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Introducing the Higher Teachings of the Buddha Buddha Abhidhamma Buddha AbhidhammaBuddha Abhidhamma Ultimate Science by Dr.

Mehm Tin Mon eBUDDHANET S B!!" #IB$A$% E&mail' bdea(buddhanet.net )eb site' ***.buddhanet.net Buddha Dharma Education Association Inc.

MENTA# S+IEN+E !$ U#TIMATE S+IEN+E MENTA# S+IEN+E !$ U#TIMATE S+IEN+E #ord Buddha, *ith His -o*er of omniscience, .ne* the true nature of the mind and correctly described the causal relations that go/ern mind and matter and thus can e0-lain all -sycho&-hysical -henomena in the *orld. His ultimate teaching, .no*n as Abhidhamma, describes in detail the natures of the ultimate realities that really e0ist in nature but are un.no*n to scientists. His method of /erification is su-erior to scientific methods *hich de-end on instruments. He used His di/ine&eye to -enetrate the co/erings that hide the true nature of all things. He also taught others ho* to de/elo- concentration and ho* to obser/e *ith their mind&eyes the true nature of all things and finally the four Noble Truths *hich can enlighten one to achie/e one1s liberation from all miseries for e/er2 So Abhidhamma may be regarded as Mental Science or Ultimate Science3the science of the ultimate truths. THE A4E !5 ANA#%SIS 6HI#!S!6HE$S ha/e no* come to the age of analysis. But *ho can analyse mind and matter correctly and thoroughly as #ord Buddha has done more than 7899 years ago2 The correct analysis of mind and matter is the greatest achie/ement on earth and the disco/ery of the natural correlations bet*een mind and matter is the most beneficial disco/ery e/er achie/ed by man. %ou *ill gain the greatest benefit if you strenuously study Abhidhamma *hich systematically describes the intrinsic natures of the ultimate com-rising mind, matter and -ermanent -eace :Nibb;na<. MIND +$EATES MISE$IES AND HA66INESS A## MENTA# 6HEN!MENA ha/e mind as their forerunner= they ha/e mind as their chief= they are mind&made. If one thin.s, s-ea.s or acts *ith an e/il mind, misery follo*s him >ust as the *heel follo*s the hoofs of the o0 that dra*s the cart. If one thin.s, s-ea.s or acts *ith a -ure mind, ha--iness follo*s him

li.e his shado* that ne/er lea/es him 3Dhamma-ada, ?erses @A7

Introducing the Higher Teaching of the Buddha' Buddha Abhidhamma Ultimate Science by Dr. Mehm Tin Mon B.Sc.Hons. :%gn<, M.Sc., 6h.D. :USA< 6rofessor of +hemistry :$td.< 6rofessor of Samatha Meditation International Thera/;da Buddha Missionary Uni/ersity, %angon Ad/iser to the Ministry of $eligious Affairs, Union of Myanmar

BUDDHA ABHIDHAMMA Ultimate Science +o-yright B @CC8 Dr Mehm Tin Mon 6rinted *ith -ermission from the author by ?en Hui Din :5o 4uang Shan Malaysia< This 5irst $e/ised Edition3@999 co-ies :No/ 7997< #ayout and +o/er Design by Su.hi Hotu Sdn Bhd E7? Falan Matang "uching @@899 Air Itam 6enang Tel 9E G7HH@@G 5a0 9E G7HH77G Email su.hihotu(-d.>aring.my

5!$E)!$D T T he -ro-hecy that an able -erson *ould soon a--ear to contribute to the *orld of .no*ledge in the field of Buddhist 6sycho&ethical&-hiloso-hy, *hich *e commonly a--reciate as Buddha Abhidhamma, has no* come true. The -ro-hecy *as made by my re/ered old teacher, Bhaddanta N;rada Mah;thera :Aggamah;-andita< *ho *as *ell&.no*n as the original 6atth;na Master. He made the -ro-hecy in @C87 *hile I *as studying %ama.a and 6atth;na Treatises under his guidance. He assigned me and my colleague translator, 6rofessor Thein Nyunt, to translate his *ritings on Abhidhamma. The tas. *as ne/er fully accom-lished as I *as occu-ied *ith teaching at the 6;li and Abhidhamma De-artment of the Uni/ersity of %angon and later transferred to the International Institute of Ad/anced Buddhistic Studies at "aba&Aye as Head of $esearch De-artment. Thereu-on my disa--ointed old teacher, Bhaddanta N;rada Mah;thera, *ith full e0-ectation, -ro-hesied that -retty soon an able scholar *ill emerge to accom-lish the noble tas. of -resenting Abhidhamma in English to the *orld. So no* a--ears a no/el and authentic treatise entitled BUDDHA ABHIDHAMMA3Ultimate Science by Dr. Mehm Tin Mon. Dr. Tin Mon is a man of science for he *as trained in the Uni/ersity of Illinois, U.S.A. for his master degree and doctorate degree in chemistry and then he ser/ed his country for se/eral years as 6rofessor of +hemistry. He is also a man of arts as he has *ritten se/eral illustrati/e boo.s on education as *ell as on Buddhism and

his boo.s are *idely read by the -ublic. So his a--roach to Abhidhamma is /ery scientific as *ell as artistic. Dr. Tin Mon has been conducting long courses as *ell as short intensi/e courses on Abhidhamma in many to*ns throughout Myamnar. His Abhidhamma&classes dra* the attention of large cro*ds as his uniIue ability to com-are Abhidhamma *ith science as *ell as *ith *estern -hiloso-hy ma.es the sub>ect /ery interesting and stimulating. He em-hasiJed the fact that the teachings of #ord Buddha in Abhidhamma are /ery scientific and that Abhidhamma goes much dee-er than natural sciences encom-assing a much *ider field. As I *as trained at the Har/ard Di/inity School and Har/ard 4raduate School of Arts and Sciences three decades ago, and has engaged myself as a research scholar in the field of historical, -hiloso-hical and religious sciences for many years, I heartily agree *ith Dr. Tin Mon in regarding Abhidhamma as the Ultimate Science3the science of the Ultimate Truths. +ulture, 6hiloso-hy, History and may other common mundane sub>ects can be studied thoroughly through the media of natural and human sciences. But the di/ine elements in religious studies can be robed and realiJed only by means of Di/ine Science. Ho*e/er the ultimate su-ramundane things *hich are beyond di/inity can be realiJed only through the Ultimate Science. So Abhidhamma or Ultimate Science sur-asses all other historical, -hiloso-hical and religious sciences. 6hiloso-hy is a noble science but it cannot be said to e0cel all other sciences because it does not embrace the *hole uni/ersality of things in Abhidhamma. Abhidhamma analyses mind and matter in minute detail into ultimate realities and sho*s the *ay to eternal -eace call Nibb;na. These ultimate realities are un.no*n to -hiloso-hy and all other sciences.

Dr. Tin Mon enlightens the readers e0tremely *ell *ith his BUDDHA ABHIDHAMMA3Ultimate Science. A reader can deri/e more benefit from this boo. in one *ee. that from a life&time of -ondering the -hiloso-hies of others. Dr. Tin Mon enlightens the readers e0tremely *ell *ith his BUDDHA ABHIDHAMMA3Ultimate Science. A reader can deri/e more benefit from this boo. in one *ee. that from a life&time of -ondering the -hiloso-hies of others. dhist 6hiloso-hy after the design of the *ell&.no*n boo. called THE ABHIDHAMMATHA SAN4AHA3The +om-endium of Buddhist 6hiloso-hy *ritten by U Sh*e Kan Aung and -ublished by the #ondon 6ali Te0t Society in @C@9. Dr. Tin Mon -erfected and augmented it still further by the e0traordinary Iuality of his intellect and all the su-erb -atrimony of *isdom *hich he inherited from his -redecessors. As a matter of fact, I ha/e studied the sub>ect in con>unction *ith the Ultimate Science at the De-artment of History and 6hiloso-hy in Har/ard Uni/ersity from the theological -oint of /ie*. But I am more thoroughly con/inced and lucidly enlightened in the conce-tion and meaningfulness of the sub>ect only no* after I ha/e read this ne* boo. -resented by Dr. Tin Mon. It is really a /ery hard tas. to *rite than to read such a -rofound *or. li.e this. May all scholars therefore unanimously and sincerely *elcome this su-erb *or. on Abhidhamma and may Abhidhamma enlighten the *hole *orld. 7E December @CCE Sao Htun Hmat )in M.A., A.M., S.$.5. :Har/ard< MAHA SADDHAMMA F!TI"ADHAFA Ad/iser to the Ministry of $eligious Affairs, Union of Myanmar

+ontents 5ore*ord E 6reface @H Buddha1s Teachings ..................................................................................................................................................... ...................................... @H The Significance of Abhidhamma ............................................................................................................................................... .......... @G )hat is the MindL .......................................................................................................................................................... ...................................... @C An Intellectual Treat ............................................................................................................................................................ ........................ 77 The Essence of Buddha Abhidhamma ............................................................................................................................................... . 7M Introduction 78 A 5itting Introduction ................................................................................................................................................. .................................. 78 $ealities ....................................................................................................................................................... .................................................................. 7N The 5our 6aramatthas ................................................................................................................................................. ................................... M@ N;ma and $O-a ............................................................................................................................................................ .......................................... M7 The 6ur-ose of the Ultimate Analysis ............................................................................................................................................. MM +ha-ter @ +ITTA +onsciousness M8 5our +lasses of +ittas ........................................................................................................................................................... .......................... M8 ";m;/acara +ittas ........................................................................................................................................................... .................................. MN

A.usala +ittas :Immoral +onsciousness< .................................................................................................................................... MN #obha&mOla +ittas ........................................................................................................................................................... ................................... MH Dosa&mOla +ittas ........................................................................................................................................................... ...................................... E@ Moha&mOla +ittas ........................................................................................................................................................... .................................... E7 Ta.ing stoc. in a Day .............................................................................................................................................................. ......................... EM Ahetu.a +ittas :$ootless +onsciousness< ................................................................................................................................... EE A.usala ?i-;.a +ittas ........................................................................................................................................................... ......................... E8 Ahetu.a "usala ?i-;.a +ittas ........................................................................................................................................................... .... EN Ahetu.a "iriya +ittas ........................................................................................................................................................... .......................... EG ";ma&sobhaPa +ittas ........................................................................................................................................................... ............................ EC Mah;&.usala +ittas ........................................................................................................................................................... ............................... 89 Mah;&/i-;.a +ittas A Mah;&.iriya +ittas .................................................................................................................................. 8M Normal +ittas in a 6erson .......................................................................................................................................................... ............... 8E

$O-;/acara +ittas ........................................................................................................................................................... .................................... 8E )hat is Fh;naL .......................................................................................................................................................... .............................................. 88 $O-;/acara "usala +ittas ........................................................................................................................................................... ............... 8C $O-;/acara ?i-;.a +ittas ........................................................................................................................................................... ................. N9 $O-;/acara "iriya +ittas ........................................................................................................................................................... .................. N9 ArO-;/acara +ittas ........................................................................................................................................................... ................................ N9 ArO-a Fh;nas .......................................................................................................................................................... .................................................. N@ ArO-;/acara "usala +ittas ........................................................................................................................................................... ............ NM ArO-;/acara ?i-;.a +ittas ........................................................................................................................................................... ............. NM ArO-;/acara "iriya +ittas ........................................................................................................................................................... ............... NE AbhiQQ;Pa +ittas :Su-ernormal +onsciousness< .................................................................................................................. NE #o.uttara +ittas ........................................................................................................................................................... ...................................... N8 #o.uttara "usala +ittas ........................................................................................................................................................... .................. NN 5i/e Fh;na Sot;-atti Magga +ittas .................................................................................................................................................... NH #o.uttara ?i-;.a +ittas ........................................................................................................................................................... ................... NG 5i/e Fh;na Arahatta 6hala +ittas .................................................................................................................................................... NC Ruic. $e/ie* !/er +ittas ........................................................................................................................................................... ................. H9

+ha-ter 7 +ETASI"AS Mental 5actors H8 +haracteristics of +etasi.as ..................................................................................................................................................... .............. H8 )hich is more -o*erfulL .................................................................................................................................................... .......................... H8 +lassification of +etasi.as ..................................................................................................................................................... .................... HN AQQasam;na +etasi.as ..................................................................................................................................................... ............................. HH Sabbacitta&s;dh;raPa +etasi.as ..................................................................................................................................................... .... HH Significance of Sabbacitta& s;dh;raPa ......................................................................................................................................... G@ 6a.iPPa.a +etasi.as ..................................................................................................................................................... ..................................... G7 A.usala +etasi.as ..................................................................................................................................................... ......................................... G8 SobhaPa +etasi.as ..................................................................................................................................................... ......................................... CM Sobhana&s;dh;rana +etasi.as ..................................................................................................................................................... .......... CM ?irati +etasi.as ..................................................................................................................................................... ............................................. @99 A--amaQQ; +etasi.as ..................................................................................................................................................... .............................. @9@ 6aQ Qindriya ....................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................... @9M

Association of each +etasi.a *ith different +ittas ....................................................................................................... @9M Union of AQQasam;na +etasi.as ..................................................................................................................................................... . @9E Union of A.usala +etasi.as ..................................................................................................................................................... .............. @98 Union of SobhaPa +etasi.as ..................................................................................................................................................... ............. @98 Different +ombinations of +etasi.as *ith Different +ittas ................................................................................... @9N Niyata&yogis and Aniyata& yogis ........................................................................................................................................................... @@7 Doing the Im-ossible ................................................................................................................................................... .................................... @@N +ha-ter M 6A"ISSA"A Miscellaneous Section @@C ?edan; SaTgaha ........................................................................................................................................................ ........................................ @@C +lassification of +ittas according to 5eeling ...................................................................................................................... @79 Hetu SaTgaha ........................................................................................................................................................ .............................................. @7@ +lassifications of +ittas according to $oots ........................................................................................................................ @77 "icca SaTgaha ........................................................................................................................................................ ............................................. @77 The +ittas -erforming the res-ecti/e 5unctions ................................................................................................................ @7M Uh;na ........................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................. @78 D/;ra SaTgaha ........................................................................................................................................................ ........................................... @7N The +ittas in each

Door ............................................................................................................................................................ ................. @7H AlambaPa SaTgaha ........................................................................................................................................................ ................................ @7C +ittas and Sense&ob>ects according to Doors ....................................................................................................................... @M9 Indi/idual +ittas and Sense& ob>ects ............................................................................................................................................... @M9 ?atthu SaTgaha ........................................................................................................................................................ ......................................... @M7 ?atthu and BhOmi .......................................................................................................................................................... ................................... @MM ?iQQ;na& dh;tu ............................................................................................................................................................ ........................................ @ME +lassification of +ittas according to ?atthu ....................................................................................................................... @ME +ha-ter E ?VTHI +ogniti/e Series @MH 6rocess of +onsciousness ............................................................................................................................................. ............................. @MH The #ife&s-an of +itta ............................................................................................................................................................. ...................... @MH The life&s-an of $O-a ............................................................................................................................................................ ......................... @MG

Si0 Ty-es of ?iQ Q;Pa ............................................................................................................................................................. .......................... @MG Si0 Ty-es of ?Wthi ............................................................................................................................................................ .................................... @MC The +auses for the Arising of ?Wthi ................................................................................................................................................ @E9 Si0 Ty-es of ?isaya--a/atti ............................................................................................................................................. ............................ @E7 ?Wthi&cittas and ?Wthi&/imutti +ittas ............................................................................................................................................. @E7 Three Ty-es of Identical +ittas ........................................................................................................................................................... @EM MaraP;sanna Nimitta ........................................................................................................................................................ ......................... @EE Three ty-es of Bha/aTga +ittas .......................................................................................................................................................... @EN +a..hu&d/;ra ?Wthis .......................................................................................................................................................... ............................ @EH 6aQcad/;ra& /Wthis ........................................................................................................................................................... ................................. @8N The Simile of a Mango& fruit .............................................................................................................................................................. ..... @8N 6aQcad/;ra&/Wthi +ittas ........................................................................................................................................................... .................. @8H The ob>ect A the ?atthu ta.en by each ?Wthi& citta .......................................................................................................... @8C Mano&d/;ra ?Wthi ............................................................................................................................................................ ................................. @N9 ";ma&>a/ana Mano&d/;ra ?Wthis ........................................................................................................................................................ @N@ "ama&>a/ana&mano&d/;ra&/Wthi +ittas ........................................................................................................................................ @NM Secondary Mano&d/;ra ?Wthis .......................................................................................................................................................... ... @NM 6ractical

?erification .................................................................................................................................................. ............................... @NE A--an;&>a/ana Mano&d/;ra ?Wthis ................................................................................................................................................... @N8 5i/e $O-;/acara A--an; ?Wthis .......................................................................................................................................................... . @NN 5our ArO-;/acara A--an; ?Wthis ...................................................................................................................................................... @NG Fh;na Sam;-atti ?Wthis .......................................................................................................................................................... ...................... @H9 AbhiQQ; A--an; ?Wthis .......................................................................................................................................................... ...................... @H7 Magga A--an; ?Wthis .......................................................................................................................................................... .......................... @HE 6hala&sam;-atti ?Wthis .......................................................................................................................................................... ..................... @HN Nirodha&sam;-atti ?Wthi ............................................................................................................................................................ ................ @HG ?i-;.a Niy;ma ........................................................................................................................................................ .............................................. @G9 5reIuency of ";ma& >a/anas ......................................................................................................................................................... ........... @G9 5reIuency of A--an;& >a/anas ......................................................................................................................................................... ...... @G@ 6rocedure of Tad;lambaPa ............................................................................................................................................... ..................... @G7 Xgantu.a Bha/aTga ...................................................................................................................................................... ................................. @G7 BhOmi and +ittas ........................................................................................................................................................... .................................... @GM 6uggala& bheda ........................................................................................................................................................... ......................................... @GM 6uggala and +ittas ........................................................................................................................................................... ............................. @G8

+ha-ter 8 +ha-ter 8 6lanes of E0istence ?Wthimutta +ittas ........................................................................................................................................................... .................................. @GH 5ourfold +atu..as ...................................................................................................................................................... .................................... @GH 5our -lanes of E0istence ..................................................................................................................................................... ....................... @GG Situation of BhOmis ........................................................................................................................................................ ................................. @GC BhOmi and 6ersons ........................................................................................................................................................ ................................... @C7 5our Modes of $ebirth :6aYisandhi& catu..a< .......................................................................................................................... @CM 6erson and 6aYisandhi ................................................................................................................................................... ............................... @CM The Method of Naming $O-a& -lanes .............................................................................................................................................. @C8 5our Modes of +oncei/ing .................................................................................................................................................. ..................... @CN #ife&s-ans of Beings .......................................................................................................................................................... ............................... @CH 5our "inds of "amma :"amma& catu..a< .................................................................................................................................... 797 "icca&.amma +atu..a ....................................................................................................................................................... ........................... 79E 6;.ad;na-ariy;ya&.amma +atu..a ................................................................................................................................................ 798 The Simile of a +attle& shed ............................................................................................................................................................. ........ 79G 6;.a.;la&.amma +atu..a ....................................................................................................................................................... ................ 79C 6;.ath;na&.amma

+atu..a ....................................................................................................................................................... ............ 7@@ "amma&d/;ra and three Ty-es of "amma ................................................................................................................................. 7@7 Ten A.usala&.amma& -athas .......................................................................................................................................................... .......... 7@M Ten "usala&.amma& -athas .......................................................................................................................................................... ............. 7@E 6uQQa&.iriya ?atthu :Bases of Meritorious Action< ........................................................................................................ 7@E D/ihetu.a and Tihetu.a "usala "amma ................................................................................................................................... 7@N U..aYYha and !ma.a "usala "amma .......................................................................................................................................... 7@N Ho* "ammas Bear $esults ......................................................................................................................................................... .............. 7@H 5ourfold Ad/ent of Death :MaraP1u--atti& catu..a< ................................................................................................... 777 A--earance of "amma&related !b>ects ....................................................................................................................................... 77M MaraP;sanna ?Wthi ............................................................................................................................................................ ............................ 77E $ebirth& consciousness .............................................................................................................................................. .................................... 77N 6lanes of $ebirth after Death ........................................................................................................................................................... .. 77H

+ha-ter N +ha-ter N +om-endium of Matter Introductory ................................................................................................................................................. ........................................................ 77C )hat is $O-aL ........................................................................................................................................................... ............................................. 77C $O-a&samuddesa :Enumeration of $O-a< .................................................................................................................................... 7M9 5our Mah;bhOtas :5our 4reat Essentials< ............................................................................................................................... 7M@ 7E U-;d;&rO-as :T*enty&four Deri/ati/es< ............................................................................................................................... 7MM 5i/e 6as;da&rO-as :Sensiti/e Material Rualities< ............................................................................................................... 7ME Se/en 4ocara&rO-as :Material Rualities of Sense !b>ects< ..................................................................................... 7ME T*o Bh;/a&rO-as :Material Rualities of Se0< ......................................................................................................................... 7M8 T*o Bh;/a& rO-as ............................................................................................................................................................ ..................................... 7M8 FW/ita&rO-a :Material Ruality of #ife< .......................................................................................................................................... 7M8 Xh;ra&rO-aZ!>; :Material Ruality of Nutrition< .......................................................................................................... 7MN 6ariccheda&rO-aZX.;sa& dh;tu ........................................................................................................................................................... 7MN T*o ?iQQatti&rO-as :Material Rualities of +ommunication< .................................................................................. 7MN 5i/e ?i.;ra&rO-as :Material Rualities of Mutability< .................................................................................................. 7MH 5our #a..haPa&rO-as :Material Rualities of +haracteristics< .......................................................................... 7MH Eighteen Ni--hanna& rO-as ............................................................................................................................................................ ........... 7MG Ten Ani--hana& rO-as ............................................................................................................................................................ ......................... 7MC $O-a&/ibh;ga :+riticism on $O-a< ...................................................................................................................................................... 7MC

5ire in )ater and )ater in 5ire2 .......................................................................................................................................................... 7EM $O-a& samuYYh;na ................................................................................................................................................. ............................................ 7EM Ty-es of $O-a ............................................................................................................................................................ ............................................. 7EN 4rou-ing of Material Rualities :$O-a& .al;-a< ................................................................................................................... 7EH Internal and E0ternal "al;-as ........................................................................................................................................................ 789 $O-a& -a/atti..ama ............................................................................................................................................... ............................................ 78@ Material 6henomena at Death ........................................................................................................................................................... 787 Arising of Material 6henomena in $O-a& -lanes ................................................................................................................. 78M Summary of Material 6henomena .................................................................................................................................................. .. 78E 6ractical !bser/ations ................................................................................................................................................ ............................... 78E Nibb;na ....................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................ 78N Three Modes of Nibb;na ....................................................................................................................................................... ...................... 78G Some more Definitions of Nibb;na .................................................................................................................................................... 78G

+ha-ter H +ha-ter H +om-endium of Ultimate Entities Introductory ................................................................................................................................................. ........................................................ 7N@ +om-endium of +ategories .................................................................................................................................................... ................... 7N7 A.usala saTgaha :+om-endium of Immoral +ategories< ........................................................................................... 7N7 5our Xsa/as :5our +an.ers or Into0icants< ............................................................................................................................. 7N7 5our !ghas :5our 5loods< ........................................................................................................................................................ ................ 7NM 5our %ogas :5our Bonds< ......................................................................................................................................................... ................... 7NM 5our 4anthas :5our Ties< ............................................................................................................................................................. .............. 7NE 5our U-;d;nas :5our 4ras-ings< ................................................................................................................................................... .... 7N8 Si0 NW/;ranas :Si0 Hindrances< ................................................................................................................................................. .......... 7N8 Se/en Anusayas :Se/en #atent Defilements< .......................................................................................................................... 7NH Ten Sa[yo>anas :Ten 5etters< ........................................................................................................................................................ ........ 7NG Ten "iles;s :Ten Defilements< ................................................................................................................................................ ............... 7NC @899 "iles;s ......................................................................................................................................................... .................................................... 7H9 @9G Modes of TaPh; ........................................................................................................................................................... ............................. 7H9 Missa.a&saTgaha :+om-endium of Mi0ed +ategories< ................................................................................................... 7H7 Si0 Hetus :Si0 $oots< ..........................................................................................................................................................

............................. 7H7 Se/en Fh;naTgas :Se/en +onstituents of Fh;na< ................................................................................................................ 7HM T*el/e MaggaTgas :T*el/e +onstituents of the 6ath< .............................................................................................. 7HM T*enty&t*o Indriyas :T*enty&t*o 5aculties< ........................................................................................................................ 7HE Nine Balas :Nine 6o*ers< ........................................................................................................................................................ .................. 7HN 5our Adhi-atis :5our Dominating 5actors< ............................................................................................................................... 7HH 5our Xh;ras :5our "inds of 5ood< ................................................................................................................................................... 7HG Bodhi-a..hiya& saTgaha ......................................................................................................................................................... .................... 7HC 5our Sati-aYYh;nas :5our 5oundations of Mindfulness< ............................................................................................ 7HC 5our Samma--adh;nas :5our Su-reme Efforts< .................................................................................................................... 7G@ 5our Iddhi-;das :5our 5oundations of Accom-lishment< ........................................................................................... 7G7 5i/e Indriyas :5i/e 5aculties< ..................................................................................................................................................... ............ 7G7 5i/e Balas :5i/e 6o*ers< ........................................................................................................................................................ ..................... 7GM Se/en Bo>>haTgas :Se/en +onstituents of Enlightenment< ...................................................................................... 7GE

Eight MaggaTgas :Eight +onstituents of the 6ath< ........................................................................................... 7GE $e/ie* of Bodhi-a..hiya ............................................................................................................................................ .................. 7GN Sabba&saTgaha :+om-endium of the )hole ?atthu&dhammas< ................................................................ 7GN 5i/e "handhas :5i/e Aggregates< ........................................................................................................................................ 7GN 5i/e U-;d;na.handhas :5i/e 4rou-s of 4ras-ing< ............................................................................................. 7GG $eason for +lassification of t*o Ty-es of "handha ......................................................................................... 7GC Nibb;na is "handha& /imutti ...................................................................................................................................................... 7C9 T*el/e Xyatanas :T*el/e Bases< .......................................................................................................................................... 7C9 Eighteen Dh;tus :Eighteen Elements< .............................................................................................................................. 7C7 5our Ariya&saccas :5our Noble Truths< .......................................................................................................................... 7CE The essential Elements of each Noble Truth and )hat the Truth Teaches .......................... 7C8 +ha-ter G 6A++A%A +ause or +ondition 7CH Introductory ................................................................................................................................................. ........................................... 7CH 6aYiccasamu--;da Method ........................................................................................................................................................ . 7CG E0-lanation of the +ausal $elations ............................................................................................................................... 7CC A/i>>;&-accay; SaT.h;r; ....................................................................................................................................................... ....... 7CC SaT.h;ra&-accay; ?iQ Q;na[ .................................................................................................................................................. M9@ ?iQQ;Pa&-accay; N;ma& rO-a[ ............................................................................................................................................... M97 N;ma&rO-a&-accay; Sa\;yatana[ ....................................................................................................................................... M9M Sa\;yatana&-accay;

6hasso ...................................................................................................................................................... M9E 6hassa&-accay; ?edan; ......................................................................................................................................................... ........ M9E ?edan;&-accay; TaPh; ........................................................................................................................................................... ....... M98 TaPh;&-accay; U-;d;na[ .................................................................................................................................................... ...... M9N U-;d;na&-accaya Bha/o .......................................................................................................................................................... ...... M9G Bha/a&-accay; F;ti ............................................................................................................................................................... ................ M9C F;ti&-accay; >ar;&maraPa[ so.a -aride/a du..ha domanassa u-;y;s; sambha/anti M@9 Some Notable As-ects of the #a* ........................................................................................................................................ M@@ T*el/e 5actors :ATga< .......................................................................................................................................................... ......... M@@ Three 6eriods :";la< .......................................................................................................................................................... .............. M@@

T*enty modes :X.;ra< ......................................................................................................................................................... ........... M@7 5our Abridgments :SaT.he-a< ................................................................................................................................................. M@8 Three +onnections :Sandhi< ...................................................................................................................................................... M@8 Three $ounds :?aYYa< ........................................................................................................................................................ ............... M@8 T*o $oots :MOla< .......................................................................................................................................................... ...................... M@N The +ause of A/i>>; ........................................................................................................................................................... ................... M@G No Beginning in Sa[s;ra ........................................................................................................................................................ ..... M@C 6aYYh;na Method ........................................................................................................................................................ ........................ M79 The 7E Modes of +onditionality ............................................................................................................................................ M7@ The 6ro-erty of each +ondition ............................................................................................................................................ M7@ A--lications of 7E +onditions .................................................................................................................................................. MM9 6aYYh;na 6ali .............................................................................................................................................................. .............................. MM9 Summary of +ausal $elations ................................................................................................................................................. M8M Di/ision of N;ma and $O-a ........................................................................................................................................................ M8G 6aQQatti :+once-tion< ................................................................................................................................................ ..................... M8G ?arious 5orms of Attha&-aQ Qatti ........................................................................................................................................ M8C Si0 Names for Sadda&-aQ Qatti ................................................................................................................................................. MN@

Si0 .inds of Sadda&-aQ Qatti ....................................................................................................................................................... MN7 +ha-ter C "AMMAUUHXNA Meditation Sub>ects MN8 Introductory ................................................................................................................................................. ........................................... MN8 Bh;/an; :Meditation< ................................................................................................................................................ ....................... MNN Samatha& bh;/an; ....................................................................................................................................................... ......................... MNN ?i-assan;& bh;/an; ....................................................................................................................................................... ....................... MNN "ammaYYh;na ............................................................................................................................................ .............................................. MNN Ten "asiPas ........................................................................................................................................................ ........................................ MNH Ten Asubhas ....................................................................................................................................................... ........................................ MNG Ten Anussatis ..................................................................................................................................................... ...................................... MH9 A brief comment on Anussatis ................................................................................................................................................. MH7 5our Brahma& /ih;ras ......................................................................................................................................................... ............. MHE

#i/ing in the Sublime Abode ....................................................................................................................................................... MHN Xh;re&-aYi.Ola&saQ Q; ................................................................................................................................................................. ... MHG +atu&dh;tu&/a/atth;na :Defining of the 5our Elements< ............................................................................. MHC 5our Xru-as :5our immaterial S-heres< .......................................................................................................................... MG9 Si0 +aritas :Si0 Ty-es of Tem-erament or Nature< ................................................................................................ MG@ "ammaYYh;na and +arita ........................................................................................................................................................... MG@ Three Stages of Bh;/an; ....................................................................................................................................................... ........ MG7 Bh;/an; and "ammaYYh;na ............................................................................................................................................ .......... MGE Fh;na and "ammaYYh;na ............................................................................................................................................ ................. MGE Bh;/an;&nimitta :Meditation Image< ................................................................................................................................ MG8 Nimitta and "ammaYYh;na ............................................................................................................................................ ............ MGN 6ractical +ou-ling of Bh;/an; *ith Nimitta .......................................................................................................... MGH To*ards the Second and Higher Fh;nas ........................................................................................................................ MGC To*ards ArO-a& >h;nas........................................................................................................................................................... .........MC9 4oing higher to AbhiQ Q; ............................................................................................................................................................. MC7 ?i-assan; "ammaYYh;na ............................................................................................................................................ .................. MCM Se/enfold ?isuddhi :Se/en Stages of 6urity< ............................................................................................................ MCE Ti&la..haPa :Three +haracteristic Mar.s< ............................................................................................................... MC8 Threefold Anu-assan; :Three Methods of +ontem-lation< ...................................................................... MC8

Ten ?i-assan;&Q;Pas :Ten Insight "no*ledge< ........................................................................................................ MCH Threefold ?imo..ha :Three )ays of Emanci-ation< ........................................................................................... MCG Threefold ?imo..ha&mu.ha :Tri-le 4ate&*ay to #iberation< ................................................................... MCC The Se/en Stages of the 6ath of 6urification ............................................................................................................ E99 SWla&/isuddhi :6urity of Morality< ..................................................................................................................................... E97 +itta&/isuddhi :6urity of Mind< ............................................................................................................................................. E9M DiYYhi&/isuddhi :6urity of ?ie*< ............................................................................................................................................. E9E "aT.h;&/itaraPa&/isuddhi :6urity by Transcending Doubt< ..................................................................... E9N Magg;magga&Q;Padassana ?isuddhi ............................................................................................................................... E@7 U-a..ilesa :Ten Im-urities of ?i-assan;< ....................................................................................................................... E@H 6aYi-ad;&Q;Padassana& /isuddhi ............................................................................................................................................ E@G ];Padassana& /isuddhi ....................................................................................................................................................... ............ E7N Ariyas :Noble 6ersons< ....................................................................................................................................................... ............ E7G +onclusion .................................................................................................................................................. ............................................... EME About the Author

6reface Buddha1s Teachings T T he teachings of #ord Buddha in the course of E8 years of His Buddhahood ha/e been di/ided into three collections called Ti-iYa.a in -;\i, meaning ^Three Bas.ets1 literally. The first collection is .no*n as ^Sutta -iYa.a1. It is the con/entional teaching :?oh;ra desana< in *hich Buddha used common /ocabulary to e0-lain His teachings. 6ractical as-ects of tranIuility meditation and insight&meditation are included in this collection. The second collection is called ^?inaya -iYa.a1. It is the authoritati/e teaching :Xn;&desana< in *hich Buddha used His authority o/er the mon.s to lay do*n rules and disci-lines for them to follo*. These disci-lines embody the highest code of ethics and can surely -urify one1s action, s-eech and thought, thus ma.ing one noble and res-ectful. The third collection is ^Abhidhamma -iYa.a1. It is the higher teaching of the Buddha. Here Buddha em-loyed abstract terms to describe the ultimate realties :-aramatthas< in the Uni/erse and Nibbana *hich is the summum bonum and the highest goal of Buddhism. So Abhidhamma may be regarded as the ultimate teaching :6aramattha desan;< of #ord Buddha. The -rinci-les and the causal relations *hich Buddha e0-ounded in Abhidhamma are so natural, so logical and so beautiful that they can -in&-oint the root cause of miseries in the *orld and the *ays to eradicate these miseries.

The most *onderful thing about Buddha1s teachings is that the teaching contain both theory and -ractice, and they clearly and e0actly define the human /alues, the best moral code, the eternal -eace and the Noble Eightfold 6ath leading to that -eace. All these /aluable teachings ha/e been /erified time and again by millions of Ariyas, i.e., noble -ersons *ho had trodden on the -ath, and can still be /erified at any time any an able -erson *ho *ill earnestly and steadfastly follo* the -ath. The most *onderful thing about Buddha1s teachings is that the teaching contain both theory and -ractice, and they clearly and e0actly define the human /alues, the best moral code, the eternal -eace and the Noble Eightfold 6ath leading to that -eace. All these /aluable teachings ha/e been /erified time and again by millions of Ariyas, i.e., noble -ersons *ho had trodden on the -ath, and can still be /erified at any time any an able -erson *ho *ill earnestly and steadfastly follo* the -ath. Sutta -iYa.a and Abhidhamma -iYa.a are collecti/ely .no*n as Dhamma3a -;\i *ord meaning ^the doctrine or the teaching1 of the Buddha. Dhamma is the doctrine that can sal/age -ersons *ho abide by Dhamma from falling into the four lo*er abodes :a-;yas< and that can -urify the mind from defilements so as to achie/e lasting -eace and ha--iness. The -refi0 ^Abhi1 is used in the sense of -re-onderant, great, e0cellent, sublime, distinct, mar/elous, etc. Abhidhamma -iYa.a is more -re-onderant, more sublime and more mar/elous than Sutta -iYa.a in the sense that Abhidhamma -iYa.a contains more Dhamma grou-s :Dhamma..handhas< than Sutta -iYa.a and ?inaya -iYa.a :Abhidhamma consists of E7,999 dhamma..handhas *hereas Sutta -iYa.a and ?inaya -iYa.a contain 7@,999 dhamma..handhas each<. ii Buddha used more numerous methods in e0-ounding Abhidhamma than *hen He taught Sutta Dhamma= and iii In Abhidhamma Buddha analysed mind and matter in minute detail in terms of the ultimate realities .no*n as ^-aramathas1. These -aramatthas *ill be e0-lained in the Introduction cha-ter.

)hat is the MindL )hat is the MindL 6sychologists began their tas. by -robing the nature of the mind. But, *hen they cannot s-ecify and characteriJe the mind, they turn to the beha/ior of animals and men. Thus -sychology becomes ^the study of beha/iorism1 rather than ^the science of the mind.1 Today1s science -ossesses no instruments to detect the mind. So scientists tend to deny the e0istence of the mind and fondle the theory that the brain functions as the mind. This theory cannot e0-lain the strange -henomena of tele-athy, clair/oyance, e0trasensory -erce-tion, -sycho.inesis, out&of&body e0-eriments, life after death, etc., *hich cannot be denied by science to&day. Besides brain&research has re/ealed that, although the brain functions as a su-er&com-uter, it reIuires an e0ternal agent to run it >ust as ordinary com-uters need to be -rogrammed by men. Isn1t that e0ternal agent the mindL Abhidhamma describes the mind as a combination of citta :consciousness< and cetasi.as :mental factors or concomitants of the mind<. There are 87 cetasi.as or mental factors3some can defile the mind, some can -urify the mind and some are neutral. The total number of -ossible combinations bet*een citta and cetasi.as is @7@. These combinations account for the /arious states of the mind. They e0-lain fully *hy the mind is sometimes bad and sometimes good, sometimes sad and sometimes ha--y, sometimes *ic.ed and sometimes noble, etc. In the -ractical as-ects of His teaching, #ord Buddha described se/eral *ays for de/elo-ing sam;dhi :concentration<.

)hen the un*holesome mental factors such as lobha :greed<, dosa :anger<, uddhacca :restlessness<, .u..ucca :remorse<, /ici.icch; :doubt<, thina&middha :sloth and tor-or< can be calmed do*n not to arise in the mind, then the mind is in un-erturbed, -eaceful and lucid state. This is the state of u-ac;ra&sam;dhi :neighbourhood concentration or access concentration<, meaning it is close to >h;na :absor-tion<. At the state of u-ac;ra&sam;dhi, since the defilements are absent from the mind, one en>oys tranIuility and -eace unmatched by sensual -leasure. A higher bliss is en>oyed *hen one can raise the degree of concentration a litter higher to >h;na&sam;dhi. After de/elo-ing four rO-a&>h;nas :meditati/e absor-tion of fine&material s-here< and four arO-a&>h;nas :absor-tion of immaterial s-here<, one can go a ste- further to de/elo- abhiQQ; :su-ernormal .no*ledge<. There are fi/e mundane :lo.iya< su-ernormal -o*ers' :@< di/ine -o*ers :iddhi&/idha<, :7< di/ine ear :dibba sota<, :M< di/ine eye :dibba&ca..hu<, :E< -enetration of the minds of others :ceto&-ariya&Q;Pa< and :8< remembrance of former e0istences :-ubbe&ni/asanussati<. These su-ernormal -o*ers far sur-ass the -o*ers of tele-athy, clair/oyance, -sycho.inesis, etc. )ith iddhi&/idha abhiQQ; one can -ass through *alls and mountains *ithout being obstructed, di/e into the earth, *al. o/er *ater and fly in the s.y. )ith dibbaca..hu abhiQQ; one can see the a-;ya :lo*er< abodes as *ell as the *orlds of de/as and brahmas and the beings being reborn in the thirty&one -lanes of e0istence according to their .amma :.arma or action<. )ith ceto&-ariya&Q;Pa, one can see the minds of others and .no* their intentions. The attainment of these su-ernormal -o*ers is not, ho*e/er, the goal of Buddhism. The -enetrating -o*er of the mind

accom-anied by u-ac;ra&sam;dhi or >h;na&sam;dhi is utilised to obser/e the arising and the /anishing of n;ma :mind and its concomitants< and rO-a :ultimate matter< in the body. These n;ma and rO-a are in/isible e/en under electronic microsco-es, but they can be seen by the sam;dhi&mind2 accom-anied by u-ac;ra&sam;dhi or >h;na&sam;dhi is utilised to obser/e the arising and the /anishing of n;ma :mind and its concomitants< and rO-a :ultimate matter< in the body. These n;ma and rO-a are in/isible e/en under electronic microsco-es, but they can be seen by the sam;dhi&mind2 The stream *inner :sota-anna ariya< can en>oy the transcendental -eace of Nibb;na *hene/er he chooses. If he continues *ith his /i-assan; :insight< meditation he *ill realiJe the three higher Maggas and 6halas :6aths and 5ruitions< in due course and become an arahat :-erfect one< in this /ery life. E/en if he does not continue *ith his /i-assan; meditation, the sot;-anna *ill automatically become an arahat in no more than se/en li/es. In the arahat all the defilements are com-letely u-rooted and destroyed. Since these defilements are the real causes of all miseries, their total destruction means com-lete ha--iness and eternal -eace for the arahat. Thus by -urifying the mind from all defilements *hich cause miseries and debase a -erson, one can become an arahat *ho is among the noblest -ersons in the *orlds of men and de/;s and *ho can en>oy the highest and lasting -eace of Nibb;na for e/er. So to become an arahat is the correct goal for men and de/;s, and this highest goal in life is attainable only through the correct analysis and understanding of mind and matter as taught by #ord Buddha.

It should be em-hasiJed here that *hate/er Buddha had taught us out of His omniscience and o*n e0-erience can be tested and /erified by any one *ith his o*n e0-erience. It should be em-hasiJed here that *hate/er Buddha had taught us out of His omniscience and o*n e0-erience can be tested and /erified by any one *ith his o*n e0-erience. Abhidhamma deals *ith the realities that really e0ist in nature. It correctly and microsco-ically analyses both mind and matter *hich constitutes this com-le0 machinery of man. It describes the si0 sense&doors in man, the si0 senses coming from outside and the arising of though -rocesses *hen the senses come into contact *ith the sense&doors. ?arious mental states together *ith the causes of these mental states are /i/idly enumerated. )holesome and un*holesome thoughts and their conseIuences are elaborated. Also the -rocess of life and death and that of rebirth in /arious -lanes under the .ammic force are clearly e0-lained. $O-a, *hich com-rises matter and energy, is subdi/ided and characteriJed to the ultimate states. Both n;ma :mind and its concomitants< and rO-a :matter and energy< are /ery short&li/ed. They arise and dissol/e in the order of a trillion :@9 @7< times -er second. So the /ie* that consciousness flo*s li.e a stream as -ro-ounded by some modern -sychologists li.e )illiam Fames becomes e0tremely clear to one *ho understands Abhidhamma. The la* of De-endent !rigination and the #a* of +ausal $elations are treated systematically and thoroughly in Abhidhamma. These la*s find no -arallel in any other -hiloso-hy. 5inally the four great Noble Truths, i.e. the Noble Truth of Suffering, the Noble Truth of the +ause of Suffering, the Noble Truth of the +essation of Suffering and the Noble Truth of the

6ath leading to the +essation of Suffering, clearly come to light as one goes through Abhidhamma. These 5our Noble Truths are the ultimate truths that encom-ass all the causal relations in mundane as *ell as su-ramundane le/els. those *ho can /i/idly see these Noble Truths *ith their sam;dhi&mind or *isdom&eye *ill become enlightened as noble -ersons. 6ath leading to the +essation of Suffering, clearly come to light as one goes through Abhidhamma. These 5our Noble Truths are the ultimate truths that encom-ass all the causal relations in mundane as *ell as su-ramundane le/els. those *ho can /i/idly see these Noble Truths *ith their sam;dhi&mind or *isdom&eye *ill become enlightened as noble -ersons. Fust as natural sciences in/estigate the natural la*s that control natural -rocesses, so also Abhidhamma illustrates the natural truths that go/ern natural -rocesses. But the le/els of treatment are different. All natural sciences, such as -hysics, chemistry, biology, geology, geogra-hy, engineering, electronics and medical sciences, deal *ith matter and energy3the -hysical as-ects of nature. E/en -sychology, *hich goes after beha/iorism, cannot -in&-oint the mind and analyse it. But it is the mind *hich leads the *orld and the life of e/erybody. All sciences and -hiloso-hies are -roduced by the mind, go/erned by the mind and children of the mind. So the mind is undoubtedly the most -o*erful agent in the *orld2 Abhidhamma -in&-oints the mind, analyses and characteriJes the mind, describes the functions of the mind and -uts the mind in its -ro-er -lace. The true ability of e/ery -erson lies in his mind. So nobody need loo. u- to the s.y and as. for hel- from some su-ernatural forces for the most -o*erful force lies *ithin himself2 Abhidhamma also tells about matter in relation to the mind. It also describes Nibb;na :Nir/ana< *hich is free from mind and matter. Natural sciences cannot turn a scoundrel to a noble man

*hereas Abhidhamma can. Scientists and -hiloso-hers cannot sho* the *ay to the cessation of suffering and to eternal -eace *hereas Abhidhamma can. *hereas Abhidhamma can. Scientists and -hiloso-hers cannot sho* the *ay to the cessation of suffering and to eternal -eace *hereas Abhidhamma can. )hat .no*ledge is there in life *hich is more /aluable than Abhidhamma *hich is the ultimate teaching of the 5ully Enlightened !neL

Introduction A 5itting Introduction T T he Abhidhamma -iYa.a consists of se/en treatises3namely, DhammasaTgaPi, ?ibhaTga, Dh;tu.ath;, 6uggala-aQQatti, "ath;/atthu, %ama.a and 6aYYh;na. The sub>ect matter of Abhidhamma is the four ultimate realities :-aramatthas< and the causal relations bet*een them. The treatment of the sub>ect&matter is highly technical and remar.ably systematic ma.ing use of -urely -hiloso-hical terms true in the absolute sense. If one can -atiently study the treatises on Abhidhamma, one cannot but admire the -rofound *isdom and the -enetrati/e insight of #ord Buddha. But it is not easy to study Abhidhamma on one1s o*n efforts as one may easily get lost in the *ilderness of abstract terms and strange methodology. There is, ho*e/er, a *ell&.no*n treatise called ABHIDHAM. MATTHA SAN4AHA, *hich is the most fitting essence to Abhidhamma. This treatise, *ritten by ?enerable Anuruddha Thera, an Indian mon. of "aQci-ura :"an>ee/aram<, summariJes all the im-ortant -oints of Abhidhamma /ery systematically. The treatise, originally *ritten in -;\i, has been translated into se/eral languages. In Myanmar the sub>ect matter of this included in the course of study for no/ices and mon., and is also used as

the course of Abhidhamma e0aminations held e/ery year throughout Myanmar by the ministry of $eligious Affairs. the course of Abhidhamma e0aminations held e/ery year throughout Myanmar by the ministry of $eligious Affairs. tha saTgaha1 in a sim-le and systematic manner *ith certain collaboration *ith scientific /ie*s and -ractical as-ects. It is *ritten more or less in the form *hich is used by the author as lecture guides in conducting Abhidhamma short courses. The courses -ro/e to be /ery successful. So the reader *ill find this boo. to be thoroughly clarified and interesting to study the essential facts of Abhidhamma. Abhidhamma is really the golden .no*ledge *hich *ill helone to discard *rong /ie*s and to acIuire the right /ie* for one1s total liberation from all miseries. $ealities There are t*o .inds of realities3a--arent and ultimate. A--arent reality is the ordinary con/entional truth or the commonly acce-ted truth :sammuti&sacca<. It is called -aQQatti in Abhidhamma. Ultimate reality is the ultimate truth :-aramattha&sacca<. It is called -aramattha in Abhidhamma. In basic science *e learn about the a--arent de-th of an ob>ect in *ater. The a--arent de-th is shallo*er than the real de-th. It a--ears to be the true de-th due to the de/iation of light rays on -assing from a denser medium :*ater< to a lighter medium :air<. So if a fisherman thro*s a s-ear at a fish *here he sees it under *ater, the s-ear *ill not hit the fish, because the fish is not really there. In the same *ay -aQQattis or the a--arent realities, though they seem to e0ist, do not really e0ist. )hat are the -aQQattisL

6aQQattis are the names of li/ing and non li/ing= they also refer to the things and the -ersons themsel/es. Thus not only the names ^man, dog, table, house, etc.1 are -aQQattis but the man, the dog, the table, the house, etc, are also -aQQattis. 6aQQattis are the names of li/ing and non li/ing= they also refer to the things and the -ersons themsel/es. Thus not only the names ^man, dog, table, house, etc.1 are -aQQattis but the man, the dog, the table, the house, etc, are also -aQQattis. cause a -articular thing has been gi/en different names in different languages. There is an interesting e-isode about gi/ing names in Myanmar. A lad by the name of Mr. Ba a--eared for the matriculation e0amination. He failed in his first attem-t. He a--eared for the same e0amination again ne0t year under the ne* name of Mr. Ba Hla. He failed again. In the third year he changed his name to Mr. Ba Hla Than and sat for the e0amination again. Again he didn1t ha/e a better luc.. So to im-ro/e his luc. he too. the name of Mr. Ba Hla Than Tin in the fourth year. He failed in the e0amination again. Ne/ertheless he a--eared for the e0amination again in the fifth year under the longer name of Mr. Ba Hla Than Tin Nyunt. )ell, he -assed the e0amination this time. So he *as .no*n as Mr. Ba Hla Than Tin Nyunt *hen he >oined the uni/ersity of %angon. The -oint is that, since names can be chosen at *ill to designate /arious things and -ersons, they cannot be ultimate realities. %et *e ha/e to use these names in our e/eryday e0-ressions and s-eeches to communicate *ith one another. !ther -eo-le understand correctly *hat *e mean and *hat *e refer to. So these e0-ressions and s-eeches *ith no intention of lying are called samuti&sacca or con/entional truth. No* according to Abhidhamma, not only the names but also the things and the -ersons the names refer to do not really e0ist. %ou may argue' _)hyL )e can see the table, the house, the man,

the dog and *e can also touch them and feel them. )hy don1t they e0istL` the dog and *e can also touch them and feel them. )hy don1t they e0istL` )hat about the man and the dogL If you ta.e each -art such as hair, nails, s.in, flesh, blood, bones, intestines, heart, li/er, lungs, s-leen, etc., in turn and as. the Iuestion' _Is this the man or the dogL` The ans*er is al*ays ^No1. So the man and the dog do not really e0ist. Again there is an interesting e-isode in the Buddhist chronicles bet*een t*o *ise -ersons 3"ing Milinda and the arahat ?en. Nagasena. The "ing as.ed, _By *hat name shall I .no* you, SirL` ?en Nagasena ans*ered, _My com-anions call me Nagasena. But the name and the -erson *hom the name refers to do not really e0ist.` The "ing commented, _If Nagasena and the -erson do not e0ist, to *hom do -eo-le offer alms and *ho recei/e these offeringsL Since you recei/e them, you really e0ist. )hy did you tell a lie in s-ite of your higher nobilityL` ?en. Nagasena enIuired, _%our Ma>esty, did you come to this monastery on foot or by chariotL` The "ing re-lied, _I came by chariot.` ?en. Nagasena enIuired further, _)ell then, -lease sho* me your chariotL Is the horse the chariotL Is the *heel the chariotL Is the a0le the chariotL Is the carriage the chariotL` The "ing ans*ered _No` to all these Iuestion.

?en. Nagasena remar.ed, _Is there a chariot beside the horse, the *heel, the a0le, the carriage, etc.L` ?en. Nagasena remar.ed, _Is there a chariot beside the horse, the *heel, the a0le, the carriage, etc.L` ?en. Nagasena commented, _%our Ma>esty, you said you came here by chariot= yet you could not sho* me the chariot2 )hy did you tell a lie ins-ite of your high honorL` The "ing consented, _There is no chariot beside the horse, the *heels, the a0le and the carriage. Fust a combination of these things has been named the chariot.` ?en. Nagasena remar.ed, _?ery *ell, your Ma>esty, you should understand Nagasena as you understood the chariot.` The im-ortant -oint is that by -aramattha or ultimate reality *e mean something *hich cannot be changed into another thing or di/ided u- into other things. It can neither be created nor destroyed by man. It really e0ist in nature and it holds on its characteristics till it -erishes. It can stand the tests or the in/estigation by any method about its reality and real e0istence. 6hiloso-hers and scientists ha/e been searching for the ultimate realities that really e0ist in the uni/erse. 6hiloso-hers could not agree on any ultimate reality3*hat *as -ro-osed by a *ell&.no*n -hiloso-her *as dis-uted by another. Scientists first regarded matter and energy as the t*o ultimate realities. Matter has been di/ided into C7 natural elements, *hich in turn ha/e been di/ided into C7 .inds of natural atoms and their /arious isoto-es. No*&a&days atoms are generally belie/ed to be com-osed of -rotons, neutrons and electrons3the -rotons and the neutrons from the nucleus *ith the electrons re/ol/ing in orbits around the nucleus. Although -rotons, neutrons and electrons may be regarded as the basic building bloc.s of atoms, they are not -articles *ith

definite forms and sha-es since they can be emitted from atoms as rays. It is more a--ro-riate to regard them as bundles of energy >ust as sun light is com-osed of -hotons3the basic bundles of light energy. definite forms and sha-es since they can be emitted from atoms as rays. It is more a--ro-riate to regard them as bundles of energy >ust as sun light is com-osed of -hotons3the basic bundles of light energy. Thus from the -oint of scientific /ie*, man, dog, table, house, all li/ing and non&li/ing things are not ultimate realities since they are com-osed of electrons, -rotons, neutrons and energy. 5urthermore, since all the sub&atomic -articles may be regarded as bundles of energy, only may be ta.en as the ultimate reality in science. In Abhidhamma there are four -aramatthas or ultimate realities. They are rO-a, citta, cetasi.a and Nibb;na. In the analysis of rO-a, it is found to com-rise the -rinci-les of matter and energy. +itta is consciousness, and cetasi.as are mental factors or mental concomitants. As citta and cetasi.as can -ic. u- the senses and are a*are of the senses, they are collecti/ely .no*n as n;ma :mind<. A -erson is made u- of rO-a, citta and cetasi.as, or in other *ords >ust rO-a and n;ma :matter and mind<. These are the ultimate realities *hereas the -erson is >ust an a--arent reality. Nibb;na3the -rinci-le of cessation of suffering and of lasting -eace3al*ays e0ists in nature. The only dra*bac. is that *e do not realiJe it. It can be realiJed only by magga&Q;Pa and -halaQ ;Pa, i.e., the *isdom eye accom-anied by the 6ath and its 5ruition.

The -rinci-le of citta, cetasi.a and Nibb;na are yet to be disco/ered by science. They are e0actly s-ecified and characteriJed in Abhidhamma and can be /erified by samatha&/i-assan; bh;/an;, i.e., tranIuility and insight meditation. The 5our 6aramatthas i +itta3consciousness of the senses or a*areness of an ob>ect. +itta, ceta, cittu--;da, mana, mano, /i QQ;Pa are used as synonymous terms in Abhidhamma. In casual s-ea.ing, the mind usually refers to citta or mano. ii +etasi.a3mental factors or mental concomitants. +etasi.as arise and -erish together *ith citta. They de-end on citta for their arising and they ha/e influence on citta. There are 87 .inds of cetasi.as. )hat *e usually call ^mind1 is actually a combination of citta and cetasi.as. Neither citta nor cetasi.as can arise inde-endently. iii $O-a3cor-oreality or material Iuality. It may change form and colour on account of heat or cold. There are 7G .inds of rO-a. i/ Nibb;na3e0tinction of defilement and suffering= absolute lasting -eace. The defilement of citta are greed, hatred, delusion, etc.= they are the root cause of suffering and of the continuity of life. Thus absolute e0tinction of defilement means absolute deli/erance from all future rebirth, old age, disease and death, from all suffering and misery. There is absolute lasting -eace in Nibb;na. The Sans.rit *ord ^Nir/;na1 literally means ^freedom from cra/ing1. _E0tinction of greed, e0tinction of hatred, e0tinction of delusion= this is called Nibbana.` :Samyutta Ni.aya MG.@<

Each of the abo/e four -aramathas may be scrutiniJed for their real e0istence. Science may dis-ute the e0istence of the mind because it cannot detect it. But the e0istence of citta *hich is consciousness of the senses in man and animals cannot be dis-uted by anyone. Each of the abo/e four -aramathas may be scrutiniJed for their real e0istence. Science may dis-ute the e0istence of the mind because it cannot detect it. But the e0istence of citta *hich is consciousness of the senses in man and animals cannot be dis-uted by anyone. The e0istence of rO-a as matter and energy is easily seen. But Nibb;na, being su-ramundane, cannot be -ercei/ed by the ordinary mind, but it can be obser/ed by lo.uttara :su-ramundane< cittas. It should be noted that all the -aramatthas, in their ultimate sense, are formless and sha-eless >ust as bundles of energy are formless and sha-eless. They are in/isible under the best microsco-e, but cittas, cetasi.as and rO-a can be seen by the sam;dhi&eye. Nibb;na can be realiJed by the *isdom of the four -aths. Each -aramattha *ill be treated at length in the follo*ing cha-ters. N;ma and $O-a Both citta and cetasi.as are a*are of the senses.They are al*ays bent to*ards the senses in order to -ic. u- the senses, and thus they are collecti/ely called ^N;ma1. A man is made u- of n;ma and rO-a :mind and body<. !f the t*o, n;ma is a*are of the senses and rO-a is not. So n;ma is the leader and rO-a, the follo*er. But in the senses s-here and the fine&material s-here, n;ma needs the su--ort of rO-a for its arising.

N;ma is similar to a man *ith good eye&sight but no legs *hereas rO-a is li.e a blind man *ith good legs. A man *ithout legs and a blind man meet outside a /illage and they hear the announcement on louds-ea.er that food is being distributed inside the /illage. They *ant to get food from the -lace. Ho* can they goL )ell, if the man *ith good eye&sight sits on the shoulders of the blind man, and the latter *al.s along the road as directed by the former, they *ill soon arri/e at the desired -lace and en>oy food. N;ma is similar to a man *ith good eye&sight but no legs *hereas rO-a is li.e a blind man *ith good legs. A man *ithout legs and a blind man meet outside a /illage and they hear the announcement on louds-ea.er that food is being distributed inside the /illage. They *ant to get food from the -lace. Ho* can they goL )ell, if the man *ith good eye&sight sits on the shoulders of the blind man, and the latter *al.s along the road as directed by the former, they *ill soon arri/e at the desired -lace and en>oy food. The 6ur-ose of the Ultimate Analysis To see things as they really are is the cherished goal of all lo/ers of truth including -hiloso-hers and scientists. )hen one cannot see the true -icture of things, one sees the distorted -icture and maintains the *rong /ie* about them. !ne basic *rong /ie* *hich has -lagued men for aeons is sa..;yadiYYhi. It is ^-ersonality&belief1, inter-reting the aggregates of rO-a and n;ma as an ^indi/idual1 or ^I1 or ^atta1. Because of this sa..;yadiYYhi, e/eryone *ants to be a /ery im-ortant -erson :?I6<, *ants to -ile u- -ossessions for the benefit of ^I1 and beha/es in a selfish *ay. In fact all sorts of troubles and miseries s-ring u- from this *rong /ie*. Seeing other as a -erson, a man, a *omen, an indi/idual, etc., is also sa..;yadiYYhi. Sa..;yadiYYhi gi/es rise to other *rong /ie*s *hich are uncountable in the *orld today. The dreadful thing about sa..ayadiYYhi is that it can cou-le *ith bad .amma to thro* one do*n to the lo*er abodes :a-;yas< once and again. According to the Buddha1s teachings, to get rid of sa..;ya&diYYhi is most im-ortant and most urgent. It is as urgent

as -utting out the fire on one1s head *hen one1s head is on fire and as remo/ing the s-ear and treating the *ound on one1s chest *hen the chest is im-aled by a s-ear. as -utting out the fire on one1s head *hen one1s head is on fire and as remo/ing the s-ear and treating the *ound on one1s chest *hen the chest is im-aled by a s-ear. )hen one understands that the /olition :cetan;<, that direct one1s action, s-eech and thought, bear .ammic -ro-erties *hich cause rebirth and sha-e the destiny of beings, one becomes mindful to a/oid un*holesome /olition. 5urthermore, *hen one understands the causal relations described in Abhidhamma, one can get rid of all *rong /ie*s and hold a correct understanding of *hat is going on in the *orld. )hen one decides to follo* the Noble Eightfold 6ath to free oneself from all miseries, one begins *ith the right /ie* and de/elo-s sWla :morality<, sam;dhi :concentration< and -aQQa :*isdom< ste- by ste-. In so doing one has to underta.e samatha/i-assan; :tranIuility and insight< meditation and try to obser/e ho* the cittas, cetasi.as and rO-as are functioning, ho* they are being -roduced incessantly, ho* the causal relations really *or. and, in short, ho* all the -henomena described in Abhidhamma really ta.e -lace. So the ultimate analysis in Abhidhamma is not for the -leasure of reading nor for the sa.e of .no*ledge alone= it is also to be scrutiniJed by the sam;dhi&mind in order to de/elo- insight *isdom leading to the -ath and its fruition :magga and -hala<.

+ha-ter @ +ha-ter @ +onsciousness 5our +lasses of +ittas _+itta` is defined as ^consciousness of the senses1 or ^a*areness of an ob>ect1. +ittas may be di/ided into four classes in accordance *ith the four -lanes :bhOmi< or s-heres :a/acara<' @ ";m;/acara cittas consciousness mostly e0-erienced in the sense s-here :.;ma&lo.a< 7 $O-;/acara cittas consciousness mostly e0-erienced in the fine&material s-here :rO-a&lo.a< M ArO-;/acara cittas +onsciousness mostly e0-erienced in the immaterial s-here :arO-a&lo.a< E #o.uttara cittas consciousness e0-erienced in the su-ramundane :transcendental< le/el The abo/e four classes of cittas may be called in short, ";ma cittas, $O-a cittas, ArO-a cittas and #o.uttara cittas. ";m;/acara cittas are e0-erienced not only in the sense& s-here but also in other s-heres. The same thing is true *ith rO-;/acara cittas and arO-;/acara cittas.

The sense s-here refers to the four a-;ya abodes, the human abode and the si0 de/a abodes. In all these abodes sensual -leasure is en>oyed. The sense s-here refers to the four a-;ya abodes, the human abode and the si0 de/a abodes. In all these abodes sensual -leasure is en>oyed. The immaterial s-here refers to the four -lanes -o-ulated by arO-a&brahmas, i.e., brahmas *ithout forms or bodies. Brahmas are more -o*erful than de/as. They en>oy greater -eace and longer li/es than de/as. ";m;/acara +ittas :+onsciousness mostly e0-erienced in the .;ma&lo.a< There are 8E .;m;/acara cittas *hich may be di/ided into three classes' @ A.usala cittas :immoral consciousness< a @7 7 Ahetu.a cittas :rootless consciousness< a @G M ";ma&sobhaPa cittas :beautiful consciousness in the sense& s-here< a 7E The total number of .;m;/acara cittas is @7b@Gb7E c 8E. They *ill be named and e0-lained further belo*. It is recommended that the reader or learner should become familiar *ith the 6;li names mentioned in this boo.. They are short and -recise and *ill hel- one to understand the translations or the *ritings in other te0t&boo.s or treaties on Buddhism. A.usala +ittas :Immoral +onsciousness< ^A.usala1 means ^immoral1. 6eo-le usually commit *ic.ed and e/il deeds *ith a.usala cittas. So a.usala cittas bear bad results. The @7 a.usala cittas may be further di/ided into three classes' @ #obha&mOla cittas :consciousness rooted in greed or attachment< a G

7 7 a7 M Moha&mOla cittas :consciousness rooted in delusion or ignorance< a 7 #obha&mOla +ittas The eight cittas rooted in lobha :greed< are gi/en the follo*ing symbols in order to remember their names easily. diYYhi&sam diYYhi&/i diYYhi&sam diYYhi&/i bbbbaaaa a sa a sa a sa a sa The ^b1 sign denotes ^somanassa& sahagata[1 The ^a1 sign denotes ^u-e..h; sahagata[1 )hat the other letters in the table refer to *ill be e/ident from the follo*ing names of the eight lobha&mOla cittas. @ Somanassa&sahagata[ diYYhigata&sam-ayutta[ asaT.h;ri.am e.a[ 7 Somanassa&sahagata[ diYYhigata&sam-ayutta[ sasaT.h;ri.am e.a[ M Somanassa&sahagata[ diYYhigata&/i--ayutta[ asaT.h;ri.am e.a[ E Somanassa&sahagata[ diYYhigata&/i--ayutta[ sasaT.h;ri.am e.a[ 8 U-e..h;&sahagata[ diYYhigata&sam-ayutta[ asaT.h;ri.am e.a[ N U-e..h;&sahagata[ diYYhigata&sam-ayutta[ sasaT.h;ri.am e.a[

H H e.a[ G U-e..h;&sahagata[ diYYhigata&/i--ayutta[ sasaT.h;ri.am e.a[. Meanings somanassa ' mentally -leasant feeling, >oyful sahagata[ ' together *ith, accom-anied by diYYhi ' *rong /ie* ta.ing that .amma and its effect do not e0ist sam-ayutta[ ' connected *ith, associated together /i--ayutta[ ' disconnected *ith asaT.h;ri.am ' s-ontaneous, un-rom-ted, automatic sasaT.h;ri.am ' -rom-ted by oneself or others, /olitionally inacti/e u-e..h; ' indifferent or neutral feeling e.a[ ' one The eight lobha&mOla cittas may no* be translated as follo*s. @ !ne consciousness, un-rom-ted, accom-anied by >oy, and connected *ith *rong /ie*. 7 !ne consciousness, -rom-ted, accom-anied by >oy, and connected *ith *rong /ie*. M !ne consciousness, un-rom-ted, accom-anied by >oy, and disconnected *ith *rong /ie*. E !ne consciousness, -rom-ted, accom-anied by >oy, and disconnected *ith *rong /ie*. 8 !ne consciousness, un-rom-ted, accom-anied by indifference and connected *ith *rong /ie*.

N !ne consciousness, -rom-ted, accom-anied by indifference and connected *ith *rong /ie*.

H H !ne consciousness, -rom-ted, accom-anied by indifference and disconnected *ith *rong /ie*. A--lications 5rom the time *e are a*a.e in the morning till the time *e fall aslee- at night *e are al*ays in contact *ith fi/e senses :/isual ob>ect, sound, smell, taste, touch< and *ith our o*n thoughts. If the sense or the thought is good, *e li.e it, *e feel attached to it and *e *ish to en>oy it some more. At this time lobha :greed or attachment or desire< arises in our mind and lobha&mOla cittas *ill ensue. If *e also feel glad or >oyful at the time, the lobha&mOla cittas *ill be somanassa&sahagata[. If *e feel indifferent at the time, the cittas *ill be u-e..h;&sahagata[. If *e are not a*are of the fact that a.usala cittas are arising and they *ill bear bad results, then our lobha&mOla cittas *ill be diYYhigata&sam-ayutta[. !n the other hand, if *e are a*are that a.usala cittas are arising and they *ill bear bad results, then our lobha&mOla cittas *ill be diYYhigata&/i--ayutta[. Moreo/er if *e feel attached to the sense *ithout being -rom-ted by oursel/es or others, then our lobha&mOla cittas *ill be asaT.h;ri.am. If *e feel attached to the sense only after being -rom-ted by some one, then our lobha&mOla cittas *ill be sasaT.h;ri.am. AsaT.h;ri.a citta is stronger than sasaT.h;ri.a citta and it arises s-ontaneously. No* can you name the citta that is arising in a -erson listening to a -leasant song *ithout gi/ing any thought to .amma and its effectL

It is lobha&mOla citta *ith the name' _Somanassa&sahagata[ diYYhigata&sam-ayutta[ asaT.h;ri.a citta`. It is lobha&mOla citta *ith the name' _Somanassa&sahagata[ diYYhigata&sam-ayutta[ asaT.h;ri.a citta`. Again it is lobha&mOla citta because lobha :greed< is the cause of stealing. The name of the citta is _U-e..h;&sahagata[ diYYhigata&/i--ayutta[ sasaT.h;ri.a citta`. !ther e0am-les to illustrate the eight ty-es of lobha&mOla cittas are gi/en belo*. Ty-e @ A -erson is en>oying food and drin.s *ithout -aying any attention to .amma. Ty-e 7 A -erson after being -ersuaded by his com-anion, *atches a mo/ie >oyfully *ithout any attention to .amma. Ty-e M A lady delightfully -uts on a ne* dress, but she is a*are that attachment to the dress gi/es rise to lobha&mOla cittas. Ty-e E A girl is a*are of .amma and its fruits, but she, in com-liance *ith the reIuest of her com-anions, listens to modern songs >oyfully. Ty-e 8 A boy is eating -lain rice *ith salt *ith some attachment but *ithout >oy and .no*ledge of .amma. Ty-e N A girl a--reciates her ne* dress after being e0-lained by her mother that the dress is beautiful. But she has neutral feeling and no .no*ledge of .amma. Ty-e H $easoning about .amma, you drin. coffee *ith neutral feeling, but still you a--reciate the taste.

Ty-e G A lady has .no*ledge of .amma. But after much -ersuasion from a sales&*oman, she reluctantly buys a ne* dress. Dosa&mOla +ittas There are only t*o ty-es of cittas rooted in dosa :hatred or ill*ill<. The symbols and the names are as follo*s. -aYigha&sam dd a sa @ Domanassa&sahagata[ -aYigha&sam-ayutta[ asaT.h;ri.am e.a[ 7 Domanassa&sahagata[ -aYigha&sam-ayutta[ sasaT.h;ri.am e.a[ Meanings and A--lications Domanassa ' mentally -ainful feeling, dis-leasure 6aYigha ' dosa3hatred, ill*ill, resentment So the meanings of the t*o dosa&mOla cittas are' @ !ne consciousness, un-rom-ted, accom-anied by dis-leasure, and connected *ith ill*ill. 7 !ne consciousness, -rom-ted, accom-anied by dis-leasure, and connected *ith ill*ill. )hene/er *e feel angry or dis-leased or sad or de-ressed, dosa&mOla cittas *ill arise. And *hene/er it arises, it is accom-anied by ill*ill and mentally -ainful feeling. If it arises s-ontaneously *ithout being -rom-ted by anyone, it is

asaT.h;ri.a. If it arises slo*ly after much -rom-ting from oneself or others, it is sasaT.h;ri.a. asaT.h;ri.a. If it arises slo*ly after much -rom-ting from oneself or others, it is sasaT.h;ri.a. It is dosa&mOla citta *ith the name' Domanassa&sahagata[ -aYigha&sam-ayutta[ asaT.h;ri.a citta. A father e0-lained to his son that the son had been cheated. The son became sad. )hat ty-e of citta *ould the son ha/eL It is domanassa&sahagata[ -aYigha sam-ayutta[ sasaT.h;ri.a dosa&mOla citta. Moha&mOla +ittas Again there are t*o ty-es of cittas rooted in moha :ignorance or delusion<. Their symbols and names are as follo*s. /ici&sam uddhac&sam aa @ U-e..h;&sahagata[ /ici.icch;&sam-ayutta[ e.a[ 7 U-e..h;&sahagata[ uddhacca&sam-ayutta[ e.a[ Meanings and A--lications /ici.icch; ' sce-tical doubt about the Buddha, the Dhamma, the SaPgha and the Training uddhacca ' restlessness The meanings of the t*o moha&mOla cittas are' @ !ne consciousness, accom-anied by indifference, and connected *ith sce-tical doubt.

7 7 connected *ith restlessness. As these t*o cittas are of eIual strength, neither one being more s-ontaneous than the other, they are not differentiated by asaT.h;ri.a and sasaT.h;ri.a. A -erson *ho is ha/ing doubt about .amma and its effect *ill ha/e a moha&mOla citta by the name' U-e..h;&sahagata[ /ici.icch;&sam-ayutta citta. A -erson is listening to a lecture, but he does not understand a *ord because his mind is restless. )hat is his cittaL It is a moha&mOla&citta. The name is u-e..h;&sahagata[ uddhacca&sam-ayutta citta. Ta.ing stoc. in a Day Although immoral cittas number only t*el/e in ty-es, they occur much more freIuently than moral cittas in a -erson e/ery day. This is because the mind is under the influence of lobha, dosa and moha most of the time. These three immoral cetasi.as are .no*n as a.usala&mOla, i.e., originators of immorality. Because of moha and lobha, *e *ant to en>oy -leasure all the time, and during this en>oyment, lobha&mOla cittas *ill be arising at the rate of many billions -er second. At the time *e are dressing *ith -leasure, at the time *e are en>oying food and drin.s, at the time *e are listening to music and *atching T? -rograms, at the time *e are reading no/els, at the time *e are thin.ing of our earnings and -ossessions, lobha&mOla cittas *ill be arising by many billions. )hen *e are not -leased *ith the senses or the scenes *e encounter, dosa&mOla cittas *ill be arising by billions again. Sometimes *hen the senses are not a--ealing, *e feel indifferent

and distracted in mind. Moha&mOla cittas *ill arise during this time. and distracted in mind. Moha&mOla cittas *ill arise during this time. some .amma *hich *ill bring about unfa/ourable results and unha--y destiny or rebirth, it is un*ise to let the mind ta.e its course freely. )hen *e can differentiate the moral cittas from the immoral cittas, *e can control them to*ards our o*n benefits. Ahetu.a +ittas :$ootless +onsciousness< Hetu ' mOla' cause or root&condition A.usala&hetu ' un*holesome roots :lobha, dosa, moha< "usala&hetu ' *holesome roots :alobha, adosa, amoha< +onsciousness *ithout concomitant root&conditions is .no*n as ahetu.a citta *hereas consciousness *ith concomitant root&conditions is called sahetu.a citta. There are @G ahetu.a cittas. They may be classified into three grou-s as follo*s' @ A.usala&/i-;.a cittas un*holesome resultant cittas that arise as the ine/itable results of a.usala cittas a H 7 Ahetu.a .usala /i-;.a cittas *holesome and rootless resultant cittas that arise as the ine/itable results of .usala cittas a G M Ahetu.a .iriya cittas rootless functional consciousness a M Note' ?i-;.a ' .amma&result "iriya ' .riya' functional

?i-;.a citta and .iriya citta are .ammically neutral cittas that are .ammically ineffecti/e, i.e., they -roduce no .ammic result. ?i-;.a citta and .iriya citta are .ammically neutral cittas that are .ammically ineffecti/e, i.e., they -roduce no .ammic result. The se/en a.usala /i-;.a cittas are gi/en the follo*ing symbols and names. ca. gh; .; tW aaaaeaa so >i sam @ U-e..h;&sahagata[ ca..hu/iYY;Pa[ eye&consciousness accom-anied by indifference 7 U-e..h;&sahagata[ sota/iYY;Pa[ ear&consciousness accom-anied by indifference M U-e..h;&sahagata[ gh;na/iYY;Pa[ nose&consciousness accom-anied by indifference E U-e..h;&sahagata[ >i/h;/iYY;Pa[ tongue&consciousness accom-anied by indifference 8 Du..ha&sahagata[ .;ya/iYY;Pa[ body&consciousness accom-anied by -ainful feeling N U-e..h;&sahagata[ sam-aYicchana&citta[ rece-ti/e consciousness accom-anied by indifference H U-e..h;&sahagata[ santWraPa&citta[ in/estigating&consciousness accom-anied by indifference !f the se/en cittas mentioned abo/e, the first fi/e are .no*n as -aQca&/iYYaPa, i.e. fi/e cittas that are conscious of the fi/e senses.

The last t*o, i.e., sam-aYichana&citta and santWraPa&citta, re-resent t*o connecting stages in the -rocess of cognition :a*areness of an ob>ect<. The last t*o, i.e., sam-aYichana&citta and santWraPa&citta, re-resent t*o connecting stages in the -rocess of cognition :a*areness of an ob>ect<. consciousness< ma.es the sense&im-ression. Then sam-aYichana :rece-ti/e consciousness< recei/es the sense&im-ression. Then santWraPa :in/estigating consciousness< in/estigates the sense& im-ression. Then /otta--ana :determinng consciosness< also .no*n as mano&d/;r;/a>>ana :mind&door ad/ertence< determines the sense&im-ression *hether it is good or bad. )e are a*are of the ob>ect roughly at this stage. Similarly, *hen an audible /oice stri.es the eardrum, a series of consciousness, i.e., -aQca&d/;r;/a>>ana, sota/iYY;Pa, sam-aYichana, sant;raPa, mano&d/;r;/a>>ana, etc., has to arise and dissol/e before *e can hear the /oice. Thus sam-aYichana&citta, sant;raPa citta together *ith -aQca d/;r;/a>>ana citta and mano&d/;r;/a>>ana citta are essential for cognition of the senses at the fi/e sense&doors :eye, ear, nose, tongue and body<. Ahetu.a "usala ?i-;.a +ittas This class com-rises eight cittas *hose symbols and names are similar to those of a.usala&/i-;.a cittas *e ha/e >ust described abo/e. ca. gh; .; tW aaaa/aab so >i sam tW

@ @ eye&consciousness accom-anied by indifference 7 U-e..h;&sahagata[ sota/iYY;Pa[ ear&consciousness accom-anied by indifference M U-e..h;&sahagata[ ghan;/iYY;PaP nose&consciousness accom-anied by indifference E U-e..h;&sahagata[ >i/h;/iYY;Pa[ tongue&consciousness accom-anied by indifference 8 Su..ha&sahagata[ .;ya/iYY;Pa[ body&consciousness accom-anied by -leasant feeling N U-e..h;&sahagata[ sam-aYichana&citta[ rece-ti/e consciousness accom-anied by indifference H U-e..h;&sahagata[ santWraPa&citta[ in/estigating&consciousness accom-anied by indifference G Somanassa&sahagata[ santWraPa citta[ in/estigating&consciousness accom-anied by >oy According to Abhidhamma, one is in contact *ith disagreeable senses on account of one1s o*n -ast a.usala&.amma :un*holesome deed< and at these instances a.usala /i-;.a cittas *ill arise in the cognition -rocess. !n the other hand one is in contact *ith agreeable senses on account of one1s o*n -ast .usala&.amma :*holesome deed<, and at these instances .usala&/i-;.a cittas *ill arise in the cognition -rocesses. Therefore there are a -air of ca..hu/iYY;Pa :eye&consciousness<, a -air of sota/iYYaPa :ear&consciousness<, a -air of gh;na/iYY;Pa :nose&consciousness<, a -air of >i/h;&/iYY;Pa :tongueconsciousness< and a -air of .;ya/iYY;Pa :body&consciousness<. These fi/e -airs together are called ^d/i-aYca/iYY;Pa1.

