

Q=-4.093

cosphi=-0.997

P=31.155

Q=2.283

cosphi=-0.997

Ul=0.375

u=0.938

phiu=-152.260

Ul=0.372

u=0.930

phiu=-152.366

Ul=0.368

u=0.921

phiu=-152.440

Ul=0.365

u=0.913

phiu=-152.500

Ul=0.363

u=0.908

phiu=-152.547

Ul=0.362

u=0.904

phiu=-152.578

T10/0.4

LB1

L12

L23

L34

L45

L56

L67

L78

L89

L910

Skab10 Skab9

Skab8

Skab7 Skab6

Skab5

Skab4

Skab3

Skab2

Skab1

D04

D10

Ext.

P=-122.227

Q=-14.140

cosphi=-0.993

P=-151.098

Q=-21.773

cosphi=-0.990

P=140.459

Q=18.989

cosphi=-0.991

P=-139.082

Q=-18.539

cosphi=-0.991

P=123.326

Q=14.499

cosphi=-0.993

P=-151.098

Q=-21.773

cosphi=-0.990

P=-149.535

Q=-21.262

cosphi=-0.990

P=131.824

Q=16.721

cosphi=-0.992

P=-130.589

Q=-16.318

cosphi=-0.992

P=114.96

Q=12.322

cosphi=-0.994

P

=

-1

2

2

.2

2

7

Q

=

-1

4

.1

4

0

c

o

s

p

h

i=

-0

.9

9

3

Ul=0.394

u=0.984

phiu=-151.727

Ul=0.390

u=0.974

phiu=-151.834

Ul=0.386

u=0.964

phiu=-151.941

Ul=0.382

u=0.955

phiu=-152.048

Ul=0.378

u=0.946

phiu=-152.154 U

l=

1

0

.0

0

0

u

=

1

.0

0

0

p

h

iu

=

-0

.0

0

0

Fig. 3. Time series implementation of the load profiles for residential

load (based on Velander correlation (1)), EV load and PV load (distinguished

from the conventional load with a peak power multiplication factor) based on

the load pattern from the aggregated historical data in Denmark.

Fig. 4. a) Comparison between voltage profile of the external grid and

the voltage profiles of the PVs, EVs, base loads and all loads connected at

the last cabinet to the end of the feeders.

Time series simulation provides an overview of the

potential problems (thermal loading and voltage rise in our

case). Based on this the concurrency of a group of units can

be investigated towards less conservative design.

B. Time-series Simulations using Dynamic Models

The dynamic model of the PV System (PV panels and PV

inverter) has been built with standard block components from

the Power Factory library and also using the dynamic

simulation language (DSL). It is based on a single diode

equivalent electrical circuit for the PV model, described by an

exponential equation [9-11]. The model uses the cell

irradiation G

cell

and cell temperature T

cell

as inputs, measured

from a weather station and implemented as look-up tables, as

it is shown in the first two graphs of Fig. 5 a).

The PV panels are mounted in three strings: two of them

having 18 panels of 165 W each, and the 3

rd

one having 12

panels of 100 W [9]. The strings of panels are connected to the

low-voltage distribution network through a three-phase PV

inverter. More details can be found in [9]-[10].

The simulation model was validated using experiments

carried out using RISOE experimental facility-SYSLAB ([9]-

[11]).

The dynamic load model is implemented using a voltage

dependency of active power and it is described by ([14], [18]):

( )

=

) (

0

2 1

) (

0

2

) (

0

1 0

3 2 1

1

p p p

V

V

kp kp

V

V

kp

V

V

kp P P (2)

Where P

0

and V

0

are the initial values of power and

voltage, p

1

to p

3

are coefficients that define the proportion of

each component and kp are coefficients that reflect the

dependency of load (kp

1

=100%, kp

2

=0). Typically, in dynamic

simulation, a simplification is done and all loads are consider

to be constant admittance type (p

1

=2, p

2

=p

3

=0).

In Fig. 5 are presented the time-series simulation results,

with PV systems and loads connected together to the same

bus-bar, for 6 days in November 2012. The input data for the

simulation model (irradiation and temperature) was measured

from the weather station placed on Ris campus with a

sampling time of 1 second. The load profile was defined by

(2) with the voltage dependency of the active power.

Fig. 5 a) shows a comparison between input data (T

cell

between -4 and +6

0

C and G

cell

around 300 W/m

2

during the

day) and the output parameters of the model [output power of

the panels-P

dc1

+P

dc2

(P

dc

_

total

=2.7 kW) and output power of

the inverter-P

ac

=2.6 kW).

In Fig. 5 b) are shown the simulation results when 3 PV

inverters are connected together with the loads at the last 3

cabinets of the grid model presented in Fig. 1. In this

particular case, EVs and HPs are assumed to be an unknown

proportion of the total load and the PV systems have the same

parameters but the panels have a different orientation and tilt

angles.

1.44E+2 1.15E+2 8.64E+1 5.76E+1 2.88E+1 -2.78E-5 [h]

2,9077

2,2943

1,6809

1,0675

0,4541

-0,1593

PV_Inverter_block: Pac (kW)

PV_Inverter_block: Pdc (kW)

1.44E+2 1.15E+2 8.64E+1 5.76E+1 2.88E+1 -2.78E-5 [h]

9,00

6,00

3,00

0,00

-3,00

-6,00

PV_3b_MeasFile: Tcell (C)

1.44E+2 1.15E+2 8.64E+1 5.76E+1 2.88E+1 -2.78E-5 [h]

0,40

0,30

0,20

0,10

0,00

-0,10

PV_3b_MeasFile: Gcell (p.u.)