There are of course t*o sam-aYichana cittas and three santWraPa cittas. There are of course t*o sam-aYichana cittas and three santWraPa cittas. tions are that the t*o body .;ya/iYY;Pa cittas are accom-anied by either -ainful or -leasant feeling and somanassa&santWraPa citta, *hich arises *hen the sense is e0cellent, is accom-anied by >oy. Ahetu.a "iriya +ittas The three ahetu.a .iriya cittas are gi/en the follo*ing symbols and names. -aYcad/; manod/; hasi a ab @ U-e..h;&sahagata[ -aYcad/;r;/a>>ana&citta[ fi/e&door ad/erting consciousness accom-anied by indifference 7 U-e..h;&sahagata[ manod/;r;/a>>ana&citta[ mind&door ad/erting consciousness accom-anied by indifference M Somanassa&sahagata[ hasitu--;da&citta[ smile&-roducing consciousness accom-anied by >oy The functions of the t*o a/a>>ana&cittas, i.e., No. @ and No. 7 abo/e, in the -rocesses of cognition ha/e been described abo/e. If the sense&ob>ect a--ears at one of the fi/e sense&doors, it is -aQca&d/;r;/a>>ana *hich ad/erts consciousness to*ards the sense.

6aYca&d/;r;/a>>ana citta *or.s li.e a *a/e&length selector of a radio. Because of it, *e can ta.e note of the senses one after one. 6aYca&d/;r;/a>>ana citta *or.s li.e a *a/e&length selector of a radio. Because of it, *e can ta.e note of the senses one after one. Hasitu--;da&citta can arise only in Buddha and arahats *hen they smile. Note that it is accom-anied by >oy *hereas the t*o a/a>>ana cittas are accom-anied by neutral feeling. ";ma&sobhaPa +ittas :Beautiful +onsciousness of the Sense S-here< There are 7E .;ma&sobhaPa cittas. They are di/ided into three classes' @ Mah;&.usala cittas great moral consciousness a G 7 Mah;&/i-;.a cittas great resultant consciousness a G M Mah;&.iriya cittas great functional consciousness a G Here ^mah;1 a ^great1 means ^greater in number1. Mah;&.usala citta is also .no*n as .;m;/acara&.usala citta. As there are G .;m;/acara&.usala cittas, 8 rO-;/acara&.usala cittas, E arO-;/acara.usala cittas and E lo.uttara :su-ramundane< .usala cittas, the number of .;m;/acara&.usala cittas is greatest. The same is true for mah;&/i-;.a cittas :also .no*n as .;m;/acara&/i-;.a cittas< and mah;&.iriya cittas :.;m;/acara&.iriya cittas<. ^SobhaPa a beautiful1 im-lies that sobhaPa cittas yield good Iualities and they are connected *ith *holesome roots such as alobha :generosity<, adosa :good*ill< and amoha :.no*ledge<.

Mah;&.usala cittas arise *hen ordinary *orldlings :-uthu>>anas< and noble -ersons *ith the e0ce-tion of arahats -erform meritorious deeds such as d;na :alms&gi/ing<, sWla :morality< and bh;/an; :meditation<. Mah;&.usala cittas arise *hen ordinary *orldlings :-uthu>>anas< and noble -ersons *ith the e0ce-tion of arahats -erform meritorious deeds such as d;na :alms&gi/ing<, sWla :morality< and bh;/an; :meditation<. sciousness<, bha/aTga&citta :subconsciousness or life&continuing consciousness< and cuti&citta :death consciousness< in human beings and de/as in their -resent li/es. Mah;&.iriya cittas arise in arahats *hen they -erform *holesome deeds. Arahats ha/e no attachment to anything. They e0-ect no re*ards from their *holesome deeds. So their .iriya&cittas are >ust functional and *ill not bear any .amma&results in future li/es. Arahats do not ha/e any future life. Mah;&.usala +ittas The eight mah;&.usala cittas are designated *ith symbols and names *hich resemble those of the eight lobha&mOla cittas. QaPasam QaPa/i QaPasam QaPa/i bbbbaaaa a sa a sa a sa a sa @ Somanassa&sahagata[ Q;Pa&sam-ayutta[ asaT.h;ri.am e.a[ 7 Somanassa&sahagata[ Q;Pa&sam-ayutta[ sasaT.h;ri.am e.a[ M Somanassa&sahagata[ Q;Pa&/i--ayutta[ asaT.h;ri.am e.a[ E Somanassa&sahagata[ Q;Pa&/i--ayutta[ sasaT.h;ri.am e.a[

8 8 asaT.h;ri.a e.a[ N U-e..h;&sahagata[ Q;Pa&sam-ayutta[ sasaT.h;ri.am e.a[ H U-e..h;&sahagata[ Q;Pa&/i--ayutta[ asaT.h;ri.am e.a[ G U-e..h;&sahagata[ Q;Pa&/i--ayutta[ sasaT.h;ri.am e.a[ Meanings The abo/e eight cittas can be translated in the same *ay as *e ha/e translated the eight lobha&mOla cittas= the only change necessary is to re-lace ^diYYhi a *rong /ie*1 *ith ^Q;Pa a .no*l edge or insight1. This .no*ledge basically means the .no*ledge of .no*ing the e0istence of .amma and .amma&result. So no* *e go' @ !ne consciousness, un-rom-ted, accom-anied by >oy, and associated *ith .no*ledge. 7 !ne consciousness, -rom-ted, accom-anied by >oy, and associated *ith .no*ledge. M !ne consciousness, un-rom-ted, accom-anied by >oy, and dissociated *ith .no*ledge. E !ne consciousness, -rom-ted, accom-anied by >oy, and dissociated *ith .no*ledge. 8 !ne consciousness, un-rom-ted, accom-anied by indifference, and associated *ith .no*ledge. N

!ne consciousness, -rom-ted, accom-anied by indifference, and associated *ith .no*ledge. H !ne consciousness, un-rom-ted, accom-anied by indifference, and dissociated *ith .no*ledge.

G G A--lications There are only t*o ty-es of cittas *hich bear .amma&seeds and *ill gi/e rise to .amma&results. They are a.usala cittas and .usala cittas. Thus if *e can control our mind to be free from the influence of lobha :greed<, dosa :hatred< and moha :delusion<, *e *ill ha/e .usala cittas. )hen *e gi/e alms, *e ha/e non&attachment :alobha< to the alms and good*ill :adosa< for the *elfare of the -erson *ho recei/es the alms. Moreo/er, if *e also ha/e .no*ledge :amoha< of .amma and .amma&result at the time of gi/ing, *e ha/e all three *holesome roots to accom-any our cittas. )holesome roots *ill al*ays gi/e rise to sobhaPa cittas. If *e offer alms *ithout being -rom-ted by anyone and if *e also feel glad at the time of offering, the .usala citta *ill be somanassa&sahagata[ Q;Pa&sam-ayutta[ asaT.h;ri.a mah;&.usala citta. If young children, *ithout .no*ledge of .amma and .ammaresult -ay homage >oyfully to a mon. or a Buddha1s image after being -rom-ted by their -arents, somanassa&sahagata[ Q;Pa/i--ayutta[ sasaT.h;ri.a mah;&.usala citta *ill arise. The eight ty-es of .usala cittas may be illustrated further by the follo*ing e0am-les. Ty-e @ A lady *ith the .no*ledge of .amma and *ith >oy offers flo*ers to a -agoda on her o*n accord. Ty-e 7 A girl, after being -ersuaded by her com-anion, goes to listen to a Dhamma tal. *ith >oy and *ith the .no*ledge of .amma.

Ty-e M A boy s-ontaneously gi/es some money to a beggar *ith >oy but *ithout the .no*ledge of .amma. Ty-e E A man, after being reIuested by the headmaster to donate some money to the school, donates one hundred dollars >oyfully *ithout .no*ing .amma and its result. Ty-e 8 A girl s*ee-s the floor *ith neutral feeling but .no*s it is a *holesome thing to do. Ty-e N A man, -rom-ted by a mon., cho- *ood *ith neutral feeling but .no*ing it to be a meritorious deed. Ty-e H A *oman reads a Dhamma boo. on her o*n accord *ithout understanding the meaning and *ithout .no*ing .amma and its result. Ty-e G A girl, -rom-ted by her mother, *ashes her -arents1 clothes *ithout >oy and *ithout thin.ing about .amma and .amma&result. Mah;&/i-;.a +ittas A Mah;&.iriya +ittas The eight mah;&/i-;.a cittas as *ell as the eight mah;&.iriya cittas are named in the same *ay as the eight mah;&.usala cittas. )hen one *ishes to differentiate bet*een the three classes of cittas, one may say li.e this' @ somanassa&sahagata[ Q;Pa&sam-ayutta[ asaT.h;ri.a mah;&.usala citta 7 somanassa&sahagata[ Q;Pa&sam-ayutta[ asaT.h;ri.a mah;&/i-;.a citta M

somanassa&sahagata[ Q;Pa&sam-ayutta[ asaT.h;ri.a mah;&.iriya citta

4enerally it may be said that the first mah;&.usala citta gi/es result to the first mah;&/i-;.a citta, and the second mah;&.usala citta to the second mah;&/i-;.a citta, etc. 4enerally it may be said that the first mah;&.usala citta gi/es result to the first mah;&/i-;.a citta, and the second mah;&.usala citta to the second mah;&/i-;.a citta, etc. Normal +ittas in a 6erson Although all the 8E ty-es of .;m;/acara cittas can arise in -ersons in the human abode, hasitu--;da citta and the eight mah;&.iriya cittas can occur only in arahats. So only E8 ty-es of .;m;/acara cittas arise in ordinary -ersons *ho are not arahats. A -erson may further acIuire 8 rO-;/acara&.usala cittas :rO-a>h;nas< and E arO-;/acara&.usala cittas :arO-a&>h;nas< if he is able to by underta.ing samatha&bh;/an; :tranIuillity meditation<. $O-;/acara +ittas :+onsciousness mostly e0-erienced in $O-a&lo.a< There are @8 rO-;/acara cittas *hich are di/ided into three classes in the same *ay as the .;m;/acara&sobhaPa cittas are eIually di/ided into .usala, /i-;.a and .iriya cittas. @ $O-;/acara .usala cittas a 8 rO-a&>h;na :moral consciousness< 7 $O-;/acara /i-;.a cittas a 8 rO-a&>h;na :resultant consciousness< M $O-;/acara .iriya cittas a 8 rO-a&>h;na :functional consciousness< A -erson, *ith Q;Pa&sam-ayutta rebirth consciousness and *ho is not yet an arahat, may de/elo- the fi/e rO-;/acara .usala cittas one after another by underta.ing the samatha&bh;/an; such as meditating on .asiPa or on res-iration.

$O-;/acara /i-;.a cittas are the .amma resultants of rO-;/acara .usala cittas. They are the rebirth&consciousness of rO-a&brahmas. A -erson, *ho has acIuired the first rO-;/acara .usala cittas and maintains it till his death, *ill be reborn in the first rO-a&>h;na le/el of rO-a&lo.a *ith the first rO-;/acara /i-;.a citta as his rebirth& consciousness. $O-;/acara /i-;.a cittas are the .amma resultants of rO-;/acara .usala cittas. They are the rebirth&consciousness of rO-a&brahmas. A -erson, *ho has acIuired the first rO-;/acara .usala cittas and maintains it till his death, *ill be reborn in the first rO-a&>h;na le/el of rO-a&lo.a *ith the first rO-;/acara /i-;.a citta as his rebirth& consciousness. Hence rO-;/acara&.usala cittas and rO-;/acara .iriya cittas are e0-erienced in the sense s-here as *ell as in the fine&material s-here *hereas rO-;/acara&/i-;.a cittas are e0-erienced only in the fine material s-here. )hat is Fh;naL Fh;na is a state of *ilful concentration or absor-tion on an ob>ect. It is a combination of factors of absor-tion :>h;naTga<. These factors number fi/e in total. They are' @ ?ita..a a Initial a--lication that directs the mind to*ards the ob>ect 7 ?ic;ra a Sustained a--lication that e0amines the ob>ect again and again M 6Wti a >oy or -leasurable interests in the ob>ect E ?edan; a 5eeling, sensation :t*o .inds of /edan; that occur in >h;na are' a su.ha a -leasant or agreeable feeling, bliss b u-e..h; a neutral feeling, eIuanimity 8 E.aggat; a !ne&-ointedness, concentration :sam;dhi<. ?ita..a, /ic;ra, -Wti, su.ha or u-e..h;, and e.aggat; are cetasi.as

that can influence the mind to be fi0ed on an ob>ect. They can be

de/elo-ed and strengthened by samatha&bh;/an; *hich is actually a form of mental training. de/elo-ed and strengthened by samatha&bh;/an; *hich is actually a form of mental training. Sensuous desire influences the mind to be *andering about sensuous ob>ects *hich it has en>oyed before. Ill*ill agitates the mind by ta.ing notice of disagreeable things. Sloth and tor-or, restlessness and remorse, and sce-tical doubt blind the mental /ision and disturb the concentration. #ord Buddha com-ared sensuous desire *ith *ater mi0ed *ith manifold colours, ill*ill *ith boiling *ater, sloth and tor-or *ith *ater co/ered *ith mosses, restlessness and remorse *ith agitated *ater *hi--ed by the *ind, sce-tical doubt *ith turbid and muddy *ater. Fust as in such *ater one cannot -ercei/e one1s o*n reflection, so in the -resence of these fi/e hindrances, one cannot clearly see one1s o*n benefit, nor that of others, nor that of both. These hindrances can be o/ercome and tem-orarily dismissed by tranIuillity&meditation :samatha&bh;/an;<. )e may choose -aYha/W&.asiPa :earth&circle< as an ob>ect of meditation. A tray of about one s-an and four fingers :about one foot< in diameter is filled e/enly *ith da*n&coloured clay or earth. This ob>ect is -laced on a suitable stand so that one can loo. at it comfortably. Sitting at ease t*o and a half cubits :M.H8 ft< a*ay from the earth&circle, one concentrates on it, saying mentally, _-atha/W, -atha/W` or _earth, earthf` The hy-notic circle that one is seeing is .no*n as -ari.amma&nimitta :-re-aratory image<.

No* the fi/e factors of >h;na are being de/elo-ed slo*ly. The initial a--lication :/ita..a< directs the mind to*ards the ob>ect :earth&circle<= it tem-orarily inhibits sloth and tor-or. Sustained a--lication :/ic;ra< sustains the mind on the ob>ect by e0amining the ob>ect again and again= it tem-orarily inhabits sce-tical doubt :/ici.icch;<. No* the fi/e factors of >h;na are being de/elo-ed slo*ly. The initial a--lication :/ita..a< directs the mind to*ards the ob>ect :earth&circle<= it tem-orarily inhibits sloth and tor-or. Sustained a--lication :/ic;ra< sustains the mind on the ob>ect by e0amining the ob>ect again and again= it tem-orarily inhabits sce-tical doubt :/ici.icch;<. E.aggat; gathers the citta and its concomitants on the ob>ect to reach the state of one&-ointedness= it tem-orarily inhibits sensual desire. )hen the hindrances subside tem-orarily, the mind does not *ander a*ay from the ob>ect as freIuently as before and *ea. degree of concentration is attained. At this stage one can see the earth&circle *ith closed eyes as one has seen it *ith o-en eyes. This /isualised image is called uggaha&nimitta :acIuired image<. No* one meditates on this acIuired image *ith closed eyes, saying mentally _-atha/W, -atha/W` as before. )hen one reaches a higher degree of concentration, the image suddenly changes its colour and a--earance. It becomes many times brighter and is as smooth as the surface of a mirror. The change is li.e ta.ing a mirror out of its rough leather case. This ne* image is also .no*n as -aYibh;ga&nimitta :counter&image<. The difference bet*een the t*o images is /ery distinct. Uggaha&nimitta is an e0act mental re-lica of the original ob>ect= it contains all the defects -resent in the original ob>ect. 6aYibh;ga

nimitta is free from all defects= it is /ery bright and smooth. The latter may not -ossess a definite form or colour a _ It is >ust a mode of a--earance, and is born of -erce-tion.` nimitta is free from all defects= it is /ery bright and smooth. The latter may not -ossess a definite form or colour a _ It is >ust a mode of a--earance, and is born of -erce-tion.` bourhood :or access< concentration. At this stage the fi/e >h;na factors become distinct and strong= -Wti and su.ha are so -redominant that the meditator e0-eriences ecstatic >oy and bliss *hich he has ne/er e0-erienced before. He no* let the -aYibh;ga&nimitta s-read endlessly in all directions by his *ill -o*er, and meditates _-aYha/W, -aYha/W` as before. E/entually he gains >h;na&sam;dhi or a--an;&sam;dhi :meditati/e concentration<. At this stage, he can en>oy the calmness, serenity, >oy and bliss of the >h;na again and again as much as he *ishes. If he -ractices *ell, he can remain in absor-tion or trance for an hour, t*o hours, a day, t*o days or u- to se/en days. During this absor-tion, there is a com-lete, though tem-orary, sus-ension of fi/efold sense&acti/ity and of the fi/e hindrances. The state of consciousness is, ho*e/er, fully alert and lucid. Those, *ho *ant to en>oy ecstatic bliss greater than sensual -leasure, should underta.e tranIuillity&meditation. There are some meditation centers in Myanmar, li.e International Buddha S;sana +entres, *here -ro-er and systematic guidance is a/ailable for de/elo-ing concentration u- to the >h;na le/el. In the first >h;na, all the fi/e >h;na&factors are -resent. Then by meditating on the -aYibh;ga&nimitta of -atha/W&.asiPa further and eliminating the lo*er >h;na& factors one by one, a -erson can attain the higher >h;nas. He attains the second >h;na *hen /ita..a is eliminated, the third >h;na *hen /ic;ra is further

eliminated, the fourth >h;na *hen -Wti is also eliminated, and finally the fifth >h;na *hen su.ha is re-laced by u-e..h;. eliminated, the fourth >h;na *hen -Wti is also eliminated, and finally the fifth >h;na *hen su.ha is re-laced by u-e..h;. :5ine&material s-here Moral +onsciousness< The fi/e rO-;/acara .usala cittas are designated by the follo*ing symbols and names. ta. c; -W suZu- e. bbbba -a du ta ca -aQ @ ?ita..a, /ic;ra, -Wti, su.h1e.aggat; sahita[ -athama>>h;na .usala&citta[ 7 ?ic;ra, -Wti, su.h1e.aggat; sahita[ dutiya>>h;na .usala&citta[ M 6Wti, su.h1e.aggat; sahita[ tatiya>>h;na .usala&citta[ E Su.h1e.aggat; sahita[ catuttha>>h;na .usala&citta[ 8 U-e..h1e.aggat; sahita[ -aYcama>>hana .usala&citta[. Meanings @ 5irst >h;na moral consciousness together *ith initial a--lication, sustained a--lication, >oy, bliss and one& -ointedness. 7 Second >h;na moral consciousness together *ith sustained a--lication, >oy, bliss and one&-ointedness. M Third >h;na moral consciousness together *ith >oy, bliss and one&-ointedness. E 5ourth >h;na moral consciousness together *ith bliss and one&-ointedness.

8 8 and one&-ointedness. Note that the first four cittas bear ^b1 symbols because they contain ^su.ha1 *hich is the same as ^somanassa1. The fifth citta bears a ^a1 symbol because it contains ^u-e..h;1. $O-;/acara ?i-;.a +ittas :5ine&material S-here $esultant +onsciousness< The fi/e rO-;/acara /i-;.a cittas are designated by the same symbols and similar names as the fi/e rO-;/acara .usala cittas. ta. c; -W suZu- e. bbbba -a du ta ca -aQ In naming the rO-;/acara /i-;.a cittas, >ust change ^.usala1 :moral< in the names of the rO-;/acara .usala cittas into ^/i-;.a1 :resultant<. $O-;/acara "iriya +ittas :5ine&material s-here 5unctional consciousness< The fi/e rO-;/acara .iriya cittas are again designated by the same symbols and similar names as the fi/e rO-;/acara .usala cittas. Here ^.usala1 :moral< should be changed to ^.iriya1 :functional<. ArO-;/acara +ittas :+onsciousness mostly e0-erienced in ArO-a&lo.a< There are @7 arO-;/acara cittas *hich are eIually di/ided into three grou-s of .usala, /i-;.a and .iriya cittas.

@ @E arO-a&>h;na :moral consciousness< 7 ArO-;/acara /i-;.a cittas a E arO-a&>h;na :resultant consciousness< M ArO-;/acara .iriya cittas a E arO-a&>h;na :functional consciousness< The four arO-;/acara .usala cittas may be acIuired by -ersons *ho are not yet arahats *hereas the four arO-;/acara .iriya cittas can arise only in arahats. These t*o ty-es of arO-;/acara cittas are e0-erienced in the sense s-here as *ell as in the immaterial s-here. The four arO-;/acara /i-;.a cittas are e0-erienced in the immaterial&s-here only. They are the .amma&resultants of arO-;/acara .usala cittas. A -erson *ho acIuires arO-a&>h;na and maintains it till his death *ill be reborn in the immaterial s-here. ArO-a Fh;nas The -erson *ho has de/elo-ed the fi/e rO-a&>h;nas may go uthe ladder of concentration to arO-a&>h;nas. In doing so he uses the concentration associated *ith fifth rO-a&>h;na as his base. Also he has to reason about the unsatisfactoriness of the -hysical body and the troubles it de/elo-s on account of heat and cold, insect&bites, hunger and thirst, diseases, old age and death. )hen he feels detached from the -hysical body and rO-a, he first de/elo-s the fifth >h;na by meditating on the -aYibh;ga&nimitta of -aYha/W&.asiPa. He then comes out from the fifth >h;na and, though the -aYibh;ga&nimitta e0ists in his /ision, he neglects it and tries to concentrate on the infinite s-ace :;.;sa< beyond it and meditates _;.;sa, ;.;sa` re-eatedly.

)hen his mild attachment :ni.anti< for the -aYibh;ga&nimitta disa--ears, the nimitta also suddenly disa--ears unfolding endless s-ace. +oncentrating his mindfulness on this endless s-ace, he goes on meditating _X.;sa, ;.;sa` till he reaches the first arO-a>h;na. The >h;na is called ;.;s;naQc;yatana .usala citta because it focuses on ;.;sa. He then continues his meditation by concentrating his mindfulness on the ;.;s;naQc;yatana .usala citta= meditating ^/iYY;Pa, /iYY;Pa1 re-eatedly till he reaches the second arO-a&>h;na. This >h;na is called /iQQ;Panc;yatana .usala citta. To de/elo- the third arO-a&>h;na he focuses his attention not on the ;.;s;naQc;yatana .usala citta but on nothingness, meditating _Nathi "iYci` :there is nothing *hatsoe/er< re-eatedly till he reaches the >h;na. This >h;na is called ;.iYcaQQ;yatana .usala citta a ^a.iQcaQQa1 also means ^nothingness1. By ta.ing the third arO-a&>h;na consciousness as the ob>ect of meditation, he can further de/elo- the fourth arO-a&>h;na. This >h;na is called ne/asaQQ;&n;saQQ;yatana .usala citta. Ne/asaQQ;n;saQQ ;yatana literally means that _-erce-tion neither e0ists nor does not e0ist`. It refers to the fact that the fourth arO-a&>h;na consciousness is so subtle and refined that one cannot definitely say *hether there is a consciousness or not. +onsciousness is no longer noticeable the state of this >h;na. All the four arO-a&>h;na belong to the category of the fifth >h;na because they are based on the fifth rO-a&>h;na. They all ha/e only t*o >h;na&factors, namely u-e..h; and e.aggat;. It should be noted that the fi/e rO-a&>h;nas differ from one another in the number of >h;na&factors *hereas the four arO-a>h;nas differ from one another in the ob>ects of meditation.

ArO-;/acara "usala +ittas ArO-;/acara "usala +ittas The four arO-;/acara .usala cittas are designed by the follo*ing symbols and names. ;.;s; /iQQ; ;.iY n1e/a aa aa @ U-e..h1 e.aggat; sahita[ ;.;s;naQc;yatana&.usala&citta[ 7 U-e..h1 e.aggat; sahita[ /iQQ;Panc;yatana&.usala&citta[ M U-e..h1 e.aggat; sahita[ ;.iYcaQQ;yatana&.usala&citta[ E U-e..a1 e.aggat; sahita[ n1e/a&saQQ;&n1saQQ;yatana&.usala citta[ Meanings @ g.;s;naQc;yatana moral consciousness together *ith eIuanimity and one&-ointedness. 7 ?iQQ;PaQc;yatana moral consciousness together *ith eIuanimity and one&-ointedness. M g.iQcaQQ;yatana moral consciousness together *ith eIuanimity and one&-ointedness. E N1e/asaQQ; n1saQQ;yatana moral consciousness together *ith eIuanimity and one&-ointedness. ArO-;/acara ?i-;.a +ittas :Immaterial S-here $esultant +onsciousness< The four arO-;/acara /i-;.a cittas are designated by the same symbols as the four arO-;/acara .usala cittas. The names are also similar, the only change necessary is to -ut ^/i-;.a1 :resultant< in -lace of ^.usala1 :moral<.

ArO-;/acara "iriya +ittas ArO-;/acara "iriya +ittas Again the symbols are the same and the names are similar, the only change necessary is to -ut ^.iriya1 :functional< in -lace of ^.usala1 :moral<. AbhiQQ;Pa +ittas :Su-ernormal +onsciousness< A -erson *ho attains fi/e rO-a/acara .usala cittas and four arO-a/acara .usala cittas in -atha/i&.asiPa meditation can easily de/elothese nine >h;na cittas in the meditation of other nine .asiPas. Then he can -ractise in @E *ays on these ten .asiPas and nine >h;nas to ma.e his mind /ery s.illful and -o*erful. He can then de/elo- fi/e mundane su-ernormal -o*ers based on the fifth rO-;/acara .usala citta. An arahat *ho attains fi/e rO-;/acara .iriya cittas and four arO-;/acara .iriya cittas in -atha/W&.asiPa meditation can also de/elothese nine >h;nas in the meditation of other nine .asiPas. By -ractising in the same *ay on these ten .asinas and nine >h;nas, he can also de/elo- fi/e mundane su-ernormal -o*ers based on the fifth rO-a/acara .iriya citta. Thus the fifth rO-a/acara .usala citta is called the .usala abhiYYana citta, and the fifth rO-a/acara .iriya citta is called the .iriya abhiQQ;Pa citta *hen they are associated *ith su-ernormal .no*ledge.

#o.uttara +ittas #o.uttara +ittas #o.uttara cittas may be acIuired by /i-assan; :insight< meditation. There are t*o *ays of getting to the -ath&consciousness :magga&Q;Pa<. They are' @ ?i-assan;&y;ni.a 3 ta.ing insight meditation as the /ehicle, 7 Samatha&y;ni.a 3 ta.ing tranIuility meditation as the /ehicle. A -erson may first de/elo- the neighbourhood concentration :u-ac;ra&sam;dhi< by tranIuility meditation :samatha bh;/an;< and then -roceed to insight meditation :/i-assan; bh;/an;<. Here the -erson is using ^u-ac;ra&sam;dhi1 as the base of his *isdom&eye for loo.ing into the ultimate n;ma and rO-a and their common characteristics of im-ermanence :anicca<, suffering :du..ha< and not&self :anatta<. This -erson, if successful to the end, *ill acIuire the E 6aths and the E 5ruitions. So in this route there are only G su-ramundane cittas, namely, the four lo.uttara .usala cittas :su-ramundane moral consciousness< and the four lo.uttara /i-;.a cittas :su-ramundane resultant consciousness<. No* in the second route, a -erson first de/elo-s a >h;nasam;dhi :meditati/e concentration< by tranIuility meditation and uses this concentration as the base of his *isdom&eye in insight meditation. If he uses the first >h;na&sam;dhi as his base, his first -ath&consciousness is also accom-anied by the first >h;na&sam;dhi= so it is .no*n as the first >h;na sot;-atti -ath&consciousness. Similarly for a -erson *ho uses the second >h;na&sam;dhi as his base for insight meditation, his first -ath&consciousness is .no*n as the second >h;na sot;-atti -ath&consciousness. In the

same&*ay for -ersons *ho use the third >h;na&sam;dhi, the fourth >h;na&sam;dhi and the fifth >h;na&sam;dhi, res-ecti/ely, as the base for their insight meditation, their first -ath&consciousness *ill be .no*n as the third >h;na sot;-atti -ath&consciousness, the fourth >h;na sot;-atti -ath&consciousness and the fifth >h;na sot;-atti -ath&consciousness, res-ecti/ely. same&*ay for -ersons *ho use the third >h;na&sam;dhi, the fourth >h;na&sam;dhi and the fifth >h;na&sam;dhi, res-ecti/ely, as the base for their insight meditation, their first -ath&consciousness *ill be .no*n as the third >h;na sot;-atti -ath&consciousness, the fourth >h;na sot;-atti -ath&consciousness and the fifth >h;na sot;-atti -ath&consciousness, res-ecti/ely. ness, 8 an;g;mi -ath&consciousness and 8 arahatta -ath& consciousness. Thus the total number of -ath&consciousness is 79. As the fruition immediately follo*s the -ath *ithout any la-se in time, there are also 79 fruition&consciousness. Thus in the samatha&y;ni.a route there are altogether E9 ty-es of su-ramundane consciousness. #o.uttara "usala +ittas :Su-ramundane Moral +onsciousness< Basically there are four lo.uttara .usala cittas as acIuired in the /i-assan;&y;ni.a route. They are' @ Sot;-atti&magga&citta[ 7 Sa.ad;g;mi&magga&citta[ M An;g;mi&magga&citta[ E Arahatta&magga&citta[ Meanings @ Sot;-atti -ath&consciousness :consciousness belonging to the -ath of stream&entry< 7 Sa.ad;g;mi -ath&consciousness

:consciousness belonging to the -ath of once&returning<

M M Arahatta -ath&consciousness :consciousness belonging to the -ath of arahatshi-< Since each of these four basic -ath&consciousness can associate *ith fi/e rO-;/acara >h;nas in turn, there are 79 >h;na -ath consciousness *hich are realiJed in samatha&y;ni.a route. 5i/e Fh;na Sot;-atti Magga +ittas ta. c; -W suZu- e. bbbba -a du ta ca -aQ @ ?ita..a, /ic;ra, -Wti, su.h1e.aggat; sahita[ -athama>>h;na sot;-atti&magga citta[. 7 ?ic;ra, -Wti su.h1e.aggat; sahita[ dutaya>>h;na&magga citta[. M 6Wti, su.h1e.aggat; sahittam tatiya>>h;na sot;-atti&magga citta[. E Su.h1e.aggat; sahita[ catuttha>>h;na sot;-atti&magga citta[. 8 U-e..h1e.aggat; sahita[ -aYcama>>h;na sot;-atti&magga citta[. Meanings @ The first >h;na sot;-atti -ath&consciousness together *ith initial a--lication, sustained a--lication, >oy, bliss and one&-ointedness.

7 7 The third >h;na sot;-atti -ath&consciousness together *ith >oy, bliss and one&-ointedness. E The fourth >h;na sot;-atti -ath&consciousness together *ith bliss and one&-ointedness. 8 The fifth >h;na sot;-atti -ath&consciousness together *ith eIuanimity and one&-ointedness. The fi/e sa.ad;g;mi -ath&consciousness, the fi/e an;g;mi -ath&consciousness and the fi/e arahatta -ath&consciousness are named similarly. #o.uttara ?i-;.a +ittas :Su-ramundane $esultant +onsciousness< Basically here are four lo.uttara /i-;.a cittas as the fruitions of the four lo.uttara .usala cittas. These four ty-es of su-ramundane resultant consciousness are realiJed in the /i-assan;&y;ni.a route. @ Sot;-atti&-hala&citta[ 7 Sa.ad;g;mi&-hala&citta[ M An;g;mi&-hala&citta[ E Arahatta&-hala&citta[ Meanings @ Sot;-atti fruit&consciousness :consciousness belonging to the fruition of stream&entry< 7 Sa.ad;g;mi fruit&consciousness :consciousness belonging to the fruition of once& returning<

M M :consciousness belonging to the fruition of ne/er& returning< E Arahatta fruit& consciousness :consciousness belonging to the fruition of arahatshi-< Again each of these four basic fruit&consciousness can associate *ith fi/e rO-;/acara >h;nas in turn, gi/ing rise to 79 fruit& consciousness in all. These are realiJed in samatha&y;ni.a route. The names of fi/e >h;na arahatta fruit&consciousness are described belo* as e0am-les. 5i/e Fh;na Arahatta 6hala +ittas ta. c; -W suZu- e. bbb ba -a du ta ca -aQ @ ?ita..a, /ic;ra, -Wti, su.h1e.aggata sahita[ -athma>>h;na arahatta&-hala citta[ 7 ?ic;ra, -Wti, su.h1e.aggat; sahita[ dutiya>>h;na arahatta -hala citta[ M 6Wti, su.h1e.aggat; sahita[ tatiya>>h;na arahatta&-hala citta[ E Su.h1e.aggata sahita[ catutta>>h;na arahatta&-hala citta[ 8 U-e..h1e.aggat; sahita[ -ancama>>h;na arahatta&-hala citta[

Meanings @ The first >h;na arahatta fruit&consciousness together *ith initial a--lication, sustained a--lication, >oy, bliss and one&-ointedness. 7 The second >h;na arahatta fruit&consciousness together *ith sustained a--lication, >oy, bliss and one&-ointedness. M The third >h;na arahatta fruit&consciousness together *ith >oy, bliss and one&-ointedness. E The fourth >h;na arahatta fruit&consciousness together *ith bliss and one&-ointedness. 8 The fifth >h;na arahatta fruit&consciousness together *ith eIuanimity and one&-ointedness. Ruic. $e/ie* !/er +ittas A reader or learner should use +hart No. @ entitled The +om-lete +hart on +ittas *hich is attached at the end of this boo.. @ A.usala cittas a @7 They are G lobha&mOla cittas, 7 dosa&mOla cittas and 7 mohamOla cittas. 7 Ahetu.a cittas a @G They com-rise H a.usala /i-;.a cittas, G ahetu.a .usala /i-;.a cittas and M ahetu.a .iriya cittas. M ";ma&sobhaPa cittas a 7E They are di/ided into G mah;&.usala cittas, G mah;&/i-;.a cittas and G mah;&.iriya cittas. E ";m;/acara cittas or .;ma cittas a 8E They com-rise @7 a.usala cittas, @G ahetu.a cittas and 7E .;ma&sobhaPa cittas. 8 Mahaggata cittas a 7H The @8 rO-;/acara cittas and the @7 arO-;/acara cittas are

collecti/ely .no*n as mahaggata cittas.

^Mahaggata1 literally means ^gro*n great1, i.e., de/elo-ed, ^Mahaggata1 literally means ^gro*n great1, i.e., de/elo-ed, ^de/elo-ed consciousness1 attained in the fine&material and the immaterial absor-tions. Mahaggata cittas are more de/elo-ed or more e0alted than .;ma&cittas. N #o.iya cittas a G@ The 8E .;m;/acara cittas and the 7H mahaggata cittas are collecti/ely .no*n as G@ lo.iya cittas. #o.iya 3 mundane or associated *ith the three s-heres of e0istence a namely, the .;ma&s-here, the rO-a&s-here, and the arO-a&s-here :the sense s-here, the fine&material s-here and the immaterial s-here<. H #o.uttara cittas a G or E9 The E magga&cittas :-ath&consciousness< and the E -halacittas :fruit&consciousness< constitute G lo.uttara cittas. )hen they are multi-lied by 8 rO-;/acara >h;nas, *e get E9 lo.uttara cittas. #o.uttara a su-ramundane or beyond the three s-heres of e0istence. The G lo.uttara cittas together *ith Nibb;na constitute the ^C su-ramundane dhammas1 :na/alo.uttara& dhamma<. G Total number of cittas GC or @7@ The G@ lo.iya cittas together *ith G lo.uttara cittas :/i-assan;&y;ni.a *ay< ma.e u- GC cittas in all. !r if *e combine G@ lo.iya cittas *ith E9 lo.uttara cittas :samatha&y;ni.a *ay< *e get @7@ cittas in all. C. Asobbhana cittas a M9 They com-rise @7 a.usala cittas and @G ahetu.a cittas. The a.usala cittas are not ^beautiful1 :sobhaPa< because they are associated *ith e/il roots a namely lobha :greed<, dosa :hatred< and moha :delusion<.

The ahetu.a cittas are regarded as ^not beautiful1 :asobhaPa< because they are not associated *ith *holesome roots, namely alobha :generosity<, adosa :good*ill< and amoha :*isdom<. The ahetu.a cittas are regarded as ^not beautiful1 :asobhaPa< because they are not associated *ith *holesome roots, namely alobha :generosity<, adosa :good*ill< and amoha :*isdom<. 9 SobhaPa cittas a 8C or C@ If *e subtract M9 asobhaPa from GC cittas, *e obtain 8C sobhaPa cittas. !r, if *e subtract M9 asobhaPa cittas from @7@ cittas, *e get C@ sobhaPa cittas. SobhaPa cittas are associated *ith *holesome roots. @@ Fh;na cittas a NH The 7H mahaggata cittas are .no*n as the lo.iya >h;na cittas. +ombining these *ith the E9 lo.uttara >h;na cittas *e get NH >h;na cittas. Among these, there are @@ first >h;na cittas, @@ second >h;na cittas, @@ third >h;na cittas, @@ fourth >h;na cittas, and 7M fifth >h;na cittas. These can be easily counted form the +hart No. @. Note that there are M first >h;na cittas in the mahaggata cittas and G first >h;na cittas in lo.uttara cittas= together they ma.e u- @@ first >h;na cittas. The second, the third and the fourth >h;na cittas are counted in the same *ay. In counting the fifth >h;na cittas, all the @7 arO-;/acara cittas are included in the count a thus *e get @@b@7 c 7M fifth >h;na cittas. @7 Di/ision according to >;ti :birth< The cittas are di/ided into E classes according to >;ti a /iJ., a.usala, .usala, /i-;.a and .iriya cittas. By loo.ing at +hart No. @, *e can di/ide the 8E .;m;/acara cittas into @7 a.usala cittas, G .usala cittas, 7M /i-;.a cittas and @@ .iriya cittas. The 7M /i-;.a cittas are collecti/ely .no*n as .;ma&/i-;.a cittas, and the .iriya cittas are .no*n as .;ma&.iriya cittas.

5urthermore the 7H mahaggata cittas can be di/ided into C .usala cittas, C /i-;.a cittas and C .iriya cittas. These grou-s of cittas are also referred to as C mahaggata .usala cittas, C mahaggata /i-;.a cittas and C mahaggata .iriya cittas. The G@ lo.iya cittas can be di/ided into @7 a.usala cittas, @H .usala cittas, M7 /i-;.a cittas and 79 .iriya cittas. The latter grou-s of cittas, being lo.iya, are res-ecti/ely .no*n as @H lo.iya .usala cittas, M7 lo.iya /i-;.a cittas and 79 lo.iya .iriya cittas, res-ecti/ely. No* the GC cittas :brief total< can be di/ided into @7 a.usala cittas, 7@ .usala cittas, MN /i-;.a cittas and 79 .iriya cittas. The @7@ cittas :broad total< can be di/ided into @7 a.usala cittas, MH .usala cittas, 87 /i-;.a cittas and 79 .iriya cittas. 5urthermore the 7H mahaggata cittas can be di/ided into C .usala cittas, C /i-;.a cittas and C .iriya cittas. These grou-s of cittas are also referred to as C mahaggata .usala cittas, C mahaggata /i-;.a cittas and C mahaggata .iriya cittas. The G@ lo.iya cittas can be di/ided into @7 a.usala cittas, @H .usala cittas, M7 /i-;.a cittas and 79 .iriya cittas. The latter grou-s of cittas, being lo.iya, are res-ecti/ely .no*n as @H lo.iya .usala cittas, M7 lo.iya /i-;.a cittas and 79 lo.iya .iriya cittas, res-ecti/ely. No* the GC cittas :brief total< can be di/ided into @7 a.usala cittas, 7@ .usala cittas, MN /i-;.a cittas and 79 .iriya cittas. The @7@ cittas :broad total< can be di/ided into @7 a.usala cittas, MH .usala cittas, 87 /i-;.a cittas and 79 .iriya cittas. se-arate symbols in +hart No. @ as' i Somanassa :b< a >oy, mental -leasure or mentally agreeable feeling, ii Domanassa :d< a mental dis-leasure or mentally disagreeable feeling, iii Su.ha :/< a -hysical ha--iness i/ Du..ha :e< a -hysical -ain / U-e..h; :a< a indifference or neutral feeling. In +hart No. @ *e shall notice that the G lo.uttara cittas :i.e., E maggas and E -halas< are designated by the dual symbol b, indicating that they may be associated *ith either somanassa oru-e..h;. The E9 lo.uttara cittas can be, ho*e/er, differentiated by /edan;. )e can ma.e a table :see Table @.@< for di/iding se-arate grou-s of cittas according to /edan;.

In the 8E .;m;/acara cittas, there are @G somanassa, 7 domanassa, M7 u-e..h;, @ su.ha and @ du..ha cittas. In the G@ lo.iya cittas, there are M9 somanassa, 7 domanassa, EH u-e..h;, @ su.ha and @ du..ha cittas. 5inally in the @7@ total cittas, there are N7 somanassa, 7 domanassa, 88 u-e..h;, @ su.ha and @ du..ha cittas. Table @.@ +#ASSI5I+ATI!N !5 +ITTAS A++!$DIN4 T! 5EE#IN4 Name of citta SomanassaDomanassaU-e..h;Su..haDu..haTotal A.usala E 7 N a a @7 Ahetu.a 7 a @E @ @ @G ";ma sobhaPa @7 a @7 a a 7E ";ma citta @G 7 M7 @ @ 8E Mahaggata @7 a @8 a a 7H #o.iya M9 7 EH @ @ G@ #o.uttara M7 a G a a E9 Total citta N7 7 88 @ @ @7@

+ha-ter 7 +ha-ter 7 Mental 5actors +haracteristics of +etasi.as +etasi.as are mental factors or mental concomitants that arise and -erish together *ith citta, de-end on citta for their arising and influence the mind to be bad, good or neutral as they arise. A cetasi.a has the follo*ing four characteristic -ro-erties' i It arises together *ith citta :consciousness<. ii It -erishes together *ith citta. iii It ta.es the same ob>ect :arammana< *hich citta ta.es. i/ It shares a common -hysical base :/atthu< *ith citta. )hich is more -o*erfulL )hen *e say that the mind is the most -o*erful agent in the *orld and it leads the *orld, it is not the -erformance of citta alone, but the -erformance of citta and cetasi.as together that ma.es the mind most -o*erful. No* *hich is more -o*erful3citta or cetasi.asL +itta is no doubt the leader of the grou-, but cetasi.as influence the citta and direct the citta to -erform actions, s-eeches and thoughts either morally or immorally. These actions, s-eeches and thoughts change the *orld e/ery day and their .ammic forces *ill create ne* *orlds in the future. To decide *hich of the t*o3citta or cetasi.as3is more -o*erful, let us consider t*o similes.

@ @ 7 In a sa*&mill an ele-hant mo/es logs as directed by its rider. The ele-hant cannot *or. alone, neither does the rider. The ele-hant has strength to mo/e the logs= the rider cannot mo/e the logs, but he can command the ele-hant to *or.. )ho is more im-ortant3the ele-hant or the riderL It may be noticed that both the father and the mother in simile :@< and both the ele-hant and the rider in simile :7< are indis-ensable. So aren1t they eIually im-ortantL +itta is li.e the ele-hant and cetasi.as are analogous to the rider. No citta e0ists a-art from its concomitants and no cetasi.as e0ist a-art from citta. They function together. They are our true strength and ability. The more *e can de/elo- them, the more -o*erful shall *e gro*. +lassification of +etasi.as +etasi.as :87< AQQasam;na :@M< @ 7 Sabba&citta s;ddh;raPa :H< 6a.iPPa.a :N< A.usala :@E< @ 7 M E Moha&catu..a :E< #obha&tri :M< Dosa&catu..a :E< End&tri :M< SobhaPa :78< @ 7 M

E SobhaPa s;dh;raPa :@C< ?irati :M< A--amaQQ; :7< 6aQQindriya :@<

There are 87 cetasi.as in all. They are first di/ided into three classes as follo*s. @ There are 87 cetasi.as in all. They are first di/ided into three classes as follo*s. @ general mental concomitants a @M 7 A.usala cetasi.as immoral mental concomitants a @E M SobhaPa cetasi.as beautiful mental concomitants a 78 AQQasam;na +etasi.as :4eneral Mental +oncomitants< The @M aQQasam;na cetasi.as can associate both *ith sobhaPa and asobhaPa cittas. They are neutral and they enhance the -ro-erties of the cetasi.as *ith *hich they associate. They are again di/ided into t*o sub&grou-s. @ Sabbacitta&s;dh;raPa Essentials *hich associate *ith all cittas a H 7 6a.iPPa.a 6articulars *hich selecti/ely associate *ith some sobhaPa as *ell as *ith some asobhaPa cittas a N Sabbacitta&s;dh;raPa +etasi.as :Essentials or 6rimary !nes a H< Sabba a all= s;dh;raPa a associate *ith The H sabbacitta&s;dh;raPas associate collecti/ely *ith all cittas. +onsciousness of an ob>ect by citta is accom-lished *ith the hel- of these cetasi.as. @ 6hassa a +ontact or mental im-ression

7 ?edan; a 5eeling or sensation

M Mn E +etan; a /olition or intention 8 E.aggat; a one&-ointedness, concentration :sam;dhi< N FW/itindriya a /itality or -sychic life H Manasi.;ra a attention or ad/ertence @ 6hassa 6hassa furnishes the contact bet*een the sense ob>ect, the sense organ and the citta. 5or e0am-le, the contact bet*een /isual ob>ect, /isual organ :eye< and eye&consciousness :ca..hu&/iQQ;Pa< is accom-anied by -hassa. )ithout -hassa, there *ill be no sense& im-ression and conseIuently no cognition. 7 ?edan; ?edan; en>oys the taste of the sense&ob>ect. It is li.e a .ing *ho en>oys a delicious dish. 5eeling is /ery im-ortant to *orldly -eo-le. 6eo-le are struggling day and night for the en>oyment of sensual -leasure *hich is nothing but -leasant feeling. In the cause&effect relations of the #a* of De-endent !rigination :-aYicca&samu--ada<, contact is the condition for the arising of feelings, and feeling is the condition for the arising of cra/ing :taPh;<. The *hole grou- of feelings3-ast, -resent, future, one1s o*n and e0ternal3is designated as /edana..handha, one of the fi/e grou-s of e0istence. M SaQQ; SaQQ; ta.es note of the sense&ob>ects as to colour, form, sha-e, name, etc. It functions as memory. It is saQQ; that enables one to recogniJe an ob>ect that has once been -ercei/ed by the mind

through the senses. )ithout saQQ;, *e *ould not remember our names, our -arents, our *i/es and children, our houses, etc. So it *ould be im-ossible to li/e in the community. through the senses. )ithout saQQ;, *e *ould not remember our names, our -arents, our *i/es and children, our houses, etc. So it *ould be im-ossible to li/e in the community. E +etan; +etan; co&ordinates the mental states associated *ith itself on the ob>ect of consciousness li.e a chief disci-le, or li.e a farm3 o*ner *ho fulfils his duties and regulates the *or. of others as *ell. +etan; fulfils its function and regulates the functions of other mental concomitants associated *ith it. +etan; acts on its concomitants, acts in getting the ob>ect, and acts on accom-lishing the tas.= thus it determines action. According to ATguttara Ni.;ya :/i, @M<, Buddha remar.ed' _?olition is action :.amma<, thus I say, ! mon.s= for as soon as /olition arises, one does the action, be it by body, s-eech or mind.` So cetan; -lays an im-ortant role in all actions3it determines *hether an action is moral or immoral. It is the most significant cetasi.a in mundane :lo.iya< consciousness *hereas -aQQ; :*isdom< is the most im-ortant cetasi.a in the su-ra& mundane :lo.uttara< consciousness. E0cluding /edan; and saQQ;, all the remaining fifty cetasi.as, *ith cetan; as the foremost, is designated as saT.h;ra..handha :formation&grou-<, *hich is also one of the fi/e grou-s of e0istence. 8 E.aggat; E.aggat; focuses the citta and its concomitants on one ob>ect. It -re/ents its ad>uncts from dissi-ation and fi0es them on the

one ob>ect. It is similar to *ater that binds together se/eral substances to form one concrete mass. It is li.e a firmly fi0ed -illar that cannot be sha.en by the storm. one ob>ect. It is similar to *ater that binds together se/eral substances to form one concrete mass. It is li.e a firmly fi0ed -illar that cannot be sha.en by the storm. ness. N FW/itindriya FW/itindriya is a combination of 7 terms' FW/ita b indriya c life b controlling faculty. It is call >W/ita because it sustains its concomitants. It is called indriya because it controls its concomitants. Fust as lotuses are sustained by *ater, and an infant by a nurse, so are mental concomitants sustained by >W/itindriya. Although cetan; determines the acti/ities of all mental concomitants, it is >W/itindriya that infuses life into cetan; and other concomitants. H Manasi.;ra Manasi.;ra is the mind1s first ^confrontation *ith an ob>ect1 and ^directs the associated mental concomitants to the ob>ect1. It is, therefore, the -rominent factor in the t*o a/a>>ana&cittas3namely, -aQcad/;r;/a>>ana&citta and mano&d/;r;/a>>ana&citta, i.e., ad/ertence at the fi/e sense&doors and ad/ertence at the mind&door. These t*o states of consciousness, brea.ing through the life&continuum :bha/aTga<, form the first stage in the cognition -rocess. As the rudder of a shi- directs her to her destination, so manasi.;ra directs the citta and its concomitants to*ards the sense ob>ect. )ithout manasi.;ra, the mind is li.e a rudderless shi-

and it cannot be a*are of an ob>ect. )e ha/e a saying in Myanmar that runs li.e this' _If *e are not attenti/e, *e shall not see a ca/e.` and it cannot be a*are of an ob>ect. )e ha/e a saying in Myanmar that runs li.e this' _If *e are not attenti/e, *e shall not see a ca/e.` )ise&attention leads to moral consciousness *hereas un*ise&attention leads to immoral consciousness. Significance of Sabbacitta&s;dh;raPa As described abo/e, all the H essential cetasi.as -erform im-ortant tas.s and they are essential for the a*areness of an ob>ect by the mind. Manasi.;ra first confronts *ith the ob>ect and directs the citta and the mental concomitants associated *ith it to*ards the ob>ect. +etan; acts on the citta and the mental concomitants associated *ith it to -erform their res-ecti/e duties efficiently until the tas. of getting or .no*ing the ob>ect is com-leted. 6hassa let the citta and its mental concomitants be in contact *ith the sense&ob>ect. ?edan; en>oys the taste of sensation *hich arises from the contact :-hassa<. SaQQ; ta.es note of the ob>ect and hel-s to recogniJe the ob>ect. E.aggat; focuses the citta and its concomitants on the ob>ect= it binds the mental concomitants *ith citta together to be at a state of one&-ointedness on the ob>ect3a condition *hich is also essential for the a*areness of the ob>ect. FW/itindriya sustains the /itality of the citta and the mental concomitants so that they *ill remain ali/e and acti/e to their full life. !ther*ise, they *ill -erish before the tas. of getting or .no*ing the ob>ect is com-leted.

6a.iPPa.a +etasi.as 6a.iPPa.a +etasi.as These si0 cetasi.as may associate both *ith sobhaPa and asobhaPa cittas, but not *ith all of them. They associate only *ith those cittas *ith *hich they should associate. @ ?ita..a a initial a--lication or thought conce-tion 7 ?ic;ra a sustained a--lication or discursi/e thin.ing M Adhimo..ha a decision or determination E ?iriya a effort or energy or e0ertion 8 6Wti a ra-ture or interest N +handa a *ish, desire or *ill @ ?ita..a ?ita..a a--lies the citta and its concomitants onto the sense& ob>ect. As the .ing1s fa/orite courtier introduces someone to the .ing, li.e*ise /ita..a introduces the citta and its concomitants to the ob>ect. As e0-lained abo/e, manasi.;ra directs the citta and its concomitants to the ob>ect *hereas /ita..a a--lies them onto the ob>ect. ?ita..a, manasi.;ra and cetan; may be differentiated further by com-aring them *ith different -ersons in a boat racing to a flag. Manasi.;ra is li.e the rudder a controller of the boat, /ita..a li.e the ro*ers in the hull of the boat, and cetan; li.e the foremost ro*er *ho not only ro*s the boat himself but also urges others to ro* to their best and then -lugs the *inning flag *hen the boat gets to the destination. As /ita..a a--lies the citta and its concomitants to /arious ob>ects leading to /arious thought -rocesses, it is also .no*n as thought conce-tion.

?ita..a is one of the fi/e >h;na&factors. It inhibits sloth and tor-or :thina&middha<. )hen it is de/elo-ed and culti/ated, it becomes the foremost factor of the first >h;na. It is also the second factor .no*n as ^samm;&saT.a--a1 :right&thought< in the Noble Eightfold 6ath. ?ita..a is one of the fi/e >h;na&factors. It inhibits sloth and tor-or :thina&middha<. )hen it is de/elo-ed and culti/ated, it becomes the foremost factor of the first >h;na. It is also the second factor .no*n as ^samm;&saT.a--a1 :right&thought< in the Noble Eightfold 6ath. ?ita..a is the forerunner of /ic;ra. The t*o should be distinguished thus' li.e the fla--ing of a bird about to fly is /ita..a, li.e its -lanning mo/ements in the s.y is /ic;ra= li.e the beating of a drum or bell is /ita..a, li.e its re/erberation is /ic;ra. M Adhimo..ha Adhimo..a ma.es the decision *ith res-ect to the sense&ob>ect. It is li.e a >udge *ho decides a case. It is also com-ared to a firm -illar o*ing to its un*a/ering state in ma.ing the decision. It is o--osed to /ici.icch;3doubt or indecision. E ?Wriya ?Wriya is more or less eIui/alent to effort, energy, e0ertion, /irility, manliness or heroism. It may be defined as the state of being energetic or courageous. It has the characteristic of su--orting, u-holding or sustaining its concomitants. As a leaning old house, su--orted by ne* -illars, may not fall, so also concomitants, su--orted by /Wriya, *ill not gi/e *ay. Fust as a strong reinforcement *ould hel- an army to hold on instead of retreating, e/en so /Wriya u-holds or u-lifts its concomitants.

?Wriya is regarded as a s-iritual faculty :indriya< because it controls and o/ercomes idleness. It is also one of the fi/e -o*ers :bala< because it cannot be sha.en by its o--osite idleness. It also ser/es as one of the four means of accom-lishing one1s ends :iddhi-;da<. ?Wriya is regarded as a s-iritual faculty :indriya< because it controls and o/ercomes idleness. It is also one of the fi/e -o*ers :bala< because it cannot be sha.en by its o--osite idleness. It also ser/es as one of the four means of accom-lishing one1s ends :iddhi-;da<. 8 6Wti 6Wti is generally translated as ra-ture, >oy, ha--iness, interest or enthusiasm. It is related to -;mo>>a :gladness< and to su.ha :-leasant feeling<, but it is not a feeling or sensation, and hence it does not belong to the feeling&grou- :/edana..handha<. 6Wti is the -recursor of su.ha. #i.e the sight of a -ond to a *eary tra/eller is -Wti. #i.e drin.ing *ater and bathing there is su.ha. +reating a >oyful interest in the ob>ect is the characteristic of -Wti. 6Wti is a >h;na&factor. It inhibits /y;-;da :ill*ill or a/ersion<. There are fi/e stages of -Wti= i "hudda.a -Wti the thrill of >oy that causes the flesh to creeii "haPi.a -Wti instantaneous >oy li.e a flash of lightening iii !..anti.; -Wti the flood of >oy li.e the brea.ers on a seashore i/ Ubbeg; -Wti u-&lifting >oy *hich may lift one to float in the air / 6h;ran; -Wti suffusing >oy *hich -er/ades the *hole body li.e a full blo*n bladder or li.e a lum- of cotton moistened in oil or li.e a flood o/erflo*ing cree.s and -onds.

N +handa +handa has been translated as ^conation, intention, *ish, desire or *ill1 by se/eral authors. The chief characteristic of chanda is ^the *ish to do1. It is li.e the stretching of the hand to gras- an ob>ect. N +handa +handa has been translated as ^conation, intention, *ish, desire or *ill1 by se/eral authors. The chief characteristic of chanda is ^the *ish to do1. It is li.e the stretching of the hand to gras- an ob>ect. In .;macchanda :sensuous desire< and chanda&r;ga :lustfuldesire<, chanda is cou-led *ith lobha= these t*o com-ound *ords actually re-resent lobha. E/ery action begins *ith chanda. 5or e0am-le, the act of standing u- begins *ith the *ish :chanda< to stand u-. It is e/ident that the >ourney of a thousand miles begins *ith the first ste-, and that first ste- is chanda. )e cannot go *ithout the *ish to go, and *e cannot get to a -lace *ithout the *ish to be there. )hen intensified, chanda becomes ^*ill1 and leads to success as ^there is a *ay if there is a *ill1. So, li.e /Wriya, chanda is included in the four means of accom-lishing one1s ends :iddhi-;da<. A.usala +etasi.as :Immoral Mental +oncomitants< There are @E cetasi.as *hich are ethically immoral. They may be di/ided into four sub&grou-s as follo*s. @ Moha&catu..a a a.usala&s;dh;raPa a E A grou- of four cetasi.as headed by moha @ Moha a a/i>>; a delusion, ignorance, dullness 7 Ahiri.a a lac. of moral shame, im-udence

M Anotta--a a lac. of moral dread, rec.lessness E Uddhacca a unrest, restlessness, distraction. M Anotta--a a lac. of moral dread, rec.lessness E Uddhacca a unrest, restlessness, distraction. #obha&tri a -a-aQca&dhamma a M A grou- of three cetasi.as headed by lobha 8 #obha a r;ga ataPh; a greed, attachment, sensuous desire N DiYYhi a *rong /ie*, e/il o-inion H M;na a conceit, -ride M Dosa&catu..a a hateful ones a E A grou- of four cetasi.as headed by dosa G Dosa a-aYigha a hatred, anger, a/ersion C Issa a en/y, >ealousy @9 Macchariya a a/arice, stinginess, selfishness @@ "u..ucca a *orry, scru-les, remorse E End&tri a dull and *a/ering ones a M The last three immoral cetasi.as @7 Thina a sloth @M Middha a tor-or @E ?ici.iccch; a sce-tical doubt, -er-le0ity. @ Moha Moha is the ignorance of the true nature of sense&ob>ects. #i/ing and non&li/ing things are made u- of n;ma and rO-a :mind and matter< *hich are endo*ed *ith the four common characteristics of anicca :im-ermanence<, du..ha :suffering<, anatta :non&self< and asubha :loathsomeness<. As moha /eils our mental eyes and shields us from seeing the true nature of things, *e cannot see the e0tremely&ra-id and incessant arising and dissol/ing of n;ma and rO-a and the

conseIuent four characteristics mentioned abo/e. )hen *e cannot see the true nature of things, *e get confused and ta.e the o--osite characteristics to be true. So *e see things as nicca :-ermanent<, su.ha :-leasant<, atta :self or -erson< and subha :beautiful<. conseIuent four characteristics mentioned abo/e. )hen *e cannot see the true nature of things, *e get confused and ta.e the o--osite characteristics to be true. So *e see things as nicca :-ermanent<, su.ha :-leasant<, atta :self or -erson< and subha :beautiful<. Moha is the leader of all the immoral cetasi.as. Moha and its three com-atriots :ahiri.a, anotta--a and uddhacca< associate *ith all immoral consciousness. So they are .no*n as ^a.usalas;dh;raPa1. Because moha is o--osed to insight or *isdom, it is .no*n as ^a/i>>;1. Moha clouds our .no*ledge *ith regard to .amma and its conseIuences and the four Noble Truths. 7 Ahiri.a Ahiri.a urges a -erson not to be ashamed of committing immoral actions, s-eeches and thoughts. In 6uggala&-aQQatti :-ara.8C< it is stated thus' ^Not to be ashamed of e/il or un*holesome things' this is called lac. of moral shame. As a /illage&-ig does not feel loathsome in eating night&soil, so ahiri.a does not feel loathsome in committing e/il deeds.1 M Anotta--a Anotta--a urges a -erson not be afraid of committing immoral actions, s-eeches and thoughts.

In 6uggala&-aQQatti :-ara. N9< it is stated' ^Not to dread *hat one should dread, not to be afraid of e/il, un*holesome things= this is called lac. of moral dread.` In 6uggala&-aQQatti :-ara. N9< it is stated' ^Not to dread *hat one should dread, not to be afraid of e/il, un*holesome things= this is called lac. of moral dread.` some things and -lunges into e/il deeds. It is mentioned in ATguttara Ni.;ya :ii, N<' _There are t*o sinister things, namely lac. of moral shame and moral dread, etc.` It should be noted that the rec.lessness due to ahiri.a and anotta--a arises as a conseIuence of moha *hich clouds the mind and blinds the eye from seeing the results of e/il deeds :.amma<. E Uddhacca Uddhacca is the restless state of the mind *hich is com-ared to the disturbed state of a hea- of ashes *hen hit *ith a stone. As *e cannot see our face in boiling *ater, a restless mind *ill not see the conseIuences of e/il deeds. Uddhacca is also a follo*er of moha *hich ma.es the mind confused and let distraction :uddhacca< arise conseIuently. 8 #obha #obha is a strong desire for sensuous ob>ects or >h;na ha--iness. It *ill ne/er gi/e u- this intrinsic nature of desiring ho*e/er much one may -ossess. E/en the *hole *ealth on earth cannot satisfy the desire of lobha. It is al*ays on the loo.&out for something ne*. Thus one cannot be truly ha--y if one cannot eliminate lobha. The second nature of lobha is attachment or clinging to sensuous ob>ects or to >h;na and >h;na ha--iness. This nature of

attachment is com-ared *ith the stic.y nature of mon.ey& catching glue. This glue is -re-ared by heating se/eral .inds of stic.y gum a/ailable in the forest to form a stic.y -aste. attachment is com-ared *ith the stic.y nature of mon.ey& catching glue. This glue is -re-ared by heating se/eral .inds of stic.y gum a/ailable in the forest to form a stic.y -aste. Then the mon.ey tries to -ull itself out by -ushing the tree *ith its head. So the head is also stuc. to the gum. The mon.ey& catcher may no* come out from his hiding -lace and catches or .ills the mon.ey easily. $emember that *orldly -eo-le are being attached firmly by lobha to sense&ob>ects as *ell as to their -ossessions. They cannot renounce the *orld and their *orldly -ossessions including *i/es or husbands, sons and daughters. So they are being caught u- by old age, disease and death life after life. #obha, together *ith its t*o great follo*ers, i.e., diYYhi :*rong /ie*< and m;na :conceit<, is res-onsible for e0tending the life cycle or the round of rebirth that is .no*n as saPs;ra. !n account of this fact, lobha, diYYhi and m;na are collecti/ely called ^-a-aQca dhamma1. N DiYYhi DiYYhi is usually translated as /ie*, belief, o-inion, etc. Samm;diYYhi means right /ie* and micch;&diYYhi means *rong /ie*. Here, as an immoral cetasi.a, diYYhi is used in the sense of *rong /ie*.

It has been e0-lained abo/e that moha clouds the mind and blinds the eye not to see things as they really are. It ma.es one see things as nicca :-ermanent<, su.ha :-leasant<, atta :self or -erson< and subha :beautiful<. Because of this *rong /ision, lobha clings or attaches to this ^self or -erson1 and diYYhi ta.es the *rong /ie* that ^self1 and ^-erson1 really e0ist. It has been e0-lained abo/e that moha clouds the mind and blinds the eye not to see things as they really are. It ma.es one see things as nicca :-ermanent<, su.ha :-leasant<, atta :self or -erson< and subha :beautiful<. Because of this *rong /ision, lobha clings or attaches to this ^self or -erson1 and diYYhi ta.es the *rong /ie* that ^self1 and ^-erson1 really e0ist. belief1 :sa..;ya&diYYhi< or ^ego&illusion1 :atta&diYYhi<. Sa..;ya&diYYhi belie/es that this combination of mind and body is ^I1, ^you1, ^he1, ^she1, ^man1, ^*oman1, ^-erson1, etc. Atta&diYYhi belie/es in the e0istence of an ^atta or soul1 or ^ego1 or ^life&entity1 in the body. 5rom this sa..;ya&diYYhi or atta&diYYhi as *ell as from the ignorance due to moha there s-ring u- thousands of *rong /ie*s. Sa..;ya&diYYhi is one of the ten fetters binding to e0istence. It is eliminated only on reaching the -ath of stream&*inning :sot;-atti&magga<. H M;na M;na :conceit<, li.e diYYhi, is also a by&-roduct of moha and lobha. Moha gi/es the *rong /ision that ^-ersons1 e0ist and that they are -ermanent, -leasant and beautiful. So lobha clings to these -ersons, es-ecially the one re-resented by oneself. M;na loo.s on this self&-erson as3I am the best, I .no* most, I ha/e no eIuals in the *orld1. This conceit or -ride is of three .inds' the eIuality&conceit :m;na<, the inferiority&conceit :om;na< and the su-eriority&conceit :atim;na< As the saying goes' ^-ride *ill ha/e a fall1, -ride or conceit is not a /irtue to be -roud of. M;na is one of the ten fetters binding to e0istence. It /anishes com-letely only at the attainment of arahatshi-.

G Dosa Dosa is translated as ^hatred, anger or a/ersion.1 It is the most destructi/e element in the *orld. It is more frightful than the atomic *ea-on. !f course, *hen someone -ulls the trigger on the atomic *ea-on, he does so under the influence of dosa. G Dosa Dosa is translated as ^hatred, anger or a/ersion.1 It is the most destructi/e element in the *orld. It is more frightful than the atomic *ea-on. !f course, *hen someone -ulls the trigger on the atomic *ea-on, he does so under the influence of dosa. Not only inflated dosa as the one -resent in an angry -erson but also de-ressed dosa as the one felt by a sad or de-ressed -erson are destructi/e. According to Abhidhamma the one *ho retaliates an insult is more foolish than the one *ho starts the insult. C Iss; Iss; has the characteristic of en/ying others1 success and -ros-erity. As such it is ob>ecti/e, i.e., it loo.s not to oneself but to others. @9 Macchariya Macchariya has the characteristic of concealing one1s -ro-erty. It does not a--reciate to share one1s -ro-erty or s-ecial -ri/ilege *ith others. It ta.es the form of stinginess *hen one is reluctant to gi/e money for charity. As mentioned in ATguttara Ni.;ya :i0, EC<, there are fi/e .inds of stinginess *ith res-ect to d*elling -lace, families, gain, recognition and .no*ledge. +ontrary to iss;, macchariya is sub>ecti/e. Iss; and macchariya ma.e one unha--y *ithout any inducement from others. !ne shall feel immediately ha--y if one can dri/e them a*ay from one1s mind.

@@ "u..ucca "u..ucca has the characteristic of grie/ing o/er the e/il that is done and the good that is not done. @@ "u..ucca "u..ucca has the characteristic of grie/ing o/er the e/il that is done and the good that is not done. Iss;, macchariya and .u..ucca are three com-anions of dosa. They arise se-arately because their lines of reasoning are different, but *hen one of them arises, it is al*ays accom-anied by dosa. @7 Thina Thina is the shrin.ing state of the mind li.e a coc.1s feather before fire. )hen one is idle due to lac. of /Wriya :effort<, one is under the influence of thina. It is the sic.ness of citta. @M Middha Middha is the morbid state of mental concomitants. )hen one feels inacti/e or inert, one is being influenced by middha. It is the sic.ness of cetasi.as. Both thina and middha are o--osed to /Wriya. )here there are thina and middha, there is no /Wriya. @E ?ici.icch; ?ici.icch; is sce-tical doubt about the Buddha, the Dhamma, the SaPgha, the Training= about things in -ast li/es and future li/es= about the #a* of +ausal $elations= and finally about the four Noble Truths. ?ici.icch; is one of the fi/e Hindrances and is also included in the ten 5etters to e0istence. It disa--ears com-letely and for e/er at Stream&entry.

SobhaPa +etasi.as SobhaPa +etasi.as There are 78 sobhaPa cetasi.as *hich may be di/ided into E subgrou-s for con/enience. @ SobhaPa s;dh;raPa a @C those *hich associate *ith all sobhaPa cittas. 7 ?irati a M those connected *ith abstinence from immoral actions, s-eeches and li/elihood. M A--amaQQ; a7 those connected *ith ^Boundless states1. E 6aQQindriya a @ that connected *ith *isdom or insight. Sobhana&s;dh;rana +etasi.as :Beautiful !nes a @C< These @C mental concomitants associate *ith all beautiful consciousness collecti/ely. @ Saddh; a faith, confidence 7 Sati a mindfulness, attenti/eness M HirW a moral shame E !tta--a a moral dread 8 Alobha a non&attachment, greedlessness, generosity N Adosa a hatelessness, good*ill H Tatrama>>hattat; a eIuanimity, mental balance G

";ya&-assaddhi a tranIuillity of mental concomitants C +itta&-assaddhi a tranIuillity of consciousness @9 ";ya&lahut; a agility or lightness of mental concomitants @@ +itta&lahut; a agility or lightness of consciousness

@7 ";ya&mudut; a elasticity of mental concomitants @M +itta&mudut; a elasticity of consciousness @E ";ya&.ammaQQat; a ada-tability of mental concomitants @8 +itta&.ammaQQat; a ada-tability of consciousness @N ";ya&-aguQQat; a -roficiency of mental concomitants @H +itta&-agaQQat; a -roficiency of consciousness @G ";yu>>u.at; a u-rightness of mental concomitants @C +ittu>>u.at; a u-rightness of consciousness. @7 ";ya&mudut; a elasticity of mental concomitants @M +itta&mudut; a elasticity of consciousness @E ";ya&.ammaQQat; a ada-tability of mental concomitants @8 +itta&.ammaQQat; a ada-tability of consciousness @N ";ya&-aguQQat; a -roficiency of mental concomitants @H +itta&-agaQQat; a -roficiency of consciousness @G ";yu>>u.at; a u-rightness of mental concomitants @C +ittu>>u.at; a u-rightness of consciousness. )hen a Buddhist ta.es refuge in the Three Fe*els, his faith should be reasoned and rooted in understanding, and he is as.ed to in/estigate or test the ob>ect of his faith. A Buddhist1s faith is not in conflict *ith the s-irit of enIuiry= any doubt about dubious things is allo*ed and inIuiry into them is encourage. Saddh; is com-ared to the uniIue emerald of the uni/ersal monarch. This emerald, *hen -laced in *arm dirty *ater, causes all the dirt to subside and all the heat to esca-e, thus lea/ing a cool and -urified *ater. In the same *ay *hen saddh; associates *ith the citta, all the defilements such as lobha, dosa, moha disa--ear *ith the result that the mind becomes cool and clear. Saddh; is also com-ared *ith the hand *hich can grab >e*els if one is luc.y enough to be on a mountain full of >e*els. Actually one is more fortunate to be in contact *ith Buddha1s teachings :sasana< than to be on the mountain of >e*els, because one *ith saddh; can acIuire a lot of merit *hich is more -recious than >e*els. As a man *ithout hands cannot grab >e*els, so a man *ithout saddh; cannot acIuire good merit.

As moha is the leader of the immoral cetasi.as, so saddh; is the leader of sobhaPa cetasi.as. It is the most -recious treasure and also one of the fi/e s-iritual faculties :indriya< as *ell as one of the fi/e s-iritual -o*ers :bala<. As moha is the leader of the immoral cetasi.as, so saddh; is the leader of sobhaPa cetasi.as. It is the most -recious treasure and also one of the fi/e s-iritual faculties :indriya< as *ell as one of the fi/e s-iritual -o*ers :bala<. acteristic is ^not floating a*ay1= i.e., not to let things go unnoticed. )hen one is not mindful enough, one does not remember *hat one sees or hears= it is li.e em-ty -ots and -um-.ins floating a*ay on the *ater current. !ne can recall -ast e/ents *ith sati, and sati can be de/elo-ed. )hen it is highly de/elo-ed, one acIuires the -o*er of remembering -ast births. So sati can function as memory. Buddha reminded His disci-les e/ery day not to forget *holesome deeds and to be al*ays mindful to fulfill one1s -ledge to stri/e for the liberation from all miseries. If one is mindful at the si0 sense&doors to note *hat one obser/es >ust as ^seeing, seeing1 or ^hearing, hearing1, etc., one can sto- defilements from entering the mind. In this sense sati is com-ared to a gate&.ee-er *ho sto-s thie/es and robbers from entering the city. Sati is also a member of the fi/e s-iritual faculties as *ell as a member of the fi/e s-iritual -o*ers. It is also one of the se/en factors of Enlightenment :bo>>haTga< and the se/enth lin. of the noble Eightfold 6ath. M HirW HirW ma.es a man recoil *ith moral shame from committing immoral deeds. A -erson, *ho has hirW, recoils from e/il >ust as a coc.1s feather shrin.s in front of fire.

_To be ashamed of *hat one ought to be ashamed, to be ashamed of -erforming e/il and un*holesome things' this is called moral shame.` :6uggala&-aQQatti, -ara. HC< _To be ashamed of *hat one ought to be ashamed, to be ashamed of -erforming e/il and un*holesome things' this is called moral shame.` :6uggala&-aQQatti, -ara. HC< E !tta--a !tta--a is moral dread or fear to do e/il, because it is a*are of the manifold e/il conseIuences. As hirW is different from ordinary shyness, otta--a is different from ordinary fear of an indi/idual. A Buddhist is not e0-ected to be afraid of any indi/idual, e/en a 4od, for Buddhism is not based on the fear of the un.no*n. _To be in dread of *hat one ought to be in dread, to be in dread of -erforming e/il and un*holesome things' this is called moral dread.` :6uggala&-aQQatti, -ara. G9< !tta--a o--oses anotta--a and can dri/e a*ay the latter. HirW arises *ith res-ect to oneself *hereas otta--a arises *ith res-ect to others. Su--ose there is an iron rod, one end of *hich is heated till red&hot and the other end smeared *ith filth. The filthy end one *ould not touch o*ing to disgust, and the red hot end one *ould not touch due to dread. HirW is com-ared to the former instance and otta--a to the latter instance. HirW and otta--a differentiates man from beast not to indulge in immoral acts such as se0ual relations bet*een mother and son or bet*een father and daughter e/en at the time of /ery lo* ci/iliJation. So hirW and otta--a are .no*n as #o.a-;la Dhamma, i.e. the 4uardian of the )orlds. 8 Alobha Non&attachment to sense&ob>ects and greedlessness is the chief

characteristic of alobha. As *ater dro-s run off a lotus leaf *ithout adhering to it, alobha runs off sensuous ob>ects *ithout adhering to them. In this sense alobha is li.e an arahat *ho has no lobha at all. )hen one is not attached to one1s -ossession, one can gi/e a*ay money and things in charity. Here alobha manifests itself in the form of generosity. characteristic of alobha. As *ater dro-s run off a lotus leaf *ithout adhering to it, alobha runs off sensuous ob>ects *ithout adhering to them. In this sense alobha is li.e an arahat *ho has no lobha at all. )hen one is not attached to one1s -ossession, one can gi/e a*ay money and things in charity. Here alobha manifests itself in the form of generosity. N Adosa Adosa is o--osed to dosa and it can o/ercome dosa. It is not mere absence of hatred or a/ersion, but is a -ositi/e /irtue. Dosa has the characteristic of roughness and cruelty *hereas mildness and forgi/eness is the chief characteristic of adosa. Dosa is li.e an enemy *hereas adosa is li.e an agreeable good friend. Adosa is also reflected as good*ill for its nature of .indness and hel-fulness. )hen adosa turns its attention to li/ing beings *ishing them to be ha--y, it is .no*n as mett; , i.e. lo/ing&.indness. Adosa is also one of the three roots of good. H Tatrama>>hattat; The chief characteristic of tatrama>>hattat; is im-artial /ie* of ob>ects, i.e., ^.ee-ing in the middle of all things1. It is com-ared to a charioteer *ho dri/es t*o horses to run at eIual -ace. It also acts li.e the chairman of a meeting gi/ing eIual chance to its associates to act. It balances the citta and the mental concomitants to function together at eIual -ace, -re/enting any e0cessi/eness or deficiency. In the sense of eIuanimity, it is mostly .no*n as u-e..h;.

This u-e..h; is the state in the middle bet*een .arun; :com-assion< and mudit; :sym-athetic >oy<. It is this u-e..h; :i.e., tatrama>>hattat;< *hich is raised to the dignity of a bo>>haTga, one of the se/en factors of Enlightenment. It is different from hedonic u-e..h; *hich is indifferent feeling. This u-e..h; is the state in the middle bet*een .arun; :com-assion< and mudit; :sym-athetic >oy<. It is this u-e..h; :i.e., tatrama>>hattat;< *hich is raised to the dignity of a bo>>haTga, one of the se/en factors of Enlightenment. It is different from hedonic u-e..h; *hich is indifferent feeling. 6assaddhi is tranIuillity, calmness, Iuietude or serenity. So .;ya&-assaddhi is tranIuillity of mental concomitants *hereas citta&-assaddhi is tranIuillity of citta or consciousness. 5rom -assaddhi to u>>u.at; there are N -airs of cetasi.as *hich go by .;ya and citta. The reason they *ere described in -air by the Buddha is that they occur together and together they o--ose their o--onents. In the case of saddh;, sati, hirW, etc., they are described as singles because indi/idually they can o--ose their o--onents. By citta&-assaddhi, only citta is tranIuil. By .;ya&-assaddhi, not only are the mental concomitants tranIuil, but also the body is tranIuil due to the diffusion of *holesome citta>a&rO-a, *hich is mind&-roduced cor-oreality. 6assaddhi has the chief characteristic of su--ressing or allaying of fe/erishness of -assions. It ser/es as the cool shade of a tree to a -erson affected by the sun1s heat, 6assaddhi is o--osed to .u..ucca :*orry<. )hen highly de/elo-ed it becomes a factor of Enlightenment :bo>>haTga<. @9 A @@ ";ya&lahut; and +itta&lahut; #ahut; is lightness or buoyancy or agility. Su--ressing the hea/iness of the mental concomitants is the chief characteristic

of .;ya&lahut;, su--ressing the hea/iness of the citta is the chief characteristic of citta&lahut;. It is the laying do*n of a hea/y burden. of .;ya&lahut;, su--ressing the hea/iness of the citta is the chief characteristic of citta&lahut;. It is the laying do*n of a hea/y burden. @7 A @M ";ya&Mudut; and +itta&Mudut; These t*o cetasi.as refer to the elasticity of mental concomitants and the elasticity of consciousness, res-ecti/ely. They remo/e the stiffness in mind caused by immoral cetasi.as such as diYYhi :false /ie*< and m;na :conceit<. Mudut; is com-ared to a s.in that is -liable because it has been *ell moulded by a--lying oil, *ater, etc. Mudut; is o--osed to false /ie* and conceit. @E A @8 ";ya&.ammaQQat; and +itta&.ammaQQat; These t*o cetasi.as refer to the ada-tability of mental concomitants and consciousness and the goodness in carrying out their duty. Their chief characteristic is the su--ression of unser/iceableness or un*or.ableness of citta and its concomitants. It is stated in Atthas;lini that these t*o cetasi.as -roduce serenity :-as;da< in -ro-itious things, and are ada-table li.e -ure gold for beneficial *or.s. @N A @H ";ya&-;guQQat; and +itta&-;guQQat; They refer to the -roficiency or s.illfulness of mental concomitants and consciousness in doing their *or.. Their chief characteristic is the su--ression of sic.ness in the mental concomitants and in the consciousness.

@G A @C ";yu>>u.at; and +ittu>>u.at; They refer to the u-rightness or straightness in the mental concomitants and in the consciousness, res-ecti/ely. Thus they are o--osed to croo.edness, dece-tion and craftiness due to illusion or deceit :m;y;< and treachery :s;theyya<. @G A @C ";yu>>u.at; and +ittu>>u.at; They refer to the u-rightness or straightness in the mental concomitants and in the consciousness, res-ecti/ely. Thus they are o--osed to croo.edness, dece-tion and craftiness due to illusion or deceit :m;y;< and treachery :s;theyya<. gi/ing, morality and meditation. As they associate together in all sobhaPa cittas, they are .no*n as sobhaPa&s;dh;rana cetasi.as. ?irati +etasi.as :Abstinences a M< The three /irati&cetasi.as are .no*n as the sWla maggaTgas :morality com-onents of the 6ath<. They constitute the sWla&si..h; :moralitytraining< *hich is the foundation of the noble Eightfold 6ath. They are' @ Samm;&/;c; a right s-eech 7 Samm;&.ammanta a right action M Samm;&a>W/a a right li/elihood @ Samm;&/;c; The right s-eech is fourfold, i.e., abstaining from' @ Musa/;d; a lying 7 6isuna/;c; a slandering M 6harusa/;c; a harsh s-eech E Sam-ha--al;-a a fri/olous tal. )hen one comes face to face *ith the situation to commit one of the abo/e four false s-eeches, and one abstains from saying it, then one acIuires samm;&/;c; at the instant of abstinence.

7 Samm;&.ammanta The right action here means the bodily action *hich is abstinence from' 7 Samm;&.ammanta The right action here means the bodily action *hich is abstinence from' 6;n;ti-;t; a .illing 7 Adinn;d;n; a stealing M ";mesu&micch;c;r; a se0ual misconduct Again *hen one is in the situation about to commit one of the abo/e immoral actions, and one abstains from committing it, then one acIuires samm;&.ammanta at the moment of abstinence. M Samm;&;>W/a The right li/elihood means abstaining from a li/elihood that brings harm to other beings, such as trading in arms, li/ing beings, into0icating drin.s and -oison as *ell as slaughtering, fishing, soldiering, deceit treachery, soothsaying, tric.ery, etc. A--amaQQ; +etasi.as :Illimitable a 7< @ "arun; a com-assion 7 Mudit; a sym-athetic >oy There are four illimitable or boundless states. To mention them in the order they are usually -ractised, they are mett; :lo/ing&.indness<, .arun; :com-assion<, mudit; :sym-athetic >oy< and u-e..h; :eIuanimity<. It has been described abo/e that mett; is included in adosa, and u-e..h; in tatrama>>hattat;. So only the remaining t*o are described here. In -ractising any one of the four illimitables, *e may concentrate our attention on a single -erson or on all the li/ing beings in the *hole *orld. So they are named ^illimitable1.

In -ractising lo/ing&.indness, *e meditate' _May all be ha--y.` In culti/ating com-assion, *e meditate' _May all be free from miseries.` 5or e0ercising mudit;, *e re>oice on the -ros-erity of beings and meditate' _May their gain be *ith them for a long time`. In -ractising u-e..h;, *e maintain a balanced mind and meditate' _All beings are as they are conditioned by their .amma`. In -ractising lo/ing&.indness, *e meditate' _May all be ha--y.` In culti/ating com-assion, *e meditate' _May all be free from miseries.` 5or e0ercising mudit;, *e re>oice on the -ros-erity of beings and meditate' _May their gain be *ith them for a long time`. In -ractising u-e..h;, *e maintain a balanced mind and meditate' _All beings are as they are conditioned by their .amma`. Mett; is the sincere *ish for the good and *elfare of all. It discards ill*ill *hich is its direct enemy. Its indirect enemy is affection :-ema<. Bene/olent attitude is its chief characteristic. "arun; ma.es the hearts of the good Iui/er *hen others are afflicted *ith sorro*. The *ish to remo/e the sufferings of others is its chief characteristic. It discards cruelty or *ic.edness :hiPsa< *hich is its direct enemy. Its indirect enemy is grief :domanassa<. Mudit; is not mere sym-athy but a--reciati/e >oy. Its chief characteristic is to re>oice in others1 -ros-erity. Its direct enemy is >ealousy :iss;< and its indirect enemy is e0ultation :-ah;sa<. It discards disli.e :harati<. U-e..h; /ie*s li/ing beings im-artially, i.e., neither *ith attachment nor *ith a/ersion. It is the balanced state of mind. Its direct enemy is -assion :r;ga<, and its indirect enemy is unintelligent indifference. Im-artial attitude is its chief characteristic.

6aQQindriya 6aQQindriya 6aQQindriya has the control o/er the understanding of things as they really are, i.e., in the light of anicca :im-ermanence<, du..ha :suffering< and anatta :not&self<. Because it o/ercomes ignorance, it is called amoha :non&delusion or *isdom<. Because it can remo/e the /eil of moha from clouding man1s mental eyes and thro*s a*ay the dar.ness cast by moha :a/i>>;<, it is called /i>>; :higher .no*ledge<. 6aQQindriya is normally called ^-aQQ; cetasi.a1. In abhidhamma, -aQQ;, Q;Pa and amoha are synonyms. Amoha is one of the three moral roots. As one of the four means of accom-lishing one1s ends :iddhi-;da<, -aQQ; ta.es the name of /imaPsa :analytical *isdom<. )hen -urified and culti/ated by sam;dhi, -aQQ; assumes the -o*erful role of abhiQQ; :su-ernormal .no*ledge<. )hen highly de/elo-ed, -aQQ; becomes a factor of enlightenment :bo>>haTga< under the name of dhamma&/icaya :in/estigation of the truth<, and also a com-onent of the Noble Eightfold 6ath under the name of samm;&diYYhi :right /ie*<. The culmination of -aQQ; is the omniscience of Buddha. Association of each +etasi.a *ith different +ittas In general *e can say that' @ The H sabbacitta&s;dh;raPas :Essentials< associate *ith all cittas. 7 The N -a.iPPa.as :6articulars< associate *ith certain sobhaPa and asobhaPa cittas. M The @E a.usala cetasi.as :immoral< associate only *ith immoral cittas.

E E The @C sobhaPa s;dh;raPas are lin.ed *ith all sobhaPa cittas. N The remaining N sobhaPa cetasi.as :beautiful ones< associate only *ith sobhaPa cittas. 5or a detailed sur/ey of the combination of each cetasi.a *ith different cittas, the chart on Sam-ayoga method :i.e., +hart No. 7 at the bac. of this boo.< should be consulted. The readings of the chart go as follo*s. Union of AQQasam;na +etasi.as @ The H sabbacitta&s;dh;raPas associate *ith all cittas. 7 ?ita..a associates *ith 88 cittas com-rising EE .;macittas :the @9 d/i-aQca&/iQQ;Pas being e0ce-ted< and @@ first&>h;na cittas. M ?ic;ra associates *ith NN cittas com-rising EE .ama&cittas :the @9 d/i-aQca&/iQQ;Pas being e0ce-ted<, @@ first&>h;na cittas and @@ second&>h;na cittas. E Adhimo..ha associates *ith HG cittas in brief or @@9 cittas in broad total *ith the e0ce-tion of @9 d/i-aQca&/iQQ;Pas and /ici.icch;&sam-ayutta citta. 8 ?Wriya associates *ith HM cittas in brief or @98 cittas in broad total *ith the e0ce-tion of @9 d/i-aQca&/iQQ;Pas, 7 sam-aYicchana cittas, M santiraPa cittas and @ -aQcad/;r;/a>>na citta. N 6Wti associates *ith 8@ somanassa&sahagata cittas com-rising E lobha&mOla somanassa cittas, @ somanassasantiraPa citta, @ hasitu--;da citta, @7 .;ma sobhaPa

somanassa cittas, @@ first&>h;na cittas, @@ second&>h;na cittas and @@ third&>h;na cittas. H +handa associates *ith NC cittas in brief or @9@ cittas in

broad total *ith the e0ce-tion of 7 moha mOla cittas and @G ahetu.a cittas. broad total *ith the e0ce-tion of 7 moha mOla cittas and @G ahetu.a cittas. @ The E a.usala s;dh;raPas3namely, moha, ahiri.a, anotta--a and uddhacca3associate *ith all the @7 a.usala cittas. 7 #obha associates *ith G lobha&mOla cittas. DiYYhi associates *ith E diYYhigata&sam-ayutta cittas. M;na associates *ith E diYYhigata&/i--ayutta cittas. M Dosa, iss;, macchariya and .u..ucca are associated *ith 7 dosa&mOla cittas. E Thina and middha are associated *ith 8 a.usala sasaT.h;ri.a cittas. 8 ?ici.icch; associates *ith moha&mOla /ici.icch;&sam-ayutta citta. Union of SobhaPa +etasi.as @ The @C sobhaPa&s;dh;raPa cetasi.as associate *ith all the sobhaPa cittas numbering 8C in brief and C@ in broad total. 7 The M /irati cetasi.as, namely, samm;&/;c;, samm;.ammanta and samm;&;>W/a, associate intermittently and indi/idually *ith G mah;.usala cittas and unfailingly and unitedly *ith G lo.uttara cittas. M The 7 a--amaQQ;&cetasi.as a namely, .arun; and mudit;associate intermittently and indi/idually *ith 7G cittas com-rising G mah;.usala cittas, G mah;.iriya cittas and @7 mahaggata cittas e0cluding @8 fifth&>h;na cittas. E 6aQQindriya, i.e., -aQQ;&cetasi.a, associates *ith EH cittas that com-rise @7 .;mma&sobhaPa Q;Pa&sam-ayutta cittas, 7H mahaggata cittas and G lo.uttara cittas.

Different +ombinations of +etasi.as *ith Different +ittas Different +ombinations of +etasi.as *ith Different +ittas +hart No. M at the bac. of the boo.<. The readings of the chart are described belo*. +oncomitants of A.usala +ittas The name of each citta in 6;li should be consulted before enumerating the concomitants associated *ith the -articular citta. If the citta is somanassa&sahagata[, all the @M aQQasam;na cetasi.as *ill associate *ith the citta. If the citta is u-e..h;sahagata[ or domanassa&sahagata[, -Wti must be e0ce-ted from the @M aQQasam;nas. @ The first lobha&mOla asaT.h;ri.a citta is associated *ith @C cetasi.as, namely, @M aQQasam;na cetasi.as, E a.usala s;dh;raPa cetasi.as, lobha and diYYhi. 7 The second lobha&mOla asaT.h;ri.a citta is associated *ith @C cetasi.as, namely, @M aQQasam;na cetasi.as, E a.usala s;dh;raPa cetasi.as, lobha and m;na. M The third lobha&mOla asaT.h;ri.a citta is associated *ith @G cetasi.as, namely, @7 aQQasam;na cetasi.as :-Wti being e0ce-ted<, E a.usala&s;dh;raPa cetasi.as, lobha and diYYhi. E The fourth lobha&mOla asaT.h;ri.a citta is associated *ith @G cetasi.as, namely, @7 aQQasam;na cetasi.as :-Wti being e0ce-ted<, E a.usala&s;dh;raPa cetasi.as, lobha and m;na. Note that the E lobha&mOla sasaT.h;ri.a&cittas are associated *ith the same cetasi.as as the corres-onding asaT.h;ri.a cittas -lus thina and middha.

8 8s;dh;raPa cetasi.as, lobha, diYYhi thina and middha. N The second lobha&mOla sasaT.h;ri.a citta is associated *ith 7@ cetasi.as, namely, @M aQQasam;na cetasi.as, E a.usala&s;dh;raPa cetasi.as, lobha, m;na, thina, and middha. H The third lobha&mOla sasaT.h;ri.a citta is associated *ith 79 cetasi.as, namely, @7 aQQasam;na cetasi.as :-Wti being e0ce-ted<, E a.usala&s;dh;raPa cetasi.as, lobha, diYYhi, thina and middha. G The fourth lobha&mOla sasaT.h;ri.a citta is associated *ith 79 cetasi.as, namely, @7 aQQasam;na cetasi.as :-Wti being e0ce-ted<, E a.usala&s;dh;raPa cetasi.as, lobha, m;na, thina and middha. C The dosa&mOla asaQ.h;ri.a citta is associated *ith 79 cetasi.as namely, @7 aQQasam;na cetasi.as :-Wti being e0ce-ted<, E a.usala&s;dh;raPa cetasi.as and E dosacatu..a cetasi.as. @9 The dosa&mOla sasaT.h;ri.a citta is associated *ith 77 cetasi.as, namely, @7 aQQasam;na cetasi.as :-Wti being e0ce-ted<, E a.usala&s;dh;raPa cetasi.as and E dosa&catu..a cetasi.as, thina and middha. @@ The moha&mOla /ici.icch;&sam-ayutta citta is associated *ith @8 cetasi.as, namely, @9 aQQasam;na cetasi.as :adhimo..ha, -Wti and chanda being e0ce-ted<, E a.usala s;dh;raPa cetasi.as and /ici.icch;. @7 The moha&mOla uddhacca&sam-ayutta citta is associated *ith @8 cetasi.as, namely, @@ aQQasam;na cetasi.as :-Wti and chanda being e0ce-ted< and E a.usala&s;dh;raPa cetasi.as.

+oncomitants of Ahetu.a +ittas +oncomitants of Ahetu.a +ittas The @9 d/i-aQca&/iQQWPa cittas are associated *ith only H sabbacitta&sWdhWraPa cetasi.as. 7 The somanassa&santiraPa citta is associated *ith @@ aQQasamWna&cetasi.as :/Wriya and chanda being e0ce-ted<. M The manod/;r;/a>>ana&citta is associated *ith @@ aQQasam;na cetasi.as, :-Wti and chanda being e0ce-ted<. E The hasitu--;da citta is associated *ith @7 aQQasam;na cetasi.as :chanda being e0ce-ted<. 8 The -aQcad/;r;/a>>ana&citta, the 7 sam-aYicchana cittas and the 7 u-e..h;&santiraPa cittas are each associated *ith @9 aQQasam;na cetasi.as :/Wriya, -Wti and chanda being e0ce-ted<. +oncomitants of Mah;.usala +ittas @ The first -air of mah;.usala cittas is each associated *ith MG cetasi.as, namely, @M aQQasam;na cetasi.as and 78 sobhaPa cetasi.as. 7 The second -air of mah;.usala cittas is each associated *ith MH cetasi.as, namely, @M aQQasam;na cetasi.as and 7E sobhaPa cetasi.as :-aQQ; being e0ce-ted< M The third -air of mah;.usala cittas is each associated *ith MH cetasi.as, namely, @7 aQQasam;na cetasi.as :-Wti being e0ce-ted< and 78 sobhaPa cetasi.as. E The fourth -air of mah;.usala cittas is each associated *ith MN cetasi.as, namely, @7 aQQasam;na cetasi.as :-Wti being e0ce-ted< and 7E sobhaPa cetasi.as :-aQQ; being e0ce-ted<. Note that thina and middha, being immoral cetasi.as, do not associate *ith sasaT.h;ri.a sobhaPa cittas. Thus the concomitants

associated *ith the asaT.h;ri.a and the sasaT.h;ri.a in each -air are the same= the difference in intensity of the t*o cittas is due to the difference in strength of the t*o cetan;s. associated *ith the asaT.h;ri.a and the sasaT.h;ri.a in each -air are the same= the difference in intensity of the t*o cittas is due to the difference in strength of the t*o cetan;s. The /i-;.a&cittas, being the resultants of -ast .amma, do not -erform any meritorious deed. Thus they are not associated *ith the M /irati cetasi.as and the 7 a--amaQQ; cetasi.as as these cetasi.as gi/e rise to meritorious deeds. @. The first -air of mah;&/i-;.a cittas is each associated *ith MM cetasi.as, namely, @M aQQasam;na cetasi.as and 79 sobhaPa cetasi.as :/iratis and a--amaQQ;s being e0ce-ted<. 7. The second -air of mah;&/i-;.a cittas is each associated *ith M7 cetasi.as, namely, @M aQQasam;na cetasi.as and @C sobhaPa s;dh;raPa cetasi.as. M The third -air of mah;&/i-;.a cittas is each associated *ith M7 cetasi.as, namely, @7 aQQasam;na cetasi.as :-Wti being e0ce-ted< and 79 sobhaPa cetasi.as :/iratis and a--amaQQ;s being e0ce-ted<. E The fourth -air of mah;&/i-;.a cittas is each associated *ith M@ cetasi.as, namely, @7 aQQasam;na cetasi.as :-Wti being e0ce-ted< and @C sobhaPa&s;dh;raPa cetasi.as. +oncomitants of Mah;.iriya +ittas The three /irati cetasi.as, being .usala&dhamma, do not associate *ith mah;.iriya cittas *hich are a/y;.ata&dhammas :a/y;.ata a .ammically neutral<. The t*o a--amaQQ; cetasi.as, ho*e/er, associate *ith mah;.iriya cittas, because arahats meditate on .arun; and mudit;.

@ @ 7 The second -air of mah;.iriya cittas are each associated *ith ME cetasi.as, namely, @M aQQasam;na cetasi.as and 7@ sobhaPa&cetasi.as :/iratis and -aQQ; being e0ce-ted<. M The third -air of mah;.iriya cittas are each associated *ith ME cetasi.as, namely, @7 aQQasam;na cetasi.as :-Wti being e0ce-ted< and 77 sobhaPa&cetasi.as :/iratis being e0ce-ted<. E The fourth -air of mah;.iriya cittas are each associated *ith MM cetasi.as, namely, @7 aQQasam;na cetasi.as :-Wti being e0ce-ted< and 7@ sobhaPa&cetasi.as :/iratis and -aQQ; being e0ce-ted<. +oncomitants of Mahaggata +ittas In enumerating the cetasi.as *hich associate *ith mahaggata cittas, the >h;na factors must be ta.en into consideration' /ita..a is eliminated starting from the second >h;na, /ic;ra from the third >h;na, and -Wti from the fourth >h;na. In the fifth >h;na, by substituting u-e..h; for su.ha, there is no change in the number of cetasi.as, because both u-e..h; and su.ha re-resent /edan; cetasi.a. 5urthermore the three /irati cetasi.as do not associate *ith mahaggata cittas, because these cittas concentrate on -aYibh;ganimita of .asiPa, etc., and as such they cannot ta.e the ob>ects connected *ith the three /iratis. "arun; and mudit; may associate *ith the first to the fourth >h;nas, because these >h;nas can be de/elo-ed by meditating on .arun; or mudit;. In the fifth >h;na the concentration is on u-e..h;, so both .arun; and mudit; should be eliminated.

@ @ 7 The M second&>h;na mahaggata cittas are each associated *ith ME cetasi.as, namely, @7 aQQasam;na cetasi.as :/ita..a being e0ce-ted< and 77 sobhaPa cetasi.as :/iratis being e0ce-ted<. M The M third&>h;na mahaggata cittas are each associated *ith MM cetasi.as a namely, @@ aQQasam;na cetasi.as :/ita..a and /ic;ra being e0ce-ted< and 77 sobhaPa cetasi.as :/iratis being e0ce-ted<. E The M fourth&>h;na mahaggata cittas are each associated *ith M7 cetasi.as, namely, @9 aQQasam;na cetasi.as :/ita..a, /ic;ra and -Wti being e0ce-ted< and 77 sobhaPa cetasi.as :/iratis being e0ce-ted<. 8 The @8 fifth&>h;na mahaggata cittas are each associated *ith M9 cetasi.as, namely, @9 aQQasam;na cetasi.as :/ita..a, /ic;ra and -Wti being e0ce-ted< and 79 sobhaPa cetasi.as :/iratis and a--amaQQ;s being e0ce-ted<. +oncomitants of #o.uttara +ittas The E9 lo.uttara cittas are also >h;na cittas= so the >h;na&factors should be eliminated as mentioned abo/e. The three /irati cetasi.as, being factors of the noble Eightfold 6ath, associate collecti/ely *ith all the lo.uttara cittas. The t*o a--amaQQ; cetasi.as, ho*e/er, do not associate *ith lo.uttara cittas *hich concentrate on Nibb;na and as such cannot ta.e the ob>ects connected *ith .arun; and mudit;. @ The G first&>h;na lo.uttara cittas are each associated *ith MN cetasi.as, namely, @M aQQasam;na cetasi.as and 7M sobhaPa cetasi.as :a--amaQQ;s being e0ce-ted<.

7 7 M The G third&>h;na lo.uttara cittas are each associated *ith ME cetasi.as a namely, @@ aQQasam;na cetasi.as :/ita..a and /ic;ra being e0ce-ted< and 7M sobhaPa cetasi.as :a--amaQQ ;s being e0ce-ted<. E The G fourth&>h;na lo.uttara cittas are each associated *ith MM cetasi.as, namely, @9 aQQasam;na cetasi.as :/ita..a, /ic;ra and -Wti being e0ce-ted< and 7M sobhaPa cetasi.as :a--amaQQ;s being e0ce-ted<. 8 The G fifth&>h;na lo.uttara cittas are also each associated *ith MM cetasi.as, namely, @9 aQQasam;na cetasi.as :/ita..a, /ic;ra and -Wti being e0ce-ted< and 7M sobhaPa cetasi.as :a--amaQQ;s being e0ce-ted<. Niyata&yogis and Aniyata&yogis !f the 87 cetasi.as, E@ are called niyata&yogis :fi0ed cetasi.as< and the remaining @@ are called aniyata&yogis :unfi0ed cetasi.as<. Niyata&yogis in/ariably associate *ith the cittas *ith *hich they are .no*n to associate. Aniyata&yogis do not al*ays associate *ith the cittas they are .no*n to associate= they arise only *hen they should. The @@ aniyata&yogi cetasi.as are' iss;, macchariya, .u..ucca, m;na, thina, middha, three /iratis and t*o a--amanQQ;s. The *ays they associate *ith cittas *ill be described belo*. @ Though it is mentioned in +hart No. M that iss;, macchariya and .u..ucca associate *ith the t*o dosa&mOla cittas, they do not arise *hene/er dosa&mOla citta arises.

Iss; arises only *hen one en/ies others1 success or -ros-erity= other*ise it does not. )hen iss; arises, macchariya and .u..ucca do not arise. Macchariya arises only *hen one conceals one1s -ro-erty or *hen one feels stingy= other*ise it does not. )hen macchariya arises, iss; and .u..ucca do not arise. "u..ucca arises only *hen one is grie/ing o/er the e/il that is done or o/er the good that is not done= other*ise it does not. )hen .u..ucca arises iss; and macchariya do not arise. So iss;, macchariya and .u..ucca do not arise simultaneously= they arise se-arately and only *hen the conditions are met *ith. This *ay of association by cetasi.as is .no*n as Q;P;&.ad;ci. 7 Although m;na is said to associate *ith the four lobhamOla diYYhigata&/i-ayutta cittas, it arises only *hen one thin.s highly of oneself or ha/ing a lo* o-inion of others. It does not arise *hen one is ha/ing no conceit. M Although thina and middha are said to associate *ith the fi/e a.usala&sasaT.h;ri.a cittas, they associate *ith these cittas only *hen these cittas and their concomitants are dull, inert and morbid= other*ise they do not arise. E The three /irati cetasi.as, namely, samm;&/;c;, samm;.ammanta and samm;&;>W/a, also arise in the Q;P&.ad;ci *ay. Samm;&/;c; arises only *hen one is abstaining from false s-eech= other*ise it does not. Samm;&.ammanta arises only *hen one is abstaining from *rong action= other*ise it does not. Samm;&;>W/a arises only *hen one is abstaining from false li/elihood= other*ise it does not. 8 The t*o a--amaQQ; cetasi.as, namely, .arun; and mudit;,

also arise in the Q;P;&.ad;ci *ay. "arun; arises only *hen one is ha/ing com-assion for someone= other*ise it does not. Mudit; arises only *hen one is re>oicing o/er someone1s success or -ros-erity= other*ise it does not. also arise in the Q;P;&.ad;ci *ay. "arun; arises only *hen one is ha/ing com-assion for someone= other*ise it does not. Mudit; arises only *hen one is re>oicing o/er someone1s success or -ros-erity= other*ise it does not. @ A man is angry because the food ser/ed by his *ife is not good. )hat is the ty-e of this man1s citta and *hat are the cetasi.as that associate *ith that cittaL Since the man is angry, he is ha/ing dosa&mOla citta. The name of this citta is _Domananassa&sahagata[ -atighasam-ayutta[ asaT.h;ri.a citta`. The cetasi.as that associate *ith this cittas are @7 aQQasam;na cetasi.as :-Wti being e0ce-ted<, E a.usalas;dh;raPa cetasi.as and dosa. Iss;, macchariya and .u..ucca do not associate *ith this citta. 7 !ne feels bad because another -erson gets a better >ob than oneself. )hat is the ty-e of this citta and *hat are its concomitantsL The name of the citta is the same as abo/e. But no* one is en/ying another1s success, so iss; *ill also associate *ith the citta in addition of @H cetasi.as mentioned abo/e. M !ne feels uneasy because one does not *ant to share one1s office *ith a ne* comer. )hat is the ty-e of this citta and *hat are the cetasi.as that associate *ith the cittaL Again the citta is _domanassa&sahagatam -aYigha sam-ayutta[ asaT..h;ri.a dosa&mOla citta`. The cetasi.as that associate *ith this citta are @7

aQQasam;na cetasi.as :-Wti being e0ce-ted<, E a.usalas;dh;raPa cetasi.as, dosa and macchariya :total a @G< E A lady is -aying homage to a -agoda *ith >oy and *ith .no*ledge of .amma. )hat are her citta and the concomitants associated *ith itL Her citta is ^somanassa&sahagata[ Q;Pa&sam-ayutta[ asaT.h;ri.a mah;.usala citta1. The cetasi.as associated *ith the citta are @M aQQasam;na cetasi.as, @C sobhaPa&s;dh;raPa cetasi.as and -aQQindriya. :?iratis and a--amanQQ;s do not associate *ith this citta.< 8 A little girl un*illingly admits to her mother that she has ta.en 8 .yats from the mother1s -urse= she has no >oy and no .no*ledge of .amma at that instant. )hat are her citta and the cetasi.as associated *ith itL The girl1s citta is _u-e..h;&sahagata[ Q;Pa&/i-ayuttaP sasaT.h;ri.a mah;.usala citta`. The cetasi.as are @7 aQQasam;na cetasi.as :-Wti being e0ce-ted< @C sobhaPa&s;dh;raPa cetasi.as and samm;&/;c; :total a M7<. N !n .no*ing .amma and its result, a fisherman sto-s fishing for his li/elihood, though reluctantly. )hat are his citta and the concomitantsL His citta is ^u-e..h;&sahagata[ Q;Pa&sam-ayutta[ sasaT.h;ri.a mah;.usala citta1. The cetasi.as are @7 aQQasam;na cetasi.as :-Wti being e0ce-ted<, @C sobhaPa&s;dh;raPa cetasi.as, -aQQindriya and samm;&;>W/a :total a MM<. H A child feels -ity for a dog *hich has been hit by a car. The child has no >oy and no .no*ledge of .amma at the time.

So the child1s citta is ^u-e..h;&sahagata[ Q;Pa&/i--ayutta[ asaT.h;ri.a mah;.usala citta1. The cetasi.as associated *ith the citta are @7 aQQasam;na cetasi.as :-Wti being e0ce-ted<, @C sobhaPa&s;dh;raPa cetasi.as and .arun; :total a M7<. G A father gladly congratulates his son for the son1s success in the e0amination. The father does not thin. of .amma and its result at that instant. So the father1s citta is ^somanassa&sahagata[ Q;Pa/i--ayutta[ asaT.h;ri.a mah;.usala citta.1 The cetasi.as are @M aQQasam;na cetasi.as, @C sobhaPas;dh;raPa cetasi.as and mudit; :total a MM<. C A man is being absorbed in the fourth >h;na by meditating on the -aYibh;ga&nimitta of -atha/W .asina. )hat are the names of the citta and the concomitants associated *ith the cittaL The citta is ^rO-;/acara fourth>h;na .usala&citta.1 It may be also called ^su.h1e.aggat; sahita[ catuttha>>h;na .usala citta1. The cetasi.as associated *ith the citta are @9 aQQasam;na cetasi.as :/ita..a, /ic;ra and -Wti being e0ce-ted<, @C sobhaPa&s;dh;raPa cetasi.as and -aQQindriya :total a M9<. @9 )hat are the cetasi.as that associate *ith the sot;-atti-hala citta *hich is accom-anied by the first >h;naL The cetasi.as are @M aQQasam;na cetasi.as, @C sobhaPas;dh;raPa cetasi.as, M /irati cetasi.as and -aQQindriya :total a MN<. Doing the Im-ossible In Abhidhamma, the Buddha has analysed the mind to its ultimate com-onents called citta and cetasi.as. These com-onents are the

ultimate realities .no*n as -aramatthas. They are so subtle that they ha/e no form and sha-e and thus they cannot be seen e/en under the most -o*erful electronic microsco-e. ultimate realities .no*n as -aramatthas. They are so subtle that they ha/e no form and sha-e and thus they cannot be seen e/en under the most -o*erful electronic microsco-e. The original citta is li.e a glass of -ure *ater. )hen a droof red in. is added to the *ater, the *hole glass of *ater becomes red. )hen a dro- of blac. in. is added, the *hole mass of *ater becomes blac.. In the same *ay *hen the citta is associated *ith immoral cetasi.as, the *hole mass a i.e. the mind&becomes immoral and ugly. )hen the citta is associated *ith beautiful cetasi.as, the mind becomes beautiful and *holesome. No* the combination of cittas and cetasi.as arise and dissol/e at a tremendous s-eed3more than one thousand billion times -er eye&*in. as stated in the Abhidhamma commentary. Ho* can one .no* the com-onents of these ra-idly changing combinationsL 5or illustration, let us ta.e a cu- of *ater from a ri/er. )ould it be -ossible to differentiate the *ater dro-s from different ri/ulets and streams that ha/e flo*n into the ri/erL This >ob *ould be much easier com-ared to the analysis of the in/isible and ra-idly changing combinations of cittas and cetasi.as. So the Buddha has done the im-ossible in the ultimate analysis of the mind. No*, it may be as.ed' _)hat is the -ur-ose of this analysisL` It is done for the sa.e of seeing things as they truly are in

the ultimate sense. If one can see the functions of these ultimate things, one can understand that there is no self nor soul nor -erson, and thus can discard the false /ie* of ^-ersonality&belief1 :sa..;ya&diYYhi<. If he -roceeds on the Noble 6ath he *ill soon realiJe Nibb;na. the ultimate sense. If one can see the functions of these ultimate things, one can understand that there is no self nor soul nor -erson, and thus can discard the false /ie* of ^-ersonality&belief1 :sa..;ya&diYYhi<. If he -roceeds on the Noble 6ath he *ill soon realiJe Nibb;na. )e ha/e to de/elo- our concentration :sam;dhi< first. )hen accom-anied by u-ac;ra sam;dhi or >h;na sam;dhi, the inner mind :mano&/iQQ;Pa< can see the combinations of cittas and cetasi.as and analyse them. The methods of analysis are described in the Buddhist cannons such as Samyutta Ni.;ya :7, @7<, Sam;dhi Sutta, ?isuddhi Magga :7, 777<, Bodhi-a..hiya DW-anW and "ammaYhan "yangyi by the #edi Sayada* of Myanmar, etc. These methods are being -ractised successfully in certain meditation centers in Myanmar such as International Buddha S;sana +entres :6a&au. Ta*ya Meditation +entres<. So Abhidhamma .no*ledge is neither s-eculati/e .no*ledge nor higher .no*ledge for .no*ledge sa.e. Abhidhamma .no*ledge is to be learned, digested and -ractised for the sa.e of enlightenment and liberation from all miseries.

+ha-ter M +ha-ter M Miscellaneous Section )e ha/e seen that citta and 87 cetasi.as are 8M different ultimate entities *ith different but definite characteristics. Their classifications according to feeling, roots, function, doors, ob>ects and bases *ill be dealt *ith in this cha-ter. The title of this cha-ter ^6a.iPPa.a1 means ^Miscellaneous or Mi0ed1. )e shall also see the inter&relations bet*een n;ma and rO-a :mind and matter< in this cha-ter. ?edan; SaTgaha ^SaTgaha1 means ^summary1. Here cittas and cetasi.as *ill be com-iled briefly in accordance *ith feeling :/edan;<. 5irst, feeling is classified in t*o *ays. A +lassification according to sense ob>ects' @ Su.ha /edan; a -leasant feeling e0-erienced *hen in contact *ith agreeable ob>ects. 7 Du..ha /edan; a -ainful feeling e0-erienced *hen in contact *ith disagreeable ob>ects. M U-e..h; /edan; a Indifferent feeling or neutral feeling *hich is neither -leasurable nor -ainful. It is e0-erienced *hen in contact *ith neither agreeable nor disagreeable ob>ects.

B +lassification according to Indriya :5aculty<' @ Somanassa /edan; a -leasant feeling in mind 7 Domanassa /edan; a -ainful feeling in mind M Su.ha /edan; a -leasant feeling in body E Du..ha /edan; a -ainful feeling in body 8 U-e..h; /edan; a indifferent or neutral feeling In classification :A< su.ha im-lies -leasant feeling either in mind or in body *hile du..ha im-lies -ainful feeling either in mind or in body. In classification :B< su.ha is di/ided into somanassa and su.ha *hereas du..ha is di/ided into domanassa and du..ha. So it should be noted that the feelings in the mind and the feelings in the body are different and that a -erson can be ha--y e/en if his body is in -ain. +lassification of +ittas according to 5eeling In the +hart of +ittas, cittas are designated *ith fi/e .inds of symbols according to the fi/e ty-es of feeling. And in Table @.@ :-age HE< *e ha/e already classified the cittas in accordance *ith the fi/e ty-es of feeling. By loo.ing at the table, the follo*ing statements can be made. @ Su.ha /edan; is associated *ith only one citta a namely, ahetu.a .usala&/i-;.a su.ha&sahagata[ .;ya&/iQQ;Pa citta. 7 Du..ha /edan; is also associated *ith only one citta a namely, a.usala&/i-;.a du..ha&sahagata[ .;ya&/iQQ;Pa citta. M Domanassa /edan; is associated *ith t*o dosa&mOla cittas. E

Somanassa /edan; is associated *ith N7 cittas a namely, @G .;ma&somanassa cittas, @7 mahaggata somanassa cittas and M7 lo.uttara somanassa cittas.

8 8 Note' The abo/e classification of cittas may be assumed to include the classification of cetasi.as according to feeling as *ell. The reason is that the cetasi.as that associate *ith the su.hasahagata[ citta *ill also be associated *ith su.ha /edan;, the cetasi.as that associate *ith the du..ha&sahagata[ citta *ill also be associated *ith du..ha /edan;, the cetasi.as that associate *ith the domanassa citta *ill also be associated *ith domanassa /edan;, and so on. Hetu SaTgaha Here cittas and cetasi.as *ill be com-iled briefly according to hetu :roots<. There are N ty-es of hetu or roots' @ A.usala hetu :M< a lobha, dosa, moha 7 "usala hetu :M< a alobha, adosa, amoha M A/y;.ata hetu :M< a alobha, adosa, amoha A.usala hetu are the roots that associate *ith a.usala cittas. "usala hetu are the roots *hich associate *ith .usala cittas. A/y;.ata hetu are the roots *hich associate *ith /i-;.a cittas and .iriya cittas. The a/y;.ata roots are the same as the .usala roots. ^A/y;.ata1 means ^indeterminate1 i.e., neither determined as .ammically ^*holesome1 nor as ^un*holesome1. ?i-;.a cittas and .iriya cittas together *ith their concomitants are termed as a/y;.ata, because they are .ammically neutral.

+lassifications of +ittas according to $oots @ Ahetu.a cittas a cittas *ithout roots :@G<. They are H a.usala&/i-;.a cittas, G ahetu.a&.usala&/i-;.a cittas and M ahetu.a&.iriya cittas. 7 Sahetu.a cittas a cittas *ith roots :H@<. These cittas are further di/ided as follo*s' a E.ahetu.a cittas a cittas *ith one root :@<. They are the 7 moha&mOla cittas *hich ha/e only moha as root. b D/ihetu.a cittas a cittas *ith t*o roots :77<. They are G lobha&mOla cittas containing lobha and moha as roots, 7 dosa&mOla cittas containing dosa and moha as roots and @7 .;ma&sobhana Q;Pa&/i-ayutta cittas containing alobha and adosa as roots. c Tihetu.a cittas a cittas *ith three roots :EH<. They are @7 .;ma&sobhana Q;Pa&sam-ayutta cittas, 7H mahaggata cittas and G lo.uttara cittas. These cittas ha/e alobha, adosa and amoha as roots. Note' The cetasi.as associated *ith the res-ecti/e cittas *ill belong to the same class as the cittas. $eaders may refer to the +hart on Hetu.a :+hart No. E.@< attached at the bac. for a Iuic. re/ie* of the classification based on hetu. "icca SaTgaha Here cittas and cetasi.as *ill be com-iled briefly according to their functions :.icca<. There are @E .inds of functions -erformed by /arious cittas. It is remar.able to note that e/ery citta -erforms at least one ty-e of function.

@ 6aYisandhi&.icca a rebirth function or lin.ing the -ast life *ith the -resent life 7 Bha/aTga&.icca a life&continuum or to continue the formation of life&stream incessantly till death M @ 6aYisandhi&.icca a rebirth function or lin.ing the -ast life *ith the -resent life 7 Bha/aTga&.icca a life&continuum or to continue the formation of life&stream incessantly till death M ness to*ards the ob>ect E Dassana&.icca a seeing the ob>ect 8 Sa/ana&.icca a hearing the sound N 4h;yana&.icca a smelling the ob>ect H S;yana&.icca a tasting the ob>ect G 6husana&.icca a touching the ob>ect C Sam-aYicchana&.icca a recei/ing the ob>ect @9 SantiraPa&.icca a in/estigating the ob>ect @@ ?oYYha-ana&.icca a determining the ob>ect @7 Fa/ana&.icca a a--ercei/ing or en>oying the taste of the ob>ect @M Tad;lambaPa&.icca a registering or to continue en>oying the taste of the ob>ect @E +uti&.icca a death function The +ittas -erforming the res-ecti/e 5unctions 6lease refer to +hart No. E.7 at the bac. for a Iuic. /ie* of the cittas -erforming their res-ecti/e functions. @ There are @C cittas *hich -erform rebirth function. There are 7 u-e..h;&santiraPa cittas, G mah;&/i-;.a cittas and C mahaggata&/i-;.a cittas. These cittas are .no*n as ^rebirth consciousness1 :-aYisandhi&cittas< *hile they -erform rebirth function. 7 There are @C cittas *hich -erform life&continuum -rocess. They are the same as the @C -aYisandhi&cittas.

They are .no*n as bha/aTga&cittas :sub&consciousness< *hile they -erform the life&continuum -rocess. They are .no*n as bha/aTga&cittas :sub&consciousness< *hile they -erform the life&continuum -rocess. There are 7 cittas *hich -erform the a/a>>ana&.icca. They are -aQca&d/;r;/a>>ana citta and mano&d/;r;/a>>ana citta. E There are 7 cittas *hich -erform the seeing function. They are d/i&ca..hu/iQQ;Pa cittas. 8 There are 7 cittas *hich -erform the hearing function. The are d/i&sota/iQQ;Pa cittas. N There are 7 cittas *hich -erform the smelling function. They are d/i&gh;na/iQQ;Pa cittas. H There are 7 cittas *hich -erform the tasting function. They are d/i&>i/h;/iQQ;Pa cittas. G There are 7 cittas *hich -erform the touching function. They are d/i&.;ya/iQQ;Pa cittas. C There are 7 cittas *hich -erform the recei/ing function. They are d/i&sam-aYicchana cittas. @9 There are M cittas *hich -erform the in/estigation function. They are the three santiraPa cittas. @@ There is @ citta *hich -erforms the /oYYha-ana&.icca :determining function<. It is mano&d/;r;/a>>ana citta. @7 There are 88 cittas *hich -erform the >a/ana&.icca. They are @7 a.usala cittas, 7@ .usala cittas, E -hala&Q;Pa cittas and @G .iriya cittas : the t*o a/a>>ana&cittas being e0ce-ted<. These cittas can easily be remembered by the -hrase' ^.u&.u&.ri&-hala1.

";ma&>a/ana cittas :7C< 3 @7 a.usala cittas b G mah;&.usala cittas b G mah;&.iriya cittas b @ hasittu-;da cittas. A--ana&>a/ana cittas :7N< 3 C mahaggata .usala cittas b C mahaggata .iriya cittas b E magga&Q;Pa cittas b E -halaQ ;Pa cittas.

@M There are @@ cittas *hich -erform tad;lambana&.icca :registering function<. They are M santiraPa cittas and G mah;&/i-;.a cittas. @E There are @C cittas *hich -erform cuti&.icca :death function<. They are 7 u-e..h;&santiraPa cittas, G mah;/i-;.a cittas and C mahaggata&/i-;.a cittas. 5or +ross&e0amination @ There are NG cittas *hich -erform a single function each. They are @9 d/i&-aQca/iQQ;Pa cittas, M manodh;tu cittas and 88 >a/ana&cittas. Manodh;tu cittas consist of -aQcad/;r;/a>>ana citta and 7 sam-aYicchana cittas. 7 There are 7 cittas *hich -erform t*o functions. They are somanassa&santiraPa citta and mano&d/;r;/a>>ana citta. M There are C cittas *hich -erform three functions. They are the C mahaggata&/i-;.a cittas that -erform -aYisandhi&, bha/aTga& and cuti&.iccas. E There are G cittas *hich -erform E functions. They are the G mah;/i-;.a&cittas that -erform -aYisandhi&, bha/aTga&, cuti&, and tad;lambaPa&.iccas. 8 There are 7 cittas *hich -erform 8 functions. They are the 7 u-e..h;&santiraPa cittas that -erform -aYisandhi&, bha/aTga&, cuti&, santiraPa& and tad;lambaPa&.icca. Uh;na ^Uhana1 means ^functioning -lace1. As *e need a -lace or office to carry out a -articular >ob, so cittas need -laces to -erform their functions. It is the body&substance of each citta *hich ser/es as the -lace of -erforming its function. The ^body&substance of each citta1 refers to the citta itself. So the -lace of function of each citta is the same as the citta.

There are @9 Yh;nas because 8 related functions :i.e., 8 sense& im-ressions< are -erformed in turn in a single Yh;na called ^-aQca/iQQ ;Pa Yh;na1. The ten Yh;nas are' @ 6aYisandhi&Yh;na a @C -aYisandhi cittas 7 Bha/aTga&Yh;na a @C bha/aTga cittas M A/a>>ana&Yh;na a 7 a/a>>ana cittas E 6aQca&/iQQ;Pa&Yh;na a @9 d/i&-aQca/iQQ;Pa cittas 8 Sam-aYicchana&Yh;na a 7 sam-aYicchana cittas N SantiraPa&Yh;na a M santiraPa cittas H ?oYYha-ana&Yh;na a mano&d/;r;/a>>ana cittas G Fa/ana&Yh;na a 88 >a/ana cittas C Tad;lambaPa&Yh;na a @@ tad;lambaPa cittas @9 +uti&Yh;na a @C cuti cittas D/;ra SaTgaha Here cittas and cetasi.as *ill be com-iled briefly based on the si0 sense&doors. ^D/;ra1 means ^door1. There are si0 doors in our body through *hich outside senses can enter. @ +a..hu&d/;ra a eye&door :ca..hu&-as;da< 7 Sota&d/;ra a ear&door :sota&-as;da< M 4h;na&d/;ra a nose&door :gh;na&-as;da< E Fi/h;&d/;ra a tongue&door :>i/h;&-as;da< 8 ";ya&d/;ra a body&door :.;ya&-as;da< N Mano&d/;ra a mind&door :@C bha/aTga&cittas< Note' The names in brac.ets described the essential element of each door. ^6as;da1 is ^sensiti/e cor-oreality1 at *hich the sense im-ression ta.es -lace.

The first fi/e d/;ras are rO-a&d/;ras *hereas the si0th door is a n;ma&d/;ra. The first fi/e d/;ras are rO-a&d/;ras *hereas the si0th door is a n;ma&d/;ra. $eaders may refer to +hart No. E.M at the bac. for a Iuic. o/er /ie*. @ 5orty&si0 cittas arise at the eye&door' a -aQca&d/;r;/a>>ana :a--rehending< @ b ca..hu&/iQQ;Pa :seeing< 7 c sam-aYicchana :recei/ing< 7 d santiraPa :in/estigating< M e /oYYha-ana or mano&d/;r;/a>>ana :deterring< @ f .;ma&>a/ana :a--ercei/ing< 7C g tad;lambaPa :registering< G Total EN Note' !f the @@ tad;lambaPa cittas, M santiraPas are already counted in @:d<. So only the G mah;/i-;.a cittas are counted in @:g<. 7 5orty&si0 cittas arise at the ear&door. The cittas are as in :@<3>ust change ca..hu&/iQQ;Pa to sota&/iQQ;Pa. M 5orty&si0 cittas arise at the nose&door. The cittas are as in :@<3gh;na&/iQQ;Pa is substituted for ca..hu&/iQQ;Pa. E 5orty&si0 cittas arise at the tongue&door. The cittas are as in :@<3>i/h;&/iQQ;Pa is substituted for ca..hu&/iQQ;Pa.

8 8. The cittas are as in :@<3.;ya&/iQQ;Pa is substituted for ca..hu&/iQQ;Pa. N Si0ty&se/en cittas arise at the mind door' a mano&d/;r;/a>>ana :A--rehending and determining< b .;ma&>a/ana :a--ercei/ing< c tad;lambaPa :registering< @ 88 @@ 3Total NH 3 Notes' @ The total number of cittas that arise at the fi/e -aQcad/;ras or rO-a&d/;ras is 8E, namely, -aQca&d/;r;/a>>ana @, d/i&-aQca&/iQQ;Pa @9, sam-aYicchana 7, santiraPa M, /oYYa-ana or mano&d/;r;/a>>ana @, .;ma&>a/ana 7C and tad;lambaPa G. These are the 8E .;m;/acara cittas. 7 The cittas that can arise at the fi/e doors are -aQcad/;r;/a>>ana and 7 sam-aYicchana cittas, these M cittas being collecti/ely .no*n as mano&dh;tu :mind&elements<. M The cittas that al*ays arise at the N doors are somanassasantiraPa, mano&d/;r;/a>>ana and 7C .;ma&>a/ana cittas :total a M@<. E The cittas that sometimes arise at the N doors and sometimes do not arise at the N doors are 7 u-e..h;santiraPa cittas and G mah;&/i-;.a cittas :total a @9<. 8 The cittas that al*ays arise *ithout a door are C

mahaggata&/i-;.a cittas. N The @C -aYisandhi&cittas, the @C bha/aTga&cittas and the

@C cuti&cittas are called d/;ra/imutti :i.e., door&freed< because' i they do not arise in any of the sense doors such as eye&door, etc., ii bha/aTga cittas themsel/es ser/e as the mind&door, and iii they e0ist *ithout recei/ing any ne* e0ternal ob>ect -ertaining to the -resent life. AlambaPa SaTgaha AlambaPa or ;rammaPa means sense&ob>ect. +ittas and cetasi.as *ill be com-iled briefly here in accordance *ith the si0 sense& ob>ects. @ $O-a&rammaPa a /isible ob>ect :rO-a or /aPPa< 7 Sadd;&rammaPa a sound :sadda< M 4andh;&rammaPa a smell :gandha< E $as;&rammaPa a taste :rasa< 8 6hoYYhabb;&rammaPa a tangible ob>ect :-atha/W, /ayo and te>o< N Dhamm;&rammaPa a mind&ob>ect. The mind&ob>ect is si0fold' :i< 8 -as;da rO-as :sensiti/e -arts of organs<, :ii< @N su.huma rO-as :subtle matter<, :iii< GC cittas :consciousness<, :i/< 87 cetasi.as :mental concomitants<, :/< Nibb;na and :/i< conce-ts such as .asiPa nimitta. The mind&ob>ect cannot arise at the fi/e -aQca&d/;ras. Note' The names in brac.ets for the first fi/e senses are the essential elements of the senses. 5or the mind&ob>ect, the si0fold ob>ects mentioned abo/e are the essential elements.

+ittas and Sense&ob>ects according to Doors @ The EN cittas that arise at the eye&door are .no*n as ca..hu&d/;ri.a cittas= they are a*are of the -resent /isible ob>ect only. 7 +ittas and Sense&ob>ects according to Doors @ The EN cittas that arise at the eye&door are .no*n as ca..hu&d/;ri.a cittas= they are a*are of the -resent /isible ob>ect only. 7 d/;ri.a cittas= they are a*are of the -resent sound only. M The EN cittas that arise at the nose&door are .no*n as gh;na&d/;ri.a cittas= they are a*are of the -resent smell only. E The EN cittas that arise at the tongue&door are .no*n as >i/h;&d/;ri.a cittas= they are a*are of the -resent taste only. 8 The EN cittas that arise at the body&door are .no*n as .;ya&d/;ri.a cittas= they are a*are of the -resent tangible ob>ect only. N The NH cittas that arise at the mind&door are .no*n as mano&d/;ri.a cittas, they are a*are of all the si0 sense& ob>ects, *hich may be -resent, -ast, future or inde-endent of time. Indi/idual +ittas and Sense&ob>ects 6lease refer to +hart no. 8.@ at the bac. of this boo. for a Iuic. re/ie*. @ +a..hu&/iQQ;Pa&d/i are a*are of the -resent /isible ob>ect only. Sota&/iQQ;Pa&d/i are a*are of -resent sound only. 4h;na&/iQQ;Pa&d/i are a*are of -resent smell only. Fi/h;&/iQQ;Pa&d/i are a*are of -resent taste only. ";ya&/iQQ;Pa&d/i are a*are of -resent tangible ob>ect only.

7. 7. d/i< are a*are of the abo/e fi/e senses -ertaining to the -resent. M The @@ tad;lambaPa and hasitu--;da are a*are of si0 .;ma&ob>ects com-rising 8E .;ma&cittas, 87 .;ma&cetasi.as and 7G ty-es of rO-a. E The @7 a.usala cittas, the E Q;Pa&/i-ayutta mah;&.usala cittas and the E Q;Pa&/i-ayutta mah;&.iriya cittas are a*are of si0 lo.iya :mundane< sense&ob>ects com-rising G@ lo.iya cittas, 87 lo.iya cetasi.as, 7G ty-es of rO-a and conce-ts. 8 The E Q;Pasam-ayutta mah;&.usala cittas and rO-a&.usala abhiQQ;Pa are a*are of all si0 sense&ob>ects e0ce-t arahatta magga and -hala. These ob>ects com-rises GH cittas :arahatta magga and -hala being e0ce-ted<, 87 cetasi.as associated *ith the GH cittas, 7G ty-es of rO-a, conce-ts and Nibb;na. N The E Q;Pasam-ayutta mah;&.iriya cittas, .iriya abhiQQ;Pa and mano&d/;r;/a>>ana citta are a*are of all the si0 sense& ob>ects com-rising GC cittas, 87 cetasi.as, 7G ty-es of rO-a, conce-ts and Nibb;na. H The @8 rO-a/acara cittas, *ith the e0ce-tion of abhiQQ;Pad/i, ha/e conce-ts as their ob>ects. G The M ;.;s;nanc;yatana cittas and the M ;.incaQQ;yatana cittas ha/e ;.;sa :infinite s-ace< and ;.incaQQa :nothingness< res-ecti/ely as their ob>ects. C The M /iQQanaQc;yatana cittas and the M ne/a&saQQ;n;saQQ ;yatana cittas ha/e ;.;s;nancayatana .usalaZ.iriya citta and ;.incaQQ;yatana .usalaZ.iriya citta res-ecti/ely as their ob>ects.

@9 The G lo.uttara cittas ha/e Nibb;na as their ob>ect. @9 The G lo.uttara cittas ha/e Nibb;na as their ob>ect. @C cuti&cittas ha/e maran;saQQa&nimitta as their ob>ect. This nimitta may be in the form of ^.amma1, ^sign of .amma1 or ^sign of destiny1. ?atthu SaTgaha ^?atthu1 means ^-hysical base1 de-ending on *hich the /arious cittas and the associated cetasi.as arise. There are si0 such -hysical bases. @ +a..hu&/atthu a ca..hu&-as;da :eye sense&organ< 7 Sota&/atthu a sota&-as;da :ear sense&organ< M 4h;na&/atthu a gh;na&-as;da :nose sense&organ< E Fi/h;&/atthu a >i/h;&-as;da :tongue sense&organ< 8 ";ya&/atthu a .;ya&-as;da :body sense&organ< N Hadaya&/atthu a -hysical base that e0ist in the blood of the heart :heart&base< Thus the first fi/e -hysical bases are the fi/e sense&organs *hereas the si0th is the heart&base. There is a simile of ^stri.ing a match1. The match is the stri.ing element, the rough surface of the match&bo0 is the recei/ing element, and the flame is the resultant element. No* the fame does not e0ist any*here before stri.ing the match. )hen the conditions for its arising are fulfilled, the flame arises. In the same *ay the /isible ob>ect is the stri.ing element, the sense&organ is the recei/ing element, and the eye& consciousness is the resultant element. The eye&consciousness does not e0ist before or after the contact bet*een the /isible ob>ect and the sense&organ= it arises >ust at the time of contact.

No* the eye&organ, i.e., ca..hu&-as;da, is the door through *hich the /isible ob>ect enters the mind. So ca..hu&-as;da is called ca..hu&d/;ra, i.e., the eye&door. No* the eye&organ, i.e., ca..hu&-as;da, is the door through *hich the /isible ob>ect enters the mind. So ca..hu&-as;da is called ca..hu&d/;ra, i.e., the eye&door. -as;da is also .no*n as ca..hu&/atthu. The same thing is true for the other four sense&organs or -as;da rO-as. ?atthu and BhOmi ^BhOmi1 means ^-lane of e0istence1. @ In the ele/en .;ma&-lanes, i.e., the sense&s-here, all the si0 bases :/atthu< e0ist. 7 In the fine&material s-here :rO-a&lo.a< only three -hysical bases, namely, ca..hu&/atthu, sota&/atthu and hadaya&/atthu e0ist. During the samatha&bha/an; :tranIuillity&meditation<, to enter the rO-a >h;na, the meditator has to eliminate the en>oyment of sensual -leasure by controlling his mind not to *ander around sense ob>ects. So *hen the >h;na&.usala .amma conditions him to be reborn in the rO-a&lo.a, he is not endo*ed *ith gh;na/atthu, >i/h;&/atthu and .;ya&/atthu as no en>oyment of sensual -leasure e0ists there. Brahmas are ha--y *ith >h;na&su.ha. Ho*e/er, they need eyes to see Buddha, ears to listen to the Dhamma and hadaya&/atthu for the arising of mano&/iQQ;Pa cittas and the associated concomitants. M In the immaterial s-here :arO-a&lo.a< no /atthus e0ist because no cor-oreality e0ists there a again due to the meditation -o*er of samatha&bh;/an; to enter arO-a&>h;nas.

?iQQ;na&dh;tu ?iQQ;na&dh;tu @ +a..hu&/iQQ;Pa&dh;tu a 7 eye&consciousness They de-end on ca..hu&/atthu for their arising. 7 Sota&/iQQ;Pa&dh;tu a 7 ear&consciousness They de-end on sota&/atthu for their arising. M 4h;na&/iQQ;Pa&dh;tu a 7 nose&consciousness They de-end on ghana&/atthu for their arising. E Fi/h;&/iQQ;Pa&dh;tu a 7 tongue&consciousness They de-end on >i/h;&/atthu for their arising. 8 ";ya&/iQQ;Pa&dh;tu a 7 body&consciousness They de-end on .;ya&/atthu for their arising N Mano&dh;tu a 6aQca&d/;r;/a>>ana and sam-aYicchanad/i They de-end on hadaya&/atthu for their arising. H Mano&/iQQ;Pa&dh;tu a the remaining HN cittas They de-end on hadaya&/atthu for their arising. +lassification of +ittas according to ?atthu 6lease refer to +hart No. 8.7 at the bac. of this boo. for a Iuic. re/ie*. @ There are @9 cittas *hich al*ays de-end on -aQca/atthu :ca..hu&/atthu, sota&/atthu, gh;na&/atthu, >i/h;&/atthu, .;ya&/atthu< for their arising. They are d/i&-aQca&/iQQ;Pa a i.e., the ten sense&im-ressions. 7 There are MM cittas *hich al*ays de-end on hadaya&/atthu for their arising. They are 7 dosa&mOla cittas, M mano&dh;tu cittas, M santiraPa cittas, hasitu--;da cittas, G mah;&/i-;.a cittas, @8 rO-;/acara cittas and @ sot;-atti&magga citta.

M Md/;r;/a>>ana citta. These cittas de-end on /atthu *hen they arise in the material s-heres :.;ma&-lanes and rO-a&-lanes<, and they do not de-end on /atthu *hen they arise in the immaterial s-here :arO-a&-lanes<. E There are E cittas *hich ne/er de-end on /atthu for their arising. They are E arO-;/acara /i-;.a cittas *hich arise only in the arO-a&-lanes. Note' There are EN cittas :as mentioned in no. M and E abo/e< *hich arise in the arO-a&-lanes.

+ha-ter E +ha-ter E I +ogniti/e Series 6rocess of +onsciousness ^?Wthi1 means a chain of consciousness or cogniti/e series that arises *hen a sense ob>ect a--ears at one of the sense&doors in order to be a*are of the ob>ect. As the road -asses one /illage after another *ithout s.i--ing any nor changing the order of the /illages, so also the cittas :consciousness< arise one after another in the order they should according to the la* of cittas :citta&niy;ma<. The #ife&s-an of +itta +ittas arise and dissol/e in a -erson at a tremendous rate of more than a thousand billion :@9@7< times -er eye&*in., and there are about 789 eye&*in.s in a second. So the life&s-an of a citta :consciousness< is less than one&thousand billionth of a second. The life&s-an or duration of a citta is measured by three short instants of the distinct features in the arising and -assing a*ay of a citta. These are' @. U--;da a the genetic instant 7. ThWti a the e0isting instant M. BhaTga a the dissol/ing instant These three short instants :.haPas< are said to be eIual to one moment of consciousness or conscious&moment :citta..haPa<.

So the life&time of a citta is eIual to the three short instants of arising, e0isting and dissol/ing of the citta or it is eIual to one conscious&moment or one citta..haPa. !ne citta..haPa is better re-resented by ^one conscious&moment1 rather than ^a thought&moment1 *hich is coined by some translators. So the life&time of a citta is eIual to the three short instants of arising, e0isting and dissol/ing of the citta or it is eIual to one conscious&moment or one citta..haPa. !ne citta..haPa is better re-resented by ^one conscious&moment1 rather than ^a thought&moment1 *hich is coined by some translators. The life&s-an of $O-a The life&s-an of rO-a or cor-oreality is @H times longer than that of citta. So *e can say that the life&s-an of rO-a is eIual to @H citta..haPas or @H conscious&moments or @H 0 M c 8@ short instants as there are M short instants in a moment of consciousness. Thus rO-a also arises and dissol/es at a tremendous rate of more than 8G billion times -er second. The difference bet*een citta and rO-a is that citta arises one after another *hereas rO-a arises by thousands of units at a small instant and it goes on arising incessantly at e/ery small instant. Therefore rO-a may be -iled u- to large masses *hich are /isible to the na.ed eye *hereas the fleeting stream of consciousness is in/isible to the na.ed eye. Si0 Ty-es of ?iQQ;Pa ?iQQ;Pa cittas :consciousness< may be classified as follo*s according to the si0 sense&doors and the si0 -hysical&bases :/atthu<' @ +a..hu&/iQQ;Pa a 7 eye&consciousness 7 Sota&/iQQ;Paa 7 ear&consciousness

M Ms E Fi/h;&/iQQ;Pa a 7 tongue&consciousness 8 ";ya&/iQQ;Pa a 7 body&consciousness N Mano&/iQQ;Pa a HC mind&consciousness 6lease note that eye&consciousness arises at the eye&door de-ending on the eye&base :/atthu< and so on. The mind& consciousness arises at the mind&door de-ending on the hadaya/atthu in the heart. The first fi/e /iQQ;Pas com-rise 7 sense&im-ressions each *hereas mano&/iQQ;Pa com-rises HC ty-es of consciousness. Si0 Ty-es of ?Wthi ?Wthi or the cogniti/e series of consciousness is also di/ided into si0 classes *hich may be named according to either the si0 sense&doors or the si0 ty-es of /iQQ;Pa as follo*s' @ +a..hu&d/;ra&/Wthi c ca..hu&/iQQ;Pa&/Wthi It is the cogniti/e series of consciousness connected *ith the eye&door or *ith the eye&consciousness. 7 Sota&d/;ra&/Wthi c sota&/iQQ;Pa&/Wthi It is the cogniti/e series of consciousness connected *ith the ear&door or *ith the ear&consciousness. M 4h;na&d/;ra&/Wthi c 4h;na&/iQQ;Pa&/Wthi It is the cogniti/e series of consciousness connected *ith the nose&door or *ith the nose&consciousness. E Fi/h;&d/;ra&/Wthi c Fi/h;&/iQQ;Pa&/Wthi

It is the cogniti/e series of consciousness connected *ith the tongue&door or *ith the tongue&consciousness. 8 ";ya&d/;ra&/Wthi c ";ya&/iQQ;Pa&/Wthi It is the cogniti/e series of consciousness connected *ith the body&door or *ith the body&consciousness.

N N It is the cogniti/e series of consciousness connected *ith the mind&door or *ith the mind&consciousness. The +auses for the Arising of ?Wthi @ 5our conditions must meet for the arising of ca..hud/;ra& /Wthi. These are' i +a..hu&-as;da :eye&door< must be good, ii $O-;&rammaPa :/isible&ob>ect< must be -resent, iii Xlo.a :light< must be -resent, and i/ Manasi.;ra :attention< must be -resent. 7 5our conditions must meet for the arising of sota&d/;ra/Wthi. They are' i Sota&-as;da :ear&door< must be good, ii Sadd;&rammaPa :sound< must be -resent, iii X.;sa :s-ace< for the -assing of sound must be -resent, i/ Manasi.;ra :attention< must be -resent. M 5our conditions must meet for the arising of gh;na&d/;ra/Wthi. They are' i 4h;na&-as;da :nose&door< must be good, ii 4andh;&rammaPa :smell< must be -resent, iii ?;yo :air&element that carries smell< must be -resent, i/ Manasi.;ra :attention< must be -resent. E 5our conditions must meet for the arising of >i/h;&d/;ra/Wthi. They are' i Fi/h;&-as;da :tongue&door< must be good. ii $as;&rammaPa :taste< must be -resent, iii X-o :liIuid&element such as sali/a< must be -resent, i/ Manasi.;ra :attention< must be -resent.

8 8 /Wthi. They are' i ";ya&-as;da :body&door< must be good, ii 6hoYYhabb;&rammaPa :touch< must be -resent, iii Thaddha&-atha/; :firm solid element< must be -resent for transmittance of the touch, i/ Manasi.;ra :attention< must be -resent. N 5our conditions must meet for the arising of mano&d/;ra/Wthi. They are' i Mano&d/;ra :mind&door< must be -resent, ii Dhamm;&rammaPa :mind&ob>ect< must be -resent, iii Hadaya&/atthu :heart&base< must be -resent, i/ Manasi.;ra :attention< must be -resent. Note' !f the four causes *hich are reIuired for the arising of each ty-e of /Wthi, the first three more or less -arallel the reIuirements .no*n by science. The fourth cause, i.e., manasi.;ra, is un.no*n in science. But many instances may be Iuoted that this cause is indis-ensable for the a*areness of a sense&ob>ect. 5or illustration, a mother *ith a young baby has to get u- se/eral times e/ery night to nurse her baby. After losing slee- for se/eral nights, she may, sometimes, fall so soundly aslee- that e/en a loud thunder that sha.es the house may not a*a.e her. %et, if her baby cries /ery softly, she *ill be immediately a*a.e. This illustrates ho* im-ortant manasi.;ra is.

Si0 Ty-es of ?isaya--a/atti Si0 Ty-es of ?isaya--a/atti A ?isaya--a/atti at 6aQca&d/;ras :6resentation of sense&ob>ects at the fi/e sense&doors< @ Atimahant;&rammaPa 8 sense&ob>ects *ith /ery great intensity causing a /ery long cogniti/e series of consciousness to arise. 7 Mahant;&rammaPa 8 sense&ob>ects *ith great intensity causing a long cogniti/e series of consciousness to rise. M 6aritt;&rammaPa 8 sense&ob>ects *ith slight intensity causing a short cogniti/e series of consciousness to arise. E Ati-aritt;&rammaPa 8 sense&ob>ects *ith /ery slight intensity causing no cogniti/e series to arise. B ?isaya--a/atti at Mano&d/;ra @ ?ibhOt;&rammaPa clear -resentation of sense ob>ects. 7 A/ibhOt;&rammaPa obscure -resentation of sense ob>ects. ?Wthi&cittas and ?Wthi&/imutti +ittas :?Wthi&consciousness and ?Wthi&freed consciousness< Those cittas *hich -artici-ate in the cogniti/e series of consciousness are call /Wthi&cittas. Those cittas *hich do not -artici-ate in the cogniti/e series of consciousness are call /Wthi&/imutti cittas.

The @C cittas namely, 7 u-e..h;&santiraPa cittas, G mah;&/i-;.a cittas and C mahaggata&/i-;.a cittas, are not in/ol/ed in the cogniti/e series *hile they are -erforming rebirth&function, life& continuum function or death&function. So they are .no*n as /Wthi&/imutti cittas, i.e., the number of /Wthi&freed consciousness is @C :that these @C cittas are d/;ra&/imutti, i.e., door&freed, has been mentioned in +ha-ter III.<. The @C cittas namely, 7 u-e..h;&santiraPa cittas, G mah;&/i-;.a cittas and C mahaggata&/i-;.a cittas, are not in/ol/ed in the cogniti/e series *hile they are -erforming rebirth&function, life& continuum function or death&function. So they are .no*n as /Wthi&/imutti cittas, i.e., the number of /Wthi&freed consciousness is @C :that these @C cittas are d/;ra&/imutti, i.e., door&freed, has been mentioned in +ha-ter III.<. /i-;.a cittas ta.e -art in the cogniti/e series *hen they -erform the registering function. So these @9 cittas must be included in counting /Wthi&cittas. Since only the C mahaggata&/i-;.a cittas are totally free from the cogniti/e series, the total number of /Wthicittas is GCaC c G9. Three Ty-es of Identical +ittas The life of a li/ing being begins *ith a rebirth consciousness :-aYisandhi&citta<. After the dissolution of this consciousness, bha/aTga cittas :life&continuum< arise and dissol/e continuously till death -erforming the function of life&continuum. The last bha/aTga&citta is .no*n as death consciousness :cuticitta<, because it -erforms death&function. 5or a li/ing being, these three cittas, namely, the -aYisandhicitta, the bha/aTga&citta and the cuti&citta are the same in >;ti :birth<, in concomitants and in the sense&ob>ect they ta.e. 5or normal human beings, one of the G mah;&/i-;.a cittas functions as -aYisandhi&citta, bha/aTga&citta and cuti&citta. These three cittas are identical in a -erson, because they are the resultants of the same ^.amma1 associated *ith a .usala citta. If the .usala cittas is

^somanassa&sahagata[ Q;Pa&sam-ayutta[ asaT.h;ri.a mah;&.usala citta1, then ^somanassa&sahagata[ Q;Pa&sam-ayutta[ asaT.h;ri.a mah;&/i-;.a citta *ill function as -aYisandhi&citta, bha/aTga&citta and cuti&citta. ^somanassa&sahagata[ Q;Pa&sam-ayutta[ asaT.h;ri.a mah;&.usala citta1, then ^somanassa&sahagata[ Q;Pa&sam-ayutta[ asaT.h;ri.a mah;&/i-;.a citta *ill function as -aYisandhi&citta, bha/aTga&citta and cuti&citta. nimitta *hich a--eared >ust before death in the immediate -ast life. The nimitta is in the form of ^.amma1, ^sign of .amma1 or ^sign of destiny1. These -henomena *ill be e0-lained further belo*. MaraP;sanna Nimitta :"amma&related !b>ects at the Dying Moments< In the -resent life a -erson *ill be ali/e as long as the .usala.amma :*holesome deed<, *hich has gi/en him rebirth in this life, .ee-s on su--orting him, i.e., .ee-s on -roducing bha/aTga cittas :life continuum< as .amma&resultant. Fust before that su--orting .amma fades out, of the many .usala&.ammas and a.usala&.ammas *hich com-ete *ith one another to ha/e the chance of bearing .amma&resultant, one .amma *ill emerge as the *inner. This successful .amma may a--ear in the life&continuum :mind&door< of the -erson as .amma&ob>ect. )hen this ha--ens the -erson may recollect the good or bad action *hich he has -erformed in the -ast in connection *ith the successful .amma. The moral or immoral consciousness, e0-erienced at that -articular moment, arises no* as a fresh consciousness. In other *ords, it is a recurring of the consciousness *hich one has e0-erienced in -erforming the action. At times it may be a sign or symbol associated *ith the successful .amma that a--ears at one of the sense&doors. It may be one of the fi/e -hysical ob>ects /ie*ed through one of the

fi/e doors as a -resent ob>ect, or /ie*ed through the mind&door as a -ast ob>ect. This -ast or -resent ob>ect associated *ith the successful .amma is called ^.amma&nimitta1 or ^sign of .amma1. fi/e doors as a -resent ob>ect, or /ie*ed through the mind&door as a -ast ob>ect. This -ast or -resent ob>ect associated *ith the successful .amma is called ^.amma&nimitta1 or ^sign of .amma1. In another case, let us su--ose that a dying teacher sees through his mental eye :mano&/iQQ;Pa< the students he has taught. This is also ^.amma&nimitta1 in the form of a -ast ob>ect *hich a--ears at the mind&door. !r say, in another case, a dying butcher hears the groans of the cattle he has .illed. This -ast audible ob>ect is also ^.ammanimitta1 -resented to him through the mind&door. At times some symbol of the -lace in *hich he is to be reborn according to the successful .amma may a--ear at the mind&door. 5or e0am-le, celestial beings or celestial mansions, etc., may a--ear to the dying -erson if he is to be reborn in one of the celestial abodes, or miserable -eo-le in hell or hellhounds, etc., may a--ear to him if he is to be reborn in hell. These ob>ects related to the -lace of rebirth are .no*n as ^gati&nimitta1 or ^sign of destiny1. Thus, *hen a -erson is dying, one of the three ty-es of maran;sanna&nimitta, namely, ^.amma1, ^.amma&nimitta1 or ^gatinimitta1, *ill al*ays a--ear at one of the si0 sense&doors. The -erson *ill die soon after and *ill be reborn in the ne0t life. Then his -aYisandhi&citta, bha/aTga&citta and cuti&citta in the ne* life *ill all gras- the maran;sanna&nimitta of the -ast life.

Three ty-es of Bha/aTga +ittas Three ty-es of Bha/aTga +ittas nimitta of the immediate -ast life as their ob>ect. As this ob>ect is not the ne* e0ternal ob>ect that a--ears in one of the sense doors in the -resent life that gi/es rise to a cogniti/e series of consciousness, *e are not a*are of it. So *hen *e are asleeor *hen *e do not .no* anything, these bha/aTga&cittas *ill be arising and dissol/ing at a tremendous s-eed of more than a thousand billion :@9@7< times -er eye&*in.. No* su--ose that a sense&ob>ect a--ears at one of the sense&doors. It is necessary to .no* this ne* ob>ect so that *e can react to it as the need arises. In order to turn the stream of consciousness to*ards this ne* ob>ect, the stream of bha/aTgacittas must be arrested or cut off first. The bha/aTga&stream cannot be arrested suddenly as soon as the ne* sense ob>ect a--ears in one of the sense&doors. As a man, running /ery fast, cannot sto- suddenly at a -oint and at least a fe* ste-s must be allo*ed before he comes to rest, so also t*o bha/aTga&cittas must -ass after the a--earance of the sense&ob>ect before the bha/aTga&stream can be arrested. These t*o bha/aTga&cittas, in trying to gi/e a*ay the old maran;sanna&nimitta and ta.e the ne* sense&ob>ect, /ibrate some*hat from their normal situation. So they are .no*n as /ibrating life&continuum :bha/aTga&cal;na<. But, as the bha/aTgastream is arrested or cut off after the second bha/aTga&cal;na, this citta is renamed as bha/aTgu-accheda. No* the fi/e -hysical sense&ob>ects do not a--ear or become distinct at the sense&doors as soon as they are in contact *ith the sense&doors. E/en the ob>ect of /ery great intensity :atimahant;&rammaPa< ta.es one conscious&moment :citta..haPa<

to de/elo- itself into -rominence so as to a--ear at the sense& door. to de/elo- itself into -rominence so as to a--ear at the sense& door. )hen the sense ob>ect is of great intensity :mahant;rammaPa<, 7 or M bha/aTga&cittas must -ass by from the time of contact of the sense&ob>ect *ith the sense&door to the time the ob>ect a--ears at the door. These 7 or M bha/aTga&cittas are also called atit;&bha/aTga. Thus *e ha/e M .inds of bha/aTga&cittas' @ At;t;&bha/aTga those bha/aTga&cittas *hich -ass by from the time the sense&ob>ect stri.es the sense&door to the time the ob>ect a--ears at the door. 7 Bha/aTga&cal;na /ibrating bha/aTga *hich arises *hen the sense ob>ect a--ears at the door. M Bha/aTgu-accheda arresting bha/aTga that follo*s the bha/aTga&cal;na. After this, the bha/aTga&stream is cut off and /Wthi&citta starts arising. +a..hu&d/;ra ?Wthis :+ogniti/e Series at the Eye&door< @ The !ccurrence of Atimahant;&rammaPa ?Wthi )hen a /isible ob>ect of /ery great intensity stri.es the eye& door, atimahant;&rammaPa /Wthi arises. The cogniti/e series may be re-resented by the follo*ing symbols'

Bhaa _TiaNaaDaa6aa+aaSamaNaa?oaFaaFaaFaaFaaFaaFaaFaaDaaDaa` Bhaaf Bhaa _TiaNaaDaa6aa+aaSamaNaa?oaFaaFaaFaaFaaFaaFaaFaaDaaDaa` Bhaaf ooo ooo ooo 2h h h u--;da a--ear dissol/e E0-lanation Bha' bha/aTga a life&continuum At first there is a stream of bha/aTga cittas :lifecontinuum< :the small circles re-resent three small instants that ma.e u- a citta..hana<. Ti' at;ta&bha/aTga a -ast bha/aTga At the arising, instant of this citta, the /isible ob>ect and the ca..hu&-as;da arise simultaneously. This is the arising instant :u--;da< of rO-;rammaPa :/isible ob>ect<. Na' bha/aTga&cal;na a /ibrating life&continuum At the arising instant of this citta, rO-;&rammaPa a--ears :becomes distinct< at ca..hu&-as;da :eye&door< Note that atimahant;rammaPa ta.es one citta..haPa for its full de/elo-ment after u--;da. Da' bha/aTgu-accheda a arresting life&continuum Bha/aTga&stream is cut off after the dissolution of this citta. 6a' -aQca&d/;r;/a>>ana a fi/e&door&ad/erting consciousness It is al*ays the first citta in the cogniti/e series of -aQca&d/;ra /Wthis. It ad/erts the consciousness stream to*ards the sense&door. +a' ca..hu&/iQQ;na a eye consciousness It sees the /isible ob>ect. It ma.es the sense im-ression

and transmits the im-ression to the ne0t conscious ness before it dissol/es. Sam' sam-aYicchana a recei/ing consciousness It recei/es the /isible ob>ect together *ith the sense im-ression and relays them to the ne0t consciousness. Na' santiraPa a in/estigating consciousness It in/estigates the ob>ect and the im-ression. ?o' /oYYha-ana :mano&d/;r;/a>>ana< a determining consciousness It determines *hether the ob>ect is good or bad. Fa' >a/ana a im-ulsi/e consciousness en>oying the taste of the sense ob>ect !ne of the 7C .;ma&>a/ana cittas, as conditioned by manasi.;ra and /oYYha-ana, arises mostly se/en times, i.e., it runs for se/en conscious moments. Da' tad;lambaPa a registering consciousness It immediately follo*s >a/ana and runs for t*o conscious moments en>oying the taste of the sense& ob>ect. At the dissol/ing instant of the second tad;lambaPa citta, the /isible ob>ect and the ca..hu-as;da dissol/e together because their life&time of @H conscious moments is no* com-lete. Bha' bha/aTga a life&continuum Since the /isible ob>ect no longer e0ists, the cogniti/e series ends and the consciousness stream sin.s into life&continuum :subconsciousness<. Note' The atimahant;&rammaPa /Wthi is also .no*n as _tad;lambaPa/;ra /Wthi` as it terminates *ith tad;lambaPa&citta.

7 The !ccurrence of Mahant;&rammaPa ?Wthi 7 The !ccurrence of Mahant;&rammaPa ?Wthi a _TiaTiaNaaDaa6aa+aaSamaNaa?oaFaaFaaFaaFaaFaaFaaFaaBha` Bhaa... ooo ooo ooo b _TiaTiaTiaNaaDaa6aa+aaSamaNaa?oaFaaFaaFaaFaaFaaFaaFa` Bhaa... ooo ooo ooo E0-lanation A In the first mahant;&rammaPa /Wthi the sense&ob>ect and the ca..hu&-as;da :eye&door< arise :u--;da< together at the arising instant of the first at;ta bha/aTga. The sense&ob>ect ta.es t*o consciousness moments :TW&Ti< for its full de/elo-ment and it becomes distinct at the mind&door at the arising&instant of bha/aTga&cal;na :Na<. Then the life&continuum :bha/aTga< /ibrates for 7 conscious moments :Na&Da< and becomes arrested or cut off at the dissol/ing instant of bha/aTgu&-accheda :Da<. Then the cogniti/e series -roceeds as follo*s' 6a' 6aQca&d/;r;/a>>ana a fi/e&door&ad/erting consciousness It ad/erts the consciousness&stream to*ards the sense& ob>ect. +a' +a..hu&/iQQ;Pa a eye&consciousness It sees the ob>ect and ma.es the sense&im-ression. Sam' sam-aYicchana a recei/ing consciousness

It recei/es the ob>ect together *ith the sense im-ression. Na' SantiraPa a in/estigating consciousness It in/estigates the ob>ect and the im-ression. ?o' ?oYYha-ana a determining consciousness It determines *hether the ob>ect is good or bad. It recei/es the ob>ect together *ith the sense im-ression. Na' SantiraPa a in/estigating consciousness It in/estigates the ob>ect and the im-ression. ?o' ?oYYha-ana a determining consciousness It determines *hether the ob>ect is good or bad. ' Fa/ana a im-ulsi/e consciousness !ne of the 7C .;ma&>a/ana cittas arises se/en times en>oying the taste of the sense&ob>ect. So far @N conscious&moments ha/e ela-sed since the genesis of the sense&ob>ect at the eye&door, and only one conscious&moment is left before the ob>ect dissol/es. So t*o tad;lambaPa cittas :registering consciousness< can no longer arise. :Tad;lambaPa arises only in ati&mahant;&rammaPa<. !ne bha/aTga citta arise instead, and the sense&ob>ect and the ca..hu&-as;da, *hich ha/e arisen together, dissol/e together at the dissol/ing instant of that bha/aTga citta. After that the life&continuum flo*s on as usual. B In the second mahant;&rammaPa /Wthi, the intensity of the sense&ob>ect is a little *ea.er than the intensity of the ob>ect in :@<. So after the genesis of the sense&ob>ect at the eye& door, three at;ta&bha/aTga cittas -ass by before the ob>ect becomes *ell de/elo-ed and distinct at the eye&door. Then the life&continuum /ibrates and becomes arrested :Na&Da<. After that the cogniti/e series -roceeds as in :@<, i.e., in the order of -aQca&d/;r;/a>>ana, ca..hu&/iQQ;Pa, sam-aYicchana, santiraPa, /oYYha-ana and se/en >a/anas. At the dissol/ing instant of the se/enth >a/ana the ob>ect and the ca..hu&-as;da :eye&door< also dissol/e. So the cogniti/e series terminates and life&continuum -roceeds as usual.

Thus there are t*o mahant;&rammaPa /Wthis *hich end *ith >a/ana&citta= they are .no*n as >a/ana&/;ra /Wthis. Thus there are t*o mahant;&rammaPa /Wthis *hich end *ith >a/ana&citta= they are .no*n as >a/ana&/;ra /Wthis. i )hen a /isible ob>ect of slight intensity stri.es the eye&door, -aritt;&rammana /Wthi arises. The cogniti/e series may be re-resented as follo*s. a _TiaTiaTiaTiaNaaDaa6aa+aaSamaNaa?oa?oa?oaBhaa BhaaBhaaBha` ooo ooo b _TiaTiaTiaTiaTiaNaaDaa6aa+aaSamaNaa?oa?oa?oa BhaaBhaaBha` ooo ooo c _TiaTiaTiaTiaTiaTiaNaaDaa6aa+aaSamaNaa?oa?oa ?oaBhaaBha` ooo ooo d _TiaTiaTiaTiaTiaTiaTiaNaaDaa6aa+aaSamaNaa?oa ?oa?oaBha` ooo ooo e _TiaTiaTiaTiaTiaTiaTiaTiaNaaDaa6aa+aaSamaNaa?oa ?oa?o`aBhaa... ooo ooo

f _TiaTiaTiaTiaTiaTiaTiaTiaTiaNaaDaa6aa+aaSamaNaa ?oa?o`aBhaa... f _TiaTiaTiaTiaTiaTiaTiaTiaTiaNaaDaa6aa+aaSamaNaa ?oa?o`aBhaa... E0-lanation a In the first -aritt;&rammaPa /Wthi, the sense ob>ect and the ca..hu&-as;da :eye&door< arise together at the arising instant of the first at;ta&bha/aTga. The sense&ob>ect ta.es E conscious moments for its full de/elo-ment and it becomes distinct at the arising instant of bha/aTga&cal;na :Na<. The life& continuum :bha/aTga&stream< /ibrates t*ice and becomes arrested :Na&Da<. Then the cogniti/e series -roceeds in the order of -aQca&d/;r;/a>>ana, ca..hu&/iQQ;Pa, sam-aYicchana, santiraPa and /oYYha-ana. At this -oint, @@ conscious moments ha/e ela-sed since the genesis of the sense&ob>ect and the ob>ect can last for only N more conscious&moments. In normal situations, the >a/ana usually occurs for H conscious&moments and if there is no enough time, it does not occur at all. In other *ords, as the ob>ect is not distinct and not .no*n -recisely, no >a/ana arises to en>oy the taste of the ob>ect. So t*o more /oYYha-ana cittas arise in -lace of >a/ana to determine t*o more times *hether the ob>ect is good or bad. After that the conscious&stream sin.s into life& continuum. The sense&ob>ect and the eye&door dissol/e at the dissol/ing instant of the fourth bha/aTga, and life& continuum flo*s on as usual after that.

@8E @8E f In the ne0t fi/e successi/e /Wthis, atit;&bha/aTga :Ti< is increased one by one as the ob>ect becomes *ea.er and *ea.er, and accordingly the cittas in the rear ha/e to be cut off one by one as the total conscious&moments cannot e0ceed the life&s-an :i.e., @H conscious a moments< of the sense&ob>ect. Thus at the si0th /Wthi, the cogniti/e series terminates after to /oYYha-ana cittas. The number of /oYYha-ana cittas cannot be reduced further as there must be at least t*o /oYYa-ana cittas in functioning in the -lace of >a/ana. So there are N -aritt;rammaPa /Wthis *hich all end *ith /oYYha-ana= they are .no*n as /oYYha-ana&/;ra /Wthis. As there are no >a/anas in these /Wthis, there is no en>oyment of the taste of the sense& ob>ect. The ob>ect is not -recisely .no*n3it seems to be .no*n /ery roughly. These /Wthis occur in babies *hose ca..hu&-as;da is *ea.= so, e/en *hen the sense&ob>ect is of great intensity, its a--earance is not distinct. E. The !ccurrence of Ati-aritt;&rammaPa&?Wthi )hen a /isible ob>ect of /ery slight intensity stri.es the eye& door, the ob>ect ta.es @9 to @8 conscious&moments for its full de/elo-ment. E/en then, the intensity of the ob>ect is so slight that it causes the life&continuum to only /ibrate t*ice *ithout becoming arrested. So no /Wthi&cittas arise, and the ob>ect is not .no*n at all. Ho*e/er, the follo*ing si0 /Wthi&forms can be *ritten to re-resent the ati&-aritt;&rammaPa /Wthis. A _TiaTiaTiaTiaTiaTiaTiaTiaTiaTiaNaaNaaBhaaBhaa BhaaBhaaBha`... ooo

B_TiaTiaTiaTiaTiaTiaTiaTiaTiaTiaTiaNaaNaaBhaa BhaaBhaaBha`... B_TiaTiaTiaTiaTiaTiaTiaTiaTiaTiaTiaNaaNaaBhaa BhaaBhaaBha`... +_TiaTiaTiaTiaTiaTiaTiaTiaTiaTiaTiaTiaNaaNaaBhaa BhaaBha`... D_TiaTiaTiaTiaTiaTiaTiaTiaTiaTiaTiaTiaTiaNaaNaa BhaaBha`... E_TiaTiaTiaTiaTiaTiaTiaTiaTiaTiaTiaTiaTiaTiaNaaNaa Bha`... 5_TiaTiaTiaTiaTiaTiaTiaTiaTiaTiaTiaTiaTiaTiaTiaNaa Na` Bha... ooo E0-lanation As usual the sense&ob>ect and the ca..hu&-as;da :mind&door< arise together at the arising instant of the first at;ta&bha/aTga. The sense&ob>ect, being of /ery slight intensity, ta.es @9 to @8 conscious moments for its full de/elo-ment. )hen it is *ell de/elo-ed, it a--ears at the mind&door. But, being /ery *ea., it can cause the life&continuum only to /ibrate t*ice *ithout brea.ing the stream of the life&continuum. Thus, after t*o bha/aTga&cal;na cittas, only bha/aTga&cittas .ee- on flo*ing. The

sense&ob>ect and the ca..hu&-as;da :mind&door< *ill dissol/e together at the end of @H conscious&moments after their genesis. sense&ob>ect and the ca..hu&-as;da :mind&door< *ill dissol/e together at the end of @H conscious&moments after their genesis. /;ra& /Wthis` :futile cogniti/e series<. H8 6aQcad/;ra&/Wthis In the -rocess of cognition at the eye&door, there are' @ one tadarammaPa&/;ra /Wthi for atimahant;&rammaPa, 7 t*o >a/ana&/;ra /Wthis for mahant;&rammaPa, M si0 /oYYha-ana&/;ra /Wthis for -aritt;&rammaPa, E si0 mogha&/;ra /Wthis for ati-aritt;&rammaPa, All together there are @8 /Wthis at the eye&door. Similarly, there are @8 /Wthis each at the ear&door, at the nose&door, at the tongue&door and at the body&door. Thus the total number of -aQca&d/;ra&/Wthis at the fi/e doors is @8 0 8 c H8. In *riting the /Wthi&forms and e0-laining the forms for the ear&door, sota&/iQQ;Pa :So< should be inserted in -lace of ca..hu/iQQ ;Pa, and ^sound1 and ^sota&-as;da1 should re-lace ^/isibleob>ect1 and ^ca..hu&-as;da1, res-ecti/ely. Similar -ro-er changes should be made for the remaining three doors. The Simile of a Mango&fruit The atimahant;&rammaPa may be com-ared *ith the falling of a mango&fruit. Su--ose a *eary tra/eler is aslee- at the foot of a mango&tree. This state of being aslee- is analogous to the Iuiet flo* of life&continuum in atimahant;&rammaPa. No* a ri-e mango&fruit dro-s to the ground near the tra/eler. This e/ent is similar to the stri.ing of a /isible ob>ect of /ery great intensity at the eye&door.

The sound of the mango&fruit stri.ing the ground a*a.ens the tra/eler and causes him to raise his head. This e/ent is similar to the a--earance of the /isible ob>ect at the eye&door causing the life&continuum to /ibrate t*ice and become arrested. The tra/eler o-ens his eyes and loo.s around to enIuire *hat causes the sound. This conduct is similar to the -aQcad/;ra&/a>>ana ad/erting the consciousness&stream to*ards the sense&ob>ect. The tra/eler sees the mango&fruit. This is analogous to the eye&consciousness seeing the ob>ect. The man -ic.s u- the mango&fruit. This is similar to the sam-aYicchana recei/ing the /isible ob>ect. The man then ins-ects the mango&fruit *hether it is suitable for eating. This is similar to the sant;raPa in/estigating the sense& ob>ect. The man decides that the mango&fruit is good and edible. This is similar to the /oYYha-ana deciding that the sense&ob>ect is good. Being hungry, the man bites the mango&fruit se/en times eating and en>oying the taste. This is similar to the occurrence of se/en >a/ana&cittas en>oying the taste of the sense&ob>ect. Then the man gathers the remnants of the fruit and the >uice stic.ing on the teeth *ith his tongue and s*allo*s t*ice. This is similar to the t*o tad;lambaPa cittas follo*ing >a/anas and en>oying the taste of the sense&ob>ect. Then the man lies do*n and falls aslee-. This is similar to bha/aTga cittas sin.ing into life&continuum. 6aQcad/;ra&/Wthi +ittas If *e e0amine the -aQcad/;ra /Wthis, *e shall notice that se/en ty-es of consciousness -artici-ate in the /Wthis. The se/en ty-es of consciousness are'

_6aQca&d/;r;/a>>ana, -aQca&/innana, sam-aYicchana, sant;raPa, /oYYha-ana, >a/ana and tad;lambaPa`. _6aQca&d/;r;/a>>ana, -aQca&/innana, sam-aYicchana, sant;raPa, /oYYha-ana, >a/ana and tad;lambaPa`. a -aQca&d/;r;/a>>ana @ b -aQca&/iQQ;Pa @ c sam-aYicchana @ d sant;raPa @ e /oYYha-ana @ f >a/anas H g tad;lambaPas 7 total @E The total number of cittas that can -artici-ate in the -aQcad/;ra /Wthis are' a -aQca&d/;r;/a>>ana citta b -aQca&/iQQ;Pa cittas :@9 sense&im-ressions< c sam-aYicchana cittas d sant;raPa cittas e /oYYha-ana citta :mano&d/;r;/a>>ana< f .;ma&>a/ana cittas g tad;lambaPa cittas total @ @9 7 M @ 7C G 8E

These are the 8E .;m;/acara cittas. If *e count the cittas for a single door, e.g. eye&door, *e get t*o ca..hu&/iQQ;Pa cittas instead of @9 -aQca&/iQQ;Pa cittas in :b<= so the total number of

cittascittas+ha-ter III. Note that bha/aTga cittas are not included in /Wthi cittas. The ob>ect A the ?atthu ta.en by each ?Wthi&citta All the -aQcad/;ra&/Wthi cittas gras- the -resent sense&ob>ect that e0ists at the sense&door. The -aQca&/iQQ;Pa cittas are borne by -aQca&/atthus, i.e. ca..hu&/iQQ;Pa cittas are borne by ca..hu&/atthus, sota&/iQQ;Pa cittas are borne by sota&/atthus, etc., *hile the mano/iQQ ;Pa cittas are borne by hadaya&/atthus. 5or illustration, all the ca..hu&d/;ra&/Wthi&cittas of atimahant;rammaPa gras- the /isible ob>ect that a--ears at the eye&door at the arising instant of bha/aTga&cal;na and dissol/es at the dissol/ing instant of the second tad;lambaPa citta. The t*o ca..hu&/iQQ;Pa cittas are borne by the ca..hu&/atthu :ca..hu&-as;da< *hich has arisen together *ith the /isual ob>ect at the arising instant of the at;ta&bha/aTga. This /atthu, *hich has the same life&s-an as the /isual ob>ect, is called, _ma>>him;yu.a& /atthu1. Those /atthus, *hich ha/e arisen earlier than the /isual ob>ect and thus *ill dissol/e earlier than the /isual ob>ect, are .no*n as _mand;yu.a&/atthus`. Those /atthus, *hich arise later than the /isual ob>ect and thus *ill dissol/e later than the /isual ob>ect, are .no*n as _amand;yu.a&/atthus`. All the remaining -aQca&d/;ra&/Wthi cittas are mano&/iQQ;Pa cittas= they are indi/idually and res-ecti/ely borne by the hadaya/atthu *hich has arisen along *ith the -receding citta, i.e. the hadaya&/atthu *hich has lasted for one conscious&moment. 5or e0am-le, -aQcad/;r;/a>>ana is borne by the hadaya&/atthu *hich has arisen along *ith bha/aTga&cal;na= sam-aYicchana is borne by the hadaya&/atthu *hich has arisen along *ith ca..hu&/iQQ;Pa,

sant;raPa is borne by the hadaya&/atthu *hich has arisen along *ith sam-aYicchana, and so on. sant;raPa is borne by the hadaya&/atthu *hich has arisen along *ith sam-aYicchana, and so on. Mano&d/;ra ?ithi ";ma>a/ana&/;ra /Wthi @. Tad;lambaPa&/;ra /Wthi 7. Fa/ana&/;ra /Wthi M. ?oYYha-ana&/;ra /Wthi E. Mogha&/;ra /Wthi A--an;>a/ana&/;ra /Wthi #o.i&a--an; /Wthi @. $u-;/acara a--an; /Wthi 7. Aru-;/acara a--an; /Wthi M. AbhiQQ; a--an; /Wthi #o.uttara&a--an; /Wthi @. Magga /Wthi 7. 6hala&sam;-atti /Wthi M. Nirodha&sam;-atti /Wthi )hen one of the si0 senses enters the a/enue of the mind& door, manod/;ra /Wthi ensues. Manod/;ra /Wthi may first be di/ided into t*o classes. @ ";ma>a/ana&/;ra /Wthi3here one of the 7C .;ma&>a/ana cittas ta.es the function of >a/ana, i.e., en>oying the taste of the sense&ob>ect. 7 A--an;>a/ana&/;ra /Wthi3 here one of the 7N a--an;>a/ana cittas ta.es the function of >a/ana. ";ma>a/ana&/;ra /Wthi may further be di/ided into four ty-es as described in the abo/e scheme *hereas a--an;&>a/ana&/;ra

/Wthi may be subdi/ided into t*o ty-es3namely, lo.i&a--an; /Wthi and lo.uttara a--an; /Wthi. All these /Wthis *ill be e0-lained belo*. /Wthi may be subdi/ided into t*o ty-es3namely, lo.i&a--an; /Wthi and lo.uttara a--an; /Wthi. All these /Wthis *ill be e0-lained belo*. @. Ati/ibhOta&rammaPa /Wthi :Tad;lambaPa&/;ra /Wthi< _NaaDaaMaaFaaFaaFaaFaaFaaFaaFaaDaaDa`aBha7. ?ibhOt;&rammaPa /Wthi :Fa/ana&/;ra /Wthi< _NaaDaaMaaFaaFaaFaaFaaFaaFaaFa`aBhaaBhaa M. A/ibhOt;&rammaPa /Wthi :?oYYha-ana&/;ra /Wthi< _NaaDaaMaaMaaMa`aBhaaBhaa E. Atia/ibhOt;&rammaPa /Wthi :Mogha&/;ra /Wthi< _NaaNa`aBhaaBhaaBhaa E0-lanation !ne of the si0 sense&ob>ects *hich may be -resent, -ast, future or time&freed, must enter the a/enue of the mind&door to initiate the .;ma&>a/ana mano&d/;ra /Wthis. @ )hen the sense&ob>ect is of /ery great intensity, the life& continuum /ibrates t*ice and becomes arrested :Na& Da< on the a--earance of the sense&ob>ect at the mind& door. Then mano&d/;ra&/a>>ana :Ma< ad/erts the consciousness&stream to*ards the sense&ob>ect, obser/es the ob>ect and decides *hether it is good or bad. In accordance *ith this decision, one of the 7C .;ma>a/ana cittas -erforms the >a/ana function for se/en conscious moments en>oying the taste of the sense& ob>ect. Then t*o tad;lambaPa cittas follo* suit en>oying the taste of the sense&ob>ect further. After that, bha/aTga cittas sin. into life&continuum.

This /Wthi is .no*n as _ati/ibhOt;&rammaPa /Wthi` or tad;lambaPa&/;ra /Wthi as it terminates *ith tad;lambaPa citta. This /Wthi is .no*n as _ati/ibhOt;&rammaPa /Wthi` or tad;lambaPa&/;ra /Wthi as it terminates *ith tad;lambaPa citta. )hen the sense&ob>ect is of fairly great intensity, the cogniti/e series occurs as abo/e but terminates *ith >a/ana citta *ithout tad;lambaPa. This /Wthi is .no*n as _/ibhOt;&rammaPa /Wthi` or _>a/ana&/;ra /Wthi`. M In the _a/ibhOt;&rammaPa /Wthi`, the sense&ob>ect is of slight intensity and its a--earance at the mind&door is not clear as in the abo/e t*o cases. Thus after the life& continuum is arrested, mano&d/;r;/a>>ana citta occurs three times trying to obser/e and decide the sense& ob>ect. But the ob>ect is not -recisely .no*n and conseIuently no >a/ana cittas occur to en>oy the taste of the sense ob>ect. After mano&d/;r;/a>>ana, bha/aTga citta sin.s into life&continuum. This /Wthi is .no*n as _/oYYha-ana&/;ra /Wthi` as it terminates *ith /oYYha-ana citta. E In the atia/ibhOt;&rammaPa /Wthi, the sense&ob>ect is of /ery slight intensity. It can only cause the life&continuum to /ibrate t*ice *ithout becoming arrested. So no /Wthi cittas occur and the sense&ob>ect is not .no*n. This /Wthi is called _mogha&/;ra /Wthi` as it is de-ri/ed of /Wthi cittas. Notes' @ The mind&door :mano&d/;ra< is not a -hysical door= one of the @C bha/aTga&cittas is functioning as the mind&door in a -erson. 7 All the si0 sense&ob>ects *hich may be -ast, -resent, future or time&freed, can a--ear at the mind&door.

M M bha/aTga need occur= the ob>ect a--ears at the mind& door as soon as it stri.es the door. E The ob>ects that a--ear at the mind&door should not be differentiated as atimahant;&rammaPa or mahant;rammaPa= they should be differentiated as /ibhOt;rammaPa :clear ob>ect< or a/ibhOt;&rammaPa :obscure ob>ect<. ";ma&>a/ana&mano&d/;ra&/Wthi +ittas In mano&d/;ra /Wthis there are only M ty-es of consciousness3 namely, _a/a>>ana, >a/ana and tad;lambaPa`. The numbers of cittas in the longest mano&d/;ra /Wthi are' @ mano&d/;r;/a>>ana citta, H >a/ana cittas and 7 tad;lambaPa cittas, totaling @9 in all. The number of cittas that can -artici-ate in mano&d/;ra /Wthis are' @ mano&d/;ra/a>>ana citta, 7C .;ma&>a/ana cittas and @@ tad;lambaPa cittas, totaling E@ in all. Secondary Mano&d/;ra ?Wthis )hen one of the si0 sense&ob>ects enters the a/enue of the mind& door directly, *e get -rimary mano&d/;ra /Wthis as described abo/e. But there are secondary mano&d/;ra /Wthis *hich follo* each and e/eryone of the -aQca&d/;ra /Wthi. In a -aQca&d/;ra /Wthi, the sense&im-ression is -rocessed only to the e0tent to be .no*n roughly *hether it is good or bad. The form, the sha-e, the detailed features and the name of the ob>ect are not .no*n yet.

Thus, after a -aQca&d/;ra /Wthi, a mano&d/;ra /Wthi Iuic.ly follo*s it reta.ing the sense&ob>ect of the -aQca&d/;ra /Wthi as a -ast ob>ect. Thus, after a -aQca&d/;ra /Wthi, a mano&d/;ra /Wthi Iuic.ly follo*s it reta.ing the sense&ob>ect of the -aQca&d/;ra /Wthi as a -ast ob>ect. Then the third mano&d/;ra /Wthi Iuic.ly follo*s again obser/ing the form and the sha-e of the sense&ob>ect. Then the fourth mano&d/;ra /Wthi follo*s considering the name associated *ith the ob>ect. If necessary many mano&d/;ra /Wthis Iuic.ly occur in succession considering the features of the ob>ect in detail and also the time and the -lace connected *ith the ob>ect if he has encountered it before. !nly after these many secondary mano&d/;ra /Wthis, does one .no* the ob>ect together *ith form, sha-e, name and other details. +onsidering the fact that cittas can occur at a tremendous rate of more than a thousand billion times -er eye&*in. and a mano&d/;ra /Wthi contains only about @9 /Wthi cittas, more than a billion /Wthis can occur in a fraction of a second. So *e can .no* the ob>ects *e see or hear almost instantly and *e e/en thin. that *e see and hear simultaneously. 6ractical ?erification That -aQca&d/;ra /Wthis and mano&d/;ra /Wthis are occurring at a tremendous rate incessantly in a -erson can be /erified by the -erson himself. As cittas are in/isible e/en under the best microsco-e, an instrument more -o*erful than the latest electronic microsco-e *ill be necessary to obser/e the cittas. This instrument is none other than the mind itself accom-anied by u-ac;ra&sam;dhi :neighbourhood or access&concentration< or better by >h;na&sam;dhi :meditati/e absor-tion<.

I ha/e inter/ie*ed many meditators in International Buddha S;sana +entres :6a&au. Ta*ya Meditation +entres< in Myanmar *here samatha and /i-assan;&bh;/an; :tranIuillity and insight meditation< are -ro-erly taught according to the instructions gi/en in Buddhist canons. I ha/e inter/ie*ed many meditators in International Buddha S;sana +entres :6a&au. Ta*ya Meditation +entres< in Myanmar *here samatha and /i-assan;&bh;/an; :tranIuillity and insight meditation< are -ro-erly taught according to the instructions gi/en in Buddhist canons. Then meditators are taught to meditate on n;ma :consciousness and its concomitants<. They ha/e to focus their attention on each -hysical base :/atthu< in turn, obser/e a sense&ob>ect stri.ing the base and notice the cogniti/e series of consciousness that arise in -aQca&d/;ras :fi/e doors< as *ell as in the mind door. They can see the /Wthi&cittas occurring e0actly as described in the boo., and later on can also differentiate the /arious cetasi.as associated *ith each citta. The results are /ery satisfactory. If the reader has some doubt, he or she is in/ited to come and meditate in International Buddha S;sana +entres at any time con/enient to him or her. A--an;&>a/ana Mano&d/;ra ?Wthis In tranIuillity and insight&meditations, a--an;&>a/ana mano&d/;ra /Wthis arise *hen >h;na or magga is realiJed. In these /Wthis, one of the 7N a--an;&>a/ana cittas ta.es -art in the >a/ana&function. rO-;/acara .usala cittas 8 arO-;/acara .usala cittas E mahaggata .iriya cittas C lo.uttara cittas G iii a--an;&>a/ana cittas 7N

If a -erson, *ho is not yet an arahat, -ractices tranIuillity meditation, he may attain 8 rO-;/acara .usala >h;nas and E arO-;/acara .usala >h;nas, *hich are collecti/ely called _C mahaggata .usala cittas`. If an arahat underta.es tranIuillity meditation, he may attain 8 rO-;/acara .iriya >h;nas and E arO-;/acara .iriya >h;nas *hich are collecti/ely called _C mahaggata .iriya cittas.` If a -erson, endo*ed *ith three roots3namely, alobha, adosa and amoha3underta.es insight&meditation -ro-erly and strenuously, he may attain the four maggas and the four -halas :the four -aths and their fruitions< *hich are .no*n as the G lo.uttara cittas. 5i/e $O-;/acara A--an; ?Wthis :Manda&-aQQ;< NaaDaa _Maa6aaUaNua4oaFha` aBhaaBhaa :Ti..ha&-aQQ;< NaaDaa _MaaUaNua4oaFha` aBhaaBha @ )hen the -aYibh;ga&nimitta of .asiPa a--ears at the mind& door, the life&continuum /ibrates t*ice and becomes arrested :Na&Da<. Then mano&d/;r;/a>>ana :Ma< ad/erts the consciousness&stream to*ards the -aYibh;ga&nimitta, obser/es and decides the sense&ob>ect *hether it is good or bad. Then one of the t*o somanassa&sahagata[ Q;Pasam-ayutta[ mah;&.usala cittas -erforms the u-ac;rasam;dhi >a/ana&function four times in the -ersons of slo* or dull *isdom :manda&-aQQ;< under the names of 6a' -ari.amma' -re-aration of >h;na, U' u-ac;ra' -ro0imity of >h;na, Nu' anuloma' ada-tation or connection bet*een -ari.amma and >h;na= it acts as a bridge harmonising the lo*er cittas *ith the higher cittas.

4o' gotrabhu' the citta that cuts the .;ma&lineage to form the e0alted or mahaggata&lineage. These four cittas are .no*n as u-ac;ra&sam;dhi >a/anas. In the case of a -erson of Iuic. or bright *isdom :ti..ha&-aQQ;<, -ari.amma :6a< is e0cluded. Immediately after gotrabhu, rO-;/acara .usala first>h;na citta arises >ust once as a--an;&>a/ana. After the dissolution of this first&>h;na citta, bha/aTga&stream flo*s on as usual. 7 The second rO-;/acara&a--an; /Wthi arises as abo/e allo*ing rO-;/acara .usala second&>h;na citta to function as a--an;&>a/ana >ust once. M The third rO-;/acara&a--an; /Wthi also arises as in :@< allo*ing rO-;/acara .usala third&>h;na citta to function as a--an;&>a/ana >ust once. E The fourth rO-;/acara&a--an; /Wthi again arises as in :@< allo*ing rO-;/acara .usala fourth&>h;na citta to function as a--an;&>a/ana >ust once. 8 The fifth rO-;/acara&a--an; /Wthi arises as in :@<, but instead of one of the t*o somanassa&sahagata[ Q;Pasam-ayutta[ mah;.usala cittas, one of the t*o u-e..h;sahagata[ Q;Pa&sam-ayutta[ mah;.usala cittas -erforms the u-ac;ra&sam;dhi >a/ana function four or three times and rO-;/acara .usala fifth >h;na citta arises >ust once to function as a--an;&>a/ana. Notes' @ )hen one is meditating on .asiPa, either somanassa or u-e..h; mah;.usala citta *ill -erform the >a/ana function.

7 7 sam;dhi >a/anas and the >h;na&>a/ana must agree in feeling :/edan;<. Since the first four >h;nas are accom-anied by su.ha :-leasant feeling< they are regarded as somanassa cittas. So, in these cases, the u-ac;ra&sam;dhi >a/anas must be somanassa&sahagata[. In the case of the fifth >h;na, it is u-e..h;&sahagata[, so the u-ac;ra&sam;dhi >a/anas must be also u-e..h;&sahagata[. M A moral >a/ana :.usala citta< is follo*ed by a moral >a/ana. 5our ArO-;/acara A--an; ?Wthis :Manda&-aQQ;< NaaDaa _Maa6aaUaNua4oaFha` aBhaaBhaa :Ti..ha&-aQQ;< NaaDaa _MaaUaNua4oaFha` aBhaaBhaa These /Wthis are the same in form as rO-;/acara a--an; /Wthis. But arO-;/acara >h;nas are higher than rO-;/acara >h;nas in the degree of concentration, tranIuillity and sublimity. !ne has to use the fifth >h;na as the base to ste- higher to arO-;/acara >h;na and also has to concentrate on an ob>ect *hich is not associated *ith rO-a. In -ractice, one has to de/elo- the fifth >h;na first by meditation on the -aYibh;ga&nimitta of .asiPa. Then he comes out of the ecstatic absor-tion, ignores the -aYibh;ga&nimitta *hich is associated *ith rO-a :.asiPa in this case<, concentrates on the infinite s-ace :;.;sa< that e0ists beyond the -aYibh;ga nimitta, and meditates' _X.;sa, ;.;sa`. )hen the subtle attachment to the -aYibh;ga&nimitta is eliminated, the nimitta disa--ears suddenly unfolding infinite s-ace. He meditates on' _X.;sa, ;.;sa`, and *hen the degree of concentration is high enough, the a--an; /Wthi *ill come into effect.

@ @ciousness, i.e. mano&d/;r;/a>>ana, obser/es the ob>ect and decides *hether it is good or bad. Then one of the t*o u-e..h;&sahagata[ Q;Pa&sam-ayutta[ mah;&.usala cittas functions as -ari.amma :6a<, u-ac;ra :U<, anuloma :Nu< and gotrabhu :4o< in a -erson of slo* *isdom :manda-aQQ ;<, or as u-ac;ra, anuloma and gotrabhu in a -erson of Iuic. *isdom :ti..ha&-aQQ;<. Then ;.;s;naQc;yatana.usala citta arises once as a--an;&>a/ana and bha/aTga cittas sin. into life&continuum. 7 In going u- the ladder to the second arO-;/acara >h;na, the meditator meditates on the ;.;s;naQc;yatana&.usala citta. )hen the degree of concentration is high enough, the second arO-;/acara&a--an; /Wthi *ill ensue. The ob>ect that a--ears at the mind&door is ;.;s;naQc;yatana&.usala citta *hich causes the cogniti/e series of bha/aTga&cal;na, bha/aTgu&-accheda, manod/;r;/a>>ana, -ari.amma :omit in ti..ha&-aQQ; -erson<, u-ac;ra, anuloma, gotrabhu and /iQQ;naQc;yatana .usala citta as a--an;&>a/ana to arise. #ife&continuum then flo*s on as usual. M In the case of the third arO-;/acara >h;na, the ob>ect that a--ears at the mind&door is nothingness *hich results from the omission of ;.;s;naQc;yatana&.usala citta. The cogniti/e series of consciousness arise as before terminating *ith ;.incaQQ;yatana .usala citta as a--an;&>a/ana. E In going u- to the fourth arO-;/acara >h;na, the meditator concentrates on the ;.incaQQ;yatana .usala citta as the

ob>ect of meditation. !n realiJing the fourth arO-;/acara >h;na, this ob>ect of ;.incaQQ;yatana .usala citta a--ears at the mind&door causing the cogniti/e series of consciousness to arise as before. In this case ne/a&saQQ;n1asaQQ ;yatana .usala citta arises once as a--an;&>a/ana and then bha/aTga cittas sin. into life&continuum. Note' The reader should re/ie* the descri-tion of _arO-a >h;nas` on -ages N@&N7 as an aid to the study of the arO-;/acara a--an; /Wthis. Fh;na Sam;-atti ?Wthis ^Sam;-atti1 means ^attainment1. A -erson, *ho has attained the rO-;/acara >h;na, may enter the meditati/e absor-tion corres-onding to that >h;na *hene/er he *ishes. If he -ractices *ell, he may attain the ecstatic trance instantly and remain in the trance for one hour, t*o hours, three hours, etc., u- to se/en days. During this trance, the >h;na citta occurs re-eatedly and s-ontaneously focusing the attention on the -aYibh;ga&nimitta of .asiPa. So he *ill not hear any sound nor .no* any other sense&ob>ect during the trance. A -erson, *ho attains all the rO-;/acara and the arO-;/acara >h;nas, may enter the meditati/e absor-tion corres-onding to any >h;na. But he must enter the first >h;na first= then, by eliminating /ita..a, he enters the second >h;na= then, by eliminating /ic;ra, he enters the third >h;na, and so on. The >h;na&sam;-atti /Wthi runs as follo*s' :Manda&-aQQ;< NaaDaa _Maa6aaUaNua4oaFhaaFhaaFhaa many times` aBhaf :Ti..ha&-aQQ;<

NaaDaa _MaaUaNua4oaFhaaFhaaFhaa many times` aBhaa NaaDaa _MaaUaNua4oaFhaaFhaaFhaa many times` aBhaa -ayuttaP mah;.usala cittas :ta.e u-e..h;&sahagata[ to enter the fifth >h;na< functions as -ari.amma :omit for ti..ha&-aQQ; -erson<, u-ac;ra, anuloma and gotrabhu. Then rO-;/acara .usala first >h;na :or second, third, fourth or fifth >h;na< citta functions many times as a--an;&>a/ana. )hen the ecstatic absor-tion is o/er, bha/aTga cittas sin. into life&continuum. 7 5or attainment of arO-;/acara >h;na' The infinite s-ace :;.;sa< unfolded by the disa--earance of the -aYibh;ga&nimitta :ta.e the corres-onding ob>ect for the higher arO-;/acara >h;na< enters the a/enue of the mind&door causing the life&continuum to /ibrate t*ice and become arrested. Then mano&d/;r;/a>>ana obser/es the infinite s-ace and decides *hether it is good or bad. Then one of the t*o u-e..h;&sahagata[ Q;Pasam-ayuttaP mah;.usala cittas functions as -ari.amma :omit for ti..ha&-aQQ; -erson<, u-ac;ra, anuloma and gotrabhu. Then ;.;s;naQc;yatana&.usala citta :or higher arO-;/acara .usala citta< functions many times as a--an;&>a/ana. )hen the meditati/e absor-tion is o/er, bha/aTga cittas sin. into life&continuum.

AbhiQQ; A--an; ?Wthis AbhiQQ; A--an; ?Wthis tions gi/en in ?isuddhimagga or other Buddhist canons to attain the fi/e lo.iya abhiQQ;s :mundane su-ernormal .no*ledge<. These su-ernormal -o*ers are attainable through the utmost -erfection in mental concentration, and they are related to the higher .no*ledge associated *ith the fifth rO-;/acara >h;na. )hat are theyL @ Iddhi&/idha AbhiQQ;Pa ?arious di/ine -o*ers, such as being one he becomes manifold, and ha/ing become manifold he again becomes one. )ithout being obstructed he -asses through *alls and mountains, >ust as if through the air. In the earth he di/es and rises again, >ust if in the *ater. He *al.s on *ater *ithout sin.ing, >ust as if on the earth. +ross&legged he floats through the air, >ust as a *inged bird. 7 Dibba&sota AbhiQQ;Pa Di/ine ear that can hear sounds both hea/enly and human, far and near. M Dibba&ca..hu AbhiQQ;Pa Di/ine eye that can see ob>ects both hea/enly and human, far and near, hidden or e0-osed. It can see beings in the a-;ya :lo*er< abodes as *ell as in the celestial abodes. It sees beings /anishing and rea--earing, lo* and noble ones, beautiful and ugly ones. It sees ho* beings are rea--earing according to their deeds :.amma<. E 6racitta&/i>>;nana AbhiQQ;Pa or +eto&-ariya&Q;Pa The ability to .no* others1 minds in may *ays or to -enetrate the minds of others.

8 8 The ability to remember manifold former e0istences, such as one birth, t*o, three, four or fi/e birthsf one hundred thousand births= to remember many formations and dissolution of *orlds= _ there I *as, such name I hadf and /anishing from there I entered some*here else into e0istencefand /anishing from there I again rea--eared here.` The abhiQQ; /Wthi is of the form' NaaDaa _Maa6aaUaNua4oaBhin` aBhaf Su--ose a -erson, *ho has attained the mundane su-ernormal -o*ers, *ants to become manifold. He meditates on the -atha/;&.asiPa and de/elo-s the rO-;/acara .usala fifth >h;na for a fe* moments. Then he comes out of the >h;na absor-tion and, ha/ing arrested his life&continuum, ma.es a *ill' _#et there be @999 identical but se-arate forms of myself.` He has com-lete confidence in his *ill. The nimitta&forms a--ear at his mind&door causing the life&continuum to /ibrate t*ice and become arrested. The mano&d/;r;/a>>ana obser/es the nimitta&forms and decide *hether the /isual ob>ect is good or bad. Then one of the t*o u-e..h;&sahagata[ Q;Pa&sam-ayutta[ mah;.usala cittas functions as -ari.amma, u-ac;ra, anuloma and gotrabhu. Then obser/ing the @999 nimitta&forms, the rO-;/acara .usala fifth&>h;na arises once functioning as abhiQQ;&>a/ana. Then, bha/aTga citta follo*s u- and the -erson comes out of the >h;na. As soon as abhiQQ;Pa >a/ana occurs, the @999 nimitta&forms come into e0istence. !ther mundane su-ernormal -o*ers are brought into -lay in a similar *ay.

Magga A--an; ?Wthis Magga A--an; ?Wthis lo*s u-. There are four le/els of magga and -hala. The maggaa--an; /Wthis run as follo*s. :Manda&-aQQ;< NaaDaa _Maa6aaUaNua4oaMaga6haa6ha`aBhaa :Ti..ha&-aQQ;< NaaDaa _MaaUaNua4oaMaga6haa6haa6ha`aBhaaBhaa @ )hen one of the three characteristics of e0istence enters the a/enue of the mind&door of a -uthu>>ana :*orldling or one *ho is bound by all ten fetters<, the life& continuum /ibrates t*ice and becomes arrested :Na& Da<. Then, obser/ing and considering the characteristics of e0istence, mano&d/;r;/a>>ana :Ma< arises once. Then one of the four Q;Pa&sam-ayutta[ mah;&.usala cittas, obser/ing the characteristics of e0istence, functions three times as -ari.amma :6a<, u-ac;ra :U<, anuloma :Nu<, and then, obser/ing Nibb;na, functions once more as gotrabhu :4o<. Then sot;-atti&magga >a/ana arises once obser/ing Nibb;na. Then, *ithout any la-se in time, the fruition of the magga, i.e., sot;-atti&-hala citta, functions t*ice as a--an;&>a/ana. Then bha/aTga cittas sin. into life&continuum and the -erson comes out of magga&/Wthis. :If the -erson is of ti..ha&-aQQ;, -ari.amma is omitted and -hala&>a/ana occurs three times.<

Note' In the abo/e magga&/Wthi, -ari.amma, u-ac;ra, anuloma and gotrabhu signify the follo*ing things' 6a' -ari.amma' -re-aration of magga, U' u-ac;ra' -ro0imity of magga, Nu' anuloma' ada-tation or connection= it harmonies the lo*er cittas *ith the u--er cittas, 4o' gotrabhu the citta that cuts the -uthu>>ana&lineage to form the ariya&lineage :ariya a holy<. !nce a -erson becomes an ariya, he is ne/er re/erted bac. to a -uthu>>ana again. Thus gotrabhu has to cut the -uthu>>ana&lineage only once. So in later magga& and -hala&/Wthis, ?o a /od;na :meaning -urification< is inserted in -lace of 4o a gotrabhu. 7 To realiJe the second magga and -hala, the sot;-anna or sota-an :stream&*inner *ho has realiJed the first magga and -hala< has to meditate on the three characteristics of e0istence again. )hen the second magga&/Wthi arises, it runs as abo/e3the only changes necessary are' ^/od;na1 in -lace of ^gotrabhu1, ^sa.ad;gam;&magga1 in -lace of ^sot;-atti&magga1 and ^sa.ad;gam;&-hala1 in -lace of ^sot;-atti&-hala1. After this second magga&/Wthi, the -erson becomes a sa.ad;gam; or sa.ad;gam :once&returner, i.e. he *ill return to the .;ma&abodes >ust once<. M If the sa.ad;gam underta.es insight&meditation further, he may de/elo- the third magga&/Wthi *hich runs as the second magga&/Wthi3>ust change ^sa.ad;gam;1 into ^an;g;mi1. The -erson no* becomes an an;g;m; or an;gam :non&returner, i.e., he *ill not be reborn in the .;maabodes again<.

E E 6hala&sam;-atti ?Wthis There are four noble indi/iduals :ariya&-uggala<' the stream& *inner :sot;-anna<, the once&returner :sa.ad;gam;<, the non& returner :an;g;m;< and the -erfect one :arahat<. Each noble indi/idual may enter the meditati/e absor-tion corres-onding to the fruition of the -ath he has attained. By doing so, he is en>oying the -eace of Nibb;na, and during this absor-tion -hala&sam;-atti /Wthis occur as follo*s. :Manda&-aQQ;< NaaDaa _Maa6aaUaNua?oa6haa6haa many times` Bhaa :Ti..ha&-aQQ;< NaaDaa _MaaUaNua?oa6haa6haa many times` Bhaa In de/elo-ing the -hala&sam;-atti /Wthis, the noble indi/iduals ha/e to meditate on the three characteristics of e0istence until the -hala&sam;-atti /Wthi arises. @ )hen one of the three characteristics of e0istence enters the a/enue of the mind&door of a sot;-anna, the life& continuum /ibrates t*ice as bha/aTga&cal;na and bha/aTgu-accheda and becomes arrested. The manod/;r;/a>>ana considers the ob>ect and decides *hether it is good or bad. Then one of the four Q;Pa&sam-ayutta[ mah;&.usala cittas, obser/ing the tWla..haPa ob>ect, functions three times as -ari.amma :omit in ti..ha&-aQQ; -erson<, u-ac;ra and anuloma, and, obser/ing Nibb;na, functions once as /od;na. After that sot;-atti&-hala citta,

obser/ing Nibb;na, functions as a--an;&>a/ana many times as long as the -erson *ishes u- to se/en days. Then bha/aTga cittas sin. into life&continuum and the -erson arises from -hala&sam;-atti. 7 )hen one of the three characteristics of e0istence enters the a/enue of the mind&door of a sa.ad;gam;, the life& continuum /ibrates t*ice as bha/aTga&cal;na and bha/angu-accheda and becomes arrested. The manod/;r;/a>>ana considers the ob>ect and decides *hether it is good or bad. Then one of the four Q;Pa&sam-ayutta[ mah;&.usala cittas, obser/ing the tWla..haPa ob>ect, functions three times as -ari.amma :omit in ti..ha&-aQQ; -erson<, u-ac;ra and anuloma, and, obser/ing Nibb;na, functions once as /od;na. After that sa.ad;gam;&-hala citta, obser/ing Nibb;na, functions as a--an;&>a/ana many times as long as the -erson *ishes u- to se/en days. Then bha/aTga cittas sin. into life&continuum and the -erson arises from -hala&sam;-atti. M )hen one of the three characteristics of e0istence enters the a/enue of the mind&door of an;g;m;, the life& continuum /ibrates t*ice as bha/aTga&cal;na and bha/aTgu-accheda and becomes arrested. The manod/;r;/a>>ana considers the ob>ect and decides *hether it is good or bad. Then one of the four Q;Pa&sam-ayutta[ mah;&.usala cittas, obser/ing the tWla..haPa ob>ect, functions three times as -ari.amma :omit in ti..ha&-aQQ; -erson<, u-ac;ra and anuloma, and, obser/ing Nibb;na, functions once as /od;na. After that an;g;mi&-hala citta, obser/ing Nibb;na, functions as a--an;&>a/ana many times as long as the -erson *ishes u- to se/en days.

Then bha/aTga cittas sin. into life&continuum and the -erson arises from -hala&sam;-atti. Then bha/aTga cittas sin. into life&continuum and the -erson arises from -hala&sam;-atti. . )hen one of the three characteristics of e0istence enters the a/enue of the mind&door of an arahant, the life& continuum /ibrates t*ice as bha/aTga&cal;na and bha/aTgu-accheda and becomes arrested. The manod/;r;/a>>ana considers the ob>ect and decides *hether it is good or bad. Then one of the four Q;Pa&sam-ayutta[ mah;&.usala cittas, obser/ing the tWla..haPa ob>ect, functions three times as -ari.amma :omit in ti..ha&-aQQ; -erson<, u-ac;ra and anuloma, and, obser/ing Nibb;na, functions once as /od;na. After that arahatta&-hala citta, obser/ing Nibb;na, functions as a--an;&>a/ana many times as long as the -erson *ishes u- to se/en days. Then bha/aTga cittas sin. into life&continuum and the -erson arises from -hala&sam;-atti. Nirodha&sam;-atti ?Wthi ^Nirodha&sam;-atti1 means ^attainment of e0tinction1. This /Wthi is de/elo-ed to sus-end tem-orarily all consciousness and mental acti/ity, follo*ing immediately u-on the semi&conscious state called ^s-here of neither&-erce-tion&nor&non&-erce-tion1 :ne/asaQQ;&n1;saQQ;&yatana >h;na<. !nly an;g;mi or arahant *ho has mastered all the nine absor-tion :>h;nas< is able to de/elo- the nirodha&sam;-atti /Wthi. The -rocedure for de/elo-ing the nirodha&sam;-atti /Wthi is as follo*s. 5irst of all the -erson enters the rO-;/acara first&>h;na, comes out of it and meditates on the >h;na com-onents as to their characteristics of im-ermanence, suffering and non&self. He

re-eats this -rocedure *ith the rO-;/acara second&, third&, fourth& and fifth&>h;nas, and then also *ith the arO-;/acara first&, second& and third&>h;nas. re-eats this -rocedure *ith the rO-;/acara second&, third&, fourth& and fifth&>h;nas, and then also *ith the arO-;/acara first&, second& and third&>h;nas. @ May I remain in nirodha&sam;-atti for one hour, t*o hoursf, one day, t*o daysf, or se/en days :-ro/ided the -eriod does not e0ceed his life&s-an *hich he can .no*<. 7 May my body, the things I am using and the building I am li/ing be not harmed nor destroyed by any means :he can demarcate the area as much as he li.es<. M May I come out of the nirodha&sam;-atti as soon as #ord Buddha *ishes to see me :this is at the time *hen the Buddha is ali/e<. E May I come out of the nirodha&sam;-atti as soon as the congregation of mon.s *ishes my -resence :this is done out of res-ect for the congregation of mon.s<. No* the -erson de/elo-s the arO-;/acara fourth&>h;na and soon after the occurrence of ne/a&saQQ;&n1;saQQ;&yatana citta as a--an;&>a/ana for t*o conscious moments, the stream of consciousness is cut off3no cittas, cetasi.as and citta>a&rO-a :cor-oreality formed by citta< arise any more. The -erson *ill remain in this state of e0tinction of consciousness, its concomitants and citta>a&rO-a till the end of the -eriod he has resol/ed to remain in nirodha&sam;-atti. Though he does not breathe, eat, drin. or .no* anything, he is still ali/e. )hen he comes out of the nirodha&sam;-atti, an;g;m;&-hala citta arises once as a--an;&>a/ana if he is an an;g;mi, or arahatta&-hala citta arises once as a--an;&>a/ana if he is an arahant. Then bha/aTga cittas sin. into life&continuum.

?i-;.a Niy;ma ?i-;.a Niy;ma No* one comes across un-leasant ob>ects such as a decaying carcass, night&soil, etc., on account of a.usala .amma :un*holesome action<. So at such moments, a.usala /i-;.a cittas3namely, ca..hu&/iQQ;Pa, sam-aYicchana, sant;raPa and tad;lambaPa arise in the /Wthi. )hen one comes across fairly good ob>ects, .usala /i-;.a cittas3namely, ca..hu&/iQQ;Pa, sam-aYicchana, u-e..h;&sant;raPa and u-e..h;&tad;lambaPa arise in /Wthis. )hen the ob>ect is e/ery good, somanassa&san;raPa and somanassa&tad;lambaPa arise instead of the u-e..h;&ones. "usala and a.usala&>a/anas do not occur regularly as /i-;.a cittas. %oniso&manasi.;ra :*ise reflection< leads to the arising of .usala&>a/anas *hereas ayoniso&manasi.;ra :un*ise reflection< gi/es rise to a.usala&>a/anas. 5reIuency of ";ma&>a/anas Normally .;ma&>a/ana arises se/en times in a /Wthi. But in young babies and unconscious -erson, the hadaya&/atthu is *ea. and, accordingly, .;ma&>a/ana arises si0 or fi/e times in a /Wthi. In maran;sanna /Wthi, *hich occurs at the time of dying, .;ma>a/ana occurs only fi/e times. In -acca/e..haPa&/Wthis :retros-ecti/e cogniti/e -rocess<, the -erson is e0amining the >h;na&factors /ery ra-idly and so .;ma>a/ana occurs only four or fi/e times -er /Wthi. In u-ac;ra&sam;dhi >a/ana, .;ma&>a/ana occurs four times as -ari.amma, u-ac;ra, anuloma and gotrabhu in -ersons of slo*

.no*ledge, or three times as u-ac;ra, anuloma and gotrabhu in -ersons of Iuic. .no*ledge. .no*ledge, or three times as u-ac;ra, anuloma and gotrabhu in -ersons of Iuic. .no*ledge. In all the rO-;/acara&>h;na and arO-;/acara&>h;na /Wthis, the corres-onding a--an;&>a/ana occurs only once in a -erson *ho attains that >h;na for the first time. In order to enter the ecstatic absor-tion corres-onding to that >h;na, he can de/elo- >h;nasam;-atti /Wthi in *hich a--an;&>a/ana occurs re-eatedly many times. In abhiQQ; a--an;&/Wthis, the rO-;/acara .usala fifth&>a/ana arises once functioning as abhiQQ;&>a/ana. In an arahant, the rO-;/acara .iriya fifth&>h;na arises once as abhiQQ;&>a/ana. In magga a--an;&/Wthis, the corres-onding magga&>a/ana arises only once follo*ed by either t*o -hala&cittas as a--an;>a/anas in a -erson of slo* *isdom or three -hala&cittas as a--an;>a/ana in a -erson of Iuic. *isdom. In -hala&sam;-atti /Wthis, the corres-onding -hala&citta occurs many times *ithout brea. functioning as a--an;&>a/anas. In nirodha&sam;-atti /Wthi, ne/asaQQ;&n1;saQQ;&yatana citta arises t*ice >ust before e0tinction of consciousness and all mental acti/ity. During the nirodha&sam;-atti, cittas as *ell as cetasi.as and citta>a&rO-a are e0tinct= so no >a/ana e0ists. In coming out of the nirodha&sam;-atti anagami&-hala citta occurs once as a--an;&>a/ana in an an;g;m; or arahatta&-hala citta occurs once as a--an;&>a/ana in an arahant. As a regular -rocedure of >a/ana, immediately after a somanassa :-leasant< .;ma&>a/ana, a somanassa a--an;&>a/ana should be e0-ected, and after a .;ma&>a/ana, accom-anied by eIuanimity, an a--an;&>a/ana, accom-anied by eIuanimity, is to be e0-ected.

6rocedure of Tad;lambaPa 6rocedure of Tad;lambaPa 4enerally u-e..h;&>a/ana or domanassa&>a/ana is follo*ed by u-e..h;&tad;lambaPa *hereas somanassa&>a/ana is follo*ed by somanassa&tad;lambaPa. In -ractice the follo*ing -rocedure is obser/ed. @ After E mah;&.iriya u-e..h;&>a/anas and 7 domanassa >a/anas, E mah;&/i-;.a u-e..h;&tad;lambaPas and 7 santiraPa&u-e..h; tad;lambaPas may arise. 7 After E mah;&.iriya somanassa&>a/anas and hasitu--;da >a/ana, E mah;&/i-;.a somanassa&tad;lambaPas and one somanassa&santiraPa tad;lambaPa may arise. M After the remaining @9 a.usala&>a/anas and G mah;&.usala >a/anas, all the @@ tad;lambaPas may arise. Xgantu.a Bha/aTga 5or a -erson *hose rebirth&consciousness is a somanassa&citta, his life&continuum must also be a somanassa&bha/aTga for life. The rebirth&consciousness and the bha/aTga citta of a -erson must agree in bhOmi, citta, sam-ayutta&dhamma :concomitants< /edan; and saT.h;ra. )hen that -erson is angry, his domanassa&>a/anas cannot be follo*ed by somanassa&tad;lambaPa and somanassa&bha/aTga because domanassa&/edan; o--oses somanassa&/edan; >ust li.e fire o--osing *ater. But according to his rebirth&consciousness, somanassa&tad;lambaPa and somanassa&bha/aTga must arise. In this difficult situation, u-e..h;&santiraPa arises once as an ;gantu.a&bh;/an; :;gantu.a means ^guest1 or ^stranger1< -erforming bha/aTga&function and not the santiraPa&function.

The u-e..h;&/edan; can be matched *ith both domanassa/edan; and somanassa /edan;. The ;gantu.a&bha/aTga cannot -ercei/e the sense&ob>ect *hich is obser/ed by the domanassa>a/ana= it -ercei/es a .;ma&ob>ect *hich has been obser/ed se/eral times in the -ast. BhOmi and +ittas ^BhOmi1 means ^-lane of e0istence1. In .;ma&-lane, G9 cittas *ith the e0ce-tion of C mahaggata&cittas may -artici-ate in /Wthis. The C mahaggata&cittas function as rebirth&consciousness, life&continuum and death&consciousness in the res-ecti/e brahma&-lanes. In rO-a&-lanes, 7 gh;na&/iQQ;Pa cittas, 7 >i/h;&/iQQ;Pa&cittas, 7 .;ya&/iQQ;Pa&cittas, G mah;&/i-;.a cittas, 7 domanassa&cittas and E arO-a&/i-;.a cittas, totaling 79 in all, do not arise. So the remaining NC cittas, may arise in rO-a&-lanes. !f these NC cittas, the fi/e rO-a&/i-;.a cittas do not ta.e -art in /Wthis= thus only remaining NE cittas *ill -artici-ate in /Wthis. In arO-a&-lanes, the E7 cittas *hich may or may not de-end on hadaya&/atthu for their arising as mentioned in the ^6a.iPPa.a Section1 :+ha-ter M< together *ith E arO-a&/i-;.a cittas, totaling EN in all, may arise. !f the EN cittas, the E arO-a&/i-;.a cittas do not ta.e -art in /Wthis= thus only the remaining E7 cittas *ill -artici-ate in /Wthis. 6uggala&bheda :+lassification of Indi/iduals< ^6uggala1 means ^-erson1 or ^indi/idual1. There are E ty-es of -uthu>>ana :*orldlings< and G ty-e of ariya&-uggala :noble indi/iduals<.

6uthu>>ana 6uthu>>ana a 7 Sugati&ahetu.a&-uggala M D/Whetu.a&-uggala E TWhetu.a -uggala Ariya&-uggala a MaggaYYha 8 Sot;-atti&maggaYYha N Sa.ad;gami&maggaYYha H An;g;mi&maggaYYha G Arahatta&maggaYYha b 6halaYYha C Sot;-atti&-halaYYha @9 Sa.ad;gami&-halaYYha @@ An;g;mi&-halaYYha @7 Arahatta&-halaYYha ^Duggati1 means ^*oeful course of e0istence1 *hile ^sugati1 means ^ha--y course of e0istence1. ^Duggati&ahetu.a&-uggala1 refers to -ersons in a-;ya, i.e. the four ^lo*er *orlds,1 namely, the animal *orld, the ghost&*orld, the demon&*orld and hell :niraya<. ^Sugati&ahetu.a&-uggala1 refers to -ersons *ho are retarded, blind or deaf by birth in the human&*orld and the catumah;r;>i.ade/a abode. ^D/i&hetu.a&-uggala1 refers to human beings and de/as *ho are born *ith Q;Pa&/i--ayutta mah;&/i-;.a cittas *hich lac.s

*isdom. These -ersons cannot attain >h;nas and maggas in the -resent life ho*e/er much do they try. They may, ho*e/er, become ^ti&hetu.a&-uggala1 in the ne0t life as the result of their

meditation efforts in the -resent life, and then attain >h;nas and maggas easily if they *ill meditate again. meditation efforts in the -resent life, and then attain >h;nas and maggas easily if they *ill meditate again. The four maggaYYha&-ersons and the four -halaYYha&-ersons are ti&hetu.a&-uggala. The maggaYYha -ersons last for >ust one conscious moment *hile they are realiJing the corres-onding magga&Q;Pas. After the magga&Q;Pas, they become -halaYYha&-ersons. 6uggala and +ittas The cittas that can arise in /arious -erson in different abodes are tabulated belo*. 6uggala ";ma&bhOmi $O-a&bhOmi ArO-a&bhOmi Duggatiahetu.a A.usala cittas Ahetu.a cittas :hasitu-ada e0ce-ted< Mah;.usala cittas @7 @H G Nil Nil total MH Sugatiahetu.a and D*i&hetu.a A.usala cittas Ahetu.a cittas :hasitu-ada e0ce-ted< Mah;.usala Mah;/i-;.a Q;Pa&/i-assan; @7 @H G E Nil Nil total E@ +ontinued in +hart No. @9 attached at the bac. of this boo..

+ha-ter 8 +ha-ter 8 6lanes of E0istence ?Wthimutta +ittas In the -re/ious cha-ter the functions of /Wthi&cittas ha/e been described. No* in this cha-ter, *e shall deal *ith the functions of @C /Wthimutta cittas, i.e. -rocess&freed consciousness. The @C /Wthimutta&cittas include 7 u-e..h;&santiraPa cittas, G mah;&/i-;.a cittas and C mahaggata&/i-;.a cittas. These cittas function as rebirth&consciousness for all li/ing beings to be reborn in a--ro-riate -lanes of e0istence= then they function as life&continuum for the *hole e0istence of each li/ing being and finally as death&consciousness of the being. As the -lanes of e0istence are in/ol/ed in describing the functions of these /Wthimutta&cittas, this cha-ter is entitled as _BhOmi` as *ell as _?Wthimut`. 5ourfold +atu..as ^+atu..a1 means ^a grou- of four1. The fourfold catu..as that *ill be dealt *ith in this cha-ter are' @ BhOmi&catu..a a four -lanes of e0istence, 7 6aYisandhi&catu..a a four modes of rebirth, M "amma&catu..a a four .inds of action, and E Maranu--atti&catu..a a fourfold ad/ent of death.

5our -lanes of E0istence 5our -lanes of E0istence come into e0istence, go around for a li/ing, and finally die. The four -lanes of e0istence are' @ A-;ya&bhOmi or .;maduggati&bhOmi a the -lane of misery, 7 ";masugati&bhOmi a sensuous blissful -lane, M $O-a&bhOmi a -lane of fine material, and E ArO-a&bhOmi a -lane of non&material. @ A-;ya&bhOmi Among these, the a-;ya&bhOmi is again fourfold namely, i niraya :hell< or *oeful state, ii tiracch;na :animal .ingdom<, iii -eta *orld :unha--y ghosts< i/ the host of asuras :demons< A-;ya a de/oid of ha--iness= .;maduggati a en>oy sense -leasures but miseries abound. 7 ";masugati :sense&-leasures abound< The .;masugati&bhOmi consists of the human realm and N de/a-lanes ma.ing H -lanes in all. M $O-a&bhOmi $O-a&bhOmi consists of M first&>h;na -lanes, M second&>h;na -lanes, M third&>h;na -lanes and H fourth&>h;na -lanes totalling @N -lanes altogether. E ArO-a&bhOmi ArO-a&bhOmi is fourfold, namely, i X.;s;naQc;yatana&bhOmi a the realm of infinite s-ace,

ii ?iQQ;naQc;yatana&bhOmi a the realm of infinite consciousness, iii X.iQcaQQ;yatana&bhOmi a the realm of nothingness, and i/ N1e/asaQQ;&n1;saQQ;yatana&bhOmi a the realm of neither ii ?iQQ;naQc;yatana&bhOmi a the realm of infinite consciousness, iii X.iQcaQQ;yatana&bhOmi a the realm of nothingness, and i/ N1e/asaQQ;&n1;saQQ;yatana&bhOmi a the realm of neither +ounting all the se-arate -lanes, *e get E a-;ya -lanes, H .;masugati&-lanes, @N rO-a&-lanes and E arO-a&-lanes, ma.ing M@ -lanes in all. Situation of BhOmis @ The human realm, the animal realm, the -eta realm and the asura realm e0ist on the surface of the earth. These realms are not se-arated, but the beings mo/e about in their o*n *orlds. 7 Niraya re-resents se/eral *oeful states *here beings atone for their e/il .amma. They are not eternal hells. U-on the e0haustion of the e/il .amma, beings may be reborn in good states as the result of their -ast good actions. There are G ma>or nirayas or nara.as *hich e0ist belo* the surface of the earth. Their names, in order of distance from the surface of the earth, are SaQ>W/a, ";\asutta, SaTgh;ta, $oru/a, Mah;roru/a, T;-ana, Mah;t;-ana and A/Wci. :The reader may refer the BhOmi&chart attached at the bac. of this boo.. The chart also mentions the distances bet*een -lanes in yo>ana *hich is about G miles.< Each ma>or niraya has the form of a sIuare. !n each side of the sIuare there are again four minor nirayas

namely, se*age s*am-, field of hot ash, forest of thorny threes and hot ri/er *ith canes. namely, se*age s*am-, field of hot ash, forest of thorny threes and hot ri/er *ith canes. M The Si0 Sensuous +elestial 6lanes :de/a&-lanes< are situated abo/e the ground and high u- in the s.y. i +atumah;r;>i.; a The lo*est of the hea/enly realms *here the four guardian deities reside *ith their follo*ers. Some lo*er beings of this -lane ha/e their d*ellings on earth. ii T;/ati[s; a The realm of MM gods and their follo*ers. Sa..a, the .ing of the gods, reside in this celestial -lane. iii %;m; a The realm of the %;m; gods. i/ Tusit; a The hea/en of delight. / Nimm;narati a The hea/en of the gods *ho re>oice in their o*n creations. /i 6aranimmita&/asa/atW a The hea/en of the gods *ho bring under their s*ay things created by others. These si0 celestial -lanes are tem-orary blissful abodes *here beings li/e ha--ily en>oying sensual -leasures as the results of their good .ammas. Su-erior to these sensuous -lanes are the Brahma realms *here beings delight in >h;na&bliss achie/ed by their rO-;/acara& and arO-;/acara&.usala .ammas. E The @N 6lanes of 5ine Material :$O-a&bhOmi< are situated much higher than the N Sensuous Blissful 6lanes.

ii Brahma&-arisa>>; a The realm of Brahma1s retinue, Brahma&-urohit; a The realm of Brahma1s ministers. Mah;&brahm; a The realm of great Brahmas. ii The M -lanes of second >h;na are' 6aritt;bh; a The hea/en of minor lustre, A--am;n;bh; a The hea/en of infinite lustre, Abhassar; a The hea/en of radiant gods. iii The M -lanes of third >h;na are' 6aritta&subh; a The hea/en of the gods of minor aura A--am;na&subh; a The hea/en of the gods of infinite aura, Subh;&.iPh; a The hea/en of the gods full of steady aura. i/ The H -lanes of fourth >h;na are' ?eha--hala a The hea/en of the gods of great re*ards, AsaQQ;&satta a The hea/en of Brahmas *ith >ust rO-a and no n;ma, Suddh;/;s; a The hea/e of -ure abodes a only an;g;mWs and arahats are found in these abodes. Suddh;/;s; is made u- of 8 -lanes' A/ih; a The durable hea/en, Xta--; a The serene hea/en, Sudass; a The beautiful hea/en, SudassW a The clear&sighted hea/en, A.aniYYha a The su-reme hea/en. 8 The E 6lanes of Non&Materials :ArO-a&bhOmi< are situated high abo/e the -lanes of fine material. The names of the E ArO-a&-lanes ha/e been mentioned abo/e.

BhOmi and 6ersons BhOmi and 6ersons before the conclusion of cha-ter I?. )e shall no* -lace these -ersons in the /arious -lanes of e0istence to *hich they belong. @ In the four a-;ya abodes, only the duggati&ahetu.a -erson is found. 7 In the human realm and catumah;r;>i.a realm, ele/en ty-es of -ersons *ith the e0ce-tion of the duggatiahetu.a -erson are -resent. M In the fi/e higher sensuous blissful -lanes, ten ty-es of -ersons *ith the e0ce-tion of the duggati&ahetu.a -erson and the sugati&ahetu.a -erson are -resent. E In the ten rO-a&brahma -lanes *ith the e0ce-tion of asaQQ;satta and fi/e suddh;/;sas, one tihetu.a&-uthu>>ana -erson and eight ariya -ersons are -resent. 8 In the asaQQ;satta hea/en, only one sugati&ahetu.a -erson *ho is born *ith >W/ita rO-a only is -resent. N In the fi/e suddh;/;sa hea/ens, an;g;mi&-halaYYha -erson, arahatta&maggaYYha -erson and arahatta&-halaYYha -erson are -resent. The an;g;mWs, *ho attained the fourth >h;na in the human realm, are born here after their e0-iration in the human realm. In due course they attain the arahatshi- in the suddh;/;sa hea/ens. H In the four arO-a&-lanes, se/en ariya -ersons :*ith the e0ce-tion of sot;-atti&maggaYYha -erson< and one tihetu.a-uthu>>ana -erson are -resent. Sot;-atti&magga is not attainable in these -lanes. Sot;-anna -ersons, *ho attain arO-a&>h;na in the human realm, may be reborn in arO-a-lanes and they may attain higher maggas and -halas in due course.

5our Modes of $ebirth :6aYisandhi&catu..a< @ A-;ya&-aYisandhi :*oeful rebirth< a A.usala&/i-;.a u-e..h; santiraPa ahetu.a citta 7 5our Modes of $ebirth :6aYisandhi&catu..a< @ A-;ya&-aYisandhi :*oeful rebirth< a A.usala&/i-;.a u-e..h; santiraPa ahetu.a citta 7 M $O-a&-aYisandhi :rebirth in $O-a&-lanes< a 8 $O-;/acara&/i-;.a cittas b >W/ita&na/a.a&.al;-a rO-a-aYisandhi. E ArO-a&-aYisandhi :rebirth in the ArO-a -lanes< a E ArO-;/acara&/i-;.a cittas. Notes' a !ne a-;ya&-aYisandhi, one .;ma&sugati ahetu.a&-aYisandhi and G .;masugati sahetu.a -aYisandhis together ma.e u@9 .;ma&-aYisandhis. b5i/e rO-;/acara&/i-;.a cittas and >W/ita&na/a.a&.al;-a rO-a-aYisandhi together ma.e u- N rO-a&-aYisandhis. c Ten .;ma&-aYisandhis, N rO-a&-aYisandhis and E arO-a-aYisandhis together ma.e u- 79 ty-es of -aYisandhi :rebirth<. The number of -aYisandhi e0ceeds the number of rebirth& consciousness by one, because there is one rO-a&-aYisandhi. 6erson and 6aYisandhi @. The four a-;ya&-ersons in niriya, tiracch;na, -eta and asura -lanes are born *ith a.usala&/i-;.a u-e..h; santiraPa ahetu.a citta. This citta is the resultant of immoral .amma. It becomes the relin.ing :rebirth&consciousness< at the

moment of descent into the *oeful state. Then it la-ses into life&continuum :bha/aTga< and finally it becomes the death&consciousness and is cut off. moment of descent into the *oeful state. Then it la-ses into life&continuum :bha/aTga< and finally it becomes the death&consciousness and is cut off. In the human realm and catumah;r;>i.a realm, degraded human beings such as those *ho are blind, deaf, dumb, retarded or deformed by birth, and degraded earthbound deities :de/as< are born *ith .usala&/i-;.a u-e..h; santiraPa ahetu.a citta. M In all the se/en sensuous blissful -lanes, normal human beings and deities :de/as< are born *ith any one of the eight mah;/i-;.a cittas. Thus the eight great resultants act as the relin.ing :rebirth&consciousness<, the life& continuum and the death consciousness e/ery*here in the blissful sense&s-here. Among humans and deities, d/i&hetu.a -ersons are born *ith four mah;/i-;.a Q;Pa/i--ayutta cittas *hereas ti&hetu.a -ersons are born *ith four mah;/i-;.a Q;Pasam-ayutta cittas. E i. ii iii i/ Among the rO-a&brahmas' the brahmas of the M first&>h;na -lanes are born *ith the rO-;/acara first&>h;na /i-;.a citta, the brahmas of the M second&>h;na -lanes are born *ith either the rO-;/acara second&>h;na /i-;.a citta or the rO-;/acara third&>h;na citta, the brahmas of the M third&>h;na -lanes are born *ith the rO-;/acara fourth&>h;na citta, the brahmas of the fourth&>h;na -lanes, *ith the e0ce-tion of asaQQ;satta brahmas, are born *ith the rO-;/acara fifth&>h;na citta, and

// rO-a. 8 X.;s;naQc;yatana&brahmas are born *ith ;.;s;naQc;yatana& /i-;.a citta, ?iQQ;naQc;yatana&brahmas are born *ith /iQQ;naQc;yatana& /i-;.a citta, X.iQcaQQ;yatana&brahmas are born *ith ;.iQcaQQ;yatana/i-;.a citta, and N1e/asaQQ;&n1;saQQ;yatana&brahmas are born *ith n1e/asaQQ;&n1;saQQ;yatana&/i-;.a citta. The Method of Naming $O-a&-lanes The reason for some disagreement in the names of the rO-a-lanes and the rebirth consciousness of brahmas is that there are t*o *ays of counting rO-a&>h;nas. 5or -ersons of slo* *isdom, after attaining the first rO-;/acara >h;na, they ha/e to eliminate the >h;na factors one by one in going u- to the higher >h;nas. Thus, for this ty-e of -erson, there are fi/e rO-;/acara >h;nas. 5or -ersons of Iuic. *isdom, after attaining the first >h;na, they eliminate /ita..a and /ic;ra together in going to the second >h;na. Thus their second >h;na is eIui/alent to the third >h;na of the slo*&*isdom -eo-le, and their fourth >h;na is eIui/alent to the fifth >h;na of the slo*&*isdom -eo-le. So there are only four rO-;/acara >h;nas for Iuic.&*isdom -eo-le. In -ractice, as is obser/ed in International Buddha S;sana +entres :6a&au. Meditation +entres<, almost all -eo-le eliminate /ita..a and /ic;ra together. Hence the method of counting rO-;/acara >h;nas u- to the fourth le/el is the more common

one, and conseIuently the >h;na&-lanes are named according to this method. one, and conseIuently the >h;na&-lanes are named according to this method. +hart No. 8.@ attached at the bac. of this boo.<, the rebirth&consciousness is described according to the fi/e rO-;/acara&>h;na method *hereas the $O-a&-lanes are described according to the four rO-;/acara&>h;na method. The t*o methods of counting rO-;/acara >h;nas, together *ith the names of the rO-a&-lanes, are illustrated in Table 8.@. TAB#E 8.@ Dual Method of +ounting $O-;/acara Fh;nas Fh;na factor 5i/e&>h;na method 5our&>h;na method Name of $O-a-lane ta., ca, -i, su e.aggata ca, -i, su, e. -i, su, e. su, e. u-, e. first >h;na second >h;na third >h;na fourth >h;na fifth >h;na first >h;na 3 second >h;na third >h;na fourth >h;na first >h;na 3 second >h;na third >h;na fourth >h;na 5our Modes of +oncei/ing @ Anda>a&-aYisandhi a concei/ing in egg shell 7

Fal;bu>a&-aYisandhi a concei/ing in the *omb M Samseda>a&-aYisandhi a concei/ing in the hollo* or a tree& trun., in a fruit, in a flo*er, in marsh, in stagnant *ater, in cor-ses and carcasses, etc., li.e flies and mosIuitoes. E !-a-;ti.a&-aYisandhi a rebirth in the form of a fully

gro*n&u- -erson about @N years of age as if >um-ing out of no *here. gro*n&u- -erson about @N years of age as if >um-ing out of no *here. A--lications @ )oeful -ersons in niraya are born by the *ay of o-a-;ti.a&-aYisandhi only. 7 6etas and asuras are born by either >al;bu>a&-aYisandhi or o-a-;ti.a&-aYisandhi. M Animals are born by all the four modes of concei/ing. E Human beings are first born by o-a-;ti.a&-aYisandhi at the beginning of the *orld, and later by either >al;bu>a-aYisandhi or samseda>a&-aYisandhi. 8 Earth&bound de/as are born by either >al;bu>a&-aYisandhi or o-a-;ti.a&-aYisandhi. N +elestial de/as and brahmas are born by o-a-;ti.a-aYisandhi only. #ife&s-ans of Beings @ )oeful -ersons in the four a-;ya abodes do not ha/e fi0ed life&s-ans. They suffer in *oeful states in accordance *ith their .ammas. Their age&limit differs according to their e/il deeds. Some are short&li/ed and some are long&li/ed. During the Buddha1s time the mon. Tissa, on e0-iring, became a flea for se/en days in the ne* robe, *hich *as offered to him by his sister and *hich he *as attached to at the time of e0-iring.

Again, Malli.a, the Iueen of "ing "osala, had to suffer in a *oeful state only for se/en days due to an immoral deed, and then she *as reborn in the sensuous blissful -lane for her good deed. !n the other hand, De/adatta is destined to suffer for an aeon in niraya for his serious bad .amma of causing a schism in the !rder of Brotherhood. 7 The human beings also do not ha/e fi0ed life&s-an= the age&limit rises from ten years to uncountable years :asaT.heyya< and then falls to ten years again. The interim -eriod, *hen the age&limit of human beings rises from ten uncountable years and then falls to ten again, is .no*n as an antara&.a--a. In other *ords, an antara&.a--a is measured by the time reIuired by the -endulum of the life&term of generations to s*ing from a ten&year&term to an asaT.heyya&term and bac. again to the ten&year&term. Si0ty&four such antara&.a--as eIual one asaT.heyya.a--a, literally an incalculable cycle. An asaT.heyya&.a--a e0ceeds the time reIuired to e0haust a big bo0 a yo>ana each in length, breadth, and height, filled *ith mustard seeds, by thro*ing a*ay a seed once in e/ery hundred years. An asaT.heyya&.a--a may be ta.en as an aeon. 5our asaT.he yya&.a--as eIual one mah;&.a--a, literally a great cycle. !ne mah;&.a--a is also .no*n as a *orld&cycle. M The earth&bound deities and degraded asuras both

belong to the catumah;r;>i.; -lane. They do not ha/e fi0ed life&s-ans. belong to the catumah;r;>i.; -lane. They do not ha/e fi0ed life&s-ans. S-ans of +elestial De/as De/a &-lane $es-ecti/e de/a &year Human year +atumah;r;>i.; T;/ati[s; %;m; Tusit; Nimm;narati 6aranimmita ?asa/atW 899 @999 7999 E999 G999 @N999 C,999,999 MN,999,999 @EE,999,999 8HN,999,999 7,M@E,999,999 C,7@N,999,999 Notes' i A celestial day in u--er +atumah;r;>i.; is eIual to 89 human years= a celestial day in T;/ati[s; is eIual to @99 human years= a celestial&day in %;m; is eIual to 799 human years= and so on. Thirty celestial days ma.e a month and @7 months ma.e a year. ii As *e go u- from a lo*er -lane to a higher -lane, the life&term is doubled and the length of the celestial day is also doubled. So the time in human years is increased by four times. This is the .ey to remember the life&s-ans of different de/a&-lanes a double the celestial years and multi-ly the human years by E as one goes u- the ladder.

iii #ord Buddha -reached Abhidhamma&desan; in T;/ati[s; for three months at a stretch *ithout sto--ing. No human beings *ould be able to listen to that long sermon *ithout brea.. But a -eriod of C9 days on earth is >ust M.N minutes in T;/ati[s;. So the gods ha/e no trouble to listen to #ord Buddha. Destruction of the )orld According to the Buddhist canon, there are infinite numbers of *orlds and no *orld is -ermanent. !ur o*n earth *ill come to an end one day. This is some*hat co&related to the obser/ations through the most -o*erful telesco-e that old stars are being burnt out and ne* stars are being formed. The *orld may be destroyed by fire, *ater or *ind. )hen it is destroyed by fire, all the *orld u- to the M first&>h;na -lanes *ill be burnt out. After being destroyed se/en times consecuti/ely by fire, the *orld *ill be destroyed by *ater on the eighth time *hen all the *orld u- to the M second&>h;na -lanes *ill be destroyed. After being destroyed in regular cycles H times by fire and one time by *ater, the *orld *ill be destroyed by *ind on the NEth time *hen all the *orld u- to the M third&>h;na -lanes *ill be destroyed. Usually #o.a-;la&de/as :guardian&deities of the *orld< inform the -eo-le in ad/ance about the coming destruction of the *orld. So the -eo-le, out of fright, -erform good deeds and underta.e samatha :tranIuillity< meditation to attain the higher >h;nas in order to be reborn in higher celestial -lanes so as to esca-e the calamity.

TAB#E 8.M TAB#E 8.M Brahma&6lane Name of -lane #ife s-an 5irst&>h;na M -lanes Brahma&-arisa>>; Brahma&-urohit; Mah;&brahm; @ZM asaT.heyya&.a--a @Z7 asaT.heyya&.a--a @ asaT.heyya&.a--a Second&>h;na M -lanes 6aritt;bh; A--am;n;bh; Abhassar; 7 *orld&cycles E *orld&cycles G *orld&cycles Third&>h;na M -lanes 6aritta&subh; A--am;na&subh; Subha&.iPh; @N *orld&cycles M7 *orld&cycles NE *orld&cycles 5ourth&>h;na ?eha--hal; 899 *orld&cycles H -lanes AsaQQ;satta A/ih; Xta--; Sudass; SudassW A.aniYYha 899 *orld&cycles @999 *orld&cycles 7999 *orld&cycles E999 *orld&cycles G999 *orld&cycles @N999 *orld&cycles ArO-;/acara X.;s;naQc;yatana 79999 *orld&cycles E -lanes ?iQQ;nanc;yatana A.iQcaQQ;yatana N1e/asaQQ;n;saQQ ;yatana E9999 *orld&cycles

N9999 *orld&cycles GE999 *orld&cycles

5our "inds of "amma :"amma&catu..a< 5our "inds of "amma :"amma&catu..a< No* action may be -erformed by bodily mo/ement :.;ya<, by *ords of mouth :/acW<, or by thought :mano<. But the body and the mouth cannot mo/e on their o*n accord= they ha/e to be mo/ed by the mind :citta< through citta>a&rO-a. Again citta is >ust the a*areness of a sense&ob>ect= it does not gi/e the order or direction to -erform an action on its o*n accord. It is the /olition :cetan;< *hich directs the citta and its concomitants to -erform the action. So cetan; is res-onsible for carrying out an action. Thus, strictly s-ea.ing, .amma means all moral and immoral /olition :cetan;<. The /olition ha/ing the root in ignorance :moha<, greed or attachment :lobha< or anger :dosa< is e/il. The /olition, *hich is accom-anied by generosity :alobha<, good&*ill :adosa< and *isdom :-aQQ;<, is *holesome. In other *ords, the cetan; -resent in the @7 a.usala cittas are immoral .ammas *hereas the cetan; -resent in G mah;&.usala cittas, 8 rO-;/acara&.usala cittas and E arO-;/acara&.usala cittas are moral .ammas. No* cetan; and its concomitants :i.e. citta and cetasi.as other than cetan;< -erish after -erforming their res-ecti/e -ur-oses. But before they -erish, they lea/e their .ammic -ro-erty in the citta&stream. This .ammic -ro-erty is the -otential .amma *hich *ill -roduce its due effect in some -ro-er time, and the effect *ill fall on the doer himself. It is some*hat analogous to Ne*ton1s third la* of motion in -hysics. The la* states' _To e/ery action, there is an eIual

and o--osite reaction`. Thus a -erson, *ho -erforms a good or bad action, should e0-ect an eIual and o--osite reaction either in this life or in some future life. and o--osite reaction`. Thus a -erson, *ho -erforms a good or bad action, should e0-ect an eIual and o--osite reaction either in this life or in some future life. As a /egetable seed gi/es rise to a ne* -lant of the same .ind of tree *hich gi/es the seed, so also a .amma seed *ill -roduce a ne* being in a -lane a--ro-riate to the original .amma. An immoral .amma *ill gi/e rebirth in a *oeful -lane *hereas a moral .amma *ill gi/e rebirth in a blissful -lane. Fust as many&billion immoral .ammas are -roduced in a single act of .illing a mosIuito, so in -erforming a *holesome deed, such as gi/ing charity, many billion moral .ammas are -roduced. Thus the number of moral as *ell as immoral .ammas accumOlated in this life as *ell as in uncountable -ast li/es are so numerous that it cannot be handled by a su-er&com-uter. %et all these .ammas are in the citta stream of each indi/idual follo*ing him *here/er he emerges in a ne* life. Fust as e/ery ob>ect is accom-anied by a shado*, e/en so e/ery .amma is accom-anied by its due effect. "amma is action and /i-;.a :fruit or result< is its reaction. It is the cause and the effect. #i.e a seed is .amma, li.e a -lant is /i-;.a. As *e so*, so *e rea- either in this life or in a future life. )hat *e rea- today is *hat *e ha/e so*n either in the -resent or in the -ast.

"amma is a la* in itself, and it o-erates in its o*n field *ithout any inter/ention of an e0ternal ruling agency. Inherent in .amma is the -otentiality of -roducing its due effect. "amma is the cause= /i-;.a is the effect. The cause -roduces the effect= the effect e0-lains the cause. The la* of cause and effect rules e/ery*here. "amma is a la* in itself, and it o-erates in its o*n field *ithout any inter/ention of an e0ternal ruling agency. Inherent in .amma is the -otentiality of -roducing its due effect. "amma is the cause= /i-;.a is the effect. The cause -roduces the effect= the effect e0-lains the cause. The la* of cause and effect rules e/ery*here. A "icca&.amma +atu..a )ith res-ect to function, there are four .inds of .amma' @ Fana.a&.amma $e-roducti/e .amma *hich -roduces mental aggregates and material aggregates at the moment of conce-tion as *ell as throughout the life&time of the indi/idual= 7 U-atthambha.a&.amma Su--orti/e .amma *hich su--orts the >ana.a&.amma as *ell as the effect of the >ana.a&.amma throughout the life&time of the indi/idual= M U-a-W\a.a&.amma !bstructi/e .amma *hich *ea.ens, interru-ts or retards the fruition of the >ana.a .amma= E U-agh;ta.a&.amma Destructi/e .amma *hich not only cuts off the effect of the >ana.a .amma but also destroys the >ana.a .amma and -roduce its o*n effect. In other *ords, the -erson dies abru-tly and is reborn in accordance *ith the u-agh;ta.a&.amma.

As an e0am-le of the o-eration of the abo/e four .ammas, the case of De/adatta may be cited. His good >ana.a&.amma conditioned him to be born in a royal family. His continued comforts and -ros-erity *ere due to the action of the >ana.a.amma as *ell as the su--orti/e .amma. The obstructi/e .amma came into -lay *hen he *as e0communicated from the SaPgha and sub>ect to much humiliation. Then his serious immoral .amma causing a schism in the Sa[gha o-erated as the destructi/e .amma *hich sent him do*n to the a/Wci hell. B 6;.ad;na-ariy;ya&.amma +atu..a )ith res-ect to the -riority in bearing results, there are four .inds of .amma' @ 4aru.a&.amma )eighty .amma *hich is so strong that no other .amma can sto- its function in the ne0t life. In other *ords, it certainly -roduces its results in the ne0t life. Bad *eighty .ammas are -aQc;nantariya .amma, namely, :i< creating a schism in the Sa[gha, :ii< *ounding a Buddha, :iii< murdering an arahat, :i/< matricide, and, :/< -arricide. Niyata&micch;diYYhi :-ermanent false /ie*< is also termed as one of the *eighty .ammas. !n the other hand, 8 rO-;/acara&.usala .ammas and E arO-;/acara&.usala .ammas are good *eighty .ammas. #o.uttara&magga is also a *eighty force for it closes the doors of the four a-;ya abodes for e/er. 7 AsaQQ;&.amma 6ro0imate .amma that is -erformed or remembered >ust before death.

M M Habitual .amma *hich is -erformed regularly, or it may be a .amma *hich is -erformed once and is recollected and remembered all the time. E "aYatt;&.amma Uns-ecified .amma *hich is done once and soon forgotten. No* if *e ha/e any garu.a&.amma, it *ill -roduce its result *hen *e die and condition our ne0t life. If *e do not ha/e any garu.a&.amma, *hich is often the case, then *e must rely on asaQQ;&.amma to condition our ne0t life. To get a good asaQQ;&.amma, sons and daughters or relati/es and friends should arrange *holesome deeds such as offering robes to mon.s or listening to Dhamma&-reaching for the -erson on his or her death&bed. The dying -erson should also be reminded of his -ast good deeds. A good e0am-le is ?enerable SoPa1s father in +eylon. The father made a li/ing by hunting. )hen he *as too old to go hunting, he became a mon. in his son1s monastery. Soon he fell ill and had a /ision that hell hounds *ere coming u- the hill to bite him. He *as frightened, and so he as.ed his son to dri/e a*ay the hounds. His son, *ho *as an arahat, .ne* that his father *as ha/ing a gati&nimitta to be cast a*ay in niraya. He as.ed his disci-les to gather flo*ers Iuic.ly and s-read them all o/er the -agoda in the monastery. Then they carried his father together *ith his bed to the -agoda. ?enerable SoPa reminded his father to -ay homage to the -agoda and to re>oice in the offering of flo*ers on his behalf.

The old mon. calmed do*n, -aid res-ect to the -agoda and *as delighted in seeing the flo*ers being offered to the -agoda on his behalf. At that moment, his gati&nimitta changed. He told his son, _%our beautiful ste-&mothers from celestial abode come to ta.e me along`. The son *as satisfied *ith the result of his efforts. The old mon. calmed do*n, -aid res-ect to the -agoda and *as delighted in seeing the flo*ers being offered to the -agoda on his behalf. At that moment, his gati&nimitta changed. He told his son, _%our beautiful ste-&mothers from celestial abode come to ta.e me along`. The son *as satisfied *ith the result of his efforts. To be sure to get a good asaQQ;&.amma, ho*e/er, *e should de/elo- an ;ciPPa&.amma *hile *e are ali/e. The best ;ciPPa.amma is tranIuillity&meditation or insight&meditation *hich can be -erformed all the time. )hen it becomes habitual, it *ill be remembered and -ractised near the time of death. "ing DuQQh;gamaPi of +eylon *as in the habit of gi/ing alms to mon.s before he too. his meals. !nce his brother rose against him and dro/e him into the forest. )hile hiding in the forest, he as.ed his attendant *hether they had anything to eat. His attendant re-lied that he had brought a bo*l of royal meal. The .ing di/ided the meal into four -ortions a one -ortion is for him, one for the attendant, one for the horse and one for offering. He then as.ed the attendant to in/ite mon.s or recluses to come and collect his offering. !f course they could see no one around. But on the .ing1s insistence, the attendant in/ited aloud. #o2 A re/erend mon. came mo/ing in the air. The mon. *as an arahat *ith the .no*ledge of abhiQQ;. The .ing *as so delighted that he offered not only the fourth -ortion of the meal but also his -ortion. The attendant follo*ed suit and offered his share. !n loo.ing at the horse, it nodded indicating that it *anted to offer its share as *ell.

The .ing *as in ecstasy for some time and then felt hungry again. "no*ing that the arahat could hear him *ith his di/ine ear :dibba&sota<, he made a *ish to send him any remnant of the meal. The arahat sent him the begging&bo*l *hich came flying in the air. The .ing too. the bo*l and found it full of food. The food can be multi-lied by iddhi&/idha&abhiQQ; :su-ernormal -o*er<. The .ing, the attendant and the horse could eat to their full. The .ing *as in ecstasy for some time and then felt hungry again. "no*ing that the arahat could hear him *ith his di/ine ear :dibba&sota<, he made a *ish to send him any remnant of the meal. The arahat sent him the begging&bo*l *hich came flying in the air. The .ing too. the bo*l and found it full of food. The food can be multi-lied by iddhi&/idha&abhiQQ; :su-ernormal -o*er<. The .ing, the attendant and the horse could eat to their full. +unda, a butcher, made a li/ing by slaughtering -igs cruelly for more than fifty years. )hen the time *as u-, the fire from niraya came u- and burnt him ma.ing him sIueal li.e a -ig for se/en days. He *as in niraya as soon as he died. Thus ;ciPPa.amma becomes asaQQ;&.amma and -roduces its result. The Simile of a +attle&shed Su--ose that many cattle are .e-t in a big shed for the night. In the morning the door of the shed is o-ened to let the cattle go out to the -asture. No* *hich one *ill come out firstL All the cattle *ait to get out as soon as -ossible. If there is a leader among them *hom e/eryone res-ects, this one *ill *al.

ma>estically to the door and come out first. This one is li.e a garu.a&.amma *hich is uncontested to bear its result in the ne0t life. ma>estically to the door and come out first. This one is li.e a garu.a&.amma *hich is uncontested to bear its result in the ne0t life. Sometimes a /igilant one, *hich has regularly noticed the time *hen the shed is o-ened, may *al. to the door >ust before it is o-ened and come out first *hen the door is o-ened. This is li.e the ;ciPPa&.amma -roducing its result in the ne0t life. Sometimes an une0-ected frail one, by being -ushed by stronger ones, may come out of the shed first. This is similar to the case *hen an une0-ected .aYaYY;&.amma has the chance to condition the ne0t life. Rueen Malli.a led a righteous life, but she remembered a lie, *hich she had told "ing "osala long ago, at her death moment. So this had .aYaYY;&.amma cast her do*n to a *oeful state for se/en days. + 6;.a.;la&.amma +atu..a )ith res-ect to the time of ta.ing effect there are four .inds of .amma' @ DiYYhadhamma/edanWya&.amma Immediately effecti/e .amma *hich bears fruits in the -resent life= 7 U-a-a>>a/edanWya&.amma SubseIuently effecti/e .amma *hich bears fruits in the ne0t :second< life= M A-ar;-ariya/edanWya&.amma Indefinitely effecti/e .amma *hich bears fruits from

the third life till the last life *hen the -erson realiJes Nibb;na= E the third life till the last life *hen the -erson realiJes Nibb;na= E Defunct .amma *hich no longer bears fruits. In studying /Wthis, *e notice that mah;&.usala citta or a.usala citta functions se/en times as >a/ana in normal situations. The cetan; :/olition< associated *ith the first >a/ana is named diYYhadhamma/edanWya&.amma *hich *ill -roduce its result in this /ery life. If it does not o-erate in this life, it becomes defunct. De/adatta and +unda *ere burnt by niraya fire in their -resent li/es. 6oor ";.a/aliya cou-le, after offering boiled rice to ?enerable Sari-utta, became /ery rich in se/en days. !f the se/en >a/anas, the first >a/ana is the *ea.est. The strongest is the se/enth&>a/ana. The cetan; associated *ith this >a/ana is called u-a-a>>a/edaniya&.amma. It -roduces its result in the ne0t :second< life. If it does not o-erate in the second birth, it too becomes defunct or ineffecti/e :ahosi<. The fi/e intermediate >a/anas are strong, and the cetan;s associated *ith them are .no*n as a-ar;-Wriya&/edanWya&.amma. As millions of /Wthis occur in an act of *holesome or un*holesome deed, there *ill arise many millions of this ty-e of .amma during the action. So this .amma *ill o-erate indefinitely from the third birth till the last one *hen the indi/idual attains Nibb;na. No one, not e/en Buddhas and arahats, is e0em-t from this class of .amma. So for e/ery action *e ha/e -erformed *e should e0-ect the conseIuences not only in this life but in indefinite li/es in the future in the course of our *anderings in Sa[s;ra. So be careful2

D D )ith res-ect to the -lace *here the .ammic effect ta.es -lace, .amma is di/ided into four classes' @ A.usala .amma Immoral action *hich -roduces its effect in the four a-;ya abodes. 7 ";m;/acara&.usala .amma Moral action in the sense&s-here that -roduces its effect in the se/en sensuous blissful realms :.;malo.a<= M $O-;/acara&.usala .amma Moral action in the fine&material s-here that -roduces its effect in the si0teen rO-a&realm :rO-alo.a<= E ArO-;/acara&.usala .amma Moral action in the non&material s-here that -roduces its effect in the four arO-a&realms :arO-alo.a<. Notes' i In essence, it should be noted that' a A.usala&.amma a @7 cetan; associated *ith @7 a.usala cittas. b ";m;/acara&.usala .amma a G cetan; accom-anied *ith G mah;&.usala cittas, c $O-;/acara&.usala .amma a 8 cetan; accom-anied *ith 8 rO-;/acara .usala cittas. d ArO-;/acara&.usala .amma a E cetan; accom-anied *ith E arO-;/acara .usala cittas. ii The .ammic effect is of t*o .inds a /i-;.a&n;ma..handha and .aYaYYa&rO-a. a ?i-;.a&n;ma..handha a /i-;.a citta and its concomitants

b brO-a is cor-oreality -roduced by .amma and Utu>a&rO-a is cor-oreality -roduced by tem-erature. 5urthermore the .ammic effect occurs at -aYisandhi&.;la :i.e. the arising moment of -aYisandhi citta< as *ell as at -a/itti&.;la :i.e. from the e0isting moment of -aYisandhi&citta till death<. "amma&d/;ra and three Ty-es of "amma The -lace *here .amma occurs or the means by *hich .amma arises is called .amma&d/;ra. There are three .amma&d/;ras. @ ";ya&d/;ra S-ecial bodily mo/ement called .;ya/iQQatti *here bodily action :.;ya&.amma< occurs. 7 ?acW&d/;ra S-eech&-roducing mo/ement of the mouth called /aci/iQQatti *here /erbal action :/acW.amma< arises. M Mano&d/;ra All cittas *here mental action :mano&.amma< arises. In accordance *ith three .amma&d/;ras, there are three ty-es of .amma. @ ";ya&.amma Bodily action generally -erformed by s-ecial bodily mo/ement called .;ya/iQQatti. 7 ?acW&.amma ?erbal action generally -erformed by s-ecial mo/ement of the mouth called /acW/iQQatti. M Mano&.amma Mental action -erformed by the mind through thin.ing, -lotting, meditating, etc.

Ten A.usala&.amma&-athas Ten A.usala&.amma&-athas @ A.usala&.;ya&.amma There are M un*holesome bodily actions' @ 6;n;ti-;t; a .illing any li/ing being, 7 Adinn;d;n; a stealing or ta.ing other1s -ro-erty un la*fully, M "amesu&micch;c;r; a se0ual misconduct such as un la*ful se0ual intercourse. 7 A.usala&/acW&.amma There are E un*holesome /erbal actions' E Mus;/;d; a lying, 8 6isuna/;c; a slandering, N 6harusa/;c; a rude or harsh s-eech, H Sam-ha--al;-a a /ain tal. or foolish babble. M A.usala&mano&.amma There are M un*holesome mental actions' G Abhi>>h; a co/etousness, C ?y;-;da a ill&*ill @9 Micch;diYYhi a *rong /ie* The ten un*holesome actions are also called _ten ducaritas`, meaning _e/il conduct`. !f the ten, .illing, harsh s-eech and ill*ill are accom-lished by dosa&mOla cittas. Se0ual misconduct, co/etousness and *rong /ie* are accom-lished by lobha&mOla cittas. Stealing, lying, slandering and /ain tal. may be accom-lished by either lobhamOla or dosa&mOla cittas.

Ten "usala&.amma&-athas Ten "usala&.amma&-athas @ "usala&.;ya&.amma There are three *holesome bodily actions' @ 6;n;ti-;t;&/irati a a/oidance of .illing, 7 Adinn;d;n;&/irati a a/oidance of stealing M "amesu&micch;c;r;&/irati a a/oidance of se0ual misconduct. 7 "usala&/acW&.amma There are four *holesome /erbal actions' E Mus;/;d;&/irati a a/oidance of lying, 8 6isuna/;c;&/irati a a/oidance of slandering, N 6harusa/;c;&/irati a a/oidance of harsh s-eech, H Sam-ha--al;-a&/irati a a/oidance of /ain tal.. In other *ords, one should ma.e use of true s-eech, concilliatory s-eech, mild s-eech and *ise s-eech. M "usala&mano&.amma There are three *holesome mental actions' G Anabhi>>h; a absence of co/etousness :unselfishness<, C A/y;-;da a good&*ill @9 Samm;&diYYhi a right /ie*. 6uQQa&.iriya ?atthu :Bases of Meritorious Action< If one li.es to accumulate *holesome .amma in this life, there are ten bases of meritorious actions *hich -roduce good effect and *hich should be done by all means. @ D;na a gi/ing charity or generosity

7 7 Bh;/an; a meditation, both tranIuility and insight E A--ac;yana a re/erence to elders and holy -ersons 8 ?ey;/acca a ser/ice in *holesome deeds N 6attid;na a transference of merit H 6att;numodana a re>oicing in others1 merit G Dhamma&sa/ana a listening to the Doctrine C Dhamma&desan; a e0-ounding the Doctrine @9 DiYYhi>>u.amma a straightening one1s right /ie* The abo/e ten -uQQa&.iriya&/atthus can be classified into three grou-s' @ D;na grou- a D;na, 6attid;na, 6att;numodana 7 SWla grou- a SWla, A--ac;yana, ?ey;/acca M Bh;/an; grou- a Bh;/an;, Dhamma&sa/ana, Dhamma desan;, DiYYhi>>u.amma. DiYYhi>>u.amma may also be included in all the three grou-s, because one *ill -erform d;na, sWla and bh;/an; only if one has the right /ie* about .amma and its effect. The d;na grou- re-resents alobha :generosity<, and o--oses lobha :attachment< and macchariya :stinginess<. It is com-ared to the legs. The sWla grou- re-resents adosa :good&*ill< and o--oses issa :>ealousy< and dosa :anger<. It is com-ared to the body. The bh;/an; grou- re-resents amoha :*isdom< and o--oses moha :ignorance<. It is com-ared to the head. To ha/e a com-lete set of legs, body and head, one must -erform all the three grou-s of -uQQa&.iriya&/atthu. The ten -uQQa&.iriya&/atthus are -erformed *ith G mah;

.usala cittas unless one attains >h;na or magga in meditation. So they generally gi/e rise to .;m;/acara&.usala .amma. .usala cittas unless one attains >h;na or magga in meditation. So they generally gi/e rise to .;m;/acara&.usala .amma. D/ihetu.a and Tihetu.a "usala "amma If one -erforms a *holesome deed *ith the .no*ledge of .amma and its effect, i.e. .ammassa.ata&Q;Pa, then Q;Pa&sam-ayutta mah;.usala cittas arise. The cetan; associated *ith these cittas are accom-anied by three good roots, namely, alobha, adosa and amoha. So tihetu.a&.usala .amma is acIuired. Better still, if during the action of moral deeds, one can de/elo- /i-assan;&Q;Pa by reasoning that e/erything is im-ermanent, unsatisfactory and not&self. The .usala&.amma acIuired is again accom-anied by three good roots. !n the other hand, if one -erforms a *holesome deed *ithout any .no*ledge of .amma and its effect or *ithout /i-assan;&Q;Pa, he is doing it *ith Q;Pa&/i--ayutta mah;&.usala cittas. Thus his cetan; *ill be accom-anied by t*o good roots namely, alobha and adosa. So he acIuired only d/ihetu.a&.usala .amma. U..aYYha and !ma.a "usala "amma U..aYYha means ^best or su-reme1 *hereas ^oma.a1 means ^inferior1. If one can de/elo- .usala cittas before and after a moral action, then the moral cetan;, *hich is .amma acIuired during the action, *ill be surrounded by good cetan; and conseIuently its -otentiality *ill be enhanced. Thus this ty-e of .amma is called u..aYYha .amma.

To acIuire this ty-e of .amma, one should thin. of the moral action in ad/ance and feel glad for ha/ing the chance to do it. Again, after -erforming the action, one should be full of >oy thin.ing about the good as-ects of the action. To acIuire this ty-e of .amma, one should thin. of the moral action in ad/ance and feel glad for ha/ing the chance to do it. Again, after -erforming the action, one should be full of >oy thin.ing about the good as-ects of the action. Ho* "ammas Bear $esults The reader should refer to +hart No. H *ith this title attached at the bac. of this boo.. The four ty-es of .amma are mentioned in the first column. !nly /i-;.a&cittas are described in the chart as the direct resultants of these .ammas. It should be understood that these /i-;.a&cittas *ill be accom-anied by the res-ecti/e cetasi.as *hich arise along *ith the cittas. A /i-;.a citta together *ith its concomitant&cetasi.as furnishes /i-;.a&n;ma..handha, i.e., the four resultant n;magrou-s. "amma also -roduces .amma>a&rO-a at e/ery short instant :small .haPa< incessantly, and based on this .amma>a&rO-a, utu>arO-a also arises. The four n;ma&grou-s :n;ma..hanadhas< and the cor-oreality grou- :rO-a..handha< together form the fi/e grou-s of e0istence :fi/e .handha< *hich ma.e u- an indi/idual. @ Effects of A.usala "ammas The @@ a.usala cetan;, the *ea. cetan; associated *ith uddhaccasam-ayutta citta being e0ce-ted, at -aYisandhi&.;la -roduce a.usala

/i-;.a u-e..h;&santiraPa citta *hich forms the a-;ya -aYisandhi in the four a-;ya abodes. /i-;.a u-e..h;&santiraPa citta *hich forms the a-;ya -aYisandhi in the four a-;ya abodes. /iQQ ;Pa, in @8 rO-a&-lanes e0cluding asaQQ;satta realm. 7 Effects of ";m;/acara&.usala "ammas 5irst there are t*o ty-es of .;m;/acara&.usala .amma' d/ihetu.a and tihetu.a. D/ihetu.a .amma is again di/ided into t*o subgrou-s' u..aYYha and oma.a. Similarly tihetu.a .amma is di/ided into t*o sub&grou-s' u..aYYha and oma.a. So, ta.ing all together, *e get E sub&grou-s' ";m;/acara "usala "amma :G< D/ihetu.a :E< Tihetu.a :E< u..aYYha :E< oma.a :E< u..aYYha :E< oma.a:E< No* E Q;Pa&/i--ayutta mah;&.usala cittas gi/e rise to E d/ihetu.a&mah;&.usala .ammas *hereas E Q;Pa&sam-ayutta mah;.usala cittas gi/e rise to E tihetu.a&mah;&.usala .ammas. As the E d/ihetu.a&mah;&.usala .ammas can be either oma.a or u..aYYha, *e get iE d/ihetu.a&oma.a mah;&.usala .ammas, and ii E d/ihetu.a&u..aYYha mah;&.usala .ammas. Similarly, from E tihetu.a&mah;&.usala .ammas, *e get iii E tihetu.a&oma.a mah;&.usala .ammas, and i/ E tihetu.a&u..aYYha mah;&.usala .ammas.

!f the four sub&grou-s, :i< is the -oorest, :ii< and :iii< are !f the four sub&grou-s, :i< is the -oorest, :ii< and :iii< are are as follo*s' i The E d/ihetu.a&oma.a mah;&.usala .ammas, at -aYisandhi.;la, -roduce .usala&/i-;.a u-e..h;&santiraPa citta *hich forms .;ma&sugati ahetu.a&-aYisandhi in the human realm and the lo*er catumah;r;>i.a realm. At -a/itti&.;la, they -roduce G ahetu.a&.usala /i-;.acittas in the @@ .;ma&-lanes= in the @8 rO-a&-lanes *ith the e0ce-tion of asaQQ;satta realm, they -roduce 8 ahetu.a&.usala /i-;.a&cittas, e0ce-ting gh;na&/iQQ;Pa, >i/h;&/iQQ;Pa and .;ya&/iQQ;Pa. ii A iii The E d/ihetu.a&u..aQQha mah;&.usala&.ammas and the E tihetu.a&oma.a mah;&.usala&.ammas, at -aYisandhi&.;la, -roduce E Q;Pa&/i--ayutta mah;&/i-;.a&cittas *hich form E .;ma&sugati d/ihetu.a&-aYisandhi in the H .;ma&sugati -lanes. At -a/itti&.;la, they -roduce G ahetu.a&.usala /i-;.acittas and E Q;Pa&/i--ayutta mah;&/i-;.a cittas in the H .;ma&sugati -lanes= they -roduce G ahetu.a&.usala /i-;.acittas in the E a-;ya&-lanes= they -roduce 8 ahetu.a&.usala /i-;.a&cittas e0cluding gh;na&/iQQ;Pa, >i/h;&/iQQ;Pa and .;ya&/iQQ;Pa in the @8 rO-a&-lanes *ith the e0ce-tion of the asaQQ;satta realm. i/ The E tihetu.a&u..aYYha mah;.usala .ammas, at -aYisandhi.;la, -roduce E Q;Pa&sam-ayutta mah;&/i-;.a&cittas *hich form E .;ma&sugati tihetu.a&-aYisandhi in the H .;ma&sugati -lanes= they -roduce G ahetu.a&.usala /i-;.a cittas in the E a-;ya&-lanes= and they -roduce 8 ahetu.a&.usala /i-;.a

cittas, e0cluding gh;na&/iQQ;Pa, >i/h;&/iQQ;Pa and .;ya/iQQ ;Pa in the @8 rO-a&-lanes *ith the e0ce-tion of the asaQQ;satta realm. M Effects of $O-;/acara&.usala "ammas Among chanda, citta, /Wriya and -aQQ; *hich associate *ith >h;na citta, one usually becomes -redominant :adhi-ati<. Based on the Iuality of this -redominant factor, the >h;nas can be differentiated as -aritta :inferior<, ma>>hima :moderate< and -aPWta :su-erior<. @ 6aritta&first&>h;na .usala&.amma gi/es birth in Brahma-arisa>>; realm *ith first&>h;na /i-;.a&citta as rebirth& consciousness and then as life continuum. Ma>>hima&first&>h;na .usala&.amma gi/es birth in Brahma&-urohit; realm *ith first&>h;na /i-;.a&citta as rebirth&consciousness and then as life continuum. 6aPWta&first&>h;na .usala&.amma gi/es birth in Mah;brahma realm *ith first&>h;na /i-;.a&citta as rebirth& consciousness and then as life continuum. 7 6aritta&second&>h;na .usala&.amma and -aritta&third&>h;na .usala&.amma gi/e birth in the 6aritt;bh; realm *ith second&>h;na /i-;.a&citta and third&>h;na /i-;.a&citta as rebirth&consciousness, res-ecti/ely and then as life continuum. Ma>>hima&second&>h;na .usala&.amma and ma>>himathird& >h;na .usala&.amma gi/e birth in the A--am;n;bh; realm *ith second&>h;na /i-;.a&citta and third&>h;na /i-;.a&citta as rebirth&consciousness and then as life continuum. 6aPWta&second&>h;na .usala&.amma and -aPWta&third

>h;na .usala&.amma gi/e birth in the Abhassar; realm *ith second&>h;na /i-;.a&citta and third&>h;na /i-;.acitta as rebirth&consciousness, res-ecti/ely and then as life continuum. M 6aritta&fourth&>h;na .usala&.amma gi/es birth in 6arittasubh; realm *ith fourth&>h;na /i-;.a&citta as rebirth& consciousness and then as life continuum. Ma>>hima&fourth&>h;na .usala&.amma gi/es birth in A--am;nasubh; realm *ith fourth&>h;na /i-;.a&citta as rebirth&consciousness and then as life continuum. 6aPWta&fourth&>h;na .usala&.amma gi/es birth in Subh;.iPh; realm *ith fourth&>h;na /i-;.a&citta as rebirth&consciousness and then as life continuum. E 5ifth&>h;na .usala&.amma gi/es birth in the ?eha--hala realm *ith fifth&>h;na /i-;.a&citta as rebirth&consciousness and then as life continuum. After attaining the fifth&>h;na, if one -ractises saQQ;/ir;ga& bh;/an; :meditation *hich de/elo-s no desire for -erce-tion and consciousness< to com-letion, then this .amma *ill gi/e birth in AsaQQ;satta realm *ith rO-a&-aYisandhi. 5ifth&>h;na .usala&.amma in an;g;mW -erson gi/es birth in the Suddh;/;sa -lanes *ith fifth&>h;na /i-;.a&citta as rebirth&consciousness and then as life continuum. Here again, de-ending on the -redominant faculty, rebirth ta.es -lace in the 8 Suddh;/;sa -lanes as follo*s' a 5aculty of saddh; :faith< 3 A/ih; realm b 5aculty of /Wriya :effort< 3 Xta--; realm

c 5aculty of sati :mindfulness< 3 Sudass; realm c 5aculty of sati :mindfulness< 3 Sudass; realm e 5aculty of -aQQ; :*isdom< 3 A.aniYYha realm E Effects of ArO-;/acara&.usala "ammas X.;s;naQc;yatana&.usala .amma gi/es birth in X.;s;naQc;&yatana realm *ith ;.;s;naQc;yatana /i-;.a&citta as rebirth consciousness. ?iQQ;naQc;yatana&.usala .amma gi/es birth in ?iQQ;naQc;yatana realm *ith /iQQ;naQc;yatana&/i-;.a citta as rebirth consciousness and then as life continuum. X.iQcaQQ;yatana&.usala .amma gi/es birth in X.iQcaQQ;yatana realm *ith ;.iQcaQQ;yatana&/i-;.a citta as rebirth consciousness and then as life continuum. N1e/asaQQ;&n1;saQQ;yatana&.usala .amma gi/es birth in N1e/asaQQ;&n1;saQQ;yatana realm *ith n1e/asaQQ;&n1;saQQ;yatana& /i-;.a&citta as rebirth consciousness and then as life continuum. 5ourfold Ad/ent of Death :MaraP1u--atti&catu..a< The fourfold ad/ent of death may be com-ared to the four *ays of e0tinguishing a lighted oil&lam-. The flame of the oil&lam- may go out *hen' @ the *ic. burns out, 7 the oil burns out, M both the *ic. and the oil burn out, or E the *ind blo*s suddenly or the light is -ut out -ur-osely e/en though the *ic. and the oil still remain. In the same *ay, a -erson may die in one of the follo*ing *ays'

@ @ Death due to the e0-iration of the age&limit, 7 "amma..haya&maraPa Death due to the e0-iration of the re-roducti/e .ammic force, M Ubhaya..haya&maraPa Death due to the e0-iration of both the age&limit and .amma, E U-accheda.a&maraPa Death due to the inter/ention of a destructi/e .amma. It is sudden death such as the one encountered in car accident or suicide. A--earance of "amma&related !b>ects No*, to those *ho are about to die, by the -o*er of .amma that is going to condition the ne0t birth, one of the follo*ing three ob>ects al*ays -resents itself through one of the si0 doors' @ "amma ob>ect a the .amma that -roduces rebirth in the subseIuent life enters the mind door= 7 "amma&nimitta a sign of .amma, i.e. the scenes, the sound, the smell, etc., that are or *ere obser/ed during the -erformance of the .amma *hich is going to bear result= M 4ati&nimitta a sign of destiny, i.e. the scenes of -eo-le or buildings in connection *ith the -lace *here one is going to be reborn according to the successful .amma.

Since the .amma&ob>ect is in the form of a -ast cetan;, it -resents itself through the mind&door.

If the .amma&nimitta belongs to the -ast .amma, it also -resents itself through the mind&door. If it belongs to the -resent .amma, it can enter through any of the si0 doors de-ending on its form. If it is a /isual ob>ect, it *ill enter through the eye&door= if it is an audible sound, it *ill enter through the ear&door= and so on. If the .amma&nimitta belongs to the -ast .amma, it also -resents itself through the mind&door. If it belongs to the -resent .amma, it can enter through any of the si0 doors de-ending on its form. If it is a /isual ob>ect, it *ill enter through the eye&door= if it is an audible sound, it *ill enter through the ear&door= and so on. Nimitta` described on -age @EE< MaraP;sanna ?Wthi No*, *hen the maraP;sanna&nimitta a--ears at one of the si0 doors, the ;J/a>>ana&citta :ad/erting consciousness< *ill -ic. uthe sense ob>ect and a stream of consciousness, .no*n as maraP;sanna& /Wthi, flo*s on. In accordance *ith the .amma that is going to -roduce ne0t rebirth, an a.usala or .usala citta normally functions 8 times as >a/anas in these /Wthis. These >a/anas are .no*n as _maraP;sanna&>a/anas`. A Ati&mahant;&rammaPa +a..hu&d/;ra MaraP;sanna ?Wthis T*o ty-ical maraP;sanna&/Wthis for a /isible ob>ect of /ery great intensity stri.ing the eye&door' @ TiaNaaDaa _6aa+aaSamaNaa?oaFaaFaaFaaFaaFaaDaaDaaBhaa+utia6aYi` aBhaa 7 TiaNaaDaa _6aa+aaSamaNaa?oaFaaFaaFaaFaaFaaDaaDaa+utia6aYi` aBhaa The -resent .amma&nimitta or the gati&nimitta stri.es the eye& door at the arising instant of the first atWta&bha/aTga :Ti<. Being of /ery great insensity, it becomes distinct as the arising instant of bha/aTga&calana :Na<. The life&continuum :bha/aTga< /ibrates

for t*o conscious moments :Na&Da< and is cut off. Then, obser/ing the nimitta, -aQcad/;r;/a>>ana :6a<, ca..hu&/iQQ;Pa :+a<, sam-aQicchana :Sam<, santiraPa :Na<, /oYYha-ana :?o<, fi/e >a/anas :Fa<, t*o tad;lambaPas :Da< and one bha/aTga :Bha< arise in series. Then the death&consciousness :cuti< occurs *hen the -erson dies. In the second /Wthi, cuti follo*s tad;lambaPa directly *ithout any inter/ention of a bha/aTga&citta. Immediately after the dissolution of the death&consciousness, the rebirth&consciousness :-aYisandhi&citta< arises in the ne0t life *ithout any brea. in the stream of consciousness and *ithout any la-se in time. The ne0t life may a--ear in a /ery far -lace li.e a brahma realm, yet there is no la-se in time. Thus for the stream of consciousness to flo* on, there is no barrier in time and s-ace. The idea of timeless and s-aceless is realiJed here. Also the idea that the soul *anders around before it enters the ne0t life is not correct. There is no soul nor -erson in Abhidhamma= there are only incessant flo*s of n;mastream and rO-a&stream in accordance *ith the #a* of De-endent !rigination :6aYiccasamu--;da< *hich *ill be e0-lained in +ha-ter ?III. B Mahant;&rammaPa +a..hu&d/;ra MaraP;sanna ?Wthis @ TiaTiaNaaDaa _6aa+aaSamaNaa?oaFaaFaaFaaFaaFaaBhaa+utia6aYi` aBhaa 7 TiaTiaTiaNaaDaa _6aa+aaSamaNaa?oaFaaFaaFaaFaaFaa+utia6aYi` aBhaa + Ati&/ibhOta&rammaPa Mano&d/;ra MaraP;sanna ?Wthis @ NaaDaa _MaaFaaFaaFaaFaaFaaDaaDaaBhaa+utia6aYi` aBhaa 7 NaaDaa _MaaFaaFaaFaaFaaFaaDaaDaa+utia6aYi` aBhaa

)hen the .amma *hich is going to -roduce ne0t rebirth or the .amma&nimitta or the gati&nimitta related to that .amma a--ears at the mind door, the life&continuum /ibrates t*ice and is cut off :Na&Da<. Then mano&d/;r;/a>>ana ad/erts the stream of consciousness to*ards the ob>ect, obser/es the ob>ect and ma.es its decision. Then come fi/e >a/anas follo*ed by t*o tad;lambaPas and one or no bha/aTga. Then the death&consciousness :cuti< occurs *hen the -erson dies. Immediately after death, the rebirth&consciousness :-aYisandhi< arises in the ne0t life *ithout any brea. in the stream of consciousness. After that the life continuum :bha/aTga< flo*s on in the ne0t life. D ?ibhOt;&rammaPa Mano&d/;ra MaraP;sanna ?Wthis @ NaaDaa _MaaFaaFaaFaaFaaFaaBhaa+utia6aYi` aBhaa 7 NaaDaa _MaaFaaFaaFaaFaaFaa+utia6aYi` aBhaa $ebirth&consciousness $ebirth&consciousness arises in the ne* life as the resultant of the .amma *hich has the chance to condition the ne* life. $ebirth consciousness >oins the ne* e0istence *ith the old one= so it is called -aYisandhi&citta. The rebirth&consciousness *ill be accom-anied by its concomitants :cetasi.as<. It is the nucleus as *ell as the foregoer and leader of its associates. It *ill ha/e a -hysical base :hadaya/atthu<, -ro/ided by the same .amma, if the ne* e0istence ta.es -lace in -aQca&/o.;ra&-lanes :-lanes of fi/e .handha<. If the ne* e0istence ta.es -lace in catu&/o.;ra&-lane :-lane of four&.handha, i.e. arO-a&-lane<, there *ill be no -hysical base. The rebirth&consciousness gras-s the sense&ob>ect *hich the maraPa&saQQ; >a/anas ha/e obser/ed. If the >a/anas obser/ed .amma&nimitta, the rebirth&consciousness also obser/es .amma

nimitta. Moreo/er, all bha/aTga cittas in the ne* life also obser/e the same sense&ob>ect. nimitta. Moreo/er, all bha/aTga cittas in the ne* life also obser/e the same sense&ob>ect. The ob>ect of arO-a&-aYisandhi is also .amma&nimitta *hich may be either conce-ts such as infinite s-ace :;.;sa< or mahaggatacittas. 6lanes of $ebirth after Death Death is the tem-orary end of a tem-orary -henomenon. By death is meant the e0tinction of -sychic life :>W/itindriya<, heat :usma c te>odh;tu< and consciousness :/iQQ;Pa< of one indi/idual in a -articular e0istence. But death is not the com-lete annihilation of a being. Death in one -lace means rebirth in another -lace so long as the causes for the ne0t life are not e0tinct. No* the -ossible -lanes *here rebirth could ta.e -lace after death in a -articular -lane are enumerated as follo*s. @ )hen a brahma in an arO-a&-lane dies, he may be reborn in the same -lane or a higher -lane but not in a lo*er arO-a&-lane. Moreo/er he may be reborn in the sense& s-here *ith three roots either as a de/a or a human being. Thus, i After the death in X.;s;naQc;yatana&-lane, E arO-a-aYisandhis and E .;ma&tihetu.a&-aYisandhis are -ossible. ii After the death in ?iQQ;naQc;yatana&-lane, M arO-a-aYisandhis :X.;s;naQc;yatana&-aYisandhi is e0ce-ted< and E .;ma&tihetu.a&-aYisandhis are -ossible. iii After the death in X.iQcaQQ;yatana&-lane, ;.iQcaQQ;

i/ i/ 7 )hen a brahma in a rO-a&-lane :e0ce-t AsaQQ;satta and Suddh;/;sas< dies, he may be reborn in any -lane e0ce-t the four a-;ya&abodes de-ending on his .amma. Also he *ill not be reborn either as a degraded human being or a degraded asura. In other *ords, E .;ma&d/ihetu.a-aYisandhis, E .;ma&tihetu.a&-aYisandhis, N rO-;/acara -aYisandhis and E arO-;/acara -aYisandhis *ith the e0ce-tion of 7 ahetu.a&-aYisandhis are -ossible. )hen AsaQQ;satta brahma dies, he *ill be reborn in the sense&s-here either as a human or as a de/a. Thus E .;ma&d/ihetu.a -aYisandhis and E .;ma&tihetu.a -aYisandhis are -ossible. M No*, *hen a human being or a de/a from the sense& s-here dies, he may be reborn in any -lane if he is a tihetu.a&-erson, because he can de/elo- >h;nas to be reborn as a brahma or he may commit immoral actions to be cast into the a-;ya abodes. )hen a human being or a de/a or d/ihetu.a -erson dies, any one of the @9 .;ma&-aYisandhis is -ossible. E )hen ahetu.a&-ersons in the human realm as *ell as in the lo*er catumah;r;>i.a realm die, all @9 .;ma-aYisandhis are -ossible.

+ha-ter N +ha-ter N +om-endium of Matter Introductory !f the four ultimate realities :-aramatthas< consciousness :citta< and mental factors :cetasi.as< ha/e been described in the first fi/e cha-ters of this boo.. )e ha/e seen GC or @7@ ty-es of consciousness, 87 mental factors, association of these factors *ith cittas, the de-endence of n;ma :mind< on sense ob>ects :arammaPa< as *ell as on -hysical bases :/atthus< the arising of cogniti/e -rocesses to be a*are of the sense ob>ects, the M@ -lanes of e0istence and the ty-es of -ersons *ho occu-y them, the different ty-es of .amma and their o-eration through their resultants such as rebirth&consciousness, life&continuum and death& consciousness, and finally death and rebirth. No* in the -resent cha-ter, *e shall deal *ith the t*o remaining ultimate realities, namely, rO-a and Nibb;na. )hat is $O-aL $O-a has been translated as ^matter1, ^cor-oreality1, ^material1, ^body1, ^form1, etc., but none is e0act. To >udge from the /arious as-ects of rO-a, ^matter1 is the nearest eIui/alent. But rO-a com-rises the characteristics of matter as *ell as those of energy.

$O-a may change state, form and colour on account of heat and cold >ust as matter does. Although form, sha-e and mass become a--arent *hen a lot of rO-a has accumulated, in the ultimate sense rO-a is formless, sha-eless and massless >ust as energy is. Scientists no* .no* that matter and energy are intercon/ertible and identical in the ultimate sense. $O-a may change state, form and colour on account of heat and cold >ust as matter does. Although form, sha-e and mass become a--arent *hen a lot of rO-a has accumulated, in the ultimate sense rO-a is formless, sha-eless and massless >ust as energy is. Scientists no* .no* that matter and energy are intercon/ertible and identical in the ultimate sense. Besides rO-a and n;ma are interde-endent. )e shall understand rO-a better by studying the /arious as-ects of rO-a *hich are described belo*. $O-a&samuddesa :Enumeration of $O-a< 5irst rO-a is t*ofold namely, i BhOta&rO-a a essentials, and ii U-;d;ya&rO-a a deri/ati/es. The bhOta&rO-a is more -rominent than the u-;d;ya&rO-a. 4reat masses li.e the earth and the sun are formed *hen a lot of bhOta&rO-a has accumulated. +onseIuently bhOta&rO-a is also called mah;bhOta :great essentials<.

5our Mah;bhOtas :5our 4reat Essentials< @ 6atha/W The element of e0tension *ith the characteristics of hardness and softness. E0tension means occu-ation in s-ace. Tri&dimensional e0tension gi/es rise to the idea of a solid&body. As no t*o bodies can occu-y the same s-ace at the same time, Buddhists deri/e the idea of hardness from -atha/W. The dual characteristics of hardness and softness im-lies relati/ity. 5or e0am-le, a roc. may be said to be ^hard1 if com-ared *ith clay, but ^soft1 if com-ared *ith iron. 6atha/W ser/es as a su--ort or nucleus for the other co&e0isting rO-as. 7 X-o The element of cohesion *ith the characteristics of cohesi/eness and fluidity. It is the ;-o element that ma.es different -articles of matter cohere and hold them together. It is li.e the force of attraction bet*een the -ositi/e charge and the negati/e charge of electricity. )hen *e add a little *ater to flour, the flour&-articles cohere into a lum-. If *e add more *ater, the mi0ture becomes fluid and flo*s a*ay. M Te>o The element of heat or heat energy *ith the characteristics of hotness and coldness. ?i/acity :li/eliness<, maturity, hotness and coldness are due to te>o. Both heat and cold are the -ro-erties of te>o or heat&energy. )hen heat flo*s into our body *e feel hot= *hen heat flo*s out of our body to the surroundings, *e feel cold.

E E The element of motion or .inetic energy *ith the characteristics of -ushing and su--orting. )hen *e blo* air into a balloon, the air -ushes the *alls of the balloon out*ards, and if there is no balancing force e0erted by the *alls of the balloon, the balloon *ill bust. $emember that there is action and reaction at e/ery -oint. Motion, /ibration, oscillation, rotation and -ressure are caused by /;yo. Notes' The four great essentials are also .no*n as the four great elements. Dh;tu in 6;\i means that *hich carries its o*n characteristics mar.s or attributes. Element is the closest eIui/alent for dh;tu. No* -atha/W&dh;tu literally means the earth&element, ;-odh;tu the *ater&element, te>o&dh;tu the heat element, and /;yodh;tu the *ind&element. But -atha/W is not the earth, neither is ;-o *ater nor /;yo the *ind. The four great essentials are the fundamental material elements *hich e0ist together and *hich are inse-arable. E/ery material substance, *hether earth, *ater, fire or *ind, ranging from the minutest -articles to the most massi/e ob>ect, is made u- of these four elements *hich -ossess s-ecific characteristics as described abo/e. 5rom this, one can easily see that Buddhists are not dealing *ith Thales1 *ater, Ana0imenes1 air, Hera.leitus1 fire, or the 6eri-atetics1 matter, of 4ree. -hiloso-hy.

6atha/W, ;-o, te>o, and /;yo are formless and massless in the ultimate sense. In insight meditation, *e meditate only on their characteristics in the body, /iJ., hardness and softness, cohesion and fluidity, hot and cold, -ushing and balancing. 6atha/W, ;-o, te>o, and /;yo are formless and massless in the ultimate sense. In insight meditation, *e meditate only on their characteristics in the body, /iJ., hardness and softness, cohesion and fluidity, hot and cold, -ushing and balancing. < There are 7E deri/ati/es or secondary material -ro-erties de-endent on the four great essentials. #i.e the earth are the essentials= li.e trees are the deri/ati/es that s-ring there from. The E great essentials together *ith the 7E deri/ati/es ma.e u- 7G .inds of rO-a *ith different -ro-erties. They may be counted as @@ .inds of material Iualities as follo*s' @ Essential material Iualities a -atha/W, ;-o, te>o, /;yo. 7 Sensiti/e material Iualities a eye, ear, nose, tongue and body. M Material Iualities of sense&ob>ects a /isible form, sound, odour, taste and tangibility. E Material Iuality of se0 a femininity and masculinity. 8 Material Iuality of base a heart&base. N Material Iuality of life a /ital force. H Material Iuality of nutrition a edible food. G Material Iuality of limitation a the element of s-ace. C Material Iualities of communication a bodily intimation and /ocal intimation. @9 Material Iualities of mutability a material lightness, -liancy, ada-tability together *ith the t*o forms of intimation. @@ Material Iualities of characteristics a material -roducti/ity, continuity, decay and im-ermanence.

5i/e 6as;da&rO-as :Sensiti/e Material Rualities< They are the sensiti/e -arts of the organs a eye, ear, nose, tongue and body. They tend to clarify the co&e0isting material Iualities. They recei/e the im-ressions of the sense&ob>ects. @ +a..hu&-as;da Sensiti/e -art of the eye= it s-reads in H layers in the -u-il of the eye *here images a--ear. 7 Sota&-as;da Sensiti/e -art of the ear= it s-reads in the -lace sha-ed li.e a ring inside the ear&holes. M 4h;na&-as;da Sensiti/e -art of the nose= it s-reads in the -lace sha-ed li.e the leg of a goat inside the nostrils. E Fi/h;&-as;da Sensiti/e -art of the tongue= it s-reads in the middle u--er surface of the tongue. 8 ";ya&-as;da Sensiti/e -art of the body= it s-reads throughout the *hole body sensiti/e to touch, e0cluding head&hair, body&hair, finger&nails and hard dried s.in. Se/en 4ocara&rO-as :Material Rualities of Sense !b>ects< They are the fi/e sense&ob>ects obser/ed and freIuented by -aQca/iQQ ;Pa. @ $O-;rammaPa a /isible form :/aPPa< 7 Sadd;rammaPa a sound :sadda< M 4andh;rammaPa a smell :gandha< E

$as;rammaPa a taste :rasa< 8 6hotthabb;rammaPa a tangible ob>ect :-atha/W, te>o, /;yo<

Notes' a The names in brac.ets are the essential elements of the fi/e senses. Note that there are H elements in all. b !*ing to its subtlety, ;-o cannot be felt by the sense of touch. 5or instance, *hen *e -ut our hand in *ater, the cold felt is te>o, the softness is -atha/W, and the -ressure is /;yo. Thus only these three fundamental elements are regarded as tangible. T*o Bh;/a&rO-as :Material Rualities of Se0< @ Itthi&bh;/a a material Iuality that im-arts femininity= it s-reads all o/er the body of the female. 7 6urisa&bh;/a a material Iuality that im-arts masculinity= it s-reads all o/er the body of the male. Note' These t*o rO-as differentiate the male from the female. Hadaya&/atthu :Heart Base< Hadaya&/atthu is the heart&base *hich s-reads in the blood inside the heart. It is the seat of consciousness :mano&/iQQ;Pa<. Hadaya/atthu is not one a there are billions of hadaya&/atthu s-reads in the blood of the heart. FW/ita&rO-a :Material Ruality of #ife< It is >W/itindriya&rO-a3the /ital force of .amma>a&rO-a *hich s-reads throughout the body. It should be noted that there is /itality both in mind and matter. The /itality of the mind is _>W/itindriya`, *hich is one of the se/en sabba&citta&s;dh;raPa cetasi.as. The /itality of matter is >W/ita&rO-a.

FW/itindriya may be regarded as -sychic life and >W/ita&rO-a as -hysical life. FW/itindriya may be regarded as -sychic life and >W/ita&rO-a as -hysical life. < The gross food *hich is ta.en in by ma.ing into morsels is called .abalW.;r;h;ra. Here ;h;ra&rO-a means the nutriti/e essence :o>;< *hich sustains the body. 6ariccheda&rO-aZX.;sa&dh;tu :Material Ruality of #imitation< 6ariccheda&rO-a is the inter&atomic or intra&atomic s-ace that limits or se-arates material grou-s :rO-a&.al;-as<. As there is s-ace bet*een the eggs in a bas.et, so there is s-ace bet*een the rO-a&.al;-as :/ery tiny -articles< as they are -roduced by four causes a namely, .amma, citta, utu and ;h;ra. So -aricchedarO-a is also assumed to be -roduced by the same four causes. 6ariccheda&rO-a is also called ^;.;sa&dh;tu1. X.;sa is s-ace, *hich in itself is nothingness. X.;sa is a dh;tu in the sense of a non&entity :ni>>W/a<, not as an e0isting element li.e the four great essential elements. As one of the 7G rO-as, ;.;sa&dh;tu means not so much the outside s-ace as the inter&atomic s-ace or intraatomic s-ace that se-arates rO-a&.al;-as. T*o ?iQQatti&rO-as :Material Rualities of +ommunication< ?iQQatti&rO-as are s-ecial beha/iors of the body and the mouth *hich one uses to communicate one1s ideas to another and by means of *hich one understands another1s intentions. @ ";ya&/iQQatti a action by hand, head, eye, leg, etc., *hich let others understand one1s intentions.

7 7 ";ya&/iQQatti and /acW&/iQQatti are caused by the /;yo&dh;tu -roduced by the mind, and they last only for one conscious& moment. 5i/e ?i.;ra&rO-as :Material Rualities of Mutability< #edi Sayada* e0-lained ^/i.;ra&rO-a1 as ^-eculiar distincti/e condition1. ?enerable Narada too. it as _changeability of rO-a.` So *e may regard ^/i.;ra&rO-a1 as s-ecial condition of rO-a. @ $O-assa&lahut; a -hysical lightness or buoyancy= it su--resses the hea/iness in the body. 7 $O-assa&mudut; a -hysical elasticity= it remo/es stiffness in the body and is com-arable to a *ell&beaten hide. M $O-assa&.ammaQQat; a -hysical ada-tability= it is o--osed to the stiffness of the body, and is com-arable to *ell&hammered gold. These three rO-as together *ith the t*o /iQQatti&rO-as ma.e u- fi/e /i.;ra&rO-as. 5our #a..haPa&rO-as :Material Rualities of +haracteristics< There are three common characteristics of rO-a and n;ma&/iJ., arising :u--;da<, e0isting :thWti< and dissol/ing :bhaTga<. The rO-as that denote these instants in real rO-as are called la..haPa&rO-as. ^#a..haPa1 literally means ^sign or symbol1. @ U-ac;ya&rO-a a arising of rO-a at the moment of conce-tion, and continued arising of rO-a till the reIuired rO-as in life are com-letely formed. 7 Santati&rO-a a subseIuent arising of rO-as throughout the life&term.

M M Notes' a U-ac;ya and santati are sometimes treated as >;ti :birth<. Then the number of rO-as amounts to 7H instead of 7G. b )ith the e0ce-tion of the fi/e rO-as&/iJ., t*o /iQQattis, >;ti, >arat; and aniccat;, all the remaining rO-as last for @H conscious&moments. c Strictly s-ea.ing there are only three la..haPa&rO-as, namely, >;ti, >arat; and aniccat;. F;ti refers to rO-a at the arising instant, >arat; refers to rO-a at the e0isting -eriod, and aniccat; refers to rO-a at the dissol/ing instant. Eighteen Ni--hanna&rO-as The eighteen rO-as com-rising E great essentials, 8 -as;da&rO-as, H gocara&rO-as :to be counted as E e0cluding tangibility<, 7 bh;/arO-as, hadaya&/atthu, >W/ita&rO-a and ;h;ra&rO-a are caused and conditioned by .amma, citta, utu :te>o< and ;h;ra :o>;<. So they are called ni--hanna&rO-as. Each of these @G rO-as ha/e their innate -ro-erties such as hardness for -atha/W and heat for te>o. So they are also called sabh;/a&rO-as. Each of these @G rO-as also ha/e the three saT.h;ta&la..haPas :innate signs or mar.s< /iJ., >;ti :birth<, >ar; :decay< and aniccat; :death<. So they are also called sa&la..haPa&rO-as. Because they may change in state, form and colour, etc., due to heat and cold, etc., they are .no*n as rO-a.

Because they should be contem-lated as anicca :im-ermanence<, du..ha :unsatisfactoriness< and anatta :not&self<, they are called sammasana&rO-a. Ten Ani--hana&rO-as The ten rO-as com-rising -ariccheda&rO-a, 7 /iQQatti&rO-as, M /i.;rarO-as and E la..haPa&rO-as are not caused and conditioned by .amma, citta, utu and ;h;ra. So they are .no*n as ani--hanna&rO-as. They are also .no*n as asabh;/a&rO-as because they do not ha/e innate -ro-erties, asala..haPa&rO-as because they do not ha/e saT.h;ta&la..haPas, as arO-a because they are not changeable by heat or cold, etc., and as asammasana&rO-a because they should not be contem-lated in insight meditation. $O-a&/ibh;ga :+riticism on $O-a< All the rO-as are >ust one in the follo*ing as-ects' @ Ahetu.a a all are rootless= 7 Sa--accaya a all are related to the causes :.amma, citta, utu, and ;h;ra<= M S;sa/a a all ser/e as ob>ects for defilements= E SaT.h;ta a all are conditioned by the four causes= 8 #o.iya a all are connected *ith the *orld of fi/e aggregates of attachment= N ";m;/acara a all come *ithin the range of sense ob>ects= H An;rammaPa a all do not -ercei/e ob>ects= G A--ah;tabba a all are not eliminated by Maggas. Ho*e/er, *hen rO-a is distinguished as internal, or e0ternal, and so forth, rO-a becomes manifold. $eaders may consult the chart on rO-a for a Iuic. re/ie* of such criticism.

@ A>>hatti.a&rO-a The fi/e -as;da&rO-as are called a>>hatti.a :internal<, and the remaining 7M rO-as are called b;hira :e0ternal<, because the fi/e sensiti/e organs are essential for seeing, hearing, smelling, etc. 6eo-le /alue them highly. )ithout them they are inanimate logs. 7 ?atthu&rO-a The fi/e -as;da&rO-as together *ith hadaya&/atthu are named /atthu&rO-a *hile the rest are called a/atthu&rO-a. They act as seats of consciousness. M D/;ra&rO-a The fi/e -as;da&rO-as together *ith the t*o /iQQatti&rO-as are called d/;ra&rO-as *hile the rest are called ad/;rarO-as. The fi/e -as;da&rO-as ser/e as doors *hich gi/e rise to -aQca&d/;ra&/Wthis *hereas the t*o /iQQatti&rO-as are the -laces and the means for -erforming bodily actions :.;ya&.amma< and /erbal actions :/acW&.amma<. E Indriya&rO-a The fi/e -as;da&rO-as, the t*o bh;/a&rO-as and >W/itarO-a together form eight indriya&rO-as *hile the remaining 79 rO-as are termed anindriya&rO-as. ^Indriya1 means ^faculty1 *hich has controlling -o*er in its s-here. 5or instance, ca..hu&-as;da controls seeing, sota&-as;da controls hearing, and so on. Itthibh;/a controls femininity and -urisa&bh;/a controls masculinity. 8 !l;ri.a&rO-a The fi/e -as;da&rO-as and the se/en gocara&rO-as together form @7 ol;ri.a&rO-as *hile the remaining @N rO-as, are termed su.huma&rO-as.

^!l;ri.a1 means ^gross or coarse1= ^su.huma1 means ^subtle or fine1. Because of their grossness and coarseness, the sensiti/e organs and the fi/e sense ob>ects can be easily seen or understood. And because they are easily understood, they are regarded to be close to the *isdom&mind. So the ol;ri.a&rO-as are also called santi.e&rO-as :santi.e a near< *hereas the su.huma&rO-as are called dOre&rO-as :dOre a far<. ^!l;ri.a1 means ^gross or coarse1= ^su.huma1 means ^subtle or fine1. Because of their grossness and coarseness, the sensiti/e organs and the fi/e sense ob>ects can be easily seen or understood. And because they are easily understood, they are regarded to be close to the *isdom&mind. So the ol;ri.a&rO-as are also called santi.e&rO-as :santi.e a near< *hereas the su.huma&rO-as are called dOre&rO-as :dOre a far<. rO-as *hereas the @N su.huma&rO-as are called a--aYigharO-as. ^Sa--aYigha1 literally means ^*ith stri.ing^ *hereas ^a--aYigha1 means ^*ithout stri.ing1. N U-;dinna&rO-a The @G .amma>a&rO-as are called u-;dinna&rO-as= the rest are termed anu-;dinna&rO-as. The @G rO-as -roduced by .amma are gras-ed by the .amma as it1s resultants in collaboration *ith cra/ing :taPh;< and false /ie* :diYYhi<. H Sanidassana&rO-a $O-;rammaPa :/aPPa< is called sanidassana&rO-a, because it can be seen by the eye. The remaining rO-as are called anidassana&rO-as, because they cannot be seen by the eye. G 4ocaragg;hi.a&rO-a The fi/e -as;da rO-as can ta.e e0ternal sense&ob>ects as -asture. So they are called gocaragg;hi.a&rO-as *hile the rest are called agocaragg;hi.a&rO-as.

!f the fi/e sense organs, the eye and the ear cogniJe distant ob>ects *ithout any direct contact. )e can see a flo*er *ithout the flo*er coming in contact *ith the eye. )e can hear *hat a man says *ithout the man coming in contact *ith the ear. !f the fi/e sense organs, the eye and the ear cogniJe distant ob>ects *ithout any direct contact. )e can see a flo*er *ithout the flo*er coming in contact *ith the eye. )e can hear *hat a man says *ithout the man coming in contact *ith the ear. Thus, ca..hu&-as;da and sota&-as;da are called asam-atta&g;ha.a *hereas the remaining three -as;darO-as are called sam-atta&g;ha.a. C A/inibbhoga&rO-a a The eight rO-as com-rising -atha/W, ;-o, te>o, /;yo, /aPPa, gandh;, rasa and o>; are bound together and are inse-arable and indi/isible. So they are called a/inibbhoga&rO-as *hereas the rest are called /inibbhoga&rO-as. The definition of ^a/inibbhoga&rO-a1 sounds li.e the original definition of the ^atom1. But atoms are later found to be di/isible into electrons, -rotons and neutrons. According to Abhidhamma, these sub&atomic -articles can be regarded as a/inibbhoga&rO-as. The four essentials and their innate four deri/ati/es are -roduced together in nature as .al;-as *hich are fundamental units of matter. These .al;-as ha/e about the same siJe as electrons. So, ho*e/er small a -article may be, it is al*ays made u- of the a/inibbhoga&rO-as *hich are really in/isible and inse-arable.

5ire in )ater and )ater in 5ire2 5ire in )ater and )ater in 5ire2 rO-as. So the earth must contain all the eight rO-as /iJ., -atha/W, ;-o, te>o, /;yo, /aPPa, gandh;, rasa and o>;= of these -atha/W is -redominant. Similarly, *ater must also contain all the eight a/inibbhogarO-as, but here ;-o is -redominant. As *ater contains te>o a the element of fire, *e may say there is fire in *ater. In the same *ay, fire must contain all the eight a/inibbhogarO-as, te>o being -redominant. As fire contains ;-o a the element of *ater, *e may say that fire contains *ater. The Abhidhamma statement that ^*ater contains fire and fire contains *ater1 is not in disagreement *ith the facts of science. )e .no* that *ater contains heat *hich is the same substance as fire. Also in burning of *ood or -a-er, *hich is cellulose containing carbon, hydrogen and o0ygen, heat is e/ol/ed due to the combination of carbon *ith o0ygen forming carbon dio0ide and also due to the combination bet*een hydrogen and o0ygen forming *ater. The intense mass of heat a--ears as a flame *hich really contains *ater&/a-our. $O-a&samuYYh;na :The +auses of Material 6henomena< There are four causes *hich -roduce rO-a. They are' .amma, citta, utu A ;h;ra. @ Material 6henomena arising from "amma There are 78 ty-es of .amma *hich -roduce rO-a internally in the bodies of beings for their o*n continuity of material -henomena. The 78 ty-es of

.amma com-rise @7 a.usala cetan;, G .;m;/acar;&.usala cetana and 8 rO-;/acara&.usala cetan;. These immoral and moral .amma -roduce rO-as in the .;ma&s-here and the rO-a&s-here at e/ery small instant starting from the arising instant of rebirth consciousness till death. The rO-a -roduced by .amma is called .amma>a&rO-a. Note that arO-;/acara .amma do not -roduce rO-as. .amma com-rise @7 a.usala cetan;, G .;m;/acar;&.usala cetana and 8 rO-;/acara&.usala cetan;. These immoral and moral .amma -roduce rO-as in the .;ma&s-here and the rO-a&s-here at e/ery small instant starting from the arising instant of rebirth consciousness till death. The rO-a -roduced by .amma is called .amma>a&rO-a. Note that arO-;/acara .amma do not -roduce rO-as.

Hasitu--;da and E somanassa&mah;&.iriya cittas -roduce smiles in Buddhas and arahats. Hasitu--;da and E somanassa&mah;&.iriya cittas -roduce smiles in Buddhas and arahats. 5our lobha&mOla&somanassa cittas and E somanassamah;& .usala cittas -roduce smiles and laughters in -uthu>>anas :*orldlings<. Three mano&dh;tus, @@ tad;lambaPas and 8 rO-;/acara /i-;.a cittas :totaling @C< -roduce only ordinary citta>arO-a. M Material 6henomena arising from Utu The heat&element, te>o, *hich com-rises both cold and heat and *hich is -resent in all rO-a&.al;-as, on reaching its static stage, -roduces utu>a&rO-as and continues -roducing utu>a&rO-as at e/ery small instant both internally and e0ternally. E Material 6henomena arising from Xh;ra The nutriti/e essence, o>;, is -resent in all rO-a&.al;-as both inside the body :internal< and outside the body :e0ternal<. The e0ternal food, *hich is eaten, is digested in the stomach and dis-ersed through blood to all -arts of the body. So the internal o>; and the e0ternal o>; meet in e/ery -art of the body. The time they meet is called the arising instant :u--;da<. After this instant, the static instant :thWti< is reached. 5rom this static instant the combination of internal and e0ternal o>;s starts -roducing ahara>a&rO-as and goes on -roducing them at e/ery small instant until the combination terminates.

Ty-es of $O-a E.a>a&rO-a a rO-a -roduced by a single cause D/i>a&rO-a a rO-a -roduced by t*o cause Ti>a&rO-a a rO-a -roduced by three causes +atu>a&rO-a a rO-a -roduced by four causes Ane.a>a&rO-a a rO-a -roduced by more than one cause or by many causes @ 5i/e -as;da&rO-as, t*o bh;/a&rO-as, hadaya&/atthu and >W/ita&rO-a :totaling C< are -roduced by .amma alone. T*o /iQQatti&rO-as are -roduced by citta alone. So the total number of e.a>a&rO-as is @@. 7 Sadda is the only d/i>a&rO-a -roduced by citta and utu. ?ocal sounds such as s-eech, laughter, moaning, crying, singing, and *histling are -roduced by citta. Non&/ocal sounds such as thunder, musical notes from instruments, s-eeches from the radio, songs from cassettes, noises made by cars and trains, etc., are -roduced by utu. M There are three ti>a&rO-as namely, rO-assa&lahut;, rO-assamudut; and rO-assa&.ammaQQat;. They are -roduced by citta, utu and ;h;ra. These rO-as are res-onsible for the -leasant bouyant feeling *e e0-erience *hen our mind is clear or *hen the *eather is -leasant or after *e ha/e a light -leasant meal. E There are C catu>a&rO-as *hich are -roduced by all the four causes. They are the eight a/inibbhoga&rO-as and ;.;sa&dh;tu *hich arises *hen material grou-s :.al;-as< of a/inibbhoga&rO-as are formed. 8 "amma>a&rO-as :@G< C .amma>a&e.a>a rO-as b C .amma>a&ane.a>a rO-as :i.e. the C catu>a&rO-as<

N N< 7 citta>a&e.a>a&rO-as b @M citta>a&ane.a>a rO-as. The @M citta>a&ane.a>a rO-as are the C catu>a&rO-as b @ sadda b M ti>a&rO-as. H Utu>a&rO-as :@M< @M utu>a&ane.a>a rO-as *hich are the same as the @M citta>aane.a>a& rO-as. G Xh;ra>a&rO-as :;h;ra>a&ane.a>a rO-as< :@7< G a/inibbhoga rO-a b M ti>a&rO-as. Notes' @ The three ti>a&rO-as /iJ., lahut;, mudut; and .ammaQQat; are also called lahut;di&rO-as. 7 The four la..haPa&rO-as are not -roduced by any cause. They >ust denote the arising :birth<, e0isting :decay< and dissol/ing :death< nature of real rO-as. 4rou-ing of Material Rualities :$O-a&.al;-a< The 7G ty-es of rO-a are not found se-arately in nature. They are -roduced by the four causes in the form of tiny material grou-s called .al;-as. "al;-as ha/e the follo*ing four features' @ All the rO-as in a .al;-a arise together, i.e. they ha/e a common genesis. 7 They also cease or dissol/e together, i.e. they ha/e a common cessation. M They all de-end on the four great essentials -resent in the .al;-a for their arising, i.e. they ha/e a common de-endence. E

They are so thoroughly mi0ed that they cannot be distinguished, i.e. they co&e0ist.

It should be noted that .al;-as are so small that they are in/isible e/en under electronic microsco-es. The siJe of .al;-a in the human realm is >ust a @9It should be noted that .al;-as are so small that they are in/isible e/en under electronic microsco-es. The siJe of .al;-a in the human realm is >ust a @98th of a -aram;nu, *hich is smaller than an atom. So .al;-as are com-arable to electrons, -rotons and neutrons in siJe. There are 7@ ty-es of .al;-as3C .amma>a .al;-as b N citta>a .al;-as b E utu>a .al;-as b 7 ;h;ra>a .al;-as. @ Nine "amma>a&.al;-as These are formed from the @G .amma>a&rO-as. In all .al;-as, the G a/inibbhoga&rO-as form the nucleus. All .amma>a&rO-as contain >W/ita&rO-a *hich is the -hysical life. So a grou- of G a/inibbhogarO-as and >W/ita&rO-a forms the sim-lest unit of .amma>a&rO-a. It is called >W/ita&na/a.a&.al;-a meaning ^grou- of C rO-as including >W/ita1. It may be shortened to ^>W/ita&nonad1. By adding the remaining G .amma>a&e.a>a&rO-as one at a time to this basic unit of ^>W/ita&nonad1 *e get the remaining G .amma>a.al;-as. @ +a..hu&dasa.a :eye&decad< G a/inibbhoga&rO-as b >W/itarO-a b ca..hu&-as;da 7 Sota&dasa.a :ear&decad< G a/inibbhoga&rO-as b >W/ita&rO-a b sota&-as;da M 4h;na&dasa.a :nose&decad< G a/inibbhoga&rO-as b >W/itarO-a b gh;na&-as;da E Fi/h;&dasa.a :tongue&decad< G a/inibbhoga&rO-as b >W/ita&rO-a b >i/h;&-as;da 8 ";ya&dasa.a :body&decad< G a/inibbhoga&rO-as b >W/ita&rO-a b .;ya&-as;da N Itthibh;/a&dasa.a :female&decad< G a/inibbhoga&rO-as b >W/ita&rO-a b itthibh;/a&rO-a

H 6umbh;/a&dasa.a :male&decad< H 6umbh;/a&dasa.a :male&decad< :-urisabh;/a< G Hadaya&dasa.a :heart&decad< G a/inibbhoga&rO-as b >W/ita&rO-a b hadaya&/atthu C FW/ita&na/a.a :/ital&nonad< G a/inibbhoga&rO-as b >W/ita&rO-a Note' aYYha.a a G= na/a.a a C= dasa.a a @9= e.;dasa.a a @@= d/;dasa.a a @7= terasa.a a @M 7 Si0 +itta>a&.al;-as They are formed by grou-ing the @E citta>a&rO-as :e0cluding -ariccheda&rO-a< together as may be reIuired. @ +itta>a&suddhaYYha.a :-ure octad< G a/inibbhoga&rO-as -roduced by citta 7 ";ya/iQQatti&na/a.a :bodily intimation decad< G a/inibbhoga&rO-as b .;ya/iQQatti M ?aci/iQQatti&sadda&dasa.a :/ocal intimation decad< G a/inibbhoga b /aci/iQQatti b sadda :sound< E #ahut;di&e.;dasa.a :undecad of mutability< G a/inibbhogas b lahut; b mudut; b .ammaQQat; 8 ";ya/iQQatti&lahut;di d/;dasa.a :undecad of mutability< G a/inibbhoga b .;ya/iQQatti b lahut;di&rO-as N ?aci/iQQatti&sadda&lahut;di&terasa.a :tridecad of mut ability< G a/inibbhogas b /aci/iQQatti b M lahut;di&rO-as b sadda M 5our Utu>a&.al;-as They are formed by grou-ing the @7 utu>a&rO-as :e0cluding -ariccheda&rO-a< together as may be reIuired.

@ Utu>a&suddhaYYha.a :-ure octad< @ Utu>a&suddhaYYha.a :-ure octad< 7 Sadda&na/a.a:sound&decad< G a/inibbhoga&rO-as b sadda M #ahut;di&e.;dasa.a:undecad of mutability< G a/inibbhogas b M lahut;di&rO-as E Sadda&lahut;di&d/;dasa.a :dodecad of sound and mutability< G a/inibbhogas b sadda b M lahut;di&rO-as E T*o Xh;ra>a&.al;-as They are formed by grou-ing together the G a/inibbhoga&rO-as and the M lahut;di&rO-as -roduced by ;h;ra. @ Xh;ra>a&suddhaYYha.a:-ure octad< G a/inibbhoga&rO-as -roduced by ;h;ra 7 #ahut;di&e.;dasa.a:undecad of mutability< G a/inibbhoga&rO-as b M lahut;di&rO-as Internal and E0ternal "al;-as All the 7@ rO-a&.al;-as mentioned abo/e occur internally in li/ing beings. Itthibh;/a&dasa.a does not occur in males. Similarly -umbh;/a&dasa.a does not occur in females. 5or those *ho are born blind or deaf, ca..hu&dasa.a or sota&dasa.a should be eliminated. :Note that of the 7G ty-es of rO-a, itthibh;/a&rO-a is absent in males and -urisabh;/a&rO-a is absent in females. So only 7H ty-es of rO-a *ill be -resent in each s-ecies<. ^A>>hatta1 refers to ^internal or *ithin the indi/idual1. ^Bahiddha1 refers to ^e0ternal or outside the indi/idual1.

No* in the e0ternal :bahiddha< *orld, only t*o utu>a&.al;-as are found. All inanimate things such as trees, stones, earth, *ater, fire, cor-ses, etc., are made u- of utu>a&suddhaYYha.a .al;-as. The sounds -roduced by beating t*o stic.s together or by rubbing of branches in the *ind or by musical instruments such as /iolin, -iano, radio, cassettes, etc., are utu>a&sadda&na/a.a .al;-as. No* in the e0ternal :bahiddha< *orld, only t*o utu>a&.al;-as are found. All inanimate things such as trees, stones, earth, *ater, fire, cor-ses, etc., are made u- of utu>a&suddhaYYha.a .al;-as. The sounds -roduced by beating t*o stic.s together or by rubbing of branches in the *ind or by musical instruments such as /iolin, -iano, radio, cassettes, etc., are utu>a&sadda&na/a.a .al;-as. :Arising of Material 6henomena< Before reading this section, readers are ad/ised to re/ie* the _four modes of concei/ing` on -age @CN. All the 7G material Iualities occur undiminished, if circumstances -ermit, in an indi/idual during a life&time in .;malo.a :sense&s-here<. But at the moment of rebirth :-aYisandhi&.;la<, in samseda>a-ersons and o-a-;ti.a&-ersons, at most se/en .amma>a&.al;-as com-rising eye&decad, ear&decad, nose&decad, tongue&decad, bodydecad, se0&decad and heart&decad are manifested. Ho*e/er, eye, ear, nose, and se0&decads are sometimes not manifested. In gabbhaseya.a&-ersons:*omb&born creatures< only three .amma>a&.al;-as com-rising body&decad, se0&decad and heartdecad are manifested at the moment of conce-tion :-aYisandhi.;la<. Here again the se0&decad may not be manifested in some -articular indi/iduals. After conce-tion, during life :-a/atti&.;la<, the eye&decad and the rest are manifested slo*ly in due order. !f the grou-s of material Iualities *hich are -roduced in four *ays, .amma>a&rO-a starts to form at the moment of conce-tion and it goes on forming incessantly at e/ery minor&instant.

+itta>a&rO-a begins to form from the second moment of consciousness, i.e. from the arising instant of the first bha/aTga *hich follo*s the rebirth&consciousness. +itta>a&rO-a continues to be formed at e/ery arising instant of the subseIuent cittas for the *hole life&time. +itta>a&rO-a begins to form from the second moment of consciousness, i.e. from the arising instant of the first bha/aTga *hich follo*s the rebirth&consciousness. +itta>a&rO-a continues to be formed at e/ery arising instant of the subseIuent cittas for the *hole life&time. E/ery .al;-a also contains the nutriti/e essence, o>;. But ;h;ra>a&rO-a starts to form *hen internal o>; meets e0ternal o>; at the time of diffusion of nutriti/e essence and the combination of internal and e0ternal o>; comes to the static stage. 5rom that instant, ;h;ra>a&rO-a is also formed at e/ery minor instant. As ne* grou-s of material Iualities are incessantly -roduced, old grou-s dissol/e and disa--ear *hen their lifetime of @H conscious&moments is o/er. Thus the material -henomena go on uninterru-tedly in the sense&s-here till the end of life li.e the flame of a lam-, or the stream of a ri/er. Material 6henomena at Death At the time of death, -sychic life and -hysical life must cease together. This means that all .amma>a&rO-a *hich contains -hysical life must cease at the time of death.

So at the arising instant of the se/enteenth citta rec.oned bac.*ard from the death&consciousness :cuti&citta<, the last .amma>a&rO-a is formed. This last .amma>a&rO-a *ill cease at the dissol/ing instant of the death&consciousness. So at the arising instant of the se/enteenth citta rec.oned bac.*ard from the death&consciousness :cuti&citta<, the last .amma>a&rO-a is formed. This last .amma>a&rO-a *ill cease at the dissol/ing instant of the death&consciousness. Xh;ra>a&rO-a is formed till the dissol/ing instant of the cuticitta, because the su--ort reIuired for the formation of ;h;ra>arO-a can be furnished by citta u- to that time. So at death, that last&formed ;h;ra>a&rO-a has lasted for only one minor&instant. Ho*e/er in another fifty minor instants :rO-a&lifes-an a 8@ minor instants or @H conscious&moments<, that ;h;ra>a&rO-a also ceases. Thus at the time of death, .amma>a&rO-a, citta>a&rO-a and ah;ra>a&rO-a cease almost instantly. But utu>a&rO-a goes on forming and dissol/ing till the cor-se is con/erted into dust. A cor-se consists of only utu>a&rO-a. So *hen a -erson dies and is reborn in another life, material -henomena similarly arise starting from the instant of conce-tion and go on arising till the time of death. Arising of Material 6henomena in $O-a&-lanes In the rO-a&-lane, nose&decad, tongue&decad, body&decad, se0decad and ;h;ra>a&.al;-as do not arise. At the time of o-a-;ti.arebirth, there arise four .amma>a&.al;-as namely, eye&decad, eardecad, heart&decad and /ital&nonad. During life, ho*e/er, citta>a.al;-as and utu>a&.al;-as also arise. To the AsaQQasatta brahmas, eye&decad, heart&decad and sound&nonad :sadda&na/a.a< do not arise. Also citta>a&.al;-as do

not arise. Therefore, at the time of their o-a-;ti.a&rebirth, only the /ital&nonad :>W/ita&na/a.a< arises. During life, utu>a&.al;-as, *ith the e0ce-tion of the sound&nonad, arise in addition. not arise. Therefore, at the time of their o-a-;ti.a&rebirth, only the /ital&nonad :>W/ita&na/a.a< arises. During life, utu>a&.al;-as, *ith the e0ce-tion of the sound&nonad, arise in addition. Summary of Material 6henomena In summary, it should be noted that @ all the 7G rO-as arise in the .;ma&s-here= 7 in the @8 rO-a&-lane, *ith the e0ce-tion of AsaQQa&satta, 7M rO-as arise :gh;na&-as;da, >i/h;&-as;da, .;ya&-as;da, itthi&bh;/a and -urisa&bh;/a being e0cluded<= M only @H rO-as arise in the AsaQQasatta -lane= they are G a/inibbhogas, >W/ita, -ariccheda, M lahut;di, E la..haPa&rO-as= E no material arises in the arO-a&-lanes= 8 eight rO-as com-rising sadda, fi/e /i.;ra&rO-as, >arat; rO-a and aniccat;&rO-a, do not arise at the moment of birth :-aYisandhi&.;la< *hereas, during life time, there is no rO-a *hich is not formed. 6ractical !bser/ations All the material -henomena described in this cha-ter can be obser/ed and /erified by an interested -erson *ho *ill underta.e tranIuillity meditation and insight meditation strenuously. Although rO-a&.al;-as are in/isible under -o*erful microsco-es, they can be obser/ed by sam;dhi&eye *hich is the mind&eye accom-anied by access&concentration or better by >h;na&concentration.

!ne shall obser/e *ith sam;dhi&eye that there are si0 ty-es of .al;-as in the eye, namely, the eye&decad, the body&decad, the se0&decad and three -ure octads -roduced by citta, utu and ;h;ra, res-ecti/ely. In the same *ay one shall obser/e si0 ty-es of .al;-as each in the ear, the nose, and the tongue a >ust substitute the eye&decad *ith the ear&decad, the nose&decad, the tongue&decad, res-ecti/ely, in enumerating these .al;-as. Note that .;ya&-as;da, bh;/a&rO-a, citta>a&rO-a, utu>a&rO-a and ;h;ra>a&rO-a s-read all o/er the body, and so they *ill be -resent in the eye, the ear, the nose, the tongue and in e/ery -art of the body. !ne shall obser/e *ith sam;dhi&eye that there are si0 ty-es of .al;-as in the eye, namely, the eye&decad, the body&decad, the se0&decad and three -ure octads -roduced by citta, utu and ;h;ra, res-ecti/ely. In the same *ay one shall obser/e si0 ty-es of .al;-as each in the ear, the nose, and the tongue a >ust substitute the eye&decad *ith the ear&decad, the nose&decad, the tongue&decad, res-ecti/ely, in enumerating these .al;-as. Note that .;ya&-as;da, bh;/a&rO-a, citta>a&rO-a, utu>a&rO-a and ;h;ra>a&rO-a s-read all o/er the body, and so they *ill be -resent in the eye, the ear, the nose, the tongue and in e/ery -art of the body. #edi Sayada* has *ritten in Myanmar in the boo. entitled _"ammathan "yan 4yi` on -age 7E9 *hich says that' _)hen one loo.s through a microsco-e or a telesco-e, one sees easily *ithout troubles the originally in/isible, subtle and far&a*ay ob>ects. In the same *ay if one de/elo-s >h;na, ma.es the >h;na&concentration the base and underta.es insight meditation, one can easily see *ithout troubles the signs of im-ermanence, suffering and not&self, *hich are /ery dee-, subtle, /ery far and /ery hard to see. +onseIuently there arise magga&Q;Pa and -hala&Q;Pa that can anihilate the four ;sa/as :can.ers< com-letely. The 5our Noble Truths and Nibb;na, *hich are /ery dee-, subtle, /ery far and /ery hard to see, are also obser/ed.`

$ecently I ha/e inter/ie*ed many yogWs in International Buddha S;sana +entres :6a&Au. Meditation +entres< in Myanmar, *here samatha&/i-assan;&meditation is taught according to ?isuddhi&Magga and 6iYa.a +anons. I ha/e the o-inion that these yogWs can obser/e the .al;-as and analyse them to the ultimate state. !f course, one could see the ultimate realities if one is -ro-erly guided by an able teacher. $ecently I ha/e inter/ie*ed many yogWs in International Buddha S;sana +entres :6a&Au. Meditation +entres< in Myanmar, *here samatha&/i-assan;&meditation is taught according to ?isuddhi&Magga and 6iYa.a +anons. I ha/e the o-inion that these yogWs can obser/e the .al;-as and analyse them to the ultimate state. !f course, one could see the ultimate realities if one is -ro-erly guided by an able teacher. @ Nibb;na is su-ramundane :lo.uttara<, that is, beyond the M@ -lanes of e0istence, beyond the *orld of mind and body:i.e. the fi/e aggregates<. 7 Nibb;na is realiJed through the .no*ledge belonging to the 5our 6aths and the 5our 5ruits. It is obser/ed by magga&Q;Pa and -hala&Q;Pa. M Nibb;na is the ob>ect of the four 6aths and their 5ruits. E )hen the cause of suffering, that is, defilements :.ilesas< are com-letely eradicated by the E 6ath&*isdoms, suffering is also annihilated. Then only bliss :-Wti< and -eacefulness :santi< e0ist in the mental stream. This uniIue bliss and -eacefulness is called Nibb;na. In Sans.rit, Nibb;na is called Nir/;na *hich is com-osed of ^ni1 and ^/;na1. ^Ni1 im-lies ^to be free from1, and ^/;na1 means ^*ea/ing or cra/ing1. It is this cra/ing :taPh;< *hich acts as a cord to connect the series of li/es of an indi/idual in the course of his *anderings in Sa[sara a the eternal cycle of birth and death. As long as one is entangled by cra/ing, one accumulates fresh .ammas *hich *ill gi/e rise to ne* birth and death re-eatedly. )hen all forms of cra/ing are annihilated by the

four 6aths, .ammic force ceases to o-erate and one esca-es from the cycle of birth and death. Then one is said to attain Nibb;na. The Buddhist conce-t of ^Deli/erance or #iberation1 is this esca-e from the e/er&recurring cycle of birth and death and all the misery associated *ith them. four 6aths, .ammic force ceases to o-erate and one esca-es from the cycle of birth and death. Then one is said to attain Nibb;na. The Buddhist conce-t of ^Deli/erance or #iberation1 is this esca-e from the e/er&recurring cycle of birth and death and all the misery associated *ith them. @ Sa&u-;disesa&Nibb;na Sa a *ith, u-;di a the fi/e aggregates gras-ed by cra/ing and false /ie*= sesa a remaining. In Buddhas and arahats, though all defilements :.iles;s< ha/e been annihilated, /i-;.a&cittas and their concomitants :together .no*n as /i-;.a&nama..handha< and .amma>a&rO-as still remain. %et Buddhas and arahats can e0-erience Nibb;na fully. The element of Nibb;na *hich is realiJed by Buddhas and arahats before death *ith /i-;.a&n;ma..handha and .amma>a&rO-as remaining is called sa&u-;disesa Nibb;na&dh;tu. 7 Anu-;disesa&Nibb;na This is the Nibb;na e0-erienced by Buddhas and arahats after death. The element of Nibb;na *hich is realiJed *ithout any /i-;.a&n;ma..handha and .amma>a&rO-a remaining is called anu-;disesa Nibb;na&dh;tu. Sa&u-;disesa Nibb;na c "ilesa Nibb;na, i.e. it is attained by the annihilation of .iles;s. Anu-;disesa Nibb;na c "handha Nibb;na, i.e. it is attained by the annihilation of the fi/e aggregates.

Three Modes of Nibb;na Three Modes of Nibb;na SuQQata&Nibb;na Nibb;na is de/oid of lust, hatred and ignorance= it is also de/oid of grou-s of rO-a and n;ma. So it is called SuQQata&Nibb;na. SuQQa a /oid or Jero= here it means that lust, hatred, ignorance, rO-a and n;ma are Jero, but it does not mean that Nibb;na is ^nothingness1. 7 Animitta&Nibb;na Material grou-s, *hich are com-osed of rO-a&.al;-as, ha/e different forms and sha-es. Mental grou-s consisting of citta and its concomitants may be assumed to ha/e some .ind of form for they can be seen by certain -ersons *ho ha/e de/elo-ed su-er&normal -o*er :abhiQQ;s<. Nibb;na, ho*e/er, has no form and sha-e at all. Thus it is called Animitta&Nibb;na. M A--anihita&Nibb;na Nibb;na has no n;ma and rO-a nor any form and sha-e to be longed for by taPh; :cra/ing or lust<. Neither is there any lust or cra/ing in Nibb;na. Nibb;na is abso lutely free from lust as *ell as from the han.erings of lust. So it is .no*n as A--anihita&Nibb;na. Some more Definitions of Nibb;na Nibb;na may also be characterised by the follo*ing /irtues. @ Accuta[ a It has -ast death, and thus no death occurs in Nibb;na. 7 Accanta[ a It has -ast the end called death, so it is endless.

M M E Anuttara[ a It is su-erior to and more noble than any Dhamma. 8 6ada[ a It is an ob>ecti/e reality :/atthu&dhamma< that can be realiJed by ariyas :noble -ersons<.

+ha-ter H +ha-ter H A +om-endium of Ultimate Entities Introductory Se/enty&t*o .inds of ultimate entities, called /atthu&dhammas because they ha/e their o*n characteristics, ha/e been described so far. They are citta, 87 cetasi.as, @G ni--hanna&rO-as and Nibb;na. +itta All the GC or @7@ ty-es of consciousness are regarded as one as they all -ossess the characteristic of ^a*areness1. Actually they are GC or @7@ ty-es of combinations of citta *ith /arious cetasi.as. +etasi.as All 87 mental factors are /ie*ed se-arately as they -ossess different characteristics. Ni--hanna&rO-as All the @G rO-as *hich are caused and conditioned by .amma, citta, utu and ;h;ra are regarded to be real and /ie*ed se-arately as they -ossess different characteristics. Nibb;na It is one *ith regard to its characteristic of -eacefulness :santi&la..haPa<. Thus the total number of /atthu&dhammas' @b87b@Gb@cH7

All these H7 are sub>ecti/e and ob>ecti/e realities. The related ones *ill be grou-ed into categories in the -resent cha-ter. All these H7 are sub>ecti/e and ob>ecti/e realities. The related ones *ill be grou-ed into categories in the -resent cha-ter. The com-endium of categories that *ill be treated here is four fold' @ the com-endium of immoral categories, 7 the com-endium of mi0ed categories, M the com-endium of categories that -ertain to enligh tenment, and E the com-endium of the *hole /atthu&dhammas. j@k A.usala saTgaha :+om-endium of Immoral +ategories< There are nine immoral categories a /iJ., Xsa/a, !gha, %oga, 4antha, U-;d;na, Ni/;rana, Anusaya, Sa[yo>ana and "iles;. @ 5our Xsa/as :5our +an.ers or Into0icants< ^Xsa/a1 means into0icant, defilements, corru-tion, taint, stain, can.er, etc. )e .no* that fermented liIuor *hich has been left in the fermenting -ot for a long time can strongly into0icate men. Similarly the ;sa/as, *hich ha/e been left to be fermented in the .handha&stream of beings for aeons, i.e., a sa[s;ra, ma.e men drun. and forgetful of their liberation. There are four ;sa/as' @ ";m;sa/a a attachment to sensual -leasures in the sense& s-here= it is lobha associated *ith G lobha&mOla cittas. 7 Bha/;sa/a a attachment to rO-a&>h;na and arO-a&>h;na as *ell as to the e0istence in rO-a& and arO-a&-lanes= it is lobha associated *ith E lobha&mOla diYYhigata&/i--ayutta cittas. M DiYYh;sa/a a N7 .inds of false /ie*s= it is diYYhi -resent in E lobha&mOla diYYhigata&sam-ayutta cittas.

E E Note' The essential elements of the four ;sa/as are >ust three, namely, lobha, diYYhi and moha. These three strongly into0icate beings and ma.e them *ander in sa[s;ra. 7 5our !ghas :5our 5loods< ^!gha1 means flood, torrent, *hirl-ool, o/er*helm or suffocate. Fust as great floods s*ee- a*ay men and animals into the sea, o/er*helm, suffocate and dro*n them, so also the four oghas s*ee- a*ay beings, o/er*helm, suffocate and dro*n them in the great ocean of sa[s;ra. #i.e four great *hirl-ools in the broad ocean, they can -ull do*n any being *ho comes o/er them, and so it is /ery difficult to cross o/er them. The four oghas are similar to the four ;sa/as, their essential elements being the same. @ ";mogha a the flood of sensual desire, 7 Bha/ogha a the flood of desire for >h;nas and e0istence in rO-a& and arO-a&-lanes, M DiYYhogha a the flood of false /ie*s, E A/i>>ogha a the flood of ignorance. M 5our %ogas :5our Bonds< ^%oga1 means >unction, union, a--lication, de/otion, attachment, bond, glue or ^to yo.e1. The o0en *hich are yo.ed to the cart cannot get a*ay from the cart. Similarly the beings *ho are yo.ed to the machine of e0istence and firmly attached to the *heel of sa[s;ra by means

of four yogas, cannot get a*ay from the machine of e0istence and from sa[s;ra. The four oghas are again similar to the four ;sa/as, the essen tial elements being the same. @ ";mayoga a attachment to sensual -leasure, 7 Bha/;yoga a attachment to >h;nas and to the e0istence in rO-a and arO-a -lanes, M DiYYhiyoga a attachment to false /ie*s, E A/i>>;yoga a attachment to ignorance. E 5our 4anthas :5our Ties< ^4antha1 means ^a tie1 or ^a bond1. The four ganthas are the strong bonds *hich tie the grou-s of rO-a and n;ma of this e0istence to those of future e0istences. In the follo*ing names of ganthas, ^.;ya1 is used in the sense of grou- or mass im-lying both mental and -hysical. @ Abhi>>h;&.;yagantha a all forms of cra/ing :taPh;<= it is lobha -resent in the G lobha&mOla cittas. 7 ?y;-ada&.;yagantha a all forms of anger or ill*ill. It is dosa -resent in the 7 dosa&mOla cittas. M Silabbata-ar;m;sa&.;yagantha a adherence to the false /ie* that one becomes -ure and thus be liberated by bo/ine and canine morality or conduct= it also includes adherence to rites and ceremonies= it is diYYhi -resent in the E lobha&mOla diYYhi&sam-ayutta cittas. E Ida[sacc;bhini/esa&.;yagantha a dogmatic belief that only one1s /ie* is true and all the others are futile or that ^this alone is truth1. It is also diYYhi -resent in the E lobhamOla diYYhi&sam-ayutta cittas.

8 5our U-;d;nas :5our 4ras-ings< 8 5our U-;d;nas :5our 4ras-ings< li.e a sna.e gras-ing a frog *ithout letting it go. U-;d;na is stronger than taPh; :cra/ing<. TaPh; is li.e a thief gro-ing in the dar. to steal something *hereas u-;d;na is li.e the actual stealing. @ ";mu-;d;na a sense&desire or clinging to the fi/e sense& ob>ects= it is lobha -resent in G lobha&mOla cittas. 7 DiYYhu-;d;na a clinging to all false /ie*s e0ce-t the t*o /ie*s to be mentioned in :M< and :E<= it is diYYhi -resent in the E lobha&mOla diYYhi&sam-ayutta cittas. M Silabbatu-;d;na a clinging to the false /ie* that one becomes -ure and thus be liberated by bo/ine and canine morality or conduct= clinging to rites and ceremonies= it is also diYYhi -resent in the E lobha&mOla diYYhi&sam-ayutta cittas. E Atta/;du-;d;na a clinging to the theory that the soul e0ists, and that I, you, he, she, -ersons, etc., e0ist= it is synonymous *ith ^sa..;ya&diYYhi1 *hich is ^-ersonalitybelief1. It is also diYYhi -resent in the E lobha&mOla diYYhisam-ayutta cittas. Note' The latter three u-;d;nas re-resent diYYhi cetasi.a alone. They are differentiated as three because the *ays and the ob>ects of clinging are different. N Si0 NW/;ranas :Si0 Hindrances< ^NW/;raPa1 means ^hindrance1 or ^obstacle1. NW/;raPas hinder and -re/ent the arising of good thoughts and good deeds, >h;nas and maggas. Thus they obstruct the *ay to celestial and Nibb;nic bliss.

Es-ecially the first fi/e ni/;ranas blind our mental /ision and obstruct our moral actions. )e ha/e to *restle *ith them *hene/er *e try to -erform some good deed *hether it be saying some -rayers or underta.ing meditation. In the -resence of them *e cannot reach neighbourhoodconcentration :u-ac;ra&sam;dhi< and full concentration :a--an;&sam;dhi<, and are unable to discern clearly the truth. @ ";macchanda a sense&desire= it is lobha in the G lobhamOla cittas. 7 ?y;-;da a ill&*ill= it is dosa in the 7 dosa mOla cittas. M Thina&middha a sloth and tor-or= they are thina&cetasi.a and middha&cetasi.a. E Uddhacca&.u..ucca a restlessness and brooding or *orry= they are uddhacca&cetasi.a and .u..ucca&cetasi.a. 8 ?ici.icch; a sce-tical doubt or -er-le0ity= it is /ici.icch;cetasi.a. N A/i>>; a ignorance= it is moha -resent in the @7 a.usala cittas. Notes' a. Both sloth and tor-or, restlessness and brooding are grou-ed together because their functions :.icca<, their causes :hetu< and their o--osing factors are the same. The function of sloth and tor-or is mental inacti/ity, their cause is laJiness, and they are o--osed to energy :/Wriya<. The function of restlessness and brooding is disIuietude, their cause is /e0ation about the loss of -ro-erty, etc., and they are o--osed to tranIuility. b. In the beautiful similes gi/en by Buddha in Anguttara Ni.;ya, sense&desire is com-ared *ith *ater mi0ed *ith manifold colours, ill&*ill *ith boiling *ater, sloth and

tor-or *ith *ater co/ered by mosses, restlessness and brooding *ith agitated *ater *hi--ed by the *ind, and sce-tical doubt *ith turbid and muddy *ater. Fust as in such *ater one cannot -ercei/e one1s o*n reflection, so also in the -resence of these fi/e mental hindrances, one cannot clearly discern one1s o*n benefit, nor that of others, nor that of both. tor-or *ith *ater co/ered by mosses, restlessness and brooding *ith agitated *ater *hi--ed by the *ind, and sce-tical doubt *ith turbid and muddy *ater. Fust as in such *ater one cannot -ercei/e one1s o*n reflection, so also in the -resence of these fi/e mental hindrances, one cannot clearly discern one1s o*n benefit, nor that of others, nor that of both. Anusayas are no*here to be seen. They do not ha/e distinct a--earances, and they are not s-ecified by such characteristics as arising&e0isting&dissol/ing. But they remain ready to come to the surface as real defilements at an a--ortune moment *hen they are in contact *ith the corres-onding sense&ob>ects. @ ";mar;g;nusaya a attachment to sense&ob>ects= it is lobha -resent in the G lobha&mOla cittas. 7 Bha/ar;g;nusaya a attachment to rO-a&>h;nas, arO-a>h;nas, and the e0istence in rO-a& and arO-a&-lanes= it is lobha in the E lobha&mOla diYYhi&/i--ayutta cittas. M 6aYigh;nusaya a ill&*ill or hatred= it is dosa -resent in the 7 dosa&mOla&cittas. E M;n;nusaya a -ride= it is m;na&cetasi.a -resent in the E lobha&mOla diYYhi&/i--ayutta cittas.

8 8 ?ici.icch;nusaya a sce-tical doubts= it is /ici.icch;&cetasi.a -resent in moha&mOla /ici.icch;&sam-ayutta citta. H A/i>>;nusaya a ignorance= it is moha -resent in the @7 a.usala cittas. G Ten Sa[yo>anas :Ten 5etters< ^Sa[yo>ana1 means fetter that binds beings to the *heel of e0istence and to the rounds of misery. There are ten fetters *hich bind each indi/idual to the *heel of e0istence. a Ten 5etters according to Sutta 6ita.a' @ ";mar;ga&sa[yo>ana a attachment to sense&ob>ects, 7 $O-ar;ga&sa[yo>ana a attachment to rO-a&>h;nas and rO-a&e0istence, M ArO-ar;ga&sa[yo>ana a attachment to arO-a&>h;na and arO-a&e0istence, E 6aYigh;&sa[yo>ana a ill&*ill or hatred, 8 M;na&sa[yo>ana a -ride, N DiYYhi&sa[yo>ana a false /ie*s, H Silabbata&-ar;m;sa&sa[yo>ana a adherence to the false /ie* that one becomes -ure by bo/ine and canine morality or by rites and ceremonies, G ?ici.icch;&sa[yo>ana a sce-tical doubt, C Uddhacca&sa[yo>ana a restlessness, @9 A/i>>;&sa[yo>ana a ignorance. The essential elements for the abo/e ten fetters are lobha :for @,7,M<, dosa, m;na, diYYhi :for N, H<, /ici.icch;, uddhacca and moha, i.e., H cetasi.as in all.

b The 5etters according to Abhidhamma 6ita.a' b The 5etters according to Abhidhamma 6ita.a' ";mar;ga&sa[yo>ana a attachment to sense&ob>ects 7 Bha/ar;ga&sa[yo>ana a attachment to rO-a& and arO-a >h;nas and rO-a& and arO-a& e0istences, M 6aYigh;&sa[yo>ana a ill&*ill or hatred, E M;na&sa[yo>ana a -ride, 8 DiYYhi&sa[yo>ana a false /ie*s, N Silabbata&-ar;m;sa&sa[yo>ana a as abo/e, H ?ici.icch;&sa[yo>ana a sce-tical doubt, G Iss;&sa[yo>ana a en/y, C Macchariya&sa[yo>ana a a/arice, @9 A/i>>;&sa[yo>ana a ignorance. The essential elements for the Abhidhamma ten fetters are lobha :for @, 7<, dosa, m;na, diYYhi :for 8, N<, /ici.icch;, iss;, macchariya and moha i.e. G cetasi.as in all. The essential elements for both Sutta and Abhidhamma fetters are C cetasi.as3the H for sutta fetters b iss; b macchariya. C Ten "iles;s :Ten Defilements< ^"iles;1 means ^defilements or torment1. "iles;s defile, burn and afflict the mind. There are ten .iles;s' @ #obha a greed or attachment, 7 Dosa a hatred or ill&*ill, M Moha a delusion or ignorance, E M;na a -ride or conceit, 8 DiYYhi a false /ie*s, N ?ici.icch; a sce-tical doubt or indecision, H

Thina a slot, G Uddhacca a restlessness, C Ahiri.a a moral shamelessness, @9 Anotta--a a moral fearlessness,

@899 "iles;s @899 "iles;s @9G Modes of TaPh; TaPh; is cra/ing. It is the chief root of suffering, and of the e/er continuing cycle of rebirths. 5irst, cra/ing is of three .inds' @ ";ma&taPh; a cra/ing for sense&ob>ects, 7 Bha/a&taPh; a cra/ing for rO-a& and arO-a&>h;nas and rO-a& and arO-a&e0istences, M ?ibha/a&taPh; a cra/ing for non&e0istence. +orres-onding to the si0 sense&ob>ects, there are si0 .inds of cra/ing' @ rO-a&taPh; a cra/ing for /isible ob>ects, 7 sadda&taPh; a cra/ing for sounds, M gandha&taPh; a cra/ing for odours, E rasa&taPh; a cra/ing for tastes, 8 -hotthabba&taPh; a cra/ing for bodily im-ressions. N dhamma&taPh; a cra/ing for mental im-ressions. If *e multi-ly the first grou- of M .inds of cra/ing *ith the second grou- of N, *e get @G .inds of cra/ing. Again multi-lying this by 7 as they can e0ist both internally and e0ternally, *e get MN .inds of cra/ing. No* these MN .inds of cra/ing can occur in the -ast, in the -resent and in the future. So they total to @9G .inds of taPh;.

TAB#E H.@ TAB#E H.@ @E A.usala +etasi.as :Immoral +ategories< E Xsa/asE !ghasE %ogasE 4anthasE U-;d;nasN NW/;raPasH Anusayas@9 Samyo>anas@9 "iles;sDe-artment @ #obha :TaPh;< h h h h h h h h h C 7 DiYYhi :5alse ?ie*< h h h h h h h h G M MohaZA/i>>; :Ignorance< h h h h h h h H E DosaZ6aYigha :Ill&*ill< h h h h h 8 8 ?ici.icch; :Doubt< h h h h E N M;na :6ride< h h

h M H Uddhacca :$estlessness< h h h M G Thina :Sloth< h h 7 C Middha :Tor-or< h @ @9 "u..ucca :Brooding< h @ @@ Iss; :En/y< h @ @7 Macchariya :A/arice< h @ @M Ahiri.a :Moral Shame< h @ @E Anotta--a :Moral 5ear< h @

4uide to reading 4uide to reading @ a $eading longitudinally @ #obha occurs in all the C de-artments as Xsa/a, !gha, %oga, 4antha, U-;d;na, NW/;raPa, Anusaya, Sa[yo>ana and "iles;. 7 DiYYhi occurs in G de-artments as Xsa/a, !gha, etc., as sho*n in the Table. M The rest can be read in a similar *ay. b $eading /ertically E 5our Xsa/as ha/e M essential elements a lobha, diYYhi, and moha. The same is true for oghas and %ogas. 8 5our 4anthas also ha/e M essential elements a lobha, diYYhi and dosa. N The rest can be read in a similar *ay. j7k Missa.a&saTgaha :+om-endium of Mi0ed +ategories< There are se/en mi0ed categories a /iJ., Hetu, Fh;naTga, MaggaTga, Indriya, Bala, Adhi-ati and Xh;ra. @ Si0 Hetus :Si0 $oots< ^Hetu1 means root, cause, condition or root&condition. As the roots ma.e a tree firm, -ros-erous and *ell&established, so in the same *ay the si0 hetus ma.e cittas and cetasi.as associated *ith them firm, -ros-erous and *ell&established at the sense&ob>ects. There are M moral roots and M immoral roots. The tree immoral roots :a.usala&hetus< are' @ #obha a greed or attachment, 7 Dosa a ill&*ill or hatred, M Moha a ignorance or delusion.

Three moral roots :.usala&hetus< are' E Alobha a non&attachment, 8 Adosa a good&*ill, N Amoha a *isdom. The moral roots also associate *ith sobhaPa .iriya&cittas and /i-;.a&cittas. Thus they are also .no*n as indeterminate roots :a/y;.ata&hetus< because .iriya&cittas and /i-;.a&cittas are called indeterminate :a/y;.ata<. 7 Se/en Fh;naTgas :Se/en +onstituents of Fh;na< ^Fh;naTgas1 means ^>h;na&factors1 or ^constituents of absor-tions1. The >h;na&factors hel- the cittas and their associated cetasi.as to obser/e an ob>ect, either bad or good, .eenly, closely and fi0edly. @ ?ita..a a initial a--lication, 7 ?ic;ra a sustained a--lication, M 6Wti a >oy, E E.aggat; a one&-ointedness, 8 Somanassa&/edan; a -leasant feeling, N Domanassa&/edan; a un-leasant feeling, H U-e..h;&/edan; a neutral feeling or eIuanimity. M T*el/e MaggaTgas :T*el/e +onstituents of the 6ath< ^Magga1 means ^6ath1 and ^maggaTgas1 means ^constituents of the -ath1. Un*holesome constituents combine to form a -ath leading to the *oeful state *hereas *holesome constituents combine to form a -ath leading to the blissful state u- to Nibb;na. @ Samm;&diYYhi a $ight ?ie* It is -aQQ; -resent in G mah;&.usala cittas, G mah;&.iriya cittas and 7N a--an;&>a/anas.

7 7 Samm;&/;c; a $ight S-eech It is samm;&/;c; cetasi.a -resent in G mah;&.usala cittas and G lo.uttara cittas. E Samm;&.ammanta a $ight Action It is samm;&.ammanta cetasi.a -resent in G mah;&.usala cittas and G lo.uttara cittas. 8 Samm;&;>W/a a $ight #i/elihood It is samm;&;>W/a cetasi.a -resent in G mah;&.usala cittas and G lo.uttara cittas. N Samm;&/;y;ma a $ight Effort It is /iriya -resent in G mah;&.usala cittas, G mah;&.usala cittas and 7N a--an;&>a/anas. H Samm;&sati a $ight Mindfulness It is sati&cetasi.a -resent in the abo/e E7 cittas. G Samm;&sam;dhi a $ight +oncentration It is e.aggat; -resent in the abo/e E7 cittas. C Micch;&diYYhi a )rong ?ie* It is diYYhi -resent in E lobha&mOla diYYhi&sam-ayutta cittas. @9 Micch;&saT.a--a a )rong Thought It is /ita..a -resent in @7 a.usala&cittas @@ Micch;&/;y;ma a )rong Effort It is /iriya -resent in @7 a.usala&cittas. @7 Micch;&sam;dhi a )rong +oncentration It is e.aggat; -resent in @7 a.usala cittas. E T*enty&t*o Indriyas :T*enty&t*o 5aculties< ^Indriya1 means ^faculty1 or controlling -o*er1. As the ministers control their res-ecti/e ministries, the indriyas control their

associates :sam-ayutta&dhammas< in their res-ecti/e fields of influence. The 77 indriyas are -artly -hysical and -artly mental. @ +a..hundriya a ca..hu&-as;da a sensiti/e -art of the eye, 7 Sotindriya a sota&-as;da a sensiti/e -art of the ear, M 4hanindriya a gh;na&-as;da a sensiti/e -art of the nose, E FW/hindriya a >W/h;&-as;da a sensiti/e -art of the tongue, 8 "ayindriya a .;ya&-as;da a sensiti/e -art of the body, N Itthindriya a itthibh;/a&rO-a a femininity, H 6urisindriya a -urisa&bh;/a&rO-a a masculinity, G FW/itindriya a >W/ita rO-a and >W/itindriya&cetasi.a a /itality, C Manindriya a GC or @7@ cittas, @9 Su.hindriya a su.ha&/edan; a bodily -leasant feeling, @@ Du..indriya a du..ha&/edan; a bodily -ain, @7 Somanassindriya a somanassa&/edan; a gladness, @M Domanassindriya a domanassa&/edan; a sadness, @E U-e..hindriya a u-e..h;&/edan; a indifference, @8 Saddhindriya a saddh; a faith, @N ?Wriyindriya a /Wriya a effort, @H Satindriya a sati a mindfulness, @G Sam;dhindriya a e.aggat; a concentration, @C 6aQQindriya a -aQQ; a *isdom, 79 AnaQQ;tiQQassamWtindriya a -aQQ; associated *ith sot;-atti&magga, 7@ AQQindriya a -aQQ; associated *ith M u--er maggas and the M lo*er -halas, 77 AQQ;t;/indriya a -aQQ; associated *ith arahatta -hala.

Notes' @ 6lease note that the sensiti/e -art of the eye controls seeing, the sensiti/e -art of the ear controls hearing, and so on. The t*o bh;/a&rO-as control the -rimary and

the secondary characters of se0. ?itality controls the life&terms of its associates. The cittas control their concomitants in the collecti/e efforts of ta.ing and .no*ing the ob>ect. @aH indriyas are -hysical, G is both -hysical and mental and the rest are mental. M @a8 and C re-resent N bases. N, H are t*o bh;/a&rO-as. @9a@E re-resent 8 feelings. @8a@C re-resent 8 s-iritual faculties. The last three are su-ramundane faculties. E The number of indriyas -resent in a male or a female *orlding is @G, e0cluding the o--osite se0&rO-a and the last M su-ramundane faculties. 8 Nine Balas :Nine 6o*ers< ^Bala1 means ^-o*er1. The nine ^-o*ers1 are strong and firm and they cannot be sha.en by the o--osing forces. Besides they strengthen their concomitants or associates. @ Saddh;&bala a faith= it is saddh; -resent in sobhaPa cittas. 7 ?Wriya&bala a energy= it is /Wriya -resent in the HM cittas associated *ith /Wriya. M Sati&bala a mindfulness= it is sati -resent in sobhaPa cittas. E Sam;dhi&bala a concentration= it is e.aggat; -resent in H7 cittas, e0cluding the @N cittas not associated *ith /Wriya and also the /ici.icch;&sam-ayutta citta. 8 6aQQ;&bala a *isdom= it is -aQQ; -resent in the EH tihetu.a cittas. N HirW&bala a moral shame= it is hirW&cetasi.a -resent in sobhaPa cittas.

H !tta--a&bala a moral dread= it is otta--a -resent in sobhaPa cittas. G Ahiri.a&bala a moral shamelessness= it is ahiri.a -resent in @7 a.usala cittas. C Anotta--a&bala a moral fearlessness= it is anotta--a -resent in @7 a.usala cittas. H !tta--a&bala a moral dread= it is otta--a -resent in sobhaPa cittas. G Ahiri.a&bala a moral shamelessness= it is ahiri.a -resent in @7 a.usala cittas. C Anotta--a&bala a moral fearlessness= it is anotta--a -resent in @7 a.usala cittas. In accordance *ith the definition that Balas are unsha.able by their o--osites, :@< the -o*er of 5aith is unsha.en by faithlessness, :7< Energy by laJiness, :M< Mindfulness by forgetfulness, :E< +oncentration by distractedness, :8< )isdom by ignorance. HirW and otta--a strongly su--ort moral actions *hereas ahiri.a and anotta--a lead the *ay to immoral actions. N 5our Adhi-atis :5our Dominating 5actors< ^Adhi-ati1 means su-reme, so/ereign, lord, chief, .ing, etc. it is the chief among its associates and it has no eIual. As there is one .ing in a country, so there is only one adhi-ati in a mental grou- of citta and its concomitants. Adhi-ati should be differentiated from indriya. Adhi-ati may be com-ared to a .ing *ho, as the undis-uted head of the state, lords o/er all his ministers and country men. Indriyas are li.e ministers *ho control only their res-ecti/e ministries *ithout interfering *ith the others. Indriyas ha/e eIuals and they ha/e to follo* the adhi-ati. Adhi-ati may be regarded as the ^dominating factor1 in a mental grou-.

@ @ ?Wriy;dhi-ati a energy or effort= it is /Wriya -resent in @G d/i&hetu.a >a/anas and ME tihetu.a&>a/anas M +itt;dhi-ati a consciousness or thought= it is the @G d/ihetu.a >a/ana cittas and the ME tihetu.a&>a/ana cittas. E ?ima[s;dhi-ati a *isdom= it is -aQQ; -resent in ME tihetu.a >a/anas. ?ima[sa is the *isdom *hich can in/estigate and reason. Notes' @ Eighteen d/i&hetu.a >a/anas a G lobha&mOla cittas, 7 dosamOla cittas, E Q;Pa&/i-ayutta mah;&.usala cittas and E Q;Pa/i-ayutta mah;&.iriya cittas. Thirty&four ti&hetu.a >a/anas a E Q;Pa&sam-ayutta mah;&.usala cittas, E Q;Pa&sam-ayutta mah;&.iriya cittas, C mahaggata&.usala cittas, C mahaggata&.iriya cittas, E maggas and E -halas. 7 )hen one of the adhi-atis is /ery strong, all its associates come along to su--ort it, and they together *ill achie/e the aim set for. H 5our Xh;ras :5our "inds of 5ood< ^Xh;ra1 means nutriment, cause, sustenance. Any dhamma, *hich can -roduce and sustain its resultant as our body is sustained by edible food, is called an ;h;ra. There are four ty-es of ;h;ra. @ "abalW.;r;h;ra a edible food= it is o>;&rO-a. It -roduces and sustains the ;h;ra>a suddhaYYha.a a the eightfold cor-oreality ha/ing nutriment essence as its eighth factor.

7 7 M ManosaTcetan;h;ra a mental /olition= it is the cetan; *hich manifests itself as the 7C ty-es of .amma. It -roduces and sustains rebirth consciousness. E ?iQQ;P;h;ra a consciousness= it re-resents the GC or @7@ ty-es of citta. It -roduces and sustains its concomitants :cetasi.as< and citta>a&rO-as. Bodhi-a..hiya&saTgaha :+om-endium of Enlightenment&factors< ^Bodhi1 means enlightenment or magga&Q;Pa. ^Bodhi-a..hiya1 means the com-onents or factors of enlightenment. There are MH such factors. If one can de/elo- them fully, one *ill attain enlightenment. The MH factors are thus regarded as the essence of Ti-ita.a. The MH 5actors of Enlightenment are E 5oundations of Mindfulness, E Su-reme Efforts, E 5oundations of Accom-lishment, 8 5aculties, 8 6o*ers, H +onstituents of Enlightenment and G +onstituents of the 6ath. @ 5our Sati-aYYh;nas :5our 5oundations of Mindfulness< ^Sati1 means mindfulness or attenti/eness. ^6aYYh;na1 means establishment, a--lication, fi0ing or foundation. So the four sati-aYYh;nas are the four ^foundations of mindfulness1 by *hich one -re/ents the mind from *andering to other sense&ob>ects and .ee-s the mind fi0ed attenti/ely and firmly on the single ob>ect of meditation.

Sri #an.a commentary defines ^sati-aYYh;na1 as the mindfulness *hich is established on its ob>ect by -enetration, so to s-ea., into it. The four ^foundations of mindfulness1 are indis-ensable for the de/elo-ment of tranIuility and insight. In the t*o sati-aYYh;na&suttas, the follo*ing *eighty *ords are -roclaimed both at the beginning and at the conclusion' _The only *ay that leads to the attainment of -urity, to the o/ercoming of sorro* and lamentation, to the end of -ain and grief, to the entering of the right -ath, and to the realiJation of Nibb;na is the *ay com-rising the four foundations of mindfulness.` @ ";y;nu-assan;&sati-aYYh;na +ontem-lation of the body or mindfulness of the cor-oreality grou- :rO-a..handha<. 7 ?edan;nu-assan;&sati-aYYh;na +ontem-lation of the feelings or mindfulness of the feeling grou- :/edan;..handha<. M +itt;nu-assan;&sati-aYYh;na +ontem-lation of consciousness or mindfulness of the consciousness grou- :/iQQ;Pa..handha<. E Dhamm;nu-assan;&sati-aYYh;na +ontem-lation of dhamma or mindfulness of the -erce-tion grou- :saQQa..handha< and the grou- of mental formations :saT.h;ra..handha<. Notes' @ The essential element of the four sati-aYYh;nas is saticetasi.a -resent in G mah;&.usala cittas, G mah;&.iriya cittas and 7N a--an;&>a/anas as *ell as the sati -resent in G lo.uttara cittas.

7 7 the ob>ects of contem-lation are different as .;ya, /edan;, citta and dhamma= ii the manner of contem-lation of the four ob>ects are different as asubha :disgusting<, du..ha :suffering<, anicca :im-ermanence< and anatta :non&self<= iii the -ur-ose of contem-lation on the four ob>ects are different as to eradicate the *rong /ie*s that they are subha :beautiful<, su..ha :-leasant<, nicca :-ermanent< and atta :self<, res-ecti/ely. 7 5our Samma--adh;nas :5our Su-reme Efforts< ^Samma--adh;na1 signifies no ordinary effort, but the unfaltering concentrated effort of one *ho /o*s' _#et me be reduced to s.in and bone= let my blood and flesh dry u-= let my life come to an end= but I *ill not sto- till I succeed2` Samma--adh;na re-resents /Wriya -resent in G mah;&.usala cittas, C mahaggata&.usala cittas and E lo.uttara&.usala cittas :7@ .usala cittas in all<. The four su-reme efforts are' @ The effort to discard e/ils that ha/e arisen, 7 The effort to -re/ent the arising of unrisen e/ils, M The effort to bring about the arising of unrisen good, E The effort to further arisen good. According to the abo/e effort, one must try to discard greed, hatred, en/y, etc., as soon as they arise in the mind. !ne must de/elo- d;na, sWla and bh;/an; as much as -ossible. And finally, to bring about the arising of the unrisen good *hich has ne/er

arisen in the long sa[s;ra, one must -urify one1s mind stage by stage by tranIuility and insight meditation till one enters the 6ath of the stream&*inner :sot;-anna< and the higher 6aths :maggas<. arisen in the long sa[s;ra, one must -urify one1s mind stage by stage by tranIuility and insight meditation till one enters the 6ath of the stream&*inner :sot;-anna< and the higher 6aths :maggas<. ' The reason *hy /Wriya is described as the four su-reme efforts is that the function of /Wriya has been differentiated into E categories, /iJ., @ to discard e/ils that ha/e arisen, 7 to -re/ent the arising of unrisen e/ils, M to de/elo- unrisen good, and E to further the arisen good. M 5our Iddhi-;das :5our 5oundations of Accom-lishment< ^Iddhi1 means ^accom-lishment1 *hile ^-;da1 signifies ^foundation1. The ^accom-lishment1 here refers to the arising of >h;nas, maggas and -halas. And the foundations to achie/e these ends are chanda, /Wriya, citta and /Wma[sa a the same as the four adhi-atis. @ +handiddhi-;da a *ill= it is chanda -resent in 7@ .usala cittas. 7 ?Wriyiddhi-;da a energy or effort= it is /Wriya -resent in 7@ .usala cittas. M +ittiddhi-;da a consciousness or thought= it is 7@ .usala cittas consisting of G mah;&.usala cittas, C mahaggata&.usala cittas and E lo.uttara&.usala cittas. E ?Wma[siddhi-;da a *isdom= it is -aQQ; -resent in 7@ .usala cittas. E 5i/e Indriyas :5i/e 5aculties< !f the t*enty&t*o faculties mentioned earlier, the fi/e s-iritual faculties are ta.en here as factors of enlightenment.

@ @ 7 ?Wriyindriya a energy or effort= it is /Wriya -resent in the abo/e E7 cittas. M Satindriya a mindfulness= it is sati -resent in the abo/e E7 cittas. E Sam;dhindriya a concentration= it is e.aggat; -resent in the abo/e E7 cittas. 8 6aQQindriya a *isdom= it is -aQQ; -resent in the abo/e E7 cittas. 8 5i/e Balas :5i/e 6o*ers< The essential elements of the fi/e 6o*ers are the same as those of the fi/e 5aculties. It should be understood that each of these fi/e elements has t*o distinct -ro-erties' @< the ability to control the mind, and 7< the ability to be firm and unsha.able by the o--osing force. @ Saddh;&bala a faith or confidence, 7 ?Wriya&bala a energy or effort, M Sati&bala a mindfulness, E Sam;dhi&bala a concentration, 8 6aQQ;&bala a *isdom. In -ractice, saddh; and -aQQ; should balance each other, because too much faith leads to unreasonable belief and too much in/estigation leads to no concentration. Similarly /Wriya and sam;dhi should balance each other, because too much effort may lead to restlessness and too much concentration may lead to dro*siness. Sati need not be balanced by any factor= the more sati there is, the better it is.

N Se/en Bo>>haTgas :Se/en +onstituents of Enlightenment< ^Bo>>haTga1 is deri/ed form ^bodhi&aTga1 in *hich bodhi a enlightenment and aTga a constituent. Thus ^bo>>haTga1 means ^constituents of enlightenment1. N Se/en Bo>>haTgas :Se/en +onstituents of Enlightenment< ^Bo>>haTga1 is deri/ed form ^bodhi&aTga1 in *hich bodhi a enlightenment and aTga a constituent. Thus ^bo>>haTga1 means ^constituents of enlightenment1. @ Sati&sambo>>haTga a mindfulness, 7 Dhamma/icaya&sambo>>haTga a *isdom that in/estigates the truth= M ?iriya&sambo>>haTga a energy or effort, E 6Wti&sambo>>haTga a ra-ture or >oy, 8 6assaddhi&sambo>>haTga a tranIuility of the mind com-rising citta and cetasi.as. N Sam;dhi&sambo>>haTga a concentration H U-e..h;&sambo>>haTga a eIuanimity. The essential elements of the se/en bo>>haTgas are :@< sati, :7< -aQQ;, :M< /Wriya, :E< -Wti, :8< .;ya&-assaddhi and citta&-assaddhi, :N< e.aggat;, and :H< tatrama>>hattat;, res-ecti/ely a all being -resent in the E7 cittas com-rising G mah;.usala cittas, G mah;&.iriya cittas and 7N a--an; >a/anas. Dhamma/icaya, /Wriya and -Wti are o--osed to thina&middha :sloth and tor-or<= -assaddhi, sam;dhi and u-e..h; are o--osed to uddhacca :restlessness<. H Eight MaggaTgas :Eight +onstituents of the 6ath< They com-rise the first eight maggaTgas out of the t*el/e mentioned in the com-endium of mi0ed categories. The essential elements are also the same. 6aQQ;&maggaTgas :*isdom<' @ Samm;&diYYhi a right /ie*, 7

Samm;&saT.a--a a right thought,

SWla&maggaTgas :morality< SWla&maggaTgas :morality< E Samm;&.ammanta a right action, 8 Samm;&;>W/a a right li/elihood, Sam;dhi&maggaTgas :concentration< N Samm;&/ayamo a right effort, H Samm;&sati a right mindfulness, G Samm;&sam;dhi a right concentration. In de/elo-ing the right constituents of the 6ath, one should start *ith the right s-eech, the right action and the right li/elihood a the three sWla&maggaTgas *hich constitute moral training :sWla&si..h;<. Based on sWla, one then de/elo-s the right effort, the right mindfulness and the right concentration a the three sam;dhimaggaTgas *hich constitute mental training :sam;dhi&si..h;<. )hen one attains u-ac;ra&sam;dhi :neighbourhood&concentration< or better >h;na sam;dhi :concentration associated *ith absor-tion<, one can -enetrate to the ultimate realities and in/estigate the true nature of mind and matter. Here samm;saT.a--a a the right thought based on the right method of in/estigation a comes into -lay. The right method of in/estigation and analysis re/eals the truth *hich gi/es rise to the right /ie* a samm;&diYYhi. The right /ie* is the most im-ortant factor of enlightenment. It -ro/ides a really unsha.able and safe foundation of the -ath. Starting from the tiniest germ of faith and .no*ledge, it gradually, steby ste-, de/elo-s into -enetrating insight :/i-assan;&Q;Pa< and then further into the .no*ledge of the four Noble Truths *hen magga&Q;Pa or enlightenment is attained.

Samm;&saT.a--a and samm;&diYYhi together constitute -aQQ;si..h; :*isdom&training<. All the eight constituents together constitute the Noble 6ath or the Middle 6ath *hich leads to Nibb;na. $e/ie* of Bodhi-a..hiya Although there are MH enlightenment&factors, the essential elements amount to only @E a namely, sati, /Wriya, chanda, citta, -aQQ; saddh;, e.aggat;, -Wti, -assaddhi :both .;ya and citta<, tatrama>>hattat;, /ita..a, samm;&/;c;, samm;&.ammanta and samm;;>W/a. !f these @E essetial elements, -Wti, -assaddhi, tatrama>>hattat;, /ita..a, M /iratis, chanda and citta occur only as one factor each. ?Wriya occurs C times, i.e. as C factors= sati as eight factors= e.aggat; as E factors= -aQQ; as fi/e factors= and saddh; 7 as factors. 6lease see Table H.7. Sabba&saTgaha :+om-endium of the )hole ?atthu&dhammas< 5i/e categories *ill be dealt *ith here. They are "handha, U-;d;na..handha, Xyatana, Dh;tu and Ariyasacca. @ 5i/e "handhas :5i/e Aggregates< ^"handha1 means grou- or aggregate. Buddha has summed uall the -hysical and the mental -henomena of e0istence into fi/e grou-s or aggregates. @ $O-a..handha a cor-oreality grou- consisting of 7G rO-as. 7 ?edan;..handha a feeling grou- consisting of su.ha&/edan;, du..ha&/edan;, somanassa&/edan;, domanassa&/edan; and u-e..h;&/edan;.

7GH 7GH Bodhi-a..hiya&sangaha @E A.usala +etasi.as :Immoral +ategories< E Sati-aYYhanasE Samma--adh;nasE Iddhi-ad;s8 Indriyas8 BalasH Bo>>hangasG MaggangasNo. of times @ ?iriya lE h h h h h C 7 Sati lE h h h h G M 6aQQ; h h h h h 8 E E.aggata :sam;dhi< h h h h E 8 Saddh; h h 7 N 6Wti h @ H 6assaddhi h l G Tatrama>>hattat; h @ C +handa h @ @9 +itta h @ @@ Samm;&/;ca h l @7 Samm;&.ammanta h

l @M Samm;&;>W/a h @ @E ?itta.a h @

M M -erce-tion grou-, com-rising -erce-tions of form, sound, odour, taste, bodily im-ression and mental im-ression. E SaT.h;ra..handha a grou- of mental formations= it consists of 89 cetasi.as other than /edan; and saQQ;. 8 ?iQQ;Pa..handha a consciousness grou-= it consists of GC or @7@ cittas. In grou-ing the com-onents of each .handha, ele/en as-ects must be ta.en into account. These as-ects are -ast, -resent, future, internal :a>>hatti.a<, e0ternal :bahiddha<, inferior :hWna<, su-erior :-anWta<, distant :dure<, near :santi.e<, gross :ol;ri.a< and subtle :su.huma<. The -ur-ose of analysing a being into fi/e grou-s of e0istence is to eliminate the *rong -erce-tion and the *rong /ie* that ego, self, -ersonality or atta e0ists. This elimination *ill lead to the -ath of stream&*inner. 7 5i/e U-;d;na.handhas :5i/e 4rou-s of 4ras-ing< In s-ecifying the fi/e .handhas, Buddha has ta.en into account all the -hysical and the mental -henomena. But in /i-assan; meditation one does not in/estigate the lo.uttara cittas and their associated cetasi.as. The G@ lo.iya&cittas, their concomitants and the cor-oreality grou- form the ob>ects of gras-ing by lobha and diYYhi. The di/ision of these ob>ects of gras-ing into fi/e grou-s gi/es rise to fi/e u-;d;na..handhas. @ $O-u-;d;na..handha a cor-oreality grou- consisting of 7G rO-as.

7 7 M SaQQu-;d;na..handha a -erce-tion grou- consisting of saQQ;s associated *ith G@ lo.iya cittas. E SaT.h;ru-;d;na..handha a grou- of mental formations= it consists of 89 lo.iya cetasi.as other than /edan; and saQQ;. 8 ?iQQ;nu-;d;na..handha a consciousness grou- consisting of G@ lo.iya cittas. $eason for +lassification of t*o Ty-es of "handha @ In order to sho* that there are only fi/e grou-s of e0istence and that there are no ego, self, -ersons or atta, Buddha classified all the -hysical and mental -henomena, *hether lo.iya or lo.uttara, into fi/e grou-s. This is His first .handha&desan;. 7 In insight meditation, the lo.uttara cittas and their concomitants are not in/estigated, because they do not belong to the grou- of suffering :du..ha&sacca<. !nly lo.iya cittas and their concomitants as *ell as the cor-oreality grou- are in/estigated in insight meditation, because they are gras-ed by u-;d;na :lobha and diYYhi< and they are in/ol/ed in the round of misery. Besides they -ossess the characteristics of im-ermanence :anicca<, suffering :du..ha< and non&self :anatta<. So the Buddha again classified the -hysical and the mental -henomena *hich are gras-ed by u-;d;na into fi/e grou-s. This is His second u-;d;na.handha&desan;.

Nibb;na is "handha&/imutti Nibb;na is "handha&/imutti ferentiated as internal and e0ternal a it belongs to the e0ternal :bahiddha<. It cannot be differentiated as base and su-reme a it belongs to the su-reme :-anWta<. It cannot be differentiated as dure :distant< and santi.e :near< ait is dure alone as it is far from ordinary .no*ledge. It cannot be differentiated as gross and subtle a it is subtle :su.huma<. Bahiddha, su.huma, -anWta and dure do not im-ly different Nibb;nas a they are the different attributes of the same Nibb;na. So there are no t*o /arieties of Nibb;na. Thus Nibb;na need not be classified as a .handha. M T*el/e Xyatanas :T*el/e Bases< ^Xyatana1 means base, source or s-here. Here the t*el/e ;yatanas means the @7 bases or sources from *hich consciousness and its concomitants arise. The @7 bases are di/ided eIually into t*o grou-s' :a< a>>hatti.a :internal< and :b< b;hira :e0ternal<. a A>>hatti.;yatana :Si0 internal bases< @ +a..h;yatana a ca..hu&-as;da a eye&base :sensiti/e -art of the eye<, 7 Sot;yatana a sota&-as;da a ear&base :sensiti/e -art of the ear<, M 4h;n;yatana a gh;na&-as;da a nose&base :sensiti/e -art of the nose<,

E Fi/h;yatana a >i/h;&-as;da a tongue&base :sensiti/e -art of the tongue<, 8 ";y;yatana a .;ya&-as;da a body&base :sensiti/e -art of the body<, N M;n;yatana a GC or @7@ cittas a mind&base. E Fi/h;yatana a >i/h;&-as;da a tongue&base :sensiti/e -art of the tongue<, 8 ";y;yatana a .;ya&-as;da a body&base :sensiti/e -art of the body<, N M;n;yatana a GC or @7@ cittas a mind&base. @ $O-;yatana a /aPPa a /isible ob>ect 7 Sadd;yatana a sadda a sound M 4andh;yatana a gandha a odour E $as;yatana a rasa a taste 8 6hoYYh;bbh;yatana a -atha/W, te>o, /;yo a tangible ob>ect N Dhamm;yatana a mind&ob>ect consisting of 87 cetasi.as, @N su.huma&rO-as and Nibb;na. Notes' @ The si0 internal bases consist of the fi/e -hysical sense& organs and consciousness. Man;yatana is a collecti/e term for all consciousness. 7 The si0 e0ternal bases consist of the si0 sense&ob>ects. Dhamm;yatana is a little short of dhamm;&rammaPa as it does not contain cittas, -as;da&rO-as, and conce-ts. +ittas and -as;da&rO-as are already described as the si0 internal bases *hereas conce-ts do not belong to realities, so they are not included in dhamm;yatana. M All cittas, all cetasi.as, all rO-as and Nibb;na are included in the @7 ;yatanas. E +ogniti/e -rocesses arise from the contact bet*een internal and e0ternal bases. )hen the /isible ob>ect stri.es the eye&base, ca..hu&d/;ra /Wthi arises. )hen the

sound stri.es the ear&base, sota&d/;ra /Wthi arises, and so on. 8 sound stri.es the ear&base, sota&d/;ra /Wthi arises, and so on. 8 N !ne other reason *hy the ^;yatanas1 are so&called is that they cause the long cycle of misery. E Eighteen Dh;tus :Eighteen Elements< _Dh;tu` is that *hich bears its o*n characteristics. It e0ists in nature and functions its -ur-ose, but it is not a li/ing being. Buddha has di/ided all the realities into @G dh;tus or elements for the benefit of those *ho could not understand u-;d;na..handhas and ;yatanas to sho* them clearly that there is no ^atta1 nor ^a li/ing being1. The eighteen dh;tus are eIually di/ided into three grou-s' :a< si0 sub>ecti/e elements, :b< si0 ob>ecti/e elements, and :c< si0 intellectual elements. a Si0 Sub>ecti/e Elements :D/;ras< @ +a..hu&dh;tu a ca..hu&-as;da a eye&door 7 Sota&dh;tu a soto&-as;da a ear&door M 4h;na&dh;tu a 4h;na&-as;da a nose&door E Fi/h;&dh;tu a >i/h;&-as;da a tongue&door 8 ";ya&dh;tu a .;ya&-as;da a body&door N Mano&dh;tu a -aQca&d/;r;/a>>ana and 7 sam-aticchanas. b Si0 !b>ect Elements :Sense&ob>ects< H $O-a&dh;tu a /aPPa a /isible ob>ect G Sadda&dh;tu a sadda a sound C

4andha&dh;tu a gandha a odour

@9 $asa&dh;tu a rasa a taste @@. 6hoYYhabba&dh;tu a -atha/W, te>o, /;yo a tangible ob>ect @7. Dhamma&dh;tu a 87 cetasi.as, @N su.huma&rO-as and Nibb;na :the same as dhamm;yatana<. c Si0 Intellectual Elements :+onsciousness< @M +a..hu&/iQQ;Pa&dh;tu a 7 ca..hu&/iQQ;Pa cittas a eye&consciousness @E Sota&/iQQ;Pa&dh;tu a 7 sota&/iQQ;Pa cittas a ear consciousness @8 4h;na&/iQQ;Pa&dh;tu a 7 gh;na&/iQQ;Pa cittas a nose&consciousness @N Fi/h;&/iQQ;Pa&dh;tu a 7 >i/h;&/iQQ;Pa cittas a tongue&consciousness @H ";ya&/iQQ;Pa&dh;tu a 7 .;ya&/iQQ;Pa cittas a body&consciousness @G Mano&/iQQ;Pa&dh;tu a HN cittas e0cluding @9 d/i-aQca&/iQQ;Pa cittas and M mano&dh;tu cittas. Notes' @ Based on si0 doors and si0 sense&ob>ects, si0 ty-es of consciousness arise. Thus there are @G dh;tus or elements. 7 The @G Dh;tus include all rO-as, all cittas, all cetasi.as and Nibb;na >ust li.e the @7 ;yatanas. M The E essential elements /iJ., -atha/W&dh;tu, ;-o&dh;tu, te>o&dh;tu and /;yo&dh;tu should not be counted among the @G elements, *hich of course include the E essential elements.

8 5our Ariya&saccas :5our Noble Truths< ^Sacca1 means ^truth1. The truth that can be understood fully only by ariyas :noble -ersons< is called ariya&sacca :Noble Truth<. There are four Noble Truths *hich are the briefest synthesis of the entire teachings of the Buddha. They encom-ass e/ery thing and contain all those manifold doctrines of the threefold cannon :Ti-ita.a<. They are truly uni/ersal la*s of the highest form for those *ho see them clearly become ariyas. The Abhidhamma names, the common names and the meanings of the four Noble Truths are described in Table H.M. TAB#E H.M 5our Noble Truths Abhidhamma Name +ommonName Meanings @ Du..ha Ariyasacca Du..ha Sacca the Noble Truth of suffering 7 Du..ha&samudayaAriya& sacca Samudaya Sacca the Noble Truth of the +ause of Suffering M Du..ha&nirodha Ariya&sacca Nirodha Sacca the Noble Truth of the +essation of Suffering E Du..ha&nirodhag;mini-aYi-ad; Ariya&sacca Magga Sacca the Noble Truth of the of the 6ath leading to the +essation of Suffering

The essential Elements of each Noble Truth and )hat the Truth Teaches The essential Elements of each Noble Truth and )hat the Truth Teaches Eighty&one lo.iya cittas, 8@ lo.iya&cetasi.as e0cluding lobha, and 7G ty-es of rO-a are the essential elements of the Noble Truth of Suffering. They cause the long cycle of rebirth and misery in the three s-heres namely, ";malo.a, $O-a&lo.a and ArO-a&lo.a. The first Truth teaches us that all forms of e0istence *hatsoe/er are unsatisfactory as they are sub>ect to suffering :du..ha<. 7 The real essence of the Noble Truth of the +ause of suffering is taPh; *hich is lobha -resent in @7 a.usala cittas. TaPh; brings about rebirth and misery in the unending chain of continuous e0istence. The second Truth teaches us that all suffering, including all rebirth, is -roduced by cra/ing :taPh;<. M The real essence of the Noble Truth of the +essation of Suffering is Nibb;na *hich arises as the result of the cessation of cra/ing. The third Truth teaches us that e0tinction of cra/ing necessarily results in E0tinction :Nirodha< of rebirth and suffering. The e0tinction of rebirth and suffering results in eternal -eace :santi&su.ha< *hich is Nibb;na. E The eight maggaTgas -resent in magga&Q;Pas are the essential elements of the Noble Truth of the 6ath leading to the +essation of Suffering. The fourth Truth teaches us that the eight maggaTgas are the real means by *hich the e0tinction of rebirth and suffering can be brought about.

8 The Noble Truth of Suffering and the Noble Truth of the +ause of Suffering are .no*n as lo.iya&saccas= the latter is the cause and the former is the effect. 8 The Noble Truth of Suffering and the Noble Truth of the +ause of Suffering are .no*n as lo.iya&saccas= the latter is the cause and the former is the effect. N There is a general belief in Myanmar that one1s life is not *orth li/ing if one does not .no* .handhas, ;yatanas, dh;tus and saccas. So *e are fortunate to learn them no*, and *e should e0ert the right effort to .no* them by insight&*isdom :bh;/an;maya&Q;Pa<.

+ha-ter G +ha-ter G +ause or +ondition Introductory ^6accaya1 means ^cause or condition1. It is something on *hich something else, the so&called ^conditioned&thing1 :-accayu--anna<, is de-endent, and *ithout *hich the latter cannot be. 6accaya is the cause of the conditioned thing. 6accayu--anna is the effect or result of the cause. In conditioning its -accayu--anna :effect or result<, the -accaya :cause or condition< acts in t*o su--orti/e *ays' @ it causes the effect *hich has not arisen to arise, and 7 it strengthens the effect *hich has already arisen. There are t*o methods of conditioning' @ 6aYiccasamu--;da&method a the #a* of De-endent !rigination, 7 6atth;na&method a the #a* of +ausal $elations. The first method describes the cause and the effect *ithout mentioning ho* the cause conditions the effect to arise. Ho*e/er, 6aYiccasamu--;da is a /ery im-ortant doctrine as it describes ele/en causal relations *hich e0-lain the conditionality and de-endent nature of uninterru-ted flu0 of manifold -hysical and mental -henomena of e0istence. In other *ords it e0-lains

ho* each indi/idual is in/ol/ed in the )heel of E0istence undergoing the rounds of rebirth and misery in the long sa[s;ra. 6atth;na method not only describes the cause and the effect but also e0-lains ho* the cause conditions the effect to arise. It is *onderful to learn that there are 7E modes of conditionality *hich correlates all the -hysical and -sychical -henomena by cause and effect *ith s-ecific illustrations occurring in real life. @ 6aYiccasamu--;da Method The 6aYiccasamu--;da method of correlating the cause and the effect is generally .no*n as the #a* of De-endent !rigination. The brief essential statement of the la* runs li.e this' @ A/i>>;&-accay; saT.h;r; a De-endent on ignorance arise the rebirth&-roducing /olition or .amma formations. 7 SaT.h;ra&-accay; /iQQ;na[ a De-endent on .amma formations :in -ast life< arises rebirth consciousness :in the -resent life<. M ?iQQ;Pa&-accay; n;ma&rO-a[ a De-endent on rebirth consciousness arise the mental and -hysical -henomena. E N;ma&rO-a&-accay; sa\;yatana[ a De-endent on the mental and -hysical -henomena arise the si0 :sense< bases. 8 Sa\;yatana&-accay; -hasso a De-endent on the si0 :sense< bases arise contact :bet*een sense base, sense ob>ect and consciousness<. N 6hassa&-accay; /edan; a De-endent on contact arises feeling.

H H De-endent on feeling arises cra/ing. G TaPh;&-accay; u-;d;na[ a De-endent on cra/ing arises gras-ing. C U-;d;na&-accay; bha/o a De-endent on gras-ing arises the rebirth&-roducing .amma :.amma&bha/a< and the rebirth&-rocess :u-a-atti&bha/a<. @9 Bha/a&-accay; >;ti a De-endent on the rebirth&-roducing .amma :in the -resent life< arises rebirth :in the future life<. @@ F;ti&-accay; >ar;&marana[&so.a&-aride/a&du..ha&domanassa, u-;y;s; sambha/anti c De-endent on rebirth arise old age, death, *orry, lamentation, -ain, grief and des-air. Thus arises the *hole mass of suffering again in the future. E0-lanation of the +ausal $elations @ A/i>>;&-accay; SaT.h;r; A/i>>; conditions saT.h;ra to arise or, in other *ords, saT.h;ra arises as a conseIuence of a/i>>;. No* a/i>>; is ignorance or delusion. Essentially it is moha -resent in @7 a.usala&cittas. As ignorance, it /eils man1s mental eyes -re/enting him from seeing the true nature of things. As delusion it tric.s beings by ma.ing life a--ear to them as -ermanent, -leasant, substantial :atta< and beautiful :subha< *hile e/erything in reality is im-ermanent, liable to suffering, /oid of substance :I<, and loathsome. There are eight im-ortant ob>ects :de-artments< *hich are co/ered by a/i>>; so that their true nature is not .no*n. These are' :@< du..ha sacca, :7< samudaya sacca, :M< nirodha sacca, :E< magga

sacca, :8< the -ast .handha& and ;yatana&grou-s, :N< the future .handha& and ;yatana&grou-s, :H< the front end and the rear end of the -resent .handha& and ;yatana grou-s, and :G< 6aYiccasamu--;da causal relations *hich include .amma and its conseIuences. SaT.h;ra means rebirth&-roducing /olitions :cetan;< or .amma&formations. It refers to -uQQ;bhisaT.h;ra, a-uQQ;bhisaT.h;ra and anen>;bhisaT.h;ra. @ 6uQQ;bhisaT.h;ra re-resents the @M cetan;s :/olitions< -resent in G mah;&.usala cittas and 8 rO-;/acara&.usala cittas. It is so called because it conditions good /i-;.an;ma..handha and .aYatt;&rO-a to arise in ";ma&lo.a and $O-a&lo.a. 7 A-uQQ;bhisaT.h;ra re-resents the @7 cetan;s -resent in @7 a.usala cittas. It is so called because it conditions bad /i-;.a&n;ma..handha and .aYatt;&rO-a to arise in the four A-;ya abodes. M Anen>;bhisaT.h;ra re-resents the E cetan;s -resent in E arO-;/acara&.usala cittas. It is so called because it conditions the arising of unsha.able arO-a e0istence. In short, saT.h;ra re-resents the 7C ty-es of .amma associated *ith @H lo.iya .usala cittas and @7 a.usala cittas. Ho* does a/i>>; condition saT.h;raL Because of ignorance about .amma and its effect, -eo-le commit immoral actions for immediate self&benefit. Because of the delusion thin.ing that sensual -leasure and >h;na&ecstasy are real forms of ha--iness, -eo-le -erform d;na, sWla and bh;/an; in order to attain such ha--iness either in the -resent life or in future li/es. Thus -eo-le accumulate both moral and immoral .ammas :saT.h;ra< as the result of ignorance or delusion :a/i>>;<.

7 SaT.h;ra&-accay; ?iQQ;na[ 7 SaT.h;ra&-accay; ?iQQ;na[ Here saT.h;ra means the 7C *holesome and un*holesome cetan;s :.ammas< mentioned abo/e. ?iQQ;Pa means rebirth& consciousness *hich is the initial resultant of .amma&formations. But saT.h;ra goes on -roducing /i-;.a&cittas throughout the *hole ne* life. So all the M7 lo.iya&/i-;.a cittas are ta.en to re-resent ^/iQQ;Pa1 as the direct effect of saT.h;ra. Thus the second causal relation should be inter-reted as follo*s. At -aYisandhi&.;la, @@ a.usala cetan;s :e0cluding uddhaccacetan;< and the @H lo.iya .usala cetan;s :e0cluding the 7 abhiQQ;cetan;s< condition the arising of the @C rebirth consciousness. At -a/atti&.;la all the @7 a.usala cetan;s and the @H lo.iya .usala cetan;s :e0cluding the 7 abhiQQ;&cetan;s< continue to condition the arising of the 7@ lo.iya&/i-;.a cittas. These can be s-lit u- as follo*s. @ A-uQQ;bhisaT.h;ra :@7 a.usala cetan;s< conditions the arising of H a.usala&/i-;.a cittas. 7 6uQQ;bhisaT.h;ra :G mah;&.usala cetan;s and 8 rO-;/acara .usala cetan;s< conditions the arising of G .usala&ahetu.a /i-;.a cittas, G mah;&/i-;.a cittas and 8 rO-;/acara&/i-;.a cittas. M Anen>;bhisaT.h;ra :E arO-;/acara cetan;s< conditions the arising of E arO-;/acara&/i-;.a cittas. So it should be understood that from the /ery first moment of conce-tion in the mother1s *omb the .amma&resultant consciousness of the embryonic being is functioning, and it goes on functioning as life&continuum and seeing consciousness,

hearing consciousness, etc., throughout the *hole ne* life. !f course, it terminates as death&consciousness finally. hearing consciousness, etc., throughout the *hole ne* life. !f course, it terminates as death&consciousness finally. ?iQQ;Pa conditions n;ma&rO-a to arise or, in other *ords, n;marO-a arises as a conseIuence of /iQQ;Pa. ?iQQ;Pa here re-resents t*o entities' /i-;.a&/iQQ;Pa and .amma&/iQQ;Pa. ?i-;.a&/iQQ;Pa means the M7 lo.iya&/i-;.a cittas mentioned in the second causal relation. "amma&/iQQ;Pa means cittas associated *ith cetan;&.amma, and it refers bac. to the 7C *holesome and un*holesome .ammas *e ha/e described as saT.h;ra. This bac.&reference is reIuired because only .usala and a.usala .ammas, and not the /i-;.a cittas, can -roduce @G ty-es of .amma>a&rO-a. In n;ma&rO-a[, n;ma indicates the M8 cetasi.as *hich associate *ith the M7 lo.iya&/i-;.a cittas. In terms of grou-s of e0istence, the M8 cetasi.as re-resent three mental grou-s a /iJ., /edana..handha, saQQa..handha and saT.h;ra..handha. The second -art, rO-a[, means the @G .amma>a rO-as. To summarise, M7 lo.iya&/i-;.a&/iQQ;Pas condition the arising of M8 cetasi.as or three n;ma..handhas, *hereas 7C .amma/iQQ ;Pas condition the arising of @G .amma>a&rO-as. These -henomena constitute the third causal relation. )e should remember that .amma starts -roducing .amma>arO-as from the /ery first moment of conce-tion in the mother1s *omb, and it .ee-s on doing so incessantly at e/ery minor instant till death. )e ha/e learnt these in +ha-ter N in connection *ith the arising of material -henomena in indi/iduals :-age 78@<. Among these .amma>a&rO-as, the /ital nonad :i.e. >W/ita&na/a.a.al;-a< ser/es as the rO-a&-aYisandhi of asaQQasatta brahmas.

So far, i.e. u- to the third causal relation, *e ha/e seen that a/i>>; :ignorance< conditions the arising of /arious .ammas, *hich in turn condition the arising of M7 lo.iya&/i-;.a cittas and @G .amma>a&rO-as. The M7 lo.iya&/i-;.a cittas, in their turn, condition the arising of M8 cetasi.as, i.e. three mental grou-s. So far, i.e. u- to the third causal relation, *e ha/e seen that a/i>>; :ignorance< conditions the arising of /arious .ammas, *hich in turn condition the arising of M7 lo.iya&/i-;.a cittas and @G .amma>a&rO-as. The M7 lo.iya&/i-;.a cittas, in their turn, condition the arising of M8 cetasi.as, i.e. three mental grou-s. It should be noted, ho*e/er, that only the E mental grou-s arise in ArO-a&-lanes, only the cor-oreality grou- in the mindless :AsaQQa<&-lane, and all the fi/e grou-s in ";ma& and $O-a&-lanes. E N;ma&rO-a&-accay; Sa\;yatana[ N;ma&rO-a conditions sa\;yatana to arise, or in other *ords, sa\;yatana arises as a conseIuence of n;ma&rO-a. N;ma&rO-a here means the M8 cetasi.as :three n;ma..handhas< *hich associate *ith the M7 lo.iya&/i-;.a cittas, and @G .amma>arO-as as stated in the third causal relation. Sa\;yatana refers to the si0 a>>hatti.;y;tanas :si0 internal bases< namely, ca..h;yatana, sot;yatana, gh;n;yatana, >i/h;yatana, .;y;yatana and man;yatana. The first fi/e ayatanas re-resent the fi/e -as;da&rO-as *hich are -resent in @G .amma>a&rO-as. Man;yatana here re-resents only the M7 lo.iya&/i-;.a cittas as *e are describing the causal relations. )e ha/e seen in the third causal relation that M8 cetasi.as arise as a conseIuence of the M7 lo.iya&/i-;.a cittas. No* *e see that the M8 cetasi.as re&condition the arising of the M7 lo.iya&/i-;.a cittas. This illustrates aQQa&maQQa&-accaya :condition by *ay of mutuality< bet*een cittas and cetasi.as.

8 Sa\;yatana&-accay; 6hasso 8 Sa\;yatana&-accay; 6hasso Sa\;yatana means the si0 a>>hatti.;y;tanas :si0 internal bases< as abo/e. 6hassa here indicates the -hassa cetasi.a -resent in the M7 lo.iya&/i-;.a cittas. To describe the indi/idual co&relations, ca..h;yatana conditions the arising of ca..husam-hassa :i.e., -hassa associated *ith ca..hu&/iQQ;Pa<= sot;yatana conditions the arising of sot;sam-hassa= gh;n;yatana conditions the arising of gh;nasam-hassa= >i/h;yatana conditions the arising of >i/h;sam-hassa= .;y;yatana conditions the arising of .;yasam-hassa= man;yatana conditions the arising of manosam-hassa. Sam-hassa is synonymous *ith -hassa. +a..h;yatana :eye&base< is ca..hu&-as;da, the eye&door, *here the /isual ob>ect stri.es to gi/e rise to seeing consciousness :ca..hu&/iQQ;Pa<. Then the -hassa associated *ith the seeing conscious is said to be conditioned by the eye&base. The remaining fi/e -hassas are -roduced similarly. )ithout the fi/e -hysical bases or sense&organs, there can be no sense im-ressions= and *ithout the si0th base, or consciousness, there can be no mental im-ression. N 6hassa&-accay; ?edan; 6hassa conditions the arising of /edan; or, in other *ords, /edan; arises as a conseIuence of -hassa. Here -hassa is the -hassa&cetasi.a associated *ith the M7 lo.iya&/i-;.a cittas. ?edan; is also the /edan; cetasi.a -resent in the M7 lo.iya&/i-;.a cittas.

6hassa and /edan; arise simultaneously in the same consciousness. Ne/ertheless -hassa is regarded as the cause, and /edan; as the effect. In accordance *ith the si0 ty-es of -hassa that ha/e been enumerated in the -re/ious causal relation, there are si0 ty-es of /edan;. 6hassa and /edan; arise simultaneously in the same consciousness. Ne/ertheless -hassa is regarded as the cause, and /edan; as the effect. In accordance *ith the si0 ty-es of -hassa that ha/e been enumerated in the -re/ious causal relation, there are si0 ty-es of /edan;. +a..husam-hassa>;&/edan; means the /edan; :feeling< in the eye&consciousness -roduced by ca..husam-hassa *hich is the sense&im-ression or sense&contact in the eye&consciousness. The remaining /edan;s should be similarly understood. H ?edan;&-accay; TaPh; ?edan; conditions taPh; to arise or taPh; arises as a conseIuence of /edan;. ?edan; here means the si0 /edan;s enumerated abo/e as ca..husam-hassa>;&/edan;, sotasam-hassa>;&/edan;, and so on. In the causal relations e0-laining ho* each indi/idual is going round and round in the *heel of e0istence the cause -roduces the effect, and the effect becomes the cause to -roduce its effect again. Some authors, ho*e/er, li.e to ta.e all the /edan;s associated *ith the G@ lo.iya cittas as -accaya, since /edan; is -laying the role of the cause here. No* the taPh; :cra/ing< *hich arises as the result of /edan; :feeling< is also of si0 ty-es a /iJ., rO-a&taPh; :cra/ing for /isual ob>ect<, sadda&taPh; :cra/ing for sound<, gandha&taPh; :cra/ing

the odour<, rasa&taPh; :cra/ing for taste<, -hoYYhaba&taPh; :cra/ing for tangible ob>ect<, and dhamma&taPh; :cra/ing for mind&ob>ect<. These si0 ty-es of taPh; e0ist internally in oneself and e0ternally in others. So together they ma.e @7 ty-es of taPh;. They become MN *hen -ast, -resent and future are ta.en into consideration. )hen multi-lied by the three ty-es of taPh; enumerated as samudaya&sacca, they become @9G ty-es of taPh;. The three ty-es of taPh; enumerated as samudaya&sacca are' @ ";ma&taPh; a cra/ing for sensual and >h;na -leasures= 7 Bha/a&taPh; a cra/ing for sensual -leasures associated *ith the /ie* of eternalism, i.e., en>oying -leasures thin.ing that they are im-erishable= M ?ibha/a&taPh; a cra/ing for sensual and >h;na -leasures associated *ith the /ie* of nihilism, i.e., en>oying -leasures thin.ing that e/erything is annihilated after death. Essentially all the different modes of taPh; re-resent lobha *hich is associated *ith the eight lobha&mOla cittas. G TaPh;&-accay; U-;d;na[ TaPh; conditions u-;d;na to arise or u-;d;na arises as a conseIuence of taPh;. TaPh; here refers to the si0 ty-es of cra/ing for the si0 sense& ob>ects, namely, rO-a&taPh;, sadda&taPh;, gandha&taPh;, rasa&taPh;, -hoYYhabba&taPh; and dhamma&taPh; or it may be ta.en as the @9G modes of taPh; as described in the se/enth causal relation. U-;d;na stands for the four ty-es of gras-ing a /iJ., .;mu-;d;na, diYYhu-;d;na, sWlabbatu-;d;na and atta/;du-;d;na a *hich ha/e been described in +ha-ter H. #et us first consider the arising of .;mu-;d;na as a conseIuence of taPh;. ";mu-;d;na is the sense&desire or clinging to

the fi/e&ob>ects, and essentially it is lobha -resent in the eight lobha&mOla cittas. the fi/e&ob>ects, and essentially it is lobha -resent in the eight lobha&mOla cittas. -;d;na< res-ecti/ely stand for lobha. Ho* can lobha be the cause as *ell as the effectL The e0-lanation is fourfold' @ TaPh; is *ea.er than .;mu-;d;na in intensity. )hen *e see a beautiful ob>ect, first a *ea. attachment in the form of taPh; arises. )hen *e thin. o/er and o/er ho* e0ce-tionally beautiful the ob>ect is, the attachment gro*s stronger and stronger until it becomes intensi/e cra/ing or firm gras-ing *hich is .;mu-;d;na. 7 !ther commentators ha/e the /ie* that the desire to get an ob>ect is taPh; and the strong attachment or firm gras-ing *hich de/elo-s after getting the ob>ect is .;mu-;d;na. M 5urthermore, taPh; is the o--osite of a--icchat; :frugality< *hereas .;mu-;d;na is the o--osite of santuYYhit; :contentment<. E TaPh; is the cause of suffering encountered in acIuiring *ealth *hereas .;mu-;d;na is the cause of suffering encountered in guarding the *ealth. Thus it is a--ro-riate to say that .;mu-;d;na arises as a conseIuence of taPh;. )e ha/e to e0-lain further ho* the remaining three gras-ings arise as the results of taPh;. These gras-ings are' diYYhu-;d;na :clinging to false /ie*s<, sWlabbatu-;d;na :clinging to canine and bo/ine morality< and atta/;du-;d;na :clinging to the ^atta1 or ^soul1 theory<. The clinging to the theory that _atta` or _I` e0ists is synonymous *ith _sa..;ya&diYYhi` *hich is _-ersonality&belief` ta.ing

the fi/e aggregates of e0istence as a -erson or as _I`. This belief is clearly the outcome of the attachment :taPh;< to oneself. the fi/e aggregates of e0istence as a -erson or as _I`. This belief is clearly the outcome of the attachment :taPh;< to oneself. Thus the causal relation that taPh; conditions the arising of u-;d;na is *ell >ustified. C U-;d;na&-accaya Bha/o U-;d;na conditions bha/a to arise or bha/a arises as a conseIuence of u-;d;na. ^U-;d;na1 here means the four gras-ings a .;mu-;d;na, diYYhu-;d;na, sWlabbatu-;d;na and atta/;du-;d;na a as described in the eighth causal relation. _Bha/a` literally means _becoming` or _e0istence`. But here it means the ^.amma&bha/a` as *ell as the _u-a-atti&bha/a`. "amma&bha/a means the rebirth&-roducing .amma. It includes all the *holesome and un*holesome deeds :.amma< -erformed in this life. To be more s-ecific, it includes the 7C cetan;s associated *ith @H lo.iya&.usala cittas and @7 a.usala cittas. It is the same as saT.h;ra *hich is e0-lained in the first causal relation. The only difference bet*een saT.h;ra and .amma&bha/a is that the former -ertains to the -ast and the latter to the -resent. "amma&bha/a is the acti/e .amma&-rocess of becoming *hereas u-a-atti&bha/a is the -assi/e .amma&resultant -rocess, the so&called ^rebirth&-rocess1. In essence, u-a-atti&bha/a stands for M7 lo.iya&/i-;.a cittas, their associated M8 cetasi.as and @G .amma>a rO-as. Note that these essential elements are the same as those symbolised by _/iQQ;Pa` and _n;ma&rO-a` in the second and third causal relations.

As saT.h;ra conditions the arising of _/iQQ;Pa` and _n;marO-a` in the -ast, so too .amma&bha/a *ill condition the arising of _u-a-atti&bha/a1 in the future. U-;d;na cannot condition the rebirth&-rocess directly. It can only condition ne* .amma&-rocesses of becoming. )hen one is strongly cra/ing for something, he *ill act in one *ay or another to -ossess that thing, and in doing so, ne* .amma&-rocesses are -erformed. If he -erforms *holesome .amma, that *ill condition the rebirth&-rocess in blissful -lanes. If he carries out un*holesome .amma, that *ill condition the rebirth a -rocess in four a-;ya abodes. @9 Bha/a&-accay; F;ti Bha/a conditions >;ti to arise or >;ti arises as a conseIuence of bha/a. ^Bha/a1 here means the .amma&bha/a *hich stands for the 7C ty-es of *holesome and un*holesome .ammas as described in the ninth causal relation. ^F;ti1 refers to the arising or becoming of u-a-atti&bha/a, the rebirth&-rocess. $ight at the first instant of conce-tion :-aYisandhi.;la<, there arise M7 lo.iya&/i-;.a cittas, M8 cetasi.as associated *ith the lo.iya&/i-;.a cittas and @G .amma>a rO-as *hich ma.e uu-a-atti&bha/a. The M7 lo.iya&/i-;.a cittas and @G .amma>a rO-as com-rise all the 79 forms of rebirth&-rocess. Thus through the *holesome and un*holesome .amma-rocesses :.amma&bha/a< are conditioned the rebirth&-rocesses :u-a-atti&bha/a<. The tenth causal relation combines the second and the third causal relations= they teach -ractically the same thing, namely that .amma is the cause of rebirth.

@@ F;ti&-accay; >ar;&maraPa[ so.a -aride/a du..ha domanassa u-;y;s; sambha/anti @@ F;ti&-accay; >ar;&maraPa[ so.a -aride/a du..ha domanassa u-;y;s; sambha/anti No* e/ery ultimate reality :-aramattha< has the characteristics of arising :u--;da<, e0isting :thWti< and dissol/ing :bhaTga<. Thus after u--;da, thWti and bhaTga must ine/itably follo*. U--;da is called >;ti= thWti, >ar;= and bhaTga, maraPa. So >ar;maraPa must arise as a conseIuence of >;ti. As the arising, the e0isting and the dissol/ing of u-a-attibha/a are designated as >;ti, >ar;, and maraPa, res-ecti/ely, *e should note that beings are facing rebirth, decay :old age< and death at e/ery instant according to Abhidhamma. +on/entionally, *e thin. that *e are born >ust once, become old as the years -ass by, and then die >ust once in this life. The -henomenon that death arises as a conseIuence of rebirth at e/ery conscious moment is .no*n as ^.haPi.a&maraPa1. As the results of rebirth :>;ti<, *orry :so.a<, lamentation :-aride/a<, -ain :du..ha<, grief :domanassa< and des-air :u-;y;s;< may also arise. These fi/e resultants are not -rimary nor ine/itable= they are secondary and may or may not arise de-ending on conditions. They are absent in brahma&lo.a and may be also un.no*n to an embryo, *hich dies in the *omb or in an egg. Thus *e should differentiate bet*een -rimary and secondary effects of rebirth. Far; and maraPa are the -rimary and com-ulsory resultants of >;ti= so.a, -aride/a, du..ha, domanassa and u-;y;s; are secondary and o-tional resultants of >;ti.

So.a :*orry or sorro*< is the un-leasant feeling :domanassa/edan;< -resent in the 7 dosa&mOla cittas. 6aride/a :lamentation< is citta>a&/i-all;sa&sadda&rO-a *hich means mind&-roduced&re/ersal sound. Du..ha :-ain< is the /edan;&cetasi.a associated *ith du..hasahagata .;ya&/iQQ;Pa citta. Domanassa :grief< is the /edan;&cetasi.a associated *ith the 7 dosa&mOla cittas. U-;y;s; :des-air< is the resentment -roduced by e0cessi/e mental suffering. It is anger :dosa< -resent in the 7 dosa&mOla cittas. A com-arison bet*een grief, lamentation and des-air states that grief is li.e the boiling of oil in a /essel= lamentation :/iJ., the out*ard e0-ression of grief< is li.e the o/erflo* :boiling o/er< from the /essel *hen the coo.ing is done by a fierce fire= des-air is li.e the simmering in the /essel of *hat remains after boiling o/er until it is all boiled a*ay. Some Notable As-ects of the #a* In the #a* of De-endent !rigination, t*el/e factors :aTga<, three -eriods :.;la<, t*enty modes :;.;ra<, three connections :sandhi<, four abridgments :saT.he-a<, three rounds :/aYYa< and t*o roots :mOla< should be ta.en into consideration. @ T*el/e 5actors :ATga< A/i>>;, saT.h;ra, /iQQ;Pa, n;ma&rO-a, sa\;yatana, -hassa, /edan;, taPh;, u-;d;na, bha/a, >;ti, >ar;&maraPa. 7 Three 6eriods :";la< @ 6ast a a/i>>;, saT.h;ra 7 6resent a /iQQ;Pa, n;ma&rO-a, sa\;yatana, -hassa, /edan;, taPh;, u-;d;na, .amma&bha/a M 5uture a >;ti, >ar;&maraPa.

In the -ast, because a -erson1s mind is /eiled by ignorance :a/i>>;<, he does not understand the misery of the round of rebirth :sa[s;ra<. So he -erforms both *holesome and un*holesome .ammas :saT.h;ra<. Thus a/i>>; and saT.h;ra belong to the -ast. The -ast .amma -roduces rebirth in the -resent life. Thus starting from the /ery moment of conce-tion till death, /iQQ;Pa, n;ma&rO-a, sa\;yatana, -hassa, /edan;, taPh;, u-;d;na and .ammabha/a arise. So these eight belong to the -resent. The .amma&bha/a -erformed in this life -roduces rebirth in the form of u-a-atti&bha/a in the subseIuent life. The arising, the e0isting and the dissol/ing of u-a-atti&bha/a are called >;ti, >ar; and maraPa, res-ecti/ely. Thus >;ti, >ar;&maraPa belong to the future. :Note that bha/a has been di/ided into .amma&bha/a and u-a-atti&bha/a= the former belongs to the -resent and the latter, to the future.< M T*enty modes :X.;ra< @ 6ast +auses :AtWta Hetu< a/i>>;, saT.h;ra, taPh;, u-;d;na, .amma&bha/a. 7 6resent Effects :?aYYamana 6hala< /iQQ;Pa, n;ma&rO-a, sa\;yatana, -hassa, /edan;. M 6resent +auses :?aYYamana Hetu< taPh;, u-;d;na, .amma&bha/a, a/i>>;, saT.h;ra E 5uture Effects :An;gata 6hala< /iQQ;Pa, n;ma&rO-a, sa\;yatana, -hassa, /edan;. )hen *e loo. at the -ast -eriod, *e see only a/i>>; and saT.h;ra to be ta.en as the -ast causes. But a/i>>;= is .ilesa&/aYYa

dhamma= so also are taPh; and u-;d;na. Since these /aYYa&dhammas occur together in the same citta, taPh; and u-;d;na must also be included in the -ast causes. dhamma= so also are taPh; and u-;d;na. Since these /aYYa&dhammas occur together in the same citta, taPh; and u-;d;na must also be included in the -ast causes. bha/a. Thus *hen saT.h;ra is ta.en into account, .amma&bha/a is also im-licitly accounted for. So *e ha/e fi/e dhammas /iJ., a/i>>;, saT.h;ra, taPh;, u-;d;na and .amma&bha/a a as the -ast causes. ?iQQ;Pa, n;ma&rO-a, sa\;yatana, -hassa and /edan; in the -resent -eriod are the -resent effects of the -ast causes. Again in the -resent -eriod, taPh;, u-;d;na and .amma&bha/a can act as the -resent causes for future rebirth. As reasoned abo/e, *hen taPh; and u-;d;na are ta.en into account, a/i>>; is also im-licitly accounted for. 5urthermore, saT.h;ra must also be grou-ed together *ith .amma&bha/a. So *e get taPh;, u-;d;na= .amma&bha/a, a/i>>; and saT.h;ra as the -resent causes *hich *ill condition the rebirth&-rocess in the subseIuent life. In the future -eriod, only >;ti and >ar;&maraPa are -resent. They re-resent becoming, decay and death, res-ecti/ely. The Iuestion arises here as to *hich entities come into being, decay and die. The ans*er is' ^?iQQ;Pa, n;ma&rO-a, sa\;yatana, -hassa and /edan; come into being, decay and die1. The arising, the e0isting and the dissol/ing -henomena of these entities are ta.en as >;ti, >ar; and maraPa, res-ecti/ely. So *e get /iQQ;Pa, n;marO-a, sa\;yatana, -hassa and /edan; as the future effects. Thus it is stated in ?isuddhi Magga :6ath of 6urification< that' _5i/e causes *ere there in the -ast= 5i/e fruits *e find in -resent life= 5i/e causes do *e no* -roduce= 5i/e fruits *e rea- in future life.`

)e should note that, although 6aYiccasamu--;da states one cause for one effect, and the effect becomes the cause to gi/e rise to another effect, actually many causes ta.e -art at the same time to gi/e rise to many effects in real life. )e should note that, although 6aYiccasamu--;da states one cause for one effect, and the effect becomes the cause to gi/e rise to another effect, actually many causes ta.e -art at the same time to gi/e rise to many effects in real life. TAB#E G.@ +ausal $elations Bet*een Three Successi/e #i/es 6ast @ A/i>>; :Ignorance< 7 SaT.h;ra :"amma&formations< "amma&bha/a :"amma&-rocess< 8 +auses' @,7, G, C, @9 6resent M ?iQQ;Pa :+onciousness< E N;ma&rO-a :+or-oreality &Mentality< 8 Sa\;yatana :N Bases< N 6hassa :+ontact< H ?edan; :5eeling< U-a-atti&bha/a :$ebirth&-rocess< 8 Effects' M, E, 8, N, H G TaPh; :+ra/ing< C U-;d;na :4ras-ing< @9 "amma&bha/a :"amma&formations< "amma&bha/a :"amma&-rocess< :8 +auses ' @, 7 G, C, @9 5uture @@ F;ti :$ebirth< @7 Far;&maraPa :!ld age and Death< U-a-atti&bha/a :$ebirth&6rocess< 8 Effects' M, E, 8, N, H

E 5our Abridgments :SaT.he-a< E 5our Abridgments :SaT.he-a< 8 Three +onnections :Sandhi< In Table G.@ it *ill be seen that the connection bet*een saT.h;ra and /iQQ;Pa constitutes the connection bet*een the 6ast +auses and the 6resent Effects= the connection bet*een /edan; and taPh; constitutes the connection bet*een the 6resent Effects and the 6resent +auses= and the connection bet*een .amma&bha/a and >;ti re-resents the connection bet*een the 6resent +auses and the 5uture Effects. At -resent *e are concerned *ith the middle lin., that is the connection bet*een /edan; and taPh;. If *e are mindful at the si0 doors to note seeing as >ust seeing, hearing as >ust hearing, and so on and not to let /edan; de/elo- into taPh;, then *e are reconstituting the lin. as ^/edan;&-aQQ;1 instead of ^/edan;&taPh;1. This means that *e are sto--ing the *heel of 6aYiccasamu--;da momentarily and trying to cut the lin. *ith mindfulness. N Three $ounds :?aYYa< ^?aYYa1 means going round and round li.e the rotation of a *heel. The *heel of 6aYiccasamu--;da may be di/ided into three segments called ^three rounds1 or ^three /aYYas1. @ "ilesa&/aYYa :$ound of Defilements< a a/i>>;, taPh;, u-;d;na 7 "amma&/aYYa :$ound of "amma< a .amma&bha/a, saT.h;ra M ?i-;.a&/aYYa :$ound of $esultants< a u-a-atti&bha/a, /iQQ;Pa, n;ma&rO-a, sa\;yatana, -hassa, /edan;, >;ti, >ar;maraPa.

E0-lanation E0-lanation "amma&bha/a and saT.h;ra are .amma&formations. So they are grou-ed as .amma&/aYYa. U-a-atti&bha/a, /iQQ;Pa, n;ma&rO-a, sa\;yatana, -hassa, /edan;, >;ti, >ar;&maraPa are the resultants :/i-;.a< of .amma&formations. So they are grou-ed as /i-;.a&/aYYa. In the -ast, because of ignorance :a/i>>;<, *e ha/e false /ie* and attachment :taPh;< to sense&ob>ects. )hen the attachment and the false&/ie* gro* u- to strong cra/ing or gras-ing :u-;d;na<, *e -erform *holesome or un*holesome deeds :.amma&bha/a and saT.h;ra<. This illustrates ho* .ilesa&/aYYa gi/es rise to .amma&/aYYa in the -ast. No* because of .amma&formations :.amma&bha/a and saT.h;ra< in the -ast, /i-;.a&/aYYa a /iJ., u-a-atti&bha/a, /iQQ;Pa, n;ma&rO-a, sa\;yatana, -hassa, /edan;, >;ti, >ar;&maraPa a arises in the -resent life. At the same time a/i>>;, taPh; and u-;d;na come along *ith /iQQ;Pa as anusaya&.iles;s :latent defilements<. )hen the si0 bases :sa\;yatana< are in contact *ith the sense&ob>ects and -hassa and /edan; arise, those anusaya&.iles;s arise as full& fledged .iles;s. So *e get .ilesa&/aYYa again. As the result of .ilesa&/aYYa, .amma&/aYYa arises. As the result of .amma&/aYYa, /i-;.a&/aYYa arises. And as the result of /i-;.a/aYYa, .ilesa&/aYYa arises again. So the rounds of /aYYa *ill .ee- on rotating, and so does the *heel of 6aYiccasamu--;da, for e/er. H T*o $oots :MOla< The *heel of 6aYiccasamu--;da :see Table G.@< can be di/ided into t*o -ortions. The first -ortion starts from the 6ast +auses and

DIA4$AM G.7 DIA4$AM G.7 ends at the 6resent Effects com-rising a/i>>;, saT.h;ra, /iQQ;Pa, n;ma&rO-a, sa\;yatana, -hassa and /edan;. In this -ortion, a/i>>; is the root or origin :mOla<. The second -ortion starts from the 6resent +auses and ends at the 5uture Effects co/ering taPh;, u-;d;na, bha/a, >;ti and >ar;maraPa. In this -ortion taPh; is the root or origin :mOla<. So the t*o roots of 6aYiccasamu--;da are a/i>>; and taPh;. If *e cut off these t*o roots, the *heel of 6aYiccasamu--;da *ill be destroyed for e/er as far as *e are concerned, >ust as a tree *ill die *hen its main roots are cut off.

)e can cut off the t*o main roots of 6aYiccasamu--;da by tranIuility and insight&meditation. )hen *e see all the true nature of mentality and cor-oreality and o-en u- the eight de-artments *hich are co/ered u- by a/i>>;, then taPh; has no -lace to attach to. So both a/i>>; and taPh; *ill be cut off and *e shall be liberated from the round of sa[s;ra. )e can cut off the t*o main roots of 6aYiccasamu--;da by tranIuility and insight&meditation. )hen *e see all the true nature of mentality and cor-oreality and o-en u- the eight de-artments *hich are co/ered u- by a/i>>;, then taPh; has no -lace to attach to. So both a/i>>; and taPh; *ill be cut off and *e shall be liberated from the round of sa[s;ra. In e0-ounding the #a* of De-endent !rigination, Buddha began *ith a/i>>; :ignorance< and *ent on e0-laining that because of a/i>>;, saT.h;ra arises= because of saT.h;ra, /iQQ;Pa arises= and so on. So one *ould enIuire *hether a/i>>; is the first cause or there is another cause for a/i>>;. The ans*er is definite' a/i>>; is not the first cause and the four ;sa/as :can.ers or into0icants< are the cause of a/i>>;. The four ;sa/as are .;m;sa/a :attachment to sensual -leasures<, bha/;sa/a :attachment to >h;nas and brahma e0istence<, diYYh;sa/a :false /ie*s< and a/i>>;sa/a :ignorance<. )hen a great loss in our -ro-erty or close relati/es occurs, great sorro* :so.a<, lamentation :-aride/a<, grief :domanassa< and des-air :u-;y;sa< arise in our mind. This sho*s ho* attachment to our -ro-erty and relati/es :.;m;sa/a< conditions sorro*, lamentation, grief and des-air to arise. Also *hen brahmas, *ho li/e in >h;na -eace, a--roach death, they feel scared and sad. Thus sorro*, grief and des-air also arise in them and this arising is a conseIuence of bha/;sa/a. Those, *ho cling to false /ie*s such as sa..;ya&diYYhi :-ersonality&belief< ta.ing the body or the mind as ^I1, feel sad or angry *hen something is *rong *ith the body or the mind. Thus diYYh;sa/a also causes sorro* or *orry, lamentation, grief and des-air to arise.

Also on account of ignorance about the true nature of mentality and cor-oreality, sorro*, lamentation, grief and des-air arise. Thus a/i>>;sa/a is also one of the causes for the arising of so.a, -aride/a, domanassa, u-;y;sa, etc. Also on account of ignorance about the true nature of mentality and cor-oreality, sorro*, lamentation, grief and des-air arise. Thus a/i>>;sa/a is also one of the causes for the arising of so.a, -aride/a, domanassa, u-;y;sa, etc. Thus on account of the four ;sa/as, so.a, -aride/a, domanassa and u-;y;sa arise, and *hen so.a, -aride/a, domanassa and u-;y;sa arise, a/i>>; also arises. Thus the four ;sa/as are the cause of a/i>>;. C No Beginning in Sa[s;ra ^Sa[s;ra1 literally means ^-er-etual *andering1. It is a name gi/en to the continuous -rocess of e/er again and again being born, gro*ing old, suffering and dying. To -ut it more -recisely, sa[s;ra is the unbro.en chain of the fi/efold .handhacombinations *hich constantly change from moment to moment and continuously follo* one u-on the other through inconcei/able -eriods of time. As no one can trace the limits of s-ace, so also no one can trace bac. to the beginning of sa[s;ra and nobody can concei/e *hen it *ill end. +om-ared to the course of sa[s;ra, a single lifetime constitutes only a tiny and fleeting fraction. The ^round of rebirth1 in the thirty&one -lanes of e0istence according to the causal relations has been e0-lained by the #a* of De-endent !rigination. This la* can be satisfactorily /erified by insight meditation and I ha/e seen this being done in International Buddha Sasana +entres :6a&au. Meditation +entres< in Myanmar. )hen *e dra* a circle, *e ha/e to begin from some -oint,

and *hen *e ha/e com-leted the circle, no beginning nor the end can be seen. Similarly, *hen the #a* of De-endent !rigination is e0-lained, the e0-lanation must start from some -oint, and a/i>>; is an a--ro-riate -oint. )hen the e0-lanation is o/er, *e see that there is no beginning nor the end. The *heel of 6aYiccasamu--;da *ill .ee- on rotating for each indi/idual until and unless he can cut off the t*o main roots, i.e. a/i>>; and taPh;. In Digha Ni.;ya :Sutta @8< Buddha said' _6rofound, Xnanda, is this De-endent !rigination, and -rofound does it a--ear. It is through not understanding, not -enetrating this la*, that this *orld resembles a tangled ball of thread, a bird1s nest, a thic.et of reed, and that man does not esca-e from the lo*er states of e0istence, from the course of *oe and -erdition, suffering from the round of rebirth.` 6aYYh;na Method The t*enty&four conditions :-accayas< are enumerated in 6;\i as follo*s' :@< Hetu&-accayo, :7< ;rammaPa&-accayo, :M< adhi-ati&-accayo, :E< anantara&-accayo, :8< samanantara&-accayo, :N< saha>;ta&-accayo, :H< aQQamaQQa&-accayo :G< nissaya&-accayo, :C< u-anisaya&-accayo :@9< -ure>;ta&-accayo, :@@< -acch;>;ta&-accayo, :@7< ;se/ana-accayo, :@M< .amma&-accayo, :@E< /i-;.a&-accayo, :@8< ;h;ra-accayo, :@N< indriya&-accayo, :@H< >h;na&-accayo, :@G< magga-accayo, :@C< sam-ayutta&-accayo, :79< /i--ayutta&-accayo, :7@< atthi&-accayo, :77< natthi&-accayo, :7M< /igata&-accayo, :7E< a/igata-accayoti. This short 6;li&g;th; is /ery useful for demarcating a -lace of sanctuary to -rotect oneself from the attac. of *ic.ed men, *ild beasts and ghosts.

The 7E Modes of +onditionality @ Hetu&-accayo a $oot condition 7 mrammaPa&-acayo a !b>ect condition M Adhi-ati&-accayo a 6redominance condition E Anantara&-accayo a +ontiguity condition 8 Samanantara&-accayo a immediacy condition N Saha>;ta&-accayo a +o&nascence condition H AQQamaQQa&-accayo a Mutuality condition G Nissaya&-accayo a De-endence condition C U-anisaya&-accayo a 6o*erful De-endence condition @9 6ure>;ta&-accayo a 6re&nascence condition @@ 6acch;>;ta&-accayo a 6ost&nascence condition @7 mse/ana&-accayo a $e-etition condition @M "amma&-accayo a "amma condition @E ?i-;.a&-accayo a "amma&result condition @8 mh;ra&-accayo a Nutriment condition @N Indriya&-accayo a 5aculty condition @H Fh;na&-accayo a Fh;na condition @G Magga&-accayo a 6ath condition @C Sam-ayutta&-accayo a Association condition 79 ?i--ayutta&-accayo a Dissociation condition 7@ Atthi&-accayo a 6resence condition 77 Natthi&-accayo a Absence condition 7M ?igata&-accayo a Disa--earance condition 7E A/igata&-accayo a Non&disa--earance condition The 6ro-erty of each +ondition @ Hetu :$oot condition< Hetu resembles the main root of a tree. As the main root su--orts the tree to be firm, ali/e and -ros-erous, so too the si0 roots :lobha, dosa, moha, alobha, adosa, amoha< su--ort the cittas

and the cetasi.as associated *ith them and also the citta>a&rO-a and -aYisandhi&.amma>a&rO-a to be firm, strong and -ros-erous. and the cetasi.as associated *ith them and also the citta>a&rO-a and -aYisandhi&.amma>a&rO-a to be firm, strong and -ros-erous. An in/alid -erson may get u- by -ulling a ro-e&line and may stand *ith the su--ort of a *al.ing stic.. Fust as the ro-e&line and the *al.ing stic. gi/e su--ort to an in/alid -erson, so also the si0 sense&ob>ects gi/e su--ort to cittas and cetasi.as to enable them to arise. M Addhi-ati :6redominance +ondition< ^Adhi-ati1 means su-reme, so/ereign, lord, chief, .ing, etc. The "ing of a country, by using his authority o/er all his countrymen, can contribute to the -eace and -ros-erity of his country to a great e0tent. This means that he can condition his country by *ay of his -redominance o/er all others. In natural -henomena, there are t*o .inds of -redominance a namely, ;rammaP;dhi-ati and saha>;t;dhi-ati. mrammaP;dhi-ati is an outstanding ob>ect *hich can dra* our attention to it. )e cannot hel- but obser/e it or listen to it. Saha>;t;dhi-ati means a -redominant factor that arises together *ith its associates. This factor refers to the four adhi-atis a /iJ., chanda :concentrated intention<, /Wriya :energy or effort<, citta :consciousness< and /Wma[sa :in/estigating *isdom<. In one and the same state of consciousness, only one of these four adhi-atis can be -redominant. This -redominant factor then conditions its associates :citta and cetasi.as< to accom-lish the goal set by it. E Anantara :+ontiguity +ondition< +ontiguity means -ro0imity *ithout any se-aration in time and s-ace. )hen a .ing dies, his eldest son becomes .ing *ithout

any interru-tion in the lineage of monarchy. Thus *e can say that the .ing hel-s his eldest son to become .ing by contiguity condition. any interru-tion in the lineage of monarchy. Thus *e can say that the .ing hel-s his eldest son to become .ing by contiguity condition. 8 Samanantara :Immediacy condition< ^Immediacy1 means the same thing as ^contiguity1. Anantara-accaya and Samanantara&-accaya are identical= ^sama1 means ^*ell1. They refer to any state of consciousness and the mental -henomenon associated *ith it, *hich are the condition for the immediately follo*ing stage in the -rocess of consciousness. N Saha>;ta :+o&nascence condition< Saha>;ta&-accaya means the condition by *ay of simultaneous arising. +o&nascence means co&arising. )hen an oil lam- is lighted, the light comes out simultaneously. Thus *e may say that the lam- conditions the light to s-read out as soon as the lam- lights u-. This is an e0am-le of co&nascence condition. In general any -henomenon in *hich the cause conditions the effect to arise simultaneously *ith the cause is called conascence condition. H AQQamaQQa :Mutuality condition< )hen three stic.s are -ro--ed u- together in the form of a -yramid, they balance one another. If one stic. is remo/ed, the other t*o *ill fall. This mutual or reci-rocal su--ort among the stic.s illustrates mutuality condition.

In -hysical and -sychical -henomena, in *hich the cause and the effect mutually conditions the arising of each other, then *e say that the cause and the effect su--ort each other by means of mutuality condition. In -hysical and -sychical -henomena, in *hich the cause and the effect mutually conditions the arising of each other, then *e say that the cause and the effect su--ort each other by means of mutuality condition. Nissaya&-accaya is a condition *hich aids by means of su--ort or de-endence. 5or e0am-le, a man crosses a ri/er by ro*ing a canoe. Then *e say that the canoe hel-s the man to cross the ri/er by means of de-endence condition, and reci-rocally the man aids the canoe to get o/er the other side of the ri/er by means of de-endence condition. #et us consider another e0am-le. 6lants and animals de-end on the earth for their e0istence. Here the earth aids -lants and animals by *ay of de-endence condition, but no reci-rocity e0ists. C U-anissaya :6o*erful De-endence condition< U-anissaya is a -o*erful cause *hich aids by means of de-endence condition. 5or e0am-le, the rain is a -o*erful cause that su--orts the gro*th of -lants and animals. Similarly -arents are a -o*erful su--ort for their children. In any -henomenon in *hich the cause is a -o*erful su--ort for its effect, then *e say that the cause aids the effect to arise by means of -o*erful de-endence condition. @9 6ure>;ta :6re&nascence condition< 6re&nascence condition refers to something -re/iously arisen, *hich ser/es as the cause for something arising later. 5or e0am-le, the sun and the moon ha/e come into e0istence since

the formation of this solar system. They gi/e light to the -eo-le *ho are li/ing on the earth no*. so *e may say that the sun and the moon aid the -eo-le by means of -renascence condition. the formation of this solar system. They gi/e light to the -eo-le *ho are li/ing on the earth no*. so *e may say that the sun and the moon aid the -eo-le by means of -renascence condition. This refers to the causal relation in *hich the cause :-accaya< arises later and the conditioned thing :-accayu--anna< arises earlier. It may be illustrated by an offs-ring of a /ulture. No* the young off&s-ring, after being hatched from the egg, feels hungry. it e0-ects that its mother *ill bring some food for it to eat. But the mother /ulture, as a rule, ne/er brings food for its off&s-rings. So the young bird has nothing to eat. But nature comes in to hel-. The off&s-ring1s /olition :cetan;< for eating food causes its body to gro*. Here the off&s-ring1s body :-accayu--anna< has arisen earlier, and the /olition for eating :-accaya< arises later. Thus the /olition aids the bird1s body to gro* by means of -ost& nascence condition. @7 Xse/ana :$e-etition condition< )hen *e read a difficult -assage, *e may not understand it at first. But if *e .ee- on reading it again and again, *e usually understand it better. Also in learning by heart through constant re-etition, the later recitation becomes gradually easier and easier. So *e may say that earlier learning aids later learning by means of re-etition condition. Similarly in a--lying sandal&*ood lotion or ma.e&u- to the face, one should not a--ly a thic. layer >ust once. !ne should a--ly a thin. layer first, fan it to dry, and then a--ly another layer a and another layer. The earlier a--lications *ill aid the later a--lications by re-etition condition to be firmer and smoother and also to smell s*eeter.

In cognition -rocesses *e ha/e seen that the >a/ana cittas usually occur se/en times. Here all the -receding >a/anas are for the succeeding ones a condition by *ay of re-etition and freIuency. In cognition -rocesses *e ha/e seen that the >a/ana cittas usually occur se/en times. Here all the -receding >a/anas are for the succeeding ones a condition by *ay of re-etition and freIuency. A *ell -reser/ed seed, *hen -laced in a *ell *atered ground, gi/es rise to an off&shoot. Similarly *holesome or un*holesome .amma, *ith the su--ort of a/i>>; and taPh;, gi/es rise to a ne* off&s-ring in the form of fi/e aggregates of e0istence. In the t*o accounts stated abo/e, the seed or .amma is the cause :-accaya<, and the off&shoot or the fi/e aggregates of e0istence is the result or conditioned thing :-accayu--ana<. The cause is said to condition the result to arise by *ay of .amma condition. @E ?i-;.a :"amma&result condition< ?i-;.a&citta and its concomitant&cetasi.as are the .amma&result of a -ast .amma. As they are caused to arise by the force of the -ast .amma, they ha/e no *orry at all for their arising. )hen the time for their arising comes, they can arise -eacefully and leisurely *ithout any struggle. No* a cool breeJe ma.es a -erson in the cool shade feel cooler. Similarly /i-;.a citta and its concomitant cetasi.as, *hich by nature arise -eacefully, mutually aid one another by .ammaresult condition to arise more -eacefully and more leisurely @8 Xh;ra :Nutriment condition< 6arents -roduce children, su--ort them and loo. after them so that they *ill gro* u- ha--ily. A -ole, su--orting a leaning old house, ma.es the house stable and durable.

In the same *ay the four nutriments, namely, edible food :o>;<, contact :-hassa<, /olition :cetan;<, and consciousness :/iQQ;Pa< aid their resultants or conditioned things to arise, and .ee- on su--orting them so that they are stable and durable. This ty-e of conditioning -rocess is .no*n as ^nutriment condition.1 In the same *ay the four nutriments, namely, edible food :o>;<, contact :-hassa<, /olition :cetan;<, and consciousness :/iQQ;Pa< aid their resultants or conditioned things to arise, and .ee- on su--orting them so that they are stable and durable. This ty-e of conditioning -rocess is .no*n as ^nutriment condition.1 Indriyas, li.e ministers, ha/e control o/er their res-ecti/e de-artments or faculties, and by this /irtue they contribute to the -rogress and -ros-erity of the *hole system. This contribution is said to ta.e -lace by means of faculty condition. !f the 77 indriyas *e ha/e come across in cha-ter ?II, the t*o bha/a&rO-as do not -artici-ate as faculty condition. The fi/e -hysical sense&organs, in their ca-acity as faculties, form a condition only for mental -henomena such as the arising of eye& consciousness, etc. 6hysical /itality :>W/ita&rO-a< and all the remaining faculties form a condition for the arising of the conascent mental and cor-oreal -henomena. @H Fh;na&-accaya :Fh;na&condition< Fh;na&condition stands for the se/en >h;na factors called >h;naTgas. These >h;na&factors condition their co&nascent citta, cetasi.as and citta>a&rO-a to focus on a -articular ob>ect closely and fi0edly. This ty-e of conditioning is said to occur by *ay of >h;nacondition. @G Magga&-accaya :6ath&condition< 6ath&condition stands for the @7 constituents of the -ath called maggaTgas :see cha-ter ?II<. The *holesome -ath&constituents form a -ath conditioning their co&nascent citta, cetasi.as and citta>a&rO-a to bear results in the blissful state. The un*holesome

-ath&constituents similarly form a -ath conditioning their conascent citta, cetasi.as and citta>a&rO-a to bear results in the *oeful state. This ty-e of conditioning is said to ta.e -lace by *ay of -ath&condition. @C Sam-ayutta :Association condition< Tea&essence, mil., sugar and *ater are so thoroughly mi0ed in a cu- of tea that they cannot be differentiated and they gi/e a combined -leasant taste. Similarly consciousness and its concomitants, *hich together form the four mental aggregates, are so thoroughly mi0ed that they cannot be differentiated. Besides they arise together, dissol/e together, ha/e a common -hysical base and a common ob>ect, and they mutually aid one another by being associated together. They are said to aid one another by *ay of ^association condition1. 79 ?i--ayutta :Dissociation condition< The si0 tastes a /iJ., tart, bitter, s*eet, sour, salty, acid a do not mi0 together= yet they su--ort one another to gi/e an agreeable taste in curry. Again in a cro*n or nec.&lace, the gold and the >e*els do not mi0 u-= they can be differentiated easily by sight. %et the gold ma.es the >e*els more beautiful, and the >e*els ma.e the gold more attracti/e. Similarly cor-oreal grou- and mental grou-s do not mi0, neither do they arise together nor dissol/e together. %et cor-oreal grou-s aid mental grou-s, and mental grou-s aid cor-oreal grou-s in many *ays. They are said to aid one another by *ay of ^dissociation condition.1

7@ Atthi&-accaya :6resence condition< 7@ Atthi&-accaya :6resence condition< Such a -henomenon3either -re&nascent or co&nascent3 *hich through its -resence is a condition for other -henomena to arise is called ^-resence condition1. 77 Natthi&-accaya :Absence condition< The absence of the sun contributes to the a--earing of the moon= the absence of light contributes to the a--earing of dar.ness= the death of a .ing contributes to the enthronement of his eldest son= so one can contribute something by being absent. In mental -henomena, a consciousness and its concomitants *hich ha/e >ust dissol/ed form the necessary condition called ^absence condition1 for the immediate arising of the follo*ing consciousness and its concomitants. 7M ?igata&-accaya :Disa--earance condition< )hen something disa--ears or dissol/es, it no longer e0ists= it is absent. So /igata&-accaya is synonymous *ith natthi&-accaya. Disa--earance condition, li.e absence condition, a--lies only to mental -henomena in *hich a consciousness *ith its concomitants can arise only *hen the -receding consciousness together *ith its concomitants dissol/es or disa--ears. 7E A/igata&-accaya :Non&disa--earance condition< If something does not disa--ear, it is -resent. So ^a/igata&-accaya1 is identical *ith ^atthi&-accaya1 :-resence condition<. The great ocean, by its non&disa--earance, contributes to the ha--iness of the fish and the sea&turtles *hich li/e in it.

Such a -henomenon a either -renascent or co&nascent a *hich through its not&disa--earance is a condition for other -henomena to arise is called ^non&disa--earance condition1. Such a -henomenon a either -renascent or co&nascent a *hich through its not&disa--earance is a condition for other -henomena to arise is called ^non&disa--earance condition1. The o-erations of the 7E conditions :-accayas< in mental and cor-oreal -henomena are illustrated in 6aYYh;na&Niddesa 6;\i. This 6;\i is often recited singly or in grou-s as form of /eneration :-O>;< to #ord Buddha1s SabbaQQuta&Q;Pa :!mniscience<. Many *ish to understand the meanings of this 6;\i. )ithout the bac.ground of Abhidhamma, ho*e/er, it *ould be /ery hard to understand them. But *ith the .no*ledge *e ha/e so far acIuired from this boo., it *ould not be difficult to understand them. A direct translation of the 6aYYh;na&Niddesa 6;\i *ill be gi/en to enable the reader to understand the meanings in reciting the 6;\i. 6aYYh;na 6ali @ 6accayuddeso Hetu-accayo, ;rammaPa-accayo, adhi-ati-accayo, anantara-accayo, samanantara-accayo, saha>;ta-accayo, aQQamaQQa-accayo, nissaya-accayo, u-anissaya-accayo, -ure>;ta-accayo, -acch;>;ta-accayo, ;se/ana-accayo, .amma-accayo, /i-;.a-accayo, ;h;ra-accayo, indriya-accayo, >h;na-accayo, magga-accayo, sam-ayutta-accayo, /i--ayutta-accayo, atthi-accayo, natthi-accayo, /igata-accayo, a/igata-accayoti.

7 6accayaniddeso @ hetu-accayoti a hetu hetusam-ayutta.;na[ dhamm;na[ ta[samuYYh;n;naQca rO-;na[ hetu-accayena -accayo. 7 arammana-accayoti a rO-;yatana[ ca..hu/iQQ;nadh;tuy; ta[sam-ayutta.;naQca dhamm;na[ ;rammaPa-accayena -accayo, sadd;yatana[ sota/iQQ;nadhatuya ta[sam-ayutta.;naQca dhamm;na[ ;rammaPa-accayena -accayo, gandh;yatana[ gh;na/iQQ;Padh;tuy; ta[sam-ayutta.;naQ ca dhamm;na[ ;rammaPa-accayena -accayo, ras;yatana[ >i/h;/iQQ;Padh;tuy; ta[sam-ayutta.;naQca dhamm;na[ ;rammaPa-accayena -accayo, -hoYYabb;yatana[ .;ya/iQQ;Padh;tuy; ta[sam-ayutta.;naQca dhamm;na[ ;rammaPa-accayena -accayo, rO-;yatana[ sadd;yatana[ gandh;yatana[ ras;yatana[ -hoYYabb;yatana[ manodh;tuy; ta[sam-ayutta.;naQca dhamm;na[ ;rammaPa-accayena -accayo, sabbe dhamma manoQQ;Padh;tuy; ta[sam-ayutta.;naQca dhamm;na[ ;rammaPa-accayena -accayo. ya[ ya[ dhamma[ arabbha ye ye dhamma u--a>>anti cittacetasi.; dhamm;, te te dhamm; tesa[ tesa[ dhamm;na[ arammaPa-accayena -accayo. M adhi-ati-accayoti a chand;dhi-ati chandasam-ayutta.;na[ dhamm;na[ ta[samuYYh;n;naQca rO-;na[ adhi-ati-accayena -accayo, /Wriy;dhi-ati /Wriyasam-ayutta.;na[ dhamm;na[ ta[samuYYh;n;naQca rO-;na[ adhi-ati-accayena -accayo, citt;dhi-ati cittasam-ayutta.;na[ dhamm;na[ ta[samuYYh;n;naQca rO-;na[

adhi-ati-accayena -accayo, /ima[s;dhi-ati /ima[sasam-ayutta.;na[ dhamm;na[ ta[samuYYh;n;naQca rO-;na[ adhi-ati-accayena -accayo. ya[ ya[ dhamma[ garu[ .at/; ye ye dhamm; u--a>>anti cittacetasi.; dhamm;, te te dhamm; tesa[ tesa[ dhamm;na[ adhi-ati-accayena -accayo. E anantara-accayoti a ca..hu/iQQaPadh;tu ta[sam-ayutta.; ca dhamm; manodh;tuy; ta[sam-ayutta.;naQca dhamm;na[ anantara-accayena -accayo. manodh;tu ta[sam-ayutta.; ca dhamm; mano/iQQ;Padh;tuy; ta[sam-ayutta.;naQ ca dhamm;na[ anantara-accayena -accayo. sota/iQQ;Padh;tu ta[sam-ayutta.; ca dhamm; manodh;tuy; ta[sam-ayutta.;naQca dhamm;na[ anantara-accayena -accayo, manodh;tu ta[sam-ayutta.; ca dhamm; mano/iQQ;Padh;tuy; ta[sam-ayutta.;naQca dhamm;na[ anantara-accayena -accayo. gh;na/iQQ;Padh;tu ta[sam-ayutta.; ca dhamm; manodh;tuy; ta[sam-ayutta.;naQca dhamm;na[ anantara-accayena -accayo, manodh;tu ta[sam-ayutta.; ca dhamm; mano/iQQ;Padh;tuy; ta[sam-ayutta.;naQca dhamm;na[ anantara-accayena -accayo. >i/h;/iQQ;Padh;tu ta[sam-ayutta.; ca dhamm; manodh;tuy; ta[sam-ayutta.;naQca dhamm;na[ anantara-accayena -accayo, manodh;tu ta[sam-ayutta.; ca dhamm; mano/iQQ;Padh;tuy; ta[sam-ayutta.;naQca dhamm;na[ anantara-accayena -accayo. .;ya/iQQ;Padh;tu ta[sam-ayutta.; ca dhamm; manodh;tuy; ta[sam-ayutta.;naQca dhamm;na[

anantara-accayena -accayo, manodh;tu ta[sam-ayutta.; ca dhamm; mano/iQQ;Padh;tuy; ta[sam-ayutta.;naQca dhamm;na[ anantara-accayena -accayo. anantara-accayena -accayo, manodh;tu ta[sam-ayutta.; ca dhamm; mano/iQQ;Padh;tuy; ta[sam-ayutta.;naQca dhamm;na[ anantara-accayena -accayo. m;na[ .usal;na[ dhamm;na[ anantara-accayena -accayo. -urim; -urim; .usal; dhamm; -acchim;na[ -acchim;na[ aby;.at;na[ dhamm;na[ anantara-accayena -accayo. -urim; -urim; a.usal; dhamm; -acchim;na[ -acchim;na[ a.usal;na[ dhamm;na[ anantara-accayena -accayo. -urim; -urim; .usal; dhamm; -acchim;na[ -acchim;na[ aby;.at;na[ dhamm;na[ anantara-accayena -accayo. -urim; -urim; aby;.at; dhamm; -acchim;na[ -acchim;na[ aby;.at;na[ dhamm;na[ anantara-accayena -accayo. -urim; -urim; aby;.at; dhamm; -acchim;na[ -acchim;na[ .usal;na[ dhamm;na[ anantara-accayena -accayo. -urim; -urim; aby;.at; dhamm; -acchim;na[ -acchim;na[ a.usal;na[ dhamm;na[ anantara-accayena -accayo. yesa[ yesa[ dhamm;na[ anantar; ye ye dhamm; u--a>>anti cittacetasi.; dhamm;, te te dhamm; tesa[ tesa[ dhamm;na[ anantara-accayena -accayo. samanantara-accayoti a ca..hu/iQQaPadh;tu ta[sam-ayutta.; ca dhamm; manodh;tuy; ta[sam-ayutta.;naQca dhamm;na[ samanantara-accayena -accayo, manodh;tu ta[sam-ayutta.; ca dhamm; mano/iQQaPadh;tuy; ta[sam-ayutta.;naQ ca dhamm;na[ samanantara-accayena -accayo. sota/iQQaPadh;tu ta[sam-ayutta.; ca dhamm; manodh;tuy; ta[sam-ayutta.;naQca dhamm;na[ samanan

tara-accayena -accayo, manodh;tu ta[sam-ayutta.; ca dhamm; mano/iQQaPadh;tuy; ta[sam-ayutta.;naQca dhamm;na[ samanantara-accayena -accayo. tara-accayena -accayo, manodh;tu ta[sam-ayutta.; ca dhamm; mano/iQQaPadh;tuy; ta[sam-ayutta.;naQca dhamm;na[ samanantara-accayena -accayo. ta.; ca dhamm; mano/iQQaPadh;tuy; ta[sam-ayutta.;naQ ca dhamm;na[ samanantara-accayena -accayo. >i/h;/iQQaPadh;tu ta[sam-ayutta.; ca dhamm; manodh;tuy; ta[sam-ayutta.;naQca dhamm;na[ samanantara-accayena -accayo, manodh;tu ta[sam-ayutta.; ca dhamm; mano/iQQaPadh;tuy; ta[sam-ayutta.;naQca dhamm;na[ samanantara-accayena -accayo. .;ya/iQQaPadh;tu ta[sam-ayutta.; ca dhamm; manodh;tuy; ta[sam-ayutta.;naQca dhamm;na[ samanantara-accayena -accayo, manodh;tu ta[sam-ayutta.; ca dhamm; mano/iQQaPadh;tuy; ta[sam-ayutta.;naQca dhamm;na[ samanantara-accayena -accayo. -urim; -urim; .usal; dhamm; -acchim;na[ -acchim;na[ .usal;na[ dhamm;na[ samanantara-accayena -accayo. -urim; -urim; .usal; dhamm; -acchim;na[ -acchim;na[ aby;.at;na[ dhamm;na[ samanantara-accayena -accayo. -urim; -urim; a.usal; dhamm; -acchim;na[ -acchim;na[ a.usal;na[ dhamm;na[ samanantara-accayena -accayo. -urim; -urim; .usal; dhamm; -acchim;na[ -acchim;na[ aby;.at;na[ dhamm;na[ samanantara-accayena -accayo.

-urim; -urim; aby;.at; dhamm; -acchim;na[ -acchim;na[ aby;.at;na[ dhamm;na[ samanantara-accayena -accayo. -urim; -urim; aby;.at; dhamm; -acchim;na[ -acchim;na[ .usal;na[ dhamm;na[ samanantara-accayena -accayo. -urim; -urim; aby;.at; dhamm; -acchim;na[ -acchim;na[ a.usal;na[ dhamm;na[ samanantara-accayena -accayo. yesa[ yesa[ dhamm;na[ samanantar; ye ye dhamm; u--a>>anti cittacetasi.; dhamm;, te te dhamm; tesa[ tesa[ dhamm;na[ samanantara-accayena -accayo. N saha>;ta-accayoti a catt;ro .handh; arO-ino aQQamaQQa[ saha>;ta-accayena -accayo. catt;ro mah;bhOt; aQQamaQQa[ saha>;ta-accayena -accayo. o..anti..haPe n;marO-a[ aQQamaQQ a[ saha>;ta-accayena -accayo. cittacetasi.; dhamm; cittasamuYYh;n;na[ rO-;na[ saha>;ta-accayena -accayo. mah;bhOt; u-;d;rO-;na[ saha>;ta-accayena -accayo rO-ino dhamm; arO-ina[ dhamm;na[ .iQci .;le saha>;ta-accayena -accayo, .iQci .;le na saha>;ta-accayena -accayo. H aQQamaQQa-accayoti a catt;ro .handh; arO-ino aQQamaQQ a-accayena -accayo. catt;ro mah;bhOt; aQQamaQQa-accayena -accayo. o..anti..hane n;marO-a[ aQQamaQQa-accayena -accayo. G nissaya-accayoti a catt;ro .handh; arO-ino aQQamaQQa[ nissaya-accayena -accayo. catt;ro mah;bhOt; aQQamaQQa[ nissaya-accayena -accayo. o..anti..haPe n;marO-a[ aQQamaQQ a[ nissaya-accayena -accayo. cittacetasi.; dhamm; cittasamuYYh;n;na[ rO-;na[ nissaya-accayena -accayo. mah;bhOt; u-;d;rO-;na[ nissaya-accayena -accayo.

ca..h;yatana[ ca..hu/iQQ;Padh;tuya ta[sam-ayutta.;naQ ca dhamm;na[ nissaya-accayena -accayo. sot;yatana[ sota/iQQ;Padh;tuy; ta[sam-ayutta.;naQca dhamm;na[ nissaya-accayena -accayo. gh;n;yatana[ gh;n;/iQQ;Padhatuya ta[sam-ayutta.;naQca dhamm;na[ nissaya-accayena -accayo. >i/h;yatana[ >i/h;/iQQ;Padh;tuya ta[sam-ayutta.;naQca dhamm;na[ nissaya-accayena -accayo. .;y;yatana[ .;y;/iQQ;Padh;tuya ta[sam-ayutta.;naQca dhamm;na[ nissaya-accayena -accayo. ya[ rO-a[ niss;ya manodh;tu ca mano/iQQ;Padh;tu ca /attanti ta[ rO-a[ manodh;tuy; ca mano/iQQ;Padh;tuy; ca ta[sam-ayutta.;naQca dhamm;na[ nissaya-accayena -accayo. C u-anissaya-accayoti a -urim; -urim; .usal; dhamm; -acchim;na[ -acchim;na[ .usal;na[ dhamm;na[ u-anissaya-accayena -accayo. -urim; -urim; .usal; dhamm; -acchim;na[ -acchim;na[ a.usal;na[ dhamm;na[ .esaQci u-anissaya-accayena -accayo. -urim; -urim; .usal; dhamm; -acchim;na[ -acchim;na[ aby;.at;na[ dhamm;na[ u-anissaya-accayena -accayo. -urim; -urim; .usal; dhamm; -acchim;na[ -acchim;na[ a.usal;na[ dhamm;na[ u-anissaya-accayena -accayo. -urim; -urim; a.usal; dhamm; -acchim;na[ -acchim;na[ .usal;na[ dhamm;na[ .esanci u-anissaya-accayena -accayo. -urim; -urim; a.usal; dhamm; -acchim;na[ -acchim;na[ aby;.at;na[ dhammana[ u-anissaya-accayena -accayo.

-urim; -urim; aby;.at; dhamm; -acchim;na[ -acchim;na[ aby;.at;na[ dhamm;na[ u-anissaya-accayena -accayo. -urim; -urim; aby;.at; dhamm; -acchim;na[ -acchim;na[ .usal;na[ dhamm;na[ u-anissaya-accayena -accayo, -urim; -urim; aby;.at; dhamm; -acchim;na[ -acchim;na[ a.usal;na[ dhamm;na[ u-anissaya-accayena -accayo. utubho>anam-i u-anissaya-accayena -accayo. -uggalo-i u-anissaya-accayena -accayo. sen;nam-i u-anissaya-accayena -accayo. @9 -ure>;ta-accayoti a ca..h;yatana[ ca..hu/iQQ;Padh;tuy; ta[sam-ayutta.;naQca dhamm;na[ -ure>;ta-accayena -accayo. sotayatana[ sot;/iQQ;Padh;tuy; ta[sam-ayutta.;naQca dhamm;na[ -ure>;ta-accayena -accayo. ghanayatana[ ghana/iQQ;Padh;tuy; ta[sam-ayutta.;naQ ca dhamm;na[ -ure>;ta-accayena -accayo. >i/h;yatana[ >i/h;/iQQ;Padh;tuy; ta[sam-ayutta.;naQca dhamm;na[ -ure>;ta-accayena -accayo. .;y;yatana[ .;y;/iQQ ;Padh;tuy; ta[sam-ayutta.;naQca dhamm;na[ -ure>;ta-accayena -accayo. rO-;yatana[ ca..hu/iQQ;Padh;tuy; ta[sam-ayutta.;naQ ca dhamm;na[ -ure>;ta-accayena -accayo. sadd;yatana[ sota/iQQ;Padh;tuy; ta[sam-ayutta.;naQca dhamm;na[ -ure>;ta-accayena -accayo. gh;nayatana[ gh;na/iQQ;Padh;tuy; ta[sam-ayutta.;naQca dhamm;na[ -ure>;ta-accayena -accayo. gandh;yatana[ gh;na/iQQ;Padh;tuy; ta[sam-ayutta.;naQca dhamm;na[ -ure>;ta-accayena -accayo. ras;yatana[ >i/h;/iQQ;Padh;tuy;

ta[sam-ayutta.;naQca dhamm;na[ -ure>;ta-accayena -accayo. -hoYYhabb;yatana[ .;ya/iQQ;Padh;tuy; ta[sam-ayutta.;naQ ca dhamm;na[ -ure>;ta-accayena -accayo. rO-;yatana[ sadd;yatana[ gandh;yatana[ ras;yatana[ -hoYYhabbayatana[ manodh;tuy; ta[sam-ayutta.;naQ ca dhamm;na[ -ure>;ta-accayena -accayo. ya[ rO-a[ niss;ya manodh;tu ca mano/iQQ;Padhatu ca /attanti, ta[ rO-a[ manodh;tuy; ca tamsam-ayutta.;naQ ca dhamm;na[ -ure>;ta-accayena -accayo. Mano& /iQQ;Padh;tuya ta[sam-ayutta.;naQca dhamm;na[ .iQci .;le -ure>;ta-accayena -accayo, .iQci .;lena -ure>;ta-accayena -accayo. @@ -acch;>;ta-accayoti a -acch;>;t; cittacetasi.; dhamm; -ure>;tassa imassa .;yassa -acch;>;ta-accayena -accayo. @7 ;se/ana-accayoti a -urim; -urim; .usal; dhamm; -acchim;na[ -acchim;na[ .usal;na[ dhamm;na[ ;se/ana-accayena -accayo, -urim; -urim; a.usal; dhamm; -acchim;na[ -acchim;na[ a.usal;na[ dhamm;na[ ;se/ana-accayena -accayo. -urim; -urim; .iriaby;.ata dhamm; -acchim;na[ -acchim;na[ .iriy;by;.at;na[ dhamm;na[ ;se/ana-accayena -accayo. @M .ammma-accayoti a .usal;.usala[ .amma[ /i-;.;na[ .handh;na[ .aYatt; ca rO-;na[ .amma-accayena -accayo. cetan; sam-ayutta.;na[ dhamm;na[ ta[samuYYh;n;naQ ca rO-;na[ .amma-accayena -accayo. @E /i-;.a-accayoti a /i-;.; catt;ro .handh; arO-ino aQQamaQQ a[ /i-;.a-accayena -accayo.

@8 ;h;ra-accayoti a .aba\W.aro ;h;ro imassa .;yassa ;h;ra-accayena -accayo. arO-ino ;h;ra sam-ayutta.;na[ dhamm;na[ ta[samuYYh;n;naQca rO-;na[ ;h;ra-accayena -accayo. @N indriya-accayoti a ca..hundriya[ ca..hu/iQQ;Padh;tuy; ta[sam-ayutta.;naQca dhamm;na[ indriya-accayena -accayo. sotindriya[ sota/iQQ;Padh;tuy; ta[sam-ayutta.;naQ ca dhamm;na[ indriya-accayena -accayo. gh;nindriya[ gh;na/iQQ;Padh;tuy; ta[sam-ayutta.;naQ ca dhamm;na[ indriya-accayena -accayo. >i/hindriya[ >i/h;/iQQ;Padh;tuy; ta[sam-ayutta.;naQca dhamm;na[ indriya-accayena -accayo. .;yindriya[ .;ya/iQQ;Padh;tuy; ta[sam-ayutta.;naQca dhamm;na[ /iQQ;Padh;tuy; ta[sam-ayutta.;naQca dhamm;na[ indriya-accayena -accayo. rO-a>i/itindriya[ .aYatt;rO-;na[ indriya-accayena -accayo. arO-ino indriy; sam-ayutta.;na[ dhamm;na[ ta[sam-ayutta.;naQ ca rO-ana[ indriya-accayena -accayo. @H >h;na-accayoti a >h;nang;ni >h;nasam-ayutta.;na[ dhamm;na[ ta[samuYYh;n;naQca rO-;na[ >h;na-accayena -accayo. @G magga-accayoti a maggaTg;ni maggasam-ayutta.;na[ dhamm;na[ ta[samuYYh;n;naQca rO-;na[ magga-accayena -accayo. @C sam-ayutta-accayoti a catt;ro .handh; arO-ino aQQamaQQa[ sam-ayutta-accayena -accayo.

79 /i--ayutta-accayoti a rO-ino dhamm; arO-Wna[ dhamm;na[ /i--ayutta-accayena -accayo. arO-ino dhamm; rO-ina[ dhamm;na[ /i--ayutta-accayena -accayo. 7@ atthi-accayoti a catt;ro .handh; arO-ino aQQamaQQa[ atthi-accayena -accayo. catt;ro mah;bhOt; aQQamaQQa[ atthi-accayena -accayo. o..anti..haPe n;marO-a[ aQQamaQQ a[ atthi-accayena -accayo. cittacetasi.; dhamm; cittasamuYYh;n;na[ rO-;na[ atthi-accayena -accayo. mah;bhOt; u-;d;rO-;na[ atthi-accayena -accayo. ca..h;yatana[ ca..hu/iQQ;Padh;tuy; ta[sam-ayutta.;naQ ca dhamm;na[ atthi-accayena -accayo. sot;yatana[ sota/iQQ;Padh;tuy; ta[sam-ayutta.;naQca dhamm;na[ atthi-accayena -accayo. gh;n;yatana[ gh;na/iQQ;Padh;tuy; ta[sam-ayutta.;naQca dhamm;na[ atthi-accayena -accayo. >i/h;yatana[ >i/h;/innanadhatuya tamsam-ayutta.ananca dhammana[ atthi-accaayena -accayo. .;y;yatana[ .;ya/iQQ;Padh;tuy; ta[sam-ayutta.;naQ ca dhamm;na[ atthi-accayena -accayo. rO-;yatana[ ca..hu/iQQ;Padh;tuy; ta[sam-ayutta.;naQ ca dhamm;na[ atthi-accayena -accayo. sadd;yatana[ sota/iQQ;Padh;tuy; ta[sam-ayutta.;naQca dhamm;na[ atthi-accayena -accayo. ghadh;yatana[ gh;na/iQQ;Padh;tuy; ta[sam-ayutta.;naQca dhamm;na[ atthi-accayena -accayo. ras;yatana[ >i/h;/iQQ;Padh;tuy; ta[sam-ayutta.;naQ ca dhamm;na[ atthi-accayena -accayo. -hoYYhabb;yatana[ .;ya/iQQ;Padh;tuy; ta[sam-ayutta.;naQca dhamm;na[ atthi-accayena -accayo. rO-;yatana[ sadd;

yatana[ gandh;yatana[ ras;yatana[ -hoYYhabb;yatana[ manodh;tuy; ta[sam-ayutta.;naQca dhamm;na[ atthi-accaayena -accayo. ya[ rO-a[ niss;ya manodh;tu ca mano/iQQ;Padh;tu ca /attanti, ta[ rO-a[ manodh;tuy; ca mano/iQQ;Padh;tuy; ta[sam-ayutta.;naQca dhamm;na[ atthi-accayena -accayo. 77 natthi-accayoti a samanantaraniruddh; cittacetasi.; dhamm; -aYu--ann;na[ cittacetasi.;na[ dhamm;na[ natthi-accayena -accayo. 7M /igata-accayoti a samanantara/igat; cittacetasi.; dhamm; -aYu--ann;na[ cittacetasi.;na[ dhamm;na[ /igata-accayena -accayo. 7E a/igata-accayoti a catt;ro .handh; arO-ino aQQamaQQa[ a/igata-accayena -accayo. catt;ro mah;bhOt; aQQamaQQa[ a/igata-accayena -accayo. o..anti..haPe n;marO-a[ aQQamaQQa[ a/igata-accayena -accayo. cittacetasi.; dhamm; cittasamuYYh;n;na[ rO-;na[ a/igata-accayena -accayo. mah;bhOta u-;d;rO-;na[ a/igata-accayena -accayo. ca..h;yatana[ ca..hu/iQQ;Padh;tuy; ta[sam-ayutta.;naQ ca dhamm;na[ a/igata-accayena -accayo. sot;yatana[ sot;/iQQ;Padh;tuy; ta[sam-ayutta.;naQca dhamm;na[ a/igata-accayena -accayo. gh;n;yata[ gh;na/iQQ;Padh;tuy; ta[sam-ayutta.;naQca dhamm;na[ a/igata-accayena -accayo. >i/h;yatana[ >i/h;/iQQ;Padh;tuy; ta[sam-ayutta.;naQca dhamm;na[ a/igata

-accayena -accayo. .;y;yatana[ .;y;/iQQ;Padh;tuy; ta[sam-ayutta.;naQca dhamm;na[ a/igata-accayena -accayo. -accayena -accayo. .;y;yatana[ .;y;/iQQ;Padh;tuy; ta[sam-ayutta.;naQca dhamm;na[ a/igata-accayena -accayo. .;naQ ca dhamm;na[ a/igata-accayena -accayo. sadd;yatana[ sota/iQQ;Padh;tuy; ta[sam-ayutta.;naQca dhamm;na[ a/igata-accayena -accayo. gandh;yatana[ gh;na/iQQ;Padh;tuy; ta[sam-ayutta.;naQca dhamm;na[ a/igata-accayena -accayo. ras;yatana[ >i/h;/iQQ;Padh;tuy; ta[sam-ayutta.;naQca dhamm;na[ a/igata-accayena -accayo. -hoYYhabb;yatana[ .;ya/iQQ;Padh;tuy; ta[sam-ayutta.;naQca dhamm;na[ a/igata-accayena -accayo. rO-;yatana[ sadd;yatana[ gandh;yatana[ ras;yatana[ -hoYYhabb;yatana[ manodh;tuy; ta[sam-ayutta.;naQ ca dhamm;na[ a/igata-accayena -accayo. ya[ rO-a[ niss;ya manodh;tu ca mano/iQQaPadh;tu ca /attanti, ta[ rO-;[ manodh;tuy; ca mano/iQQ;Padh;tuy; ca ta[sam-ayutta.;naQca dhamm;na[ a/igata-accayena -accayo. @ $oot +ondition :Hetu 6accaya< The si0 roots :lobha, dosa, moha, alobha, adosa, amoha< are related to the cittas and the cetasi.as associated *ith the roots and also to the cor-oreality -roduced by the cittas by root condition. 7 !b>ect +ondition :XrammaPa 6accaya< ?isible ob>ect is related to eye&consciousness and its concomitants by ob>ect condition.

ii ii by ob>ect condition. iii Smell is related to nose&consciousness and its concomitants by ob>ect condition. i/ Taste is related to tongue&consciousness and its concomitants by ob>ect condition. / Tangible ob>ect is related to body&consciousness and its concomitants by ob>ect condition. /i ?isible ob>ect, sound, smell, taste and tangible ob>ect are related to mind&elements :sam-aYicchana&d/i and -aQcad/;r;/a>>ana< and their concomitants by ob>ect condition. /ii All the si0 sense ob>ects are related to mind&consciousness and its concomitants by ob>ect condition. /iii 4ras-ing any dhamma as ob>ect, these dhammas, /iJ. consciousness and its concomitants, arise= the former dhamma is related to the latter dhammas by ob>ect condition. M 6redominance +ondition :Adhi-ati 6accaya< i 6redominant desire or *ill :chanda< is related to the citta and the cetasi.as associated *ith the chanda and also to the cor-oreality -roduced by the citta by -redominance condition. ii 6redominant effort :/Wriya< is related to the citta and the cetasi.as associated *ith the /Wriya and also to the cor-oreality -roduced by the citta by -redominance condition. iii 6redominant consciousness :citta< is related to its concomitants :cetasi.as< and also to the cor-oreality -roduced by the citta by -redominance condition. i/ 6redominant in/estigating a *isdom :/Wma[sa< is related to the citta and the cetasi.as associated *ith it and also to

the cor-oreality -roduced by the citta by -redominance condition. / 4ras-ing any dhamma as an outstanding ob>ect, these latter dhammas a /iJ. consciousness and its concomitants a arise, the former dhamma is related to the latter dhammas by -redominance condition. E +ontiguity +ondition :Anantara 6accaya< :$eaders should refer to cogniti/e series to understand this causal relation.< i Eye&consciousness and its concomitants are related to sam-aYicchana :mind&element< and its concomitants by contiguity condition= sam-aYicchana and its concomitants are related to santiraPa :mind&consciousness< and its concomitants by contiguity condition. ii Ear&consciousness and its concomitants are related to sam-aYicchana :mind&element< and its concomitants by contiguity condition= sam-aYicchana and its concomitants are related to santiraPa :mind&consciousness< and its concomitants by contiguity condition. iii Nose&consciousness and its concomitantsf :as abo/e<. i/ Tongue&consciousness and its concomitantsf :as abo/e<. / Body&consciousness and its concomitantsf :as abo/e<. /i 6receding >a/ana .usala cittas and their concomitants are related to subseIuent >a/ana .usala cittas and their concomitants by contiguity condition. /ii 6receding .usala cittas and their concomitants are related to subseIuent a/y;.ata :tad;lambaPa or bha/aTga< and their concomitants by contiguity condition.

/iii /iii related to subseIuent >a/ana a.usala cittas and their concomitants by contiguity condition. i0 6receding a.usala cittas and their concomitants are related to subseIuent a/y;.ata :tad;lambaPa or bha/aTga< cittas and their concomitants by contiguity condition. 0 6receding a/y;.ata :.iriya or -hala< cittas and their concomitants are related to subseIuent a/y;.ata cittas and their concomitants by contiguity condition. 0i 6receding a/y;.ata :/oYYha-ana or mano&d/;r;/a>>ana< citta and its concomitants are related to subseIuent .usala citta and its concomitants by contiguity condition. 0ii 6receding a/y;.ata :/oYYha-ana or mano&d/;r;/a>>ana< citta and its concomitants are related to subseIuent a.usala citta and its concomitants by contiguity condition. 8 Immediacy +ondition :Samanantara 6accaya< The causal relations are the same as in contiguity condition. N +o&nascence +ondition :Saha>;ta 6accaya< i The four incor-oreal :i.e. mental< aggregates are mutually related to one another by conascence condition. ii The four great essentials :mah;bhOtas< are mutually related to one another by conascenece condition. iii At the moment of conce-tion, mentality :-aYisandhi citta< and cor-oreality :.amma>a&rO-a< are mutually related to each other by conascence condition i/ +onsciousness and its concomitants are related to the mind& -roduced cor-oreality :citta>a&rO-a< by conascence condition. / The great essentials are related to their deri/ed matter :u-;d;&rO-a< by conascence condition.

/i Material -henomena are sometimes related to immaterial :i.e. mental< -henomena by conascence condition and are sometimes not related by conascence condition. H Mutuality +ondition :AQQamaQQa 6accaya< i The four incor-oreal :i.e. mental< aggregates are related to one another by mutuality condition. ii The four great essentials are related to one another by mutuality condition. iii At the moment of conce-tion, mentality :-aYisandhi citta< and cor-oreality :.amma>a&rO-a< are related to each other by mutuality condition. G De-endence +ondition :Nissaya 6accaya< i The four incor-oreal aggregates are mutually related to one another by de-endence condition. ii The four great essential are mutually related to one another by de-endence condition. iii At the moment of conce-tion, mentality :-aYisandhi citta< and cor-oreality :.amma>a&rO-a< are mutually related to each other by de-endence condition i/ +onsciousness and its concomitants are related to the mind& -roduced cor-oreality :citta>a&rO-a< by de-endence condition. / The great essentials are related to their deri/ed matter :u-;d;&rO-a< by de-endence condition. /i Eye&base is related to eye&consciousness and its concomitants by de-endence condition. /ii

Ear&base is related to ear&consciousness and its concomitants by de-endence condition. /iii Nose&base is related to nose&consciousness and its concomitants by de-endence condition.

i0 i0 concomitants by de-endence condition. 0 Body&base is related to body&consciousness and its concomitants by de-endence condition. 0i De-ending on this cor-oreality :i.e. heart&base< mind& element and mind&consciousness element :mano&dh;tu and mano&/iQQ;Pa&dh;tu< arise= that cor-oreality is related to the mind&element, the mind consciousness element and their concomitants by de-endence condition. C 6o*erful De-endence +ondition :U-anissaya 6accaya< i 6receding *holesome dhammas :.usala cittas, saddh;, alobha, etc.< are related to subseIuent *holesome dhammas by de-endence condition. ii 6receding *holesome dhammas are sometimes related to subseIuent un*holesome dhammas :a.usala cittas, lobha, dosa, etc.<, by -o*erful de-endence condition. iii 6receding *holesome dhammas are related to subseIuent indeterminate :a/y;.ata&/i-;.a and .iriya< dhammas by -o*erful de-endence condition. i/ 6receding un*holesome dhammas :a.usala citta, lobha, dosa, etc.< are related to subseIuent un*holesome dhammas by -o*erful de-endence condition. / 6receding un*holesome dhammas are sometimes related to subseIuent *holesome dhammas :.usala cittas, saddh;, alobha, etc.< by -o*erful de-endence condition. /i 6receding un*holesome dhammas are related to subseIuent indeterminate dhammas by -o*erful de-endence condition. /ii 6receding indeterminate dhammas :/i-;.a cittas, .iriya cittas and their concomitants, etc.< are related to subseIuent indeterminate dhammas by -o*erful de-endence condition.

/iii /iii *holesome dhammas :.usala cittas and their concomitants, etc.< by -o*erful de-endence condition. i0 6receding indeterminate dhammas are related to subseIuent un*holesome dhammas :a.usala cittas and their concomitants, etc.< by -o*erful de-endence condition. 0. Also, *eather, food, -erson and lodging&-lace are related to beings by -o*erful de-endence condition. @9 6renascence +ondition :6ure>;ta 6accaya< i Eye&base is related to eye&consciousness and its concomitants by -renascence condition. ii Ear&base is related to ear&consciousness and its concomitants by -renascence condition. iii Nose&base is related to nose&consciousness and its concomitants by -renascence condition. i/ Tongue&base is related to tongue&consciousness and its concomitants by -renascence condition. / Body&base is related to body&consciousness and its concomitants by -renascence condition. /i ?isible ob>ect is related to eye&consciousness and its concomitants by -renascence condition. /ii Sound is related to ear&consciousness and its concomitants by -renascence condition. /iii Smell is related to nose&consciousness and its concomitants by -renascence condition. i0 Taste is related to tongue&consciousness and its concomitants by -renascence condition. 0

Tangible&ob>ect is related to body&consciousness and its concomitants by -renascence condition. 0i ?isible ob>ect, sound, smell, taste and tangible ob>ect are

related to mind&elements :-aQcad/;r;/a>>ana and sam-aticchana& d/i< and their concomitants by -renascence condition. 0ii. De-ending on this cor-oreality :i.e. heart&base<, mind& element and mind&consciousness element :i.e. mano&dh;tu and mano&/iQQ;Pa&dh;tu< arise= that cor-oreality is related to the mind&element and its concomitants by -renascence condition= that cor-oreality is sometimes related to the mind& consciousness element and its concomitants by -renascence condition and is sometimes not related by -renascence condition. @@ 6ost&nascence +ondition :6acch;>;ta 6accaya< The -ost&nascent consciousness and its concomitants are related to this -renascent cor-oreality :i.e. heart&base, eye&base, ear&base, etc.< by -ost&nascence condition. @7 $e-etition +ondition :Xse/ana 6accaya< i 6receding >a/ana .usala cittas and their concomitants are related to subseIuent >a/ana .usala cittas and their concomitants by re-etition condition. ii 6receding >a/ana a.usala cittas and their concomitants are related to subseIuent >a/ana a.usala cittas and their concomitants by re-etition condition. iii 6receding functional indeterminate dhammas are related to subseIuent functional indeterminate dhammas by re-etition condition. @M "amma +ondition :"amma 6accaya< "usala and a.usala .ammas are related to their resultant mental aggregates and .amma&-roduced cor-oreality by .amma condition.

ii. ?olition :cetan;< is related to its concomitants :i.e. citta and cetasi.as< and to the citta&-roduced cor-oreality by .amma condition. @E "amma&result +ondition :?i-;.a 6accaya< The four incor-oreal :i.e. mental< aggregates are mutually related to one another by .amma&result condition. @8 Nutriment +ondition :Xh;ra 6accaya< i. Edible food is related to this body by nutriment condition. ii. The immaterial nutriments :-hassa, /iQQ;Pa and cetan;< are related to their concomitants :citta and cetasi.as< and to the citta&-roduced cor-oreality by nutriment condition. @N 5aculty +ondition :Indriya 6accaya< i Eye&faculty :ca..hu&-as;da< is related to eye&consciousness and its concomitants by faculty condition. ii Ear&faculty :sota&-as;da< is related to ear&consciousness and its concomitants by faculty condition. iii Nose&faculty :gh;na&-as;da< is related to nose&consciousness and its concomitants by faculty condition. i/ Tongue&faculty :>i/h;&-as;da< is related to tongue&consciousness and its concomitants by faculty condition. / Body&faculty :.;ya&-as;da< is related to body&consciousness and its concomitants by faculty condition. /i 6hysical life&faculty :>W/ita&rO-a< is related to .amma-roduced cor-oreality by faculty condition. /ii The incor-oreal :i.e. mental< faculties are related to their concomitants :i.e. citta and cetasi.as< and to the citta-roduced cor-oreality by faculty condition.

@H Fh;na +ondition :Fh;na 6accaya< @H Fh;na +ondition :Fh;na 6accaya< @G 6ath +ondition :Magga 6accaya< The -ath&factors are related to their concomitants :i.e. citta and cetasi.as< and to the citta&-roduced cor-oreality by 6ath condition. @C Association +ondition :Sam-ayutta 6accaya< The four incor-oreal :i.e. mental< aggregates are mutually related to one another by association condition. 79 Dissociation +ondition :?i--ayutta 6accaya< i +or-oreal -henomena :dhammas< are related to mental -henomena by dissociation condition. ii Mental -henomena are related to cor-oreal -henomena by dissociation condition. 7@ 6resence +ondition :Atthi 6accaya< i The four incor-oreal aggregates are mutually related to one another by -resence condition. ii The four great essentials are mutually related to one another by -resence condition. iii At the moment of conce-tion, mentality :-aYisandhi&citta< and cor-oreality :.amma>a&rO-a< are mutually related to each other by -resence condition. i/ +onsciousness and its concomitants are related to the mind& -roduced cor-oreality :citta>a&rO-a< by -resence condition. / The great essentials are related to their deri/ed matter :u-;d;&rO-a< by -resence condition.

/i /i tants by -resence condition. /ii Ear&base is related to ear&consciousness and its concomitants by -resence condition. /iii Nose&base is related to nose&consciousness and its concomitants by -resence condition. i0 Tongue&base is related to tongue&consciousness and its concomitants by -resence condition. 0 Body&base is related to body&consciousness and its concomitants by -resence condition. 0i ?isible ob>ect is related to eye&consciousness and its concomitants by -resence condition. 0ii Sound is related to ear&consciousnessf :as abo/e< 0iii Smell is related to nose&consciousnessf :as abo/e< 0i/ Taste is related to tongue&consciousnessf :as abo/e< 0/ Tangible ob>ect is related to body&consciousnessf :as abo/e< 0/i ?isible ob>ect, sound, smell, taste and tangible ob>ect are related to mind&elements :-aQcad/;r;/a>>ana and sam-aYicchana& d/i< and their concomitants by -resence condition. 0/ii De-ending on this cor-oreality :i.e. heart&base< mind& element and mind&consciousness element :i.e. mano&dh;tu and mano&/iQQ;Pa dh;tu< arise= that cor-oreality is related to the mind&element, the mind&consciousness element and their concomitants by -resence condition. 77 Absence +ondition :Natthi 6accaya< +onsciousness and its concomitants, *hich ha/e >ust ceased in contiguity, are related to the -resent consciousness and its concomitants, *hich ha/e arisen in a similar manner, by absence condition.

7M Disa--earance +ondition :?igata 6accaya< 7M Disa--earance +ondition :?igata 6accaya< -earance condition. 7E Non&disa--earance +ondition :A/igata 6accaya< The causal relations are the same as in -resence condition. ^Nondisa--earance1 and ^-resence1 refer to similar conditions. Summary of +ausal $elations @ Mind is related to mind in si0 *ays a /iJ., anantara, samanantara, ;se/ana, sam-ayutta, natthi and /igata. :Here ^mind1 stands for ^n;ma1 *hich is a combination of citta and cetasi.as.< Ho* is mind related to mind in si0 *aysL +itta and cetasi.as *hich ha/e >ust ceased are related to the -resent citta and cetasi.as by *ay of anantara :contiguity<, sammanantara :immediacy<, natthi :absence< and /igata :disa--earance< conditions. 6receding >a/anas are related to subseIuent >a/anas by *ay of ;se/ana :re-etition< condition. +o&nascent citta and cetasi.as are mutually related by *ay of sam-ayutta :association< condition. 7 Mind is related to mind and matter in fi/e *ays a /iJ., hetu, >h;na, magga, .amma and /i-;.a. Ho* is mind related to mind and matter in fi/e *aysL Hetus :roots<, >h;naTgas :>h;na&factors< and maggaTgas :-ath&constituents< are related to co&nascent mind and matter by *ay of hetu :root<, >h;na :absor-tion< and magga :-ath< conditions.

+o&nascent cetan; :saha>;ta&.amma< is related to co&nascent mind and matter by *ay of .amma condition. So also asynchronous /olition :n;na..hani.a&.amma< is related to mind and matter born of .amma by *ay of .amma condition. +o&nascent cetan; :saha>;ta&.amma< is related to co&nascent mind and matter by *ay of .amma condition. So also asynchronous /olition :n;na..hani.a&.amma< is related to mind and matter born of .amma by *ay of .amma condition. dhas< are related to one another and also to co&nascent matter by *ay of /i-;.a :.amma&result< condition. M Mind is related to matter only on one *ay that is -acch;>;ta :-ost&nascence<. SubseIuent cittas and cetasi.as are related to -receding and -re/ious cor-oreal grou-s :heart&bases and sense& bases< by *ay of -acch;>;ta condition. E Matter is related to mind only in one *ay a that is -ure>;ta :-re&nascence<. The si0 bases :/atthu< during life are related to the se/en /iQQ;Pa&dh;tus :i.e., all cittas< by *ay of -ure>;ta condition. So also are the fi/e sense&ob>ects related to the fi/e /iQQ;Pa /Wthis :-rocesses of sense&cognition< by *ay of -ure>;ta&condition. 8 +once-ts, mind and matter are related to mind in t*o *ays a /iJ., ;rammaPa and u-anissaya. mrammaPa&-accaya consists of the si0 sense&ob>ects *hich com-rise conce-ts, mind and matter. They are related to cittas and cetasi.as by *ay of ;rammaPa :ob>ect< condition. U-anissaya&-accaya :-o*erful de-endence condition< is threefold namely, -o*erful de-endence as ob>ect, -o*erful de-endence as contiguity, and -o*erful de-endence as intrinsic nature.

!f them the ob>ect itself, *hen it becomes -rominent and attracts our attention, ser/es as a -o*erful de-endence. +ittas and cetasi.as, *hich ha/e >ust ceased, act as the -o*erful de-endence of contiguity. !f them the ob>ect itself, *hen it becomes -rominent and attracts our attention, ser/es as a -o*erful de-endence. +ittas and cetasi.as, *hich ha/e >ust ceased, act as the -o*erful de-endence of contiguity. Mind and matter are related to mind and matter in nine *ays a /iJ., adhi-ati, saha>;ta, aQQamaQQa, nissaya, ;h;ra, indriya, /i--ayutta, atthi and a/igata. @ There in the relation of adhi-ati :-redominance< is t*ofold' i. ?ery -rominent ob>ect *hich dra*s one1s attention is related to cittas and cetasi.as by *ay of ob>ecti/e -redominance :;rammaP;dhi-ati< condition. ii. The fourfold co&nascent -redominance :chanda, /iriya, citta, /Wma[sa< is related to co&nascent citta, cetasi.as and matter by *ay of co&nascent -redominance :saha>;t;dhi-ati< condition. 7 The relation of saha>;ta :co&nascence< is threefold' i +o&nascent citta and cetasi.as are related to one another and also to co&nascent matter by *ay of saha>;ta condition.

ii ii another and also to co&nascent deri/ed material Iualities :u-;d;&rO-a< by *ay of saha>;ta condition. iii At the moment of conce-tion, the heart&base :hadaya/atthu< is related to the rebirth consciousness and its concomitants by *ay of saha>;ta condition. M The relation of aQQamaQQa :mutuality< is threefold' i +o&nascent citta and cetasi.as are mutually related by *ay of aQQamaQQa condition. ii The four great essentials are mutually related by *ay of aQQamaQQa condition. iii At the moment of conce-tion, the heart&base is related to the rebirth&consciousness and its concomitants by *ay of aQQamaQQa condition. E The relation of nissaya :de-endence< is threefold' i +o&nascent citta and cetasi.as are related to one another and also to co&nascent matter by *ay of nissaya condition. ii The four great essentials are related to one another and also to co&nascent deri/ed material Iualities by *ay of nissaya condition. iii The si0 bases :/atthu< are related to the se/en /iQQ;Padh;tus by *ay of nissaya condition. 8 The relation of ;h;ra :nutriment< is t*ofold' i Edible food is related to cor-oreal grou-s by *ay of ;h;ra&condition. ii The three mental nutriments :-hassa, cetan;, and /iQQ;Pa< are related to co&nascent mind and matter by *ay of ;h;ra&condition.

N N i The fi/e sensiti/e organs :-as;da&rO-as< are related to -aQca&/iQQ;Pa :eye&consciousness, ear&consciousness, etc.<, by *ay of indriya condition. ii FW/ita&rO-a :material /itality< is related to .amma>a&rO-as by *ay of indriya condition. iii. Mental indriyas :immaterial controlling factors< are related to co&nascent mind and matter by *ay of indriya condition. H The relation of /i--ayutta :dissociation< is threefold' i At the moment of conce-tion, the heart&base is related to the rebirth&consciousness and its concomitants by *ay of saha>;ta&/i--ayutta condition. +itta and cetasi.as are also similarly related to co&nascent matter. ii SubseIuent cittas and cetasi.as are related to -receeding and -re/ious cor-oreal grou-s :heart&bases and sense& bases< by *ay of -acch;>;ta&/i--ayutta condition. iii The si0 bases during life are related to the se/en /iQQ;Pa&dh;tus :i.e. all cittas< by *ay of -ure>;ta/i--ayutta condition. G The relations of atthi :-resence< and a/igata :nondisa--earance< are each fi/efold' The relations of saha>;ta :co&nascence<, -ure>;ta :-renascence<, -acch;>;ta :-ost nascence<, ;h;ra :nutriment<, and rO-a&>i/thindriya :material /itality< also ser/e as the relations for atthi and a/igata. Atthi and a/igata are more or less identical.

A 4eneralised Summary A 4eneralised Summary Di/ision of N;ma and $O-a The cor-oreal grou- :rO-a..handha< consisting of 7G .inds of rO-a is called rO-a :matter<. The four mental grou-s :n;ma..handhas< consisting of all cittas and all cetasi.as, and Nibb;na are the fi/e .inds of the immaterial called n;ma. It is significant that Nibb;na is classed under n;ma' this may im-ly that Nibb;na is a mental state or an immaterial state obser/ed by lo.uttara&cittas. 6aQQatti :+once-tion< A-art from n;ma and rO-a, there is -aQQatti :conce-tion<. 6aQQatti is t*ofold' @ Attha&-aQQatti It is the name of something that ma.es the form, sha-e, mass, a--earance, etc., of the thing be .no*n in communication. The thing *e refer to may be a man, a dog, a house or a mountain *hich are not ultimate realities. Also the form, sha-e, mass, a--earance, etc., of the thing are not real. They are >ust ideas or conce-ts *hich a--ear in the mind. 5urthermore, the name is not a reality since /arious names can be chosen to refer to a -articular thing. 7 Sadda&-aQQatti Since ^sadda1 signifies _sound`, ^sadda&-aQQatti1 refers to s-o.en *ords in /arious languages. )hen *e mention the names of /arious things in communication, *e ma.e the things .no*n to others.

So by attha&-aQQatti something is made .no*n by gi/ing it an a--ro-riate name, and by sadda&-aQQatti *e are ma.ing that something .no*n to others by s-ea.ing it out. So by attha&-aQQatti something is made .no*n by gi/ing it an a--ro-riate name, and by sadda&-aQQatti *e are ma.ing that something .no*n to others by s-ea.ing it out. ?arious 5orms of Attha&-aQQatti In discussing the /arious forms of attha&-aQQatti, the e0ternal octad :suddhaYYha.a&.al;-a< *ill be referred to as ^mah;bhOta1 :great essential<. @ Sant;na&-aQQatti Such *ords as ^land1, ^mountain1, ^hill1, ^field1, and the li.e, are so designated on account of the mode of lin.ing and s-reading out of mah;bhOta. They are called ^sant;na&-aQQatti1. 7 SamOha&-aQQatti Such terms as ^house1, ^school1, ^chariot1, ^cart1 and the li.e are so named on account of the mode of combination of materials. They are called ^samOha&-aQQatti1. M Sannh;na&-aQQatti Such terms as ^-late1, ^bo*l1, ^saucer1, ^s-oon1, ^tea&cu-1 and the li.e are so named on account of the form or sha-e of the material :-orcelain in this case<. They are called ^sannh;na&-aQQatti1. E Satta&-aQQatti Such terms as ^man1, ^*oman1, ^child1, ^-erson1, ^dog1, and the li.e are so named on account of the fi/e aggregates. They are called ^satta&-aQQatti1.

8 8 N ";la&-aQQatti Such terms as ^morning1, ^noon1, ^afternoon1, ^e/ening1, ^night1, ^time1 and the li.e are so designated on account of time. They are called ^.;la&-aQQatti1. H X.;sa&-aQQatti Such terms as ^ca/e1, ^*ell1, ^hole1, ^tunnel1, and the li.e are so named on account of em-ty s-ace :;.;sa<. So they are called ^;.;sa&-aQQatti1. G "asiPa&-aQQatti Such terms as ^-atha/i&.asiPa1, ^;-o&.asiPa1, ^te>o&.asiPa1, ^/;>o.asiPa1, and the li.e, are so designated on account of the -redominant element in mah;bhOta. They are called ^.asiPa-aQQ atti1. C Nimitta&-aQQatti Such terms as ^-ari.amma&nimitta1, ^uggaha&nimitta1, ^-atibh;ga nimitta1 and the li.e are so designated on account of the degree of concentration in meditation. They are called ^nimitta&-aQQatti1. Note' The /arious forms of attha&-aQQatti do not e0ist in the ultimate sense. They refer to ob>ects made u- of real things but a--ear in the mind as images. Though they do not e0ist in the ultimate sense, they become ob>ects of thought in the form of shado*s of :ultimate< things. They are used in con/ersation to e0-ress one1s /ie* and to let others .no* one1s *ish.

Si0 Names for Sadda&-aQQatti Si0 Names for Sadda&-aQQatti @ N;ma It is the name of something and it is al*ays bent to*ards the meaning it could e0-ress. 5or e0am-le, the *ord ^bhOmi1 could e0-ress the meaning of ^land1 and so it is al*ays bent to*ards that meaning. Moreo/er, because it could e0-ress so, it al*ays let the meaning ^land1 bend to*ards it as its o*n meaning. 7 N;ma&.amma The name bhOmi has been gi/en to it by some im-ortant learned men in the -ast. So it is also .no*n as ^n;ma&.amma1. M N;ma&dheyya The name bhOmi has been long established by learned -eo-le. Thus it is also called n;ma&dheyya. E N;ma&nirutti The name ^bhOmi1 lies hidden before it is s-o.en, and it should be e0-osed by e0-ressing it in language. So it is called n;ma&nirutti. 8 N;ma&byaQ>ana Because the name bhOmi can sho* its meaning /ery clearly, it is called n;ma&byan>ana. N N;mabhil;-a The *ord bhOmi should be s-o.en *ith the intention of e0-ressing the meaning of it. So it is called n;mabhil;-a.

Si0 .inds of Sadda&-aQQatti @ ?i>>am;na&-aQQatti :real conce-t< )hen a name is gi/en to something *hich e0ists in reality, then that name is called ^/i>>am;na&-aQQatti1. All the names of the ultimate realities :-aramatthas< belong to this class= eg., $O-a, citta, cetasi.a, /edan;, saQQ;, /ita..a. 7 A/i>>am;na&-aQQatti :unreal conce-t< )hen a name is designated to something *hich does not e0ist in reality, then that name is called ^a/i>>am;na&-aQQatti1. All the names of things *hich are not ultimate realities belong to this class= eg., Man, dog, house, school, hill, ca/e. M ?i>>am;nena&a/i>>am;na&-aQQatti :real and unreal conce-t< It is a sadda&-aQQatti *hich ma.es .no*n a com-ound name formed by combining a real conce-t *ith an unreal conce-t= eg., +ha\;bhiQQ; a a -ossessor of si0 su-er&.no*ledge. In this com-ound name, ^si0fold abhiQQ;1 is a real conce-t *hile ^-ossessor1 is an unreal conce-t since it is a name gi/en to the fi/e aggregates. eg., Te&/i>>a a a -ossessor of three /i>>a&Q;Pa. E A/i>>am;nena&/i>>am;na&-aQQatti :unreal and real conce-t<. It is a sadda&-aQQatti *hich ma.es .no*n a com-ound name formed by combining an unreal conce-t *ith a real conce-t. eg., Itthi&sadda a *oman1s /oice. The /oice does e0ist as a sound, so it is a real conce-t. But ^*oman1 is an unreal conce-t, because it is a name also gi/en to the fi/e aggregates. eg., Itthi&rO-a[ a *oman1s /isual feature= 6urisa&sadda a man1s /oice.

8 8 N A/i>>am;nena&a/i>>am;na&-aQQatti :unreal and unreal conce-t< It is a sadda&-aQQatti *hich ma.es .no*n a com-ound name formed by combining and unreal conce-t *ith an unreal conce-t. eg., $;>a&-utta :.ing1s son<, mo/ie&actress, com-any&director, head&master.

+ha-ter C +ha-ter C Meditation Sub>ects Introductory In ^.ammaYYh;na1, ^.amma1 means the act of meditation and ^Yh;na1 means station, ground or -lace, im-lying sub>ect or e0ercise. So ^.ammaYYh;na1 means ^*or.ing&ground1 :for meditation< or ^sub>ect of meditation1. This ^*or.ing ground1 or ^sub>ect of meditation1 *ill ser/e as the training ground or the training tool for mental culture. There are t*o as-ects of mental culture a one dealing *ith ^calm1 and the other *ith ^insight1. Both as-ects *ill be treated in the -resent cha-ter. The methods of mental training, i.e. meditation, as taught by Buddha are uniIue in that they can sto- *orry, rela0 mental tension, eradicate mental de-ression, offer instant -eace or mind, and lead to sam;dhi :concentration<, >h;na :ecstatic absor-tion<, /i-assan;&Q;Pa :insight<, and the four -aths and their fruits :maggas and -halas< *hich are the highest and noblest attainment in life. This cha-ter *ill gi/e a brief but authentic and fruitful account of samatha&bh;/an; :calm&meditation< and /i-assan;bh;/an; :insight&meditation<.

Bh;/an; :Meditation< Bh;/an; :Meditation< . It is better be called ^mental de/elo-ment1. It is a -rocess of mental culture that -roduces so much good effect that it should be de/elo-ed re-eatedly in one1s mind. There are t*o .inds of bh;/an;' @ Samatha&bh;/an; a de/elo-ment of tranIuility, and 7 ?i-assan;&bh;/an; a de/elo-ment of insight. Samatha&bh;/an; ^Samatha1 means ^tranIuility1 *hich is the concentrated, unsha.en, undefiled and -eaceful state of mind. It is called ^calm1 because it calms do*n the fi/e hindrances :ni/;ranas< including -assions. In essence ^samatha1 stands for the e.aggat;&cetasi.a :sam;dhi< -resent in lo.iya&.usala cittas or lo.iya&.iriya cittas. It refers to that sam;dhi :concentration< *hich can calm do*n the fi/e hindrances and also to the higher >h;na&sam;dhi *hich can calm do*n the lo*er >h;na factors /iJ., /ita..a, /ic;ra, -Wti and su.ha. ?i-assan;&bh;/an; ^?i-assan;1 means ^insight1, i.e. the intuiti/e insight into the im-ermanent :anicca<, miserable :du..ha< and im-ersonal :anatta< nature of all bodily and mental -henomena of e0istence. In essence, ^/i-assan;1 stands for the -aQQ;&cetasi.a :*isdom< -resent in mah;&.usala cittas and mah;&.iriya cittas. "ammaYYh;na Here ^.ammaYYh;na1 is ta.en to mean the ob>ect of meditation. As consciousness cannot arise *ithout an ob>ect, *e need suitable ob>ects for mental training.

Buddha has -rescribed E9 ob>ects for samatha&bh;/an;. They are .no*n as ^samatha&.ammaYYh;na1. They com-rise the follo*ing se/en classes' Buddha has -rescribed E9 ob>ects for samatha&bh;/an;. They are .no*n as ^samatha&.ammaYYh;na1. They com-rise the follo*ing se/en classes' s 7 Asubha 3 @9 loathsome ob>ects M Anussati 3 @9 recollection ob>ects E Brahma&/ih;ra 3 E sublime abodes 8 Xru--a 3 E immaterial s-heres N Xh;re&-aYi.Ola&saQQ; 3 @ ob>ect H +atu&dh;tu&/a/atth;na 3 @ ob>ect The ob>ect of meditation for /i-assan;&bh;/an; is ^tila..haPa1, i.e. the tri-le symbol com-rising anicca, du..ha and anatta of all bodily and mental -henomena of e0istence. Ten "asiPas ^"asiPa1 means ^*hole1, ^all1, ^com-lete1. It is so called because it should be obser/ed *holly or com-letely in meditation, and also because the light issuing from the conce-tualiJed image is e0tended to all directions *ithout any limitation. Because it should be obser/ed *holly, the sha-e of .asiPa should be circular *ith its diameter eIual to one s-an and four fingers, i.e. about a foot. @ 6atha/W&.asiPa a earth&circle, i.e. -ure earth or da*ncoloured clay s-read in a tray of o-timum siJe. 7 X-o&.asiPa a *ater&.asiPa, i.e. *ater -laced in a suitable /essel or container. M Te>o&.asiPa a fire&.asiPa= it may be -re-ared by -lacing e/enly burning charcoal in an old tray, or one may loo. through a hole of an old&tray into the middle -art of a big fire.

E E 8 NWla&.asiPa a bro*n&.asiPa= ta.e a bro*n circle of -a-er or cloth on a *hite bac.ground. N 6Wta&.asiPa a yello* or golden&coloured .asiPa= -re-are as abo/e. H #ohita&.asiPa a red&.asiPa= -re-are as abo/e. G !d;ta&.asiPa a *hite&.asiPa= ta.e a *hite circle of -a-er or cloth on a blac. bac.ground. C Xlo.a&.asiPa a light&.asiPa= it may be de/elo-ed by concentrating on the morning or e/ening sun, on the moon, or on a circle of light cast on the floor or *all by sunlight entering through a hole in the *all. @9 X.;sa&.asiPa a s-ace&.asiPa= it may be de/elo-ed by loo.ing through a hole in the *all to*ards the outside s-ace ha/ing s.y as bac.ground. An e0am-le of meditation on .asiPa *ill be illustrated soon. !ne can de/elo- all the fi/e rO-;/acara&>h;nas by meditating on a .asiPa. !ne can the -recede on to de/elo- four arO-;/acara>h;nas and fi/e lo.iya&abhiQQ;Pas :mundane su-er&.no*ledge< based on the ten .asiPas. Ten Asubhas They refer to ten .inds of cor-ses *hich *ere found in ancient Indian cemeteries *here dead bodies *ere not buried or cremated and *here flesh&eating animals such as dogs, *ol/es and /ultures freIuent. In modern days any .ind of cor-se *hich sho*s the loathsomeness of the body is a suitable ob>ect for meditation.

)e are, as a rule, /ery strongly attached to our body as *ell as to others1 bodies by r;ga :lust<. The best *ay to su--ress that r;ga and the best remedy to cure the r;ga&disease is asubha.ammaYYh;na. It *as made a standard or com-ulsory .ammaYYh;na during the time of THE Buddha, es-ecially for young mon.s. E/en no* it is included in the four .ammaYYh;nas *hich ser/e as guardians or -rotectors. They are called catur;ra..ha.ammaYYh;nas before one -roceeds on to insight meditation. The ten .inds of cor-ses are enumerated as follo*s. @ Uddhum;ta.a a rotten and bloated cor-se. 7 ?inWla.a a discoloured cor-se *hich becomes bro*nish blac.. M ?i-ubba.a a one *ith crac.ed s.in and -us ooJing out. E ?icchidda.a a one *hich has been cut into t*o or three -ieces. 8 ?i..h;yita.a a one *hich has been gna*n and mangled by dogs, /ultures, etc. N ?i..hitta.a a one *hich has been bitten and scattered into -ieces by dogs, /ultures, etc. H Hata/i..hitta.a a one *hich has been mutilated and cut by .nife, a0e, etc., and thro*n a*ay as fragments. G #ohita.a a a bloody cor-se. C 6ulu/a.a a *orm&infested cor-se. @9 Atthi.a a a s.eleton. Meditation on any .ind of cor-se *ill lead to the first >h;na. As the ob>ect is /ery disgusting, it is im-ossible to fi0 the mind on the ob>ect *ithout /ita..a. So /ita..a cannot be remo/ed in order to attain the second >h;na.

Ten Anussatis Ten Anussatis @ Buddh;nussati $eflection on the /irtues of the edcMBuddha. !ne may reflect on the C /irtues one by one as, for e0am-le, _Such indeed is the E0alted one a *orthy, fully enlightened, endo*ed *ith *isdom and conduct, *ell&farer, .no*er of the *orlds, an incom-arable charioteer for the training of indi/iduals, teacher of gods and men, omniscient, and holy`. !r one may choose the /irtue one li.es best and reflect on it again and again as, for e0am-le, ^Araha[, araha[1. In so reflecting one should /isualiJe the /irtue as' _Buddha is the holiest -erson as He has discarded all defilements com-letely, and thus He is *orthy of *orshi- by men and gods.` The second method is more effecti/e for de/elo-ment concentration. 7 Dhamm;nussati $eflection on the /irtues of Dhamma :the Doctrine< as, for e0am-le, _)ell&e0-ounded is the doctrine by the E0alted !ne, to be realiJed by oneself, of immediate fruit, in/iting in/estigation, leading to Nibb;na, to be understood by the *ise, each one for himself`. Here again one may choose the /irtue on li.es best and reflect on it re-eatedly. M SaTgh;nussati $eflection on the /irtues of Sangha a the order of Brotherhood

of the Noble !nes. !ne may reflect on the nine /irtues as follo*s' of the Noble !nes. !ne may reflect on the nine /irtues as follo*s' Here also one may choose the /irtue one li.es best and reflect on it re-eatedly. E SWl;nussati $eflection on the -erfection of one1s morality :sWla<. 8 +;g;nussati $eflection on one1s o*n charitable offering :d;na<. N De/at;nussati $eflection on one1s o*n /irtues *ith a consideration on deities as *itnesses. 5or e0am-le, _Deities are born in such e0alted states on account of their faith, morality, charity, .no*ledge, *isdom, moral shame and moral dread. I too -ossess these /irtues. H U-asam;nussati $eflection on the /irtues of Nibb;na. G Maran;nussati $eflection on the nature of one1s o*n death as, for e0am-le, _My death is certain, my being ali/e is uncertain.`

C ";yagat;sati C ";yagat;sati neys, heart, li/er, dia-hragm, s-leen, lungs, bo*els, mesentery, stomach, faeces, brain, bile, -hlegm, -us, blood, s*eat, lym-h, tears, grease, sali/a, nasal mucus, articular fluid and urine.` In Buddha1s time many mon.s attained arahatshi- by meditating on these im-ure -arts. ";yagat;sati de/elo-s asubhasaQQ ; :notion of loathsomeness< on the body >ust as asubhabh;/an; does. This loathsomeness of the body leads to dis-assion, i.e. the su--ression of r;ga :lust<. @9 Xn;-;nassati Mindfulness on the in&breathing and out&breathing of one1s res-iration. A brief comment on Anussatis !f the ten Anussatis, .;yagat;sati can lead to the first >h;na= ;n;-;nassati, to all the fi/e rO-;/acara >h;nas= and the rest, to neighbourhood concentration :u-ac;ra&sam;dhi<. Buddh;nussati and maran;nussati are included in the four guardian&.ammaYYh;nas. By reflecting on the /irtues of Buddha re-eatedly for a long time, one1s body becomes /enerable as a -agoda and so it may not be insulted by beasts, ghosts or *ic.ed -ersons. Also one has the notion of li/ing together *ith Buddha, and thus one de/elo-s faith on Buddha, moral shame and moral dread to a greater e0tent. $eflection on death re-eatedly enables one to com-rehend the fleeting nature of life. )hen one has the notion that one1s

death may come at any moment, one sheds all -ride, anger, attachment, etc., and one endea/ours to ma.e the best use of one1s life by *or.ing for self&de/elo-ment instead of *holly indulging in sensual -leasures. death may come at any moment, one sheds all -ride, anger, attachment, etc., and one endea/ours to ma.e the best use of one1s life by *or.ing for self&de/elo-ment instead of *holly indulging in sensual -leasures. The mindfulness :sati< should be -laced at the ti- of the nose *here the breath touches and -ushes itself in and out. 5rom that *atch&-oint, one must be a*are of the in&going breath and the out&going breath. It is li.e sitting at the gate of entrance and chec.ing the -eo-le going in and coming out. In the suttas this sim-le method of mindfulness of res-iration is e0-lained as follo*s'@ Attenti/ely he breathes in, attenti/ely he breathes out. 7 )hen ma.ing a long inhalation he .no*s' _I ma.e a long inhalation1, *hen ma.ing a short inhalation he .no*s' _I ma.e a short inhalation`= *hen ma.ing a long e0halation he .no*s' _I ma.e a long e0halation`= *hen ma.ing a short e0halation he .no*s' _I ma.e a short e0halation`. M _+learly -ercei/ing the entire body :breath< I *ill inhale`= thus he trains himself= _clearly -ercei/ing the entire body :breath< I *ill e0hale`= thus he trains himself. :It means that one must be mindful to .no* e/ery -art of the breath= i.e. the *hole breath.< E _+alming this breathing -rocess I *ill inhale`= thus he

trains himself= _calming this breathing -rocess I *ill trains himself= _calming this breathing -rocess I *ill As breathing occurs rhythmically it can dra* one1s attention to*ards it and builds u- concentration /ery Iuic.ly. If the mind *anders out to some e0ternal ob>ect such as tea&sho-, cafeteria, mo/ie&house, etc., note that it is there and focus it bac. on res-iration. )hen the fi/e hindrances :ni/;ranas< are su--ressed com-letely, ra-ture :-Wti<, tranIuility of mind :-assaddhi<, -leasant feeling :su.ha /edan;< and concentration :sam;dhi< *ill become distinct, and one e0-eriences ha--iness one has ne/er e0-erienced before. !ne feels /ery light in body and mind and /ery -eaceful. Some e/en feel as if they *ere floating in the air. About this time a conce-tualiJed light image :nimitta< in the form of a tube of rays or a s-ar.ling diamond or a bright ruby or the li.e usually a--ears. The fi/e >h;na&factors also become distinct and strong, and one may be assured that one has attained neighbourhood&concentration. If one carries on the mindfulness e0ercise earnestly and intensely, /ery soon one may attain the first >h;na and the higher >h;nas. Based on the >h;na&concentration, one may carry on the insight&meditation by in/estigating the mental and the cor-oreal -henomena in mind and body in detail. Then by contem-lating on tila..haPa& i.e. the -henomena of im-ermanence, suffering and non&-ersonality a one de/elo-s insight .no*ledge :/i-assan;&Q;Pa< *hich *ill gradually lead to the 6ath and its 5ruition. 5our Brahma&/ih;ras ^Brahma1 means ^sublime1 and ^/ih;ra1 means ^abode1 or ^state of li/ing1. Thus ^Brahma/ih;ra1 refers to ^sublime abode1 or

^sublime state of li/ing1. This ^sublime state of li/ing1 is similar to the moral li/ing of celestial Brahmas. So it is called ^Brahma/ih;ra1. ^sublime state of li/ing1. This ^sublime state of li/ing1 is similar to the moral li/ing of celestial Brahmas. So it is called ^Brahma/ih;ra1. maQQ ;s1 meaning ^four boundless states1. They are so called because those *ho -ractise these e0ercises are radiating lo/ing& .indness or com-assion or sym-athetic >oy to all beings *ithout limit or obstruction. @ Mett; a lo/ing&.indness, bene/olence, good*ill. It is defined as that *hich softens one1s heart. It is the *ish for the good, safety and ha--iness of all beings. Bene/olent attitude is its chief characteristic. It is not carnal lo/e :r;ga< or -ersonal affection :-ema<. Its direct enemy is hatred or ill*ill :dosa< or a/ersion :.odha<. Its indirect enemy is -ema :lobha<. It has the ability to Iuench ill*ill. The culmination of mett; is the identification of oneself *ith all beings, i.e. one no longer differentiates bet*een oneself and the others in the order of -riority. Mett; stands for adosa&cetasi.a. 7 "arun; a com-assion It is defined as that *hich ma.es the hearts of the noble Iui/er *hen others are sub>ect to suffering or that dissi-ates the sufferings of others. The *ish to remo/e the sufferings of others is its chief characteristic. Its direct enemy is cruelty or *ic.edness :hi[sa< and its indirect enemy is -assionate grief :domanassa<. It discards cruelty or *ic.edness.

"arun; embraces sorro*&stric.en beings *ith the ardent *ish to free them from all sufferings. It stands for the .arun;&cetasi.a. M Mudita a sym-athetic >oy, a--reciati/e >oy. It is the congratulatory attitude of oneself. Its chief characteristic is to be ha--y and full of >oy in others1 -ros-erity and success. Its direct enemy is >ealousy, and its indirect enemy is e0hilaration :-ah;sa<. it eliminates disli.e :arati<. Mudita embraces all -ros-erous beings *ith the ardent *ish that their -ros-erity *ill last for a long time. It stands for the mudita&cetasi.a. E U-e..h; a eIuanimity It literally means ^to /ie* im-artially1, that is, *ith neither attachment nor a/ersion. Im-artial attitude is its chief characteristic. It is not hedonic indifference nor the neutral feeling :u-e..h;&/edan;<. It stands for tatrama>>hattat;&cetasi.a and means -erfect eIuanimity or a *ell&balanced mind. It stays in bet*een .arun; and mudita. It .ee-s the mind balanced and un*a/ering amidst /icissitudes of life such as -raise and blame, -ain and ha--iness, gain and loss, re-ute or disre-ute. Its direct enemy is -assion :r;ga< and its indirect enemy is callousness. It eliminates clinging and a/ersion. #i/ing in the Sublime Abode Any one *ho is -ractising one of the four Brahma&/ih;ras is said to be li/ing in the sublime abode.

To -ractise mett;, one e0tends one1s lo/ing&.indness to*ards all beings, sincerely *ishing them to be ha--y and free from danger, free from bodily -ain and mental suffering. To -ractise mett;, one e0tends one1s lo/ing&.indness to*ards all beings, sincerely *ishing them to be ha--y and free from danger, free from bodily -ain and mental suffering. To e0ercise mudita, one embraces all -ros-erous beings, *ishing them sincerely that all their gain and -ros-erity remain *ith them for a long time. To e0ercise u-e..h;, one embraces the good and the bad, the lo/ed and the unlo/ed, the sorro*&stric.en or the -ros-erous, *ith eIuanimity contem-lating that _all beings are as they are conditioned by their o*n&.amma`. Meditational -ractice of the first three Brahma&/ih;ras can lead to four rO-;/acara >h;nas *hereas u-e..h;&e0ercise leads to the fifth >h;na. $emember that only the fifth >h;na is associated *ith eIuanimity and indifferent feeling :u-e..h;&/edan;<. To de/elo- one1s concentration u- to >h;na, it is ad/isable to choose a suitable -erson and concentrate on him -er/ading him *ith mett;, .arun; or mudita. E/en then it usually ta.es a long time to de/elo- >h;na. The faster *ay is to de/elo- >h;na, -referably to fifth >h;na, by meditating on res-iration :;n;-;nassati< or another .ammaYYh;na in *hich the ob>ect of meditation is *ell defined. Then, ma.ing concentration associated *ith the fifth >h;na as the base, one underta.es mett;&e0ercise. In this *ay one can de/elo- the four mett;&>h;nas /ery ra-idly. This method is being successfully -ractised in 6a&au. Ta*ya Meditation +entres in Myanmar. !nly *hen one can -er/ade all beings *ith >h;na&mett;, >h;na.arun;, >h;na&mudita and >h;na&u-e..h;, one is li/ing truly in the sublime state.

The stereoty-e te0t on the de/elo-ment of these four sublime states of li/ing is mentioned in the Suttas as follo*s' The stereoty-e te0t on the de/elo-ment of these four sublime states of li/ing is mentioned in the Suttas as follo*s' The same theme follo*s *ith com-assion, sym-athetic >oy and eIuanimity. Xh;re&-aYi.Ola&saQQ; :6erce-tion of #oathsomeness on 5ood< It is the re-eated contem-lation to de/elo- the -erce-tion of loathsomeness on the food and drin.s *e eat and s*allo*. Ho* do *e de/elo- the notion of loathsomeness on the food *e are eatingL )hen the /arious dishes of food are arranged attracti/ely, they a--eal to our a--etite. Note that *hen they are mi0ed u-, their attracti/eness is reduced. !n che*ing the food in our mouth, note ho* tiresome it is to lo*er the >a* and raise it re-eatedly -ounding on the food as if *e are -ounding chili in a mortar *ith -istle. Also note that, *hile che*ing, sali/a, bile, -hlegm and other digesti/e >uices are -roduced at the bottom of the tongue, and that the tongue is mi0ing them *ith food *hich becomes stic.y and loathsome. !n s*allo*ing the food, it reaches the stomach *here it has to be further digested. The undigested food collects in the bo*els and it has to be discarded from time to time in the

la/atory. As the e0crement is /ery loathsome, one has to hide shamefully in the la/atory to discard it. la/atory. As the e0crement is /ery loathsome, one has to hide shamefully in the la/atory to discard it. +atu&dh;tu&/a/atth;na :Defining of the 5our Elements< ^+atu&dh;tu1 means the four essential elements namely, -atha/W, ;-o, te>o and /;yo. ^?a/atth;na1 means the .no*ledge of characteriJing :the elements<. As the four essential elements form the basis of all cor-oreal -henomena, their characteristics must be in/estigated and -ut into .no*ledge. In +ha-ter N *e ha/e learnt that our body is made u- of 7@ .inds of cor-oreal grou-s called .al;-as, and each .al;-a com-rises at least the four essential elements and their four material Iualities /iJ., /isible form :/aPPa<, smell :gandha<, taste :rasa< and nutriment :o>;<. Thus the four great elements are -resent in e/ery -art and -article of our body. 6atha/W must be characteriJed as the element of e0tension *ith the characteristics of hardness and softness. m-o must be .no*n as the element of cohesion *ith the characteristics of cohesi/eness and fluidity. Te>o is the element of heat *ith the characteristics of hot and cold. ?;yo is the element of motion *ith the characteristics of -ushing and su--orting. )e must in/estigate in the body the characteristics of hardness and softness, cohesi/eness and fluidity, hot and cold, -ushing and su--orting are -resent in e/ery -art and -article of the body. )e must feel these characteristics and be conscious

of them in the mind to be sure of their -resence. )hen they become distinct in the mind, one .ee-s on concentrating on them and noting them to de/elo- one1s sam;dhi. The highest sam;dhi attainable here is neighbourhood concentration as the ob>ect of meditation is too dee- and /ast. of them in the mind to be sure of their -resence. )hen they become distinct in the mind, one .ee-s on concentrating on them and noting them to de/elo- one1s sam;dhi. The highest sam;dhi attainable here is neighbourhood concentration as the ob>ect of meditation is too dee- and /ast. Then one can use the s.eleton *hich one -enetrati/ely sees in one1s body or in the body of another -erson as the ob>ect of asubha&.ammaYYh;na and meditate on it to raise the concentration to the le/el of first >h;na. 5urthermore, the *hiteness of the bone, -referably the s.ull, can be used as the ob>ect of od;ta&.asiPa. !ne meditates on it to raise the concentration further to the le/el of fifth >h;na. These ste-&*ise methods of de/elo-ing concentration are described in ?isuddhi Magga and they are successfully -ut into -ractice in 6a&Au. Ta*ya Meditation +entres. 5our Xru-as :5our immaterial S-heres< The four immaterial s-heres of unbounded s-ace :;.;sa<, unbounded consciousness, nothingness, and neither&-erce-tion nor non&-erce-tion are em-loyed as the ob>ects of meditation to de/elo- the four arO-;/acara&>h;nas, res-ecti/ely. In -ractices one has to de/elo- the fi/e rO-;/acara&>h;nas first on one of the .asiPas, and then, ma.ing the fifth&>h;na as the base, one goes higher to the four ;ru--as to de/elo- the four arO-;/acara&>h;nas.

Si0 +aritas :Si0 Ty-es of Tem-erament or Nature< Si0 +aritas :Si0 Ty-es of Tem-erament or Nature< @ $;ga&carita a the greedy&natured *ho indulge in sensuous -leasure *ithout shame= 7 Dosa&carita a the hate&natured *ho get angry easily e/en o/er tri/ial things= M Moha&carita a the stu-id or dull&natured= E Saddh;&carita a the faithful&natured *ho /enerate the Tri-le&4em -iously' 8 Buddhi&carita a the intelligent&natured *ho rely on reason and *ould not belie/e easily= N ?ita..a&carita a the ruminating&natured *ho thin. o/er this and that *ithout accom-lishing much. "ammaYYh;na and +arita The forty .ammaYYh;nas should be cou-led *ith si0 caritas suitably for beneficial results. @ The greedy&natured -ersons should e0ercise the ten asubhas and .;yagat;sati as these .ammaYYh;nas can su--ress -assion effecti/ely. 7 The hate&natured -ersons should -ractise the four Brahma/ih;ras and the four colour&.asiPas. i.e. nWla, -Wta, lohita and od;ta .asiPas. These .ammaYYh;nas are -ure and serene and can delight -ersons *ho e0ercise them. M The stu-id and dull&natured -ersons as *ell as the ruminating&natured -ersons should -ractise ;n;-;nassati. The minds of these -eo-le are restless and distracted because of uddacca, /ici.icch; and /ita..a. In

;n;-;nassati the in&breathing and the out&breathing ha/e to be noted rhythmically. So ;n;-;nassati can control and calm do*n the restless minds. ;n;-;nassati the in&breathing and the out&breathing ha/e to be noted rhythmically. So ;n;-;nassati can control and calm do*n the restless minds. The faithful&natured -ersons should -ractise Buddh;nussati, dhamm;nussati, saTgh;nusssati, sWl;nussati, c;g;nussati and de/at;nussati. Saddh; :faith< is already strong in these -ersons and it *ill be further strengthened to great benefits by -ractising these anussati.ammaYYh;nas. 8 The intelligent&natured -ersons should -ractise maran;nussati, u-asam;nusssati, ;h;re&-aYi.Ola&saQQ; and catudh;tu& /a/atth;na. The sub>ects of these .ammaYYh;nas are dee- and subtle, and thus they can stimulate and strengthen the *isdom of the intelligent&natured -ersons. N The .ammaYYh;nas *hich are suitable to all ty-es of -ersons are -atha/W&.asiPa, ;-o&.asiPa, te>o&.asiPa, /;yo.asiPa, alo.a&.asiPa, ;.;sa&.asiPa and the four ;ru--as. Three Stages of Bh;/an; Bh;/an; :meditation< may be di/ided into three classes in accor dance *ith the degrees of concentration or mental culture they can gi/e rise to. @ 6ari.amma&bh;/an; a the -re-aratory stage of meditation. The .ammaYYh;na&ob>ects such as .asiPas are called -ari.amma&nimitta, meaning, -re-aratory immage. By obser/ing an earth circle, one may meditate' _6atha/W, -atha/W` re-eatedly either by murmuring it slo*ly or by >ust noting it in the mind. This early stage of meditation, that can de/elo- ^-ari.amma&sam;dhi1 is called -ari.amma&bh;/an;. It -a/es the *ay for the arising of higher&bh;/an;s later on.

^6ari.amma&sam;dhi1 is ^-re-aratory concentration1 *hich is the initial and still unde/elo-ed concentration of mind. All stages of concentration starting from this initial stage u- to the stage >ust belo* the neighbourhood& concentration is termed ^-ari.amma&sam;dhi1. 7 U-ac;ra&bh;/an; a the neighbourhood stage of meditation. ^U-ac;ra1 means ^neighbourhood1 or ^moment of access1. ^U-ac;ra&bh;/an;1 is that meditation *hich has come to the neighbourhood of >h;na, magga or -hala. It may also be regarded as the meditation *hich is about to enter the absor-tion&stage of meditation called a--an;&bh;/an;. 6ari.amma&bh;/an; itself is de/elo-ed into the u-ac;ra&bh;/an;. The ob>ect of u-ac;ra&bh;/an; is no longer ^-ari.amma&nimitta1= it is ^-aYibh;ga&nimitta1, meaning ^counter&image1. The concentration associated *ith u-ac;ra&bh;/an; is called ^u-ac;ra&sam;dhi1 *hich is translated as ^neighbourhood&concentration or access&concentration1. It re-resents the degree of concentration >ust before entering any of the absor-tion :>h;nas<. M A--an;&bh;/an; a the absor-tion stage of meditation. The meditation, *hich has de/elo-ed to >h;na, magga or -hala, is called ^ a--an;&bh;/an;1. The >h;na, magga or -hala remains absorbed or fi0ed in their res-ecti/e ob>ects. The ob>ect of >h;na is ^-aYibh;ga nimitta1 *hereas the ob>ect of magga or -hala is Nibb;na. The concentration associated *ith the a--an;&bh;/an; is called the ^a--an;sam;dhi1.

Bh;/an; and "ammaYYh;na Bh;/an; and "ammaYYh;na 6ari.amma&bh;/an; is attainable in all the forty .ammaYYh;nas. 7 6ari.amma&bh;/an; and u-ac;ra&bh;/an; occur in the first eight anussatis and also in ;h;re&-aYi.Ola&saQQ; and catudh;tu& /a/atth;na :totalling @9 .ammaYYh;nas<. M All three ty-es of bh;/an; occur in the remaining M9 .ammaYYh;nas /iJ., @9 .asiPas, @9 asubhas, E Brahma/ih;ras, E ;ru--as, .;yagat;sati and ;n;-;nassati. Fh;na and "ammaYYh;na TAB#E C.@ Differentiation of "ammaYYh;nas by means of Fh;nas No. "ammaYYh;na Total Fh;nas attainable @ @9 "asiPas, mn;-;nassati @@ 8 $O-;/acara Fh;nas 7 @9 Asubhas, ";yagat;sati @@ $O-;/acara first Fh;na M Mett;, "arun;, Mudita M 5irst&secondthird& fourth $O-;/acara Fh;nas E U-e..h; @ $O-;/acara fifth Fh;na 8 E Xru-as E E ArO-;/acara Fh;nas

Notes' Notes' There are 78 .ammaYYh;nas *hich can -roduce rO-;/acara first >h;na :add @b7bM in the abo/e Table<. 7 5ourteen .ammaYYh;nas can gi/e rise to rO-;/acara second&third&fourth >h;nas :add @bM< M T*el/e .ammattanas can gi/e rise to rO-;/acara fifth >h;na :add @bE<, E 5our ;ru--as can -roduce four arO-;/acara >h;nas. 8 Ten .ammaYYh;nas com-rising the first G anussatis, ;h;re-aYi.Ola& saQQ; and catu&dh;tu&/a/atth;na cannot gi/e rise to any >h;na. They can, ho*e/er, hel- to attain neighbourhood concentration. Bh;/an;&nimitta :Meditation Image< ^Nimitta1 means mar., sign, image, target, ob>ect, etc. Here it refers to the ^mental image1 obtained in meditation. Three ty-es of nimitta are to be noted. @ 6ari.amma&nimitta a -re-aratory image It is the ob>ect of -ari.amma&bh;/an;. It is the ob>ect -ercei/ed at the early stages of meditations. 7 Uggaha&nimitta a acIuired image As the meditation -roceeds, the meditator finds that he can see the ob>ect, eg. .asiPa, *ithout loo.ing at it directly. He has acIuired the image in his mind, and he can see it *ith eyes closed. The acIuired image is still unsteady and unclear= it arises *hen the mind has reached a *ea. degree of concentration. M 6aYibh;ga&nimitta a counter image As the meditation -roceeds on, at the -oint *hen the

concentration reaches u-ac;ra&sam;dhi, the acIuired image suddenly changes into a bright, clear and steady image. It is similar to the original ob>ect, but it is many time brighter and clearer than the acIuired image. It is entirely free from faults such as une/enness, graininess, etc., that may be -resent in the original ob>ect. It is immo/able as if it remains fi0ed in the eye. As soon as this image arises, the stage of u-ac;ra&bh;/an; and neighbourhood concentration is reached. concentration reaches u-ac;ra&sam;dhi, the acIuired image suddenly changes into a bright, clear and steady image. It is similar to the original ob>ect, but it is many time brighter and clearer than the acIuired image. It is entirely free from faults such as une/enness, graininess, etc., that may be -resent in the original ob>ect. It is immo/able as if it remains fi0ed in the eye. As soon as this image arises, the stage of u-ac;ra&bh;/an; and neighbourhood concentration is reached. TAB#E C.7 Differentiation of "ammaYYh;nas by Nimittas No. "ammaYYh;na Total Nimitta attainable @ All "ammatthas E9 6ari.amma&nimitta and Uggaha nimitta :not distinguishable in some "ammaYYh;nas< 7 @9 "asiPas, @9 Asubhas ";yagat;sati mn;-;nassati 77 6ari.amma&nimitta, Uggaha&nimitta, 6aYibh;ga&nimitta may all a--ear. M 5irst G Anussatis E Brahma&/ih;ras E mru-as, mh;re-aYi.Ola& saQQ;, +atudh;tu/a/atth;na @G 6ari.amma&nimitta and Uggaha&nimitta only. 6aYibh;ga&nimitta is not formed.

6ractical +ou-ling of Bh;/an; *ith Nimitta 6ractical +ou-ling of Bh;/an; *ith Nimitta nimitta. U-ac;ra&bh;/an; and a--an;&bh;/an; ta.e -aYibh;ga nimitta as their ob>ect. This cou-ling of bh;/an; *ith nimitta *ill be illustrated by the meditation on -atha/W&.asiPa. 6atha/W&.asiPa is -re-ared by co/ering a tray or a circle about one s-an and four fingers :i.e. about @7 inches< in diameter *ith da*n&coloured clay. If there be not enough clay of da*n colour, some other clay may be -laced underneath. The surface of the clay should be made as smooth as -ossible. This hy-notic circle is .no*n as .asiPa&mandala. No* this earth&circle is -laced at a suitable height about t*o and a half cubits :i.e. about E8 inches< a*ay from the -lace *here one is going to sit. !ne should sit comfortably .ee-ing the u--er -art of the body erect. @ 6ari.mamma&nimitta and 6ari.amma&bh;/an; The meditator loo.s at the earth&circle attenti/ely, saying mentally or inaudibly' _6atha/W, -atha/W` or _earth, earth`. No*, from this time on*ards, the earth&circle that he is loo.ing at is called ^-ari.amma&nimitta1 and the meditation he is doing is called ^-ari.amma&bh;/an;1. 7 Uggaha&nimitta and 6ari.amma&bh;/an; After meditating for some time, -erha-s *ee.s or months, he *ill be able to close his eyes and /isualise the ob>ect. This means that he could see the earth&circle /i/idly in his mind as he has seen it *ith o-en eyes e/en though his eyes are closed. This /isualised ob>ect or acIuired image is called ^uggaha&nimitta1. Although the image has changed, his bh;/an; does not change yet. At this stage he is meditating on uggaha&nimitta *ith -ari.amma&bh;/an;.

M 6aYibh;ga&nimitta and U-ac;ra&bh;/an; M 6aYibh;ga&nimitta and U-ac;ra&bh;/an; sary to loo. at the original earth&circle, unless his concentration dis-erses. By concentrating on the acIuired image, he .ee-s on meditating' _6atha/W, -atha/W` or _earth, earth`. )hen his concentration reaches the le/el of u-ac;ra&sam;dhi, the uggaha&nimitta changes into -aYibh;ga&nimitta :counter&image<. This change is /ery distinct and is easily noticed as the -aYibh;ganimitta is /ery different from uggaha&nimitta. The change is as distinct as ta.ing out a mirror from its leather&case, or as a floc. of herons flying out of dar. clouds. The -ari.amma&bh;/an; is no* raised to the le/el of u-ac;rabh;/an;. The meditation is no* at the stage of -aYibh;ga&nimitta and u-ac;ra&bh;/an;. At this stage all the hindrances :ni/;ranas< are su--ressed, and the fi/e >h;na&factors become Iuite strong and function their duties efficiently. Therefore the mind is *ell fi0ed on the counter& image. 5or this reason, u-ac;ra&bh;/an; is also called ^u-ac;ra>h;na.1 E 6aYibh;ga&nimitta and A--an;&bh;/an; +oncentrating on the -aYibh;ga&nimitta, the meditator carries on his meditation, noting' _6atha/W, -atha/W` as before. )hen the counter&image is firm and immo/able, it is made to e0-and by *ill&-o*er inch by inch until it fills e/ery s-ace in all directions. +oncentrating on this ne* abstract image, he .ee-s on meditating' _-atha/W, -atha/W. If he is an intelligent, Iuic.&*itted -erson, he soon reaches a--an;&bh;/an; *hen the first >h;na arises. If he is a slo*&*itted -erson, he must try hard to maintain the -aYibh;ga&nimitta *ith s-ecial care, and if he .ee-s on meditating, he too attains the first >h;na sooner or later.

He is no* at the stage of -aYibh;ga&nimitta and a--an;&bh;/an;. This means that the ob>ect of a--an;&bh;/an;. This means that the ob>ect of a--an;&bh;/an; is the counter&image of the earth&circle. He is no* at the stage of -aYibh;ga&nimitta and a--an;&bh;/an;. This means that the ob>ect of a--an;&bh;/an;. This means that the ob>ect of a--an;&bh;/an; is the counter&image of the earth&circle. The yogi :meditator<, *ho has attained the first >h;na, should de/elo- fi/e .inds of abilities *ith res-ect to that >h;na. These abilities are called ^/asit;s1, meaning literally ^habits1. @ X/a>>ana&/asit; a the ability to reflect on the >h;na factors Iuic.ly= 7 Sam;-a>>ana&/asit; a the ability to attain the >h;na Iuic.ly= M Adhitth;na&/asit; a the ability to remain in the >h;na as long as one *ishes= E ?utth;na&/asit; a the ability to come out from the >h;na :meditati/e absor-tion< at the moment one has -redetermined, eg one hour after getting to >h;na= 8 6acca/e..haPa&/asit; a the ability to re/ie* the >h;na factors Iuic.ly by reducing the number of bha/aTgacittas bet*een /Wthis. No* in order to eliminate /ita..a to go u- to the second >h;na, the yogi contem-lates on the coarse nature of /ita..a ho* it can di/ert the mind to*ards a sensuous ob>ect and thus destroy the >h;na. He also contem-lates on the subtle nature of the second >h;na *hich is free from /ita..a. Then concentrating on the -aYibh;ga&nimitta of -atha/W&.asiPa, he tries to de/elo- the three stages of bh;/an; in the normal order of -ari.amma, u-ac;ra and a--an;, *ithout letting /ita..a associate *ith the citta. This series of bh;/an; *ithout a desire for /ita..a

is .no*n as ^/ita..a&/ir;ga&bh;/an;1. The culmination of this bh;/an; is the attainment of the second >h;na. is .no*n as ^/ita..a&/ir;ga&bh;/an;1. The culmination of this bh;/an; is the attainment of the second >h;na. The yogi then tries to de/elo- the fi/e abilities called ^/asit;1 :habit< *ith res-ect to the second&>h;na. He then eliminates /ic;ra in a similar *ay to attain the third >h;na. The fourth and the fifth >h;nas are attained by eliminating -Wti and su.ha res-ecti/ely in a similar manner. To*ards ArO-a&>h;nas $O-;/acara fifth >h;na is used as the base for going u- to arO-;/acara >h;nas. 5irst the fi/e abilities called ^/asit;1 *ith res-ect to the fifth >h;na must be de/elo-ed. then the yogi contem-lates on the faults of cor-oreality :rO-a< to su--ress his attachment to cor-oreality. He may reason li.e this' _This body is sub>ect to hot and cold, hunger and thirst, and to all .inds of diseases. Because of it, one Iuarrels *ith others. To clothe it, to feed it, and to house it, one has to go through many miseries.` The yogi should also contem-late ho* subtle and calm the arO-;/acara >h;na is to strengthen his desire to attain it. Then he de/elo-s the fi/e rO-;/acara >h;nas one after one on any of the nine .asiPas, e0cluding ;.;sa&.asiPa. he comes out from the fifth >h;na and, *ithout -aying attention to the -aYibh;ganimitta, he concentrates on the s-ace behind it and meditates re-eatedly' _S-ace is infinite2 s-ace is infinite2`. This is -ari.amma&bh;/an; a the -re&reIuisite for the arising of higher bh;/an;s.

The -aYibh;ga&nimitta *ill be in front of him so long as he still has a subtle desire :ni.anti< for it. )hen that desire is gone, the -aYibh;ga&nimitta is also gone unfolding infinite s-ace. +oncentrating on this s-ace, he meditates on' _S-ace is infinite2 S-ace is infinite21. The -aYibh;ga&nimitta *ill be in front of him so long as he still has a subtle desire :ni.anti< for it. )hen that desire is gone, the -aYibh;ga&nimitta is also gone unfolding infinite s-ace. +oncentrating on this s-ace, he meditates on' _S-ace is infinite2 S-ace is infinite21. tating earnestly and strenuously, he may soon reach the a--an;bh;/an; and attain the first arO-;/acara >h;na called ^;.;s;naQc;yatana .usala citta1. He then de/elo-s the fi/e abilities :/asit;< *ith res-ect to the first arO-a >h;na. Then to de/elo- the second arO-a >h;na, he contem-lates on the unsatisfactoriness of the first arO-a >h;na for being close to rO-;/acara&>h;nas and being coarse com-ared to the second arO-;/acara >h;na. Then concentrating on ;.;s;naQc;yatana .usala citta *hich focuses on infinite s-ace, he meditates' _consciousness is infinite= consciousness is infinite`. This is the ne* -ari.amma&bh;/an;. )hen his subtle clinging :ni.anti< to the first arO-;/acara >h;na disa--ears, he comes to u-ac;ra&bh;/an;. )hen he attains the second arO-;/acara&bh;/an;. *hen he attains the second arO-;/acara >h;na called ^/iQQ;naQc;yatana& .usala citta1, he reaches a--an;&bh;/an;. Similarly by -ractising the -ari.amma&bh;/an; on the none0istence of ;.;s;naQc;yatana .usala citta, mentally re-eating' _There is nothing *hatsoe/er2`, the third arO-;/acara >h;na, called ^;.iQcaQQ;yatana .usala citta1, is attained. 5urthermore by -ractising the -ari.amma&bh;/an; on ;.iQcaQQ;yatana .usala citta, mentally re-eating' _This citta is calm2 It1s e0cellent21, the fourth arO-;/acara >h;na called ^ne/asaQQ ;&nasaQQ;yatana .usala citta1 is finally attained.

4oing higher to AbhiQQ; 4oing higher to AbhiQQ; @ Iddhi/idha AbhiQQ; 6o*ers of creating forms, flying through the air, *al.ing on *ater, di/ing into the earth, etc. 7 Dibba&sota AbhiQQ; Di/ine ear or clairaudience, *hich enables one to hear subtle or coarse sounds far or near. M 6aracitta&/i>;Q;Pa :+eto&-ariya Q;Pa< 6o*er of -enetrating the mind of others to discern their thoughts. E 6ubbeni/;s;nussati 6o*er to remember the former e0istences of oneself and the former *orlds. 8 Dibba&ca..hu Di/ine eye or clair/oyance, *hich enables one to see subtle or coarse things far or near and also the celestial *orlds and the a-;ya abodes. The last one, i.e. dibba&ca..hu, may be e0tended to t*o more Su-ernormal 6o*ers' N %ath;.ammO-agaQ;Pa 6o*er of seeing beings in the M@ -lanes of e0istence and .no*ing their res-ecti/e .ammas *hich ha/e gi/en rise to their rebirths. H An;gata[saQ;Pa 6o*er of .no*ing future e0istences and future *orlds.

So *e may say there are se/en lo.iya&abhiQQ;s. But *hen *e count fi/e mundane su-ernormal .no*ledge :fi/e lo.iya abhiQQ;s<, :N< and :H< are included in dibba&ca..hu. Also catu-a-ataQ;Pa, *hich is the .no*ledge *ith regard to the dying and rea--earing of beings, is included in dibba&ca..hu. So *e may say there are se/en lo.iya&abhiQQ;s. But *hen *e count fi/e mundane su-ernormal .no*ledge :fi/e lo.iya abhiQQ;s<, :N< and :H< are included in dibba&ca..hu. Also catu-a-ataQ;Pa, *hich is the .no*ledge *ith regard to the dying and rea--earing of beings, is included in dibba&ca..hu. G Xsa/a..haya&Q;Pa :Arahatta&magga&Q;Pa< "no*ledge associated *ith Arahatta&magga that can e0tinct all can.ers :;sa/a<. +hal;bhiQQa is an Arahat *ho -ossess the si0 su-er& .no*ledge mentioned abo/e. It should be noted that the fi/e mundane su-ernormal .no*ledge are attainable through the utmost -erfection of mental concentration :sam;dhi< and they are the culmination of samatha&bh;/an; :tranIuility&meditation<. The su-ermundane -o*er, i.e. Xsa/a..haya&Q;Pa, is attainable through -enetrating insight :/i-assan;< and it is the culmination of /i-assan;&bh;/an; :insight meditation<. ?i-assan; "ammaYYh;na In the e0ercises on /i-assan;&bh;/an; :insight&meditation< one should ha/e the .no*ledge of the follo*ing' @ Se/enfold ?isuddhi a se/en stages of -urity, 7 Ti&la..haPa a three characteristic mar.s, M Threefold Anu-assan; a M methods of contem-lation, E Ten ?i-assan;&Q;Pas a @9 insight&.no*ledge, 8 Threefold ?imo..ha a M *ays of emanci-ation, N

Threefold ?imo..ha&mu.ha a M doors of emanci-ation.

Se/enfold ?isuddhi :Se/en Stages of 6urity< Se/enfold ?isuddhi :Se/en Stages of 6urity< in -urifying the mind by insight&meditation. @ SWla&/isuddhi a -urity of morality, 7 +itta&/isuddhi a -urity of mind, M DiYYhi&/isuddhi a -urity of /ie*, E "aT.h;&/itarana&/isuddhi a -urity by transcending doubt, 8 Magg;magga&Q;Padassana&/isuddhi a -urity of /ision in discerning the 6ath and not&6ath, N 6ati-ad;&Q;Padassana&/isuddhi a -urity of /ision of the 6ath&-rogress, H ];Padassana&/isuddhi a -urity of /ision of the .no*ledge of the four 6aths. In Ma>>hima Ni.;ya :Sutta 7E< the simile of the stage &coach is mentioned com-aring the se/enfold ?isuddhi *ith se/en stagecoaches. !ne mounts the first coach and tra/els to the second coach. Then one mounts the second coach and tra/els to the third coach, and so on. In e0actly the same *ay one -urifies one1s morality to get to the starting -oint of the -urification of the mind. Then one -urifies the mind in order to get to the starting -oint of the -urification of /ie*. Then one -urifies one1s /ie* to arri/e at the starting -oint of the -urification by transcending doubt. !ne -roceeds in this *ay until the four 6aths and their 5ruits are attained. There in Ma>>hima Ni.;ya it is said that the real and ultimate goal does not consist in the -urity of morality, or of mind, or of /ie*, etc., but in total deli/erance from and e0tinction of defilements.

Ti&la..haPa :Three +haracteristic Mar.s< Ti&la..haPa :Three +haracteristic Mar.s< @ Anicca&la..haPa a the characteristic mar. of im-ermanence 7 Du..ha&la..haPa a the characteristic mar. of suffering M Anatta&la..haPa a the characteristic mar.s of not&self. _)hether 6erfect !nes :Buddhas< a--ear in the *orld or *hether 6erfect !nes do not a--ear in the *orld, it still remains a firm condition, and immutable fact and fi0ed la*, that all formations are im-ermanent, that all formations are sub>ect to suffering, that e/erything is *ithout a self`. :Anguttara Ni.;ya, Boo. I?, Sutta @ME< Threefold Anu-assan; :Three Methods of +ontem-lation< This to-ic describes three methods for conducting insight& meditation on mental and cor-oreal formations, i.e. on the fi/e aggregates of e0istence. @ Anicc;nu-assan; a re-eated contem-lation on the im-ermanent nature of mind and matter in the fi/e aggregates of e0istence. 7 Du..h;nu-assan; a re-eated contem-lation on the unsatisfactory nature of mind and matter in the fi/e aggregates of e0istence. M Anatt;nu-assan; a re-eated contem-lation on the selfless or no&soul nature of mind and matter in the fi/e aggregates of e0istence. Note' The meanings of the threefold anu-assan; are described

here as they are mentioned in most -o-ular boo.s. Actually these meanings can be misleading. The *ord ^contem-lation1 itself is misleading. here as they are mentioned in most -o-ular boo.s. Actually these meanings can be misleading. The *ord ^contem-lation1 itself is misleading. By obser/ing the incessant arising and dissol/ing of the ultimate n;ma and rO-a, one understands the im-ermanent nature as *ell as the unsatisfactory nature of mental and cor-oreal formations. To be sub>ect to incessant dissol/ing itself means suffering. Since the body and mind are made u- of fi/e aggregates and all these aggregates are incessantly forming and dissol/ing, lea/ing no single entity as -ermanent, one realiJes that there is no self nor soul. Thus in /i-assan;&bh;/an;, one actually sees the ultimate things and .no*s their nature. This ultimate nature cannot be .no*n by mere contem-lation. In anicc;nu-assana, one concentrates on the im-ermanent nature of the ultimate n;ma and rO-a, and note re-eatedly _anicca, anicca, aniccaf` for ten to thirty minutes at a stretch. Then one ta.es u- du..h;nu-assana. In du..h;nu-assana, one concentrates on the unsatisfactory nature of the ultimate n;ma and rO-a and notes re-eatedly _du..ha, du..ha, du..ha,f ` for ten to thirty minutes at a stretch. Then one -roceeds *ith anatt;nu-assana.

In anatt;nu-assana, one concentrates on the selfless or no& soul nature of the ultimate n;ma and rO-a, and notes re-eatedly _anatta, anatta, anatta,f` for ten to thirty minutes at a stretch. Then one ta.es u- anicc;nu-assana again. In anatt;nu-assana, one concentrates on the selfless or no& soul nature of the ultimate n;ma and rO-a, and notes re-eatedly _anatta, anatta, anatta,f` for ten to thirty minutes at a stretch. Then one ta.es u- anicc;nu-assana again. Ten ?i-assan;&Q;Pas :Ten Insight "no*ledge< @ Sammasana&Q;Pa The .no*ledge that can in/estigate the three characteristic mar.s of n;ma and rO-a in the fi/e aggregates of e0istence= 7 Udayabbaya&Q;Pa The .no*ledge that can in/estigate the arising and -assing a*ay of the ultimate n;ma and rO-a in the fi/e aggregates of e0istence= M BhaTga&Q;Pa The .no*ledge of the incessant dissolution of the ultimate n;ma and rO-a= E Bhaya&Q;Pa The .no*ledge of realiJing n;ma&rO-a and the fi/e aggregates of e0istence as fearful as they are dissol/ing incessantly= 8 Xdina/a&Q;Pa The .no*ledge that realiJes the fault and unsatisfactoriness in n;ma&rO-a as they ha/e been .no*n to be fearful=

N N H Muncitu.amyat;&Q;Pa The .no*ledge of the desire to esca-e from the entanglement of n;ma&rO-a= G 6aYisan.h;&Q;Pa The .no*ledge to re&in/estigate n;ma&rO-a and the fi/e aggregates of e0istence in order to esca-e there from= C SaT.h;ru-a..h;&Q;Pa The .no*ledge of eIuanimity to*ards n;ma&rO-a and conditioned things= @9 Anuloma&Q;Pa The .no*ledge of ada-tation to the 6ath. Threefold ?imo..ha :Three )ays of Emanci-ation< ^?imo..ha1 means ^emanci-ation, liberation or deli/erance1. It refers to the emanci-ation from the entanglement of n;ma&rO-a, i.e. from the round of rebirth or the sa[s;ra of misery. Here ^/imo..ha1 stands for magga&-hala :the 6ath and its 5ruition< *hich has emanci-ated from defilements :.ilesas<. @ SuQQata&/imo..ha a emanci-ation through the conce-t of /oid by anatt;nu-assana. ^SuQQata a /oid or em-tiness1 here means the absence of ^atta1 or ^self1 or any -ermanent entity in n;ma&rO-a and the fi/e aggregates of e0istence. The yogi *ho -ractises anatt;nu-assana realiJes this conce-t of /oid, and if he attains emanci-ation *hile -ractising anatt;nu-assana his magga&-hala or emanci-ation is .no*n as ^SuQQata&/imo..ha1.

7 7 ^Nimitta1 means mar., sign, image, ob>ect, etc. So ^animitta1 means no mar., no sign, no image, no ob>ect, etc. )hile -ractising anicc;nu-assana, the yogi is obser/ing the incessant dissolution of n;ma&rO-a in the fi/e aggregates all the time. In the ultimate state the fi/e aggregates, *hich are nothing but mental and cor-oreal grou-s, ha/e no form and sha-e nor any sign or image. So *hile the yogi is obser/ing the incessant dissolution of n;ma and rO-a, he obser/es no form and sign at all= he is ha/ing the conce-t of signlessness. If he emanci-ates from defilements through anicc;nu-assana, his magga&-hala or emanci-ation is .no*n as ^Animitta/imo..ha1. M A--anihita&/imo..ha a emanci-ation through the conce-t of desirelessness by du..h;nu-assana. The yogi, *hile -ractising du..h;nu-assana, is obser/ing the unsatisfactory or suffering nature of n;ma&rO-a in the fi/e aggregates all the time. So he has no desire for nor attachment to the n;ma&rO-a. In other *ords he is ha/ing the conce-t of desirelessness :a--anihita<. And if he emanci-ates from defilements through du..h;nu-assana, his magga&-hala or emanci-ation is called ^A--anihita&/imo..ha1. Threefold ?imo..ha&mu.ha :Tri-le 4ate&*ay to #iberation< ^Mu.ha1 means ^door or gate*ay1. The three doors to emanci-ation or liberation from the entanglement of defilements refer bac. to the three anu-assan;s.

@ @. It realiJes that the n;ma&rO-a formations are /oid of ^atta1 or ^self1 or ^ego1. SuQQata refers to ^/oid of atta.1 7 Anicc;nu-assana is Animitta&/imo..ha&mu.ha. It understands that the n;ma&rO-a formations are formless, signless or imageless. Animitta refers to signless state of n;ma&rO-a. M Du..h;nu-assana is A--anihita&/imo..ha&mu.ha. It understands that the n;ma&rO-a formations are >ust suffering or misery. So it de/elo-s no desire :taPh;< for n;ma&rO-a formation. A--anihita refers to the state of desirelessness. In ?isuddhi Magga :+ha-ter DDI, -aragra-h H9<, the follo*ing message is gi/en' @ _)hosoe/er being filled *ith determination :adhimo..ha<, considers all formations as im-ermanent :anicca<, such a -erson attains the signless liberation. 7 _)hosoe/er being filled *ith tranIuility, considers all formations as -ainful :du..ha<, such a -erson attains the desireless liberation. M _)hosoe/er being filled *ith *isdom, considers all formations as not&self :anatta<, such a -erson attains the /oid :suQQata< liberation. The Se/en Stages of the 6ath of 6urification It is clearly stated in Mah;&sati-aYYh;na Sutta that the only *ay to*ards absolute -urity and e0tinction of all sufferings is the Noble Eightfold 6ath :aYYhaTgi.a&magga<. The eight constituents of the 6ath can be di/ided into three grou-s called si..h; :learning or training<'

@ @ 7 Sam;dhi&si..h; a training in concentration This also com-rises three maggaTgas' i Samm;&/;y;ma a right effort ii Samm;&sati a right mindfulness iii Samm;&sam;dhi a right concentration M 6aQQ;&si..h; a training in *isdom This training consists of t*o maggaTgas' i Samm;&diYYhi a right /ie* ii Samm;&saT.a--a a right thought Though the right /ie* :*isdom< should guide the *ay throughout the course of -urification, one should begin *ith sWla&si..h; for the -ur-ose of laying do*n the foundation of the 6ath. Based on sWla&foundation, one shall de/elo- concentration :sam;dhi&si..h;<, and based on concentration, one shall -ractise /i-assan; to de/elo- *isdom :-aQQ;<. So in the 6ath of 6urification :?isuddhi Magga<, sWla/isuddhi :-urity of morality< comes first, and citta&/isuddhi :-urity of the mind *hich refers to sam;dhi&si..h;< comes ne0t. The remaining fi/e /isuddhis corres-ond to -aQQ;&si..h; :training in *isdom<. The -rogress along the 6ath *ill be mar.ed by the se/en /isuddhis, the last /isuddhi being the end of the 6ath. Each /isuddhi is characterised by certain /i-assan;&Q;Pas :insight&.no*ledge<.

These -henomena together *ith the -ractical as-ects of samatha/i-assan; meditation *ill no* be described. @ SWla&/isuddhi :6urity of Morality< A lay&-erson can attain the -urity of morality by fulfilling the three sWla&maggaTgas' @ $ight s-eech a abstaining from lying