Subplot/Diagramm

Date: 8/15/2013

Annex: /2

D

Ig

S

IL

E

N

T

a)

1.4E+2 1.2E+2 8.6E+1 5.8E+1 2.9E+1 -2.8E-5 [h]

2,820

2,225

1,630

1,035

0,440

-0,155

PV_Inverter_block(1): Pac1 (kW)

PV_Inverter_block: Pac3 (kW)

PV_Inverter_block(2): Pac2 (kW)

1.4E+2 1.2E+2 8.6E+1 5.8E+1 2.9E+1 -2.8E-5 [h]

20,00

15,00

10,00

5,00

0,00

-5,00

Load_file2: Pload (kW)

1.4E+2 1.2E+2 8.6E+1 5.8E+1 2.9E+1 -2.8E-5 [h]

2,419

1,909

1,398

0,888

0,378

-0,133

PV_Inverter_block: Pdc1(kW)

PV_Inverter_block: Pdc2(kW)

PV_Inverter_block(1): Pdc3(kW)

PV_Inverter_block(1): Pdc4(kW)

PV_Inverter_block(2): Pdc5(kW)

PV_Inverter_block(2): Pdc6(kW)

Subplot/Diagramm(1)

Date: 8/16/2013

Annex: /3

D

Ig

S

IL

E

N

T

b)

Fig. 5. a) Time series simulation results of the PV system for 6 days with real

data implemented as input and with DC and AC powers as outputs; b)

Comparison between IN and OUT of the 3 PV inverters, connected to the last

3 cabinets of the grid model together with a dynamic load defined by (2).

CONCLUSION

In this paper we have proposed a representative low-voltage

grid for summer and detached houses based on real data

measurements. The feeder lengths were measured using GIS

maps. The number of customers, cable cabinets and of

customers per cable cabinet were collected and the maximum

load per customer has been calculated using the Velander

correlation.

The grid model contains many components, such as: PV

systems, EVs, heat pumps and residential loads and was

designed and tested, based on 23 scenarios, to find out

whether the proposed distribution grid model is prepared for

the expected future increase of PV penetration with heat

pumps and electric cars connected along the feeders. The

developed scenarios clearly have shown that there is room for

larger loads if the output voltage from the substation can be

optimally set and/or varies according to the type and the size

of the load. Also, in a weak distribution line with a high

output voltage only 3 phase PV systems should be installed,

as 1 phase PVs under the same conditions are more likely to

exceed the voltage limits.

The low-voltage distribution grid model has been

developed and implemented in NEPLAN and DIgSILENT

Power Factory to study load flow, steady-state voltage

stability and dynamic behavior of the components. The

comparison between both simulation tools has shown a good

alignment and the possibility to use them for further

developments, regarding the integration of smart-grid

technologies. It means that this work could be used for

development and improvements of the models for different

components placed along the feeders in a future smart-grid

distribution network.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

This work was supported in part by the E.U. Project-Smart

Plan, No. 55807/2011-2013.

REFERENCES

[1] "Smart Grid i Danmark", joint report by energinet.dk and Dansk

Energi, September 2010.

[2] J. Kumagai, The Smartest, Greenest Grid-What a little Danish island

is showing the world about the future of energy, IEEE Spectrum, May

2013, pp. 38-43.

[3] Y. Riffonneau, S. Bacha, S. Barruel and S. Ploix, Optimal power

management for grid connected PV systems with batteries, IEEE

Transaction on Sustainable Energy, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 309-320, July

2011.

[4] H. Jiayi, J. Chuanwen, and X. Rong, A review on distributed energy

resources and MicroGrid, ELSEVIER Renewable & Sustainable

Energy Reviews, vol. 12, pp. 2472-2483, 2008.

[5] Smart Grid: Reinventing the electric power system, IEEE Power &

Energy Magazine, March 2012.

[6] P.C. Loh, L. Zhang and F. Gao, Compact integrated energy systems

for distributed generations, IEEE Transactions on Industry

Electronics, Vol. 5, May 2012.

[7] M. Jansen, R. Louie, M. E. Amoli and F. Sami, Model and simulation

of a 75 kW PV solar array, in Proc. of 2010 IEEE PES Transmission

and Distribution Conference and Exposition, pp. 1-5.

[8] H. Liu, L. Jin, D. Le and A. A. Chowdhury, Impact of high

penetration of solar photovoltaic generation on power system small

signal stability, in Proc. of 2010 POWERCON, pp. 1-7.

[9] C. Koch-Ciobotaru., L. Mihet-Popa, F. Isleifsson and H. Bindner,

Simulation model developed for a small-scale PV-System in a

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Timisoara-Romania, May 24-26, pp. 257-261.

[10] L. Mihet-Popa, C. Koch-Ciobotaru, F. Isleifsson and H. Bindner,

Development of tools for DER Components in a distribution

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[11] Y. Zong, L. Mihet-Popa, D. Kullman, A. Thavlov, O. Gehrke and H.

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IEEE PES Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Europe, Berlin-

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[12] DEFU recommendations no. 16/2010.

[13] European Standard-EN 50160.

[14] DIgSILENT PowerFactory, Digsilent gmbh, November 2012.

[15] NEPLAN, Tutorial manual, 2011.

[16] M. Velander, Methods of operational analysis applied to distribution

of electric power, Journal of Teknisk Tidskrift, Vol. 82, 1952, pp. 293-

299.

[17] [Online].Available:

http://www.scb.se/Pages/Product____10616.aspx?Produktkod=TK1101

&displaypublications=true;

[18] P. Kundur, Power system stability and control, McGraw-Hill, New

York, 1994.

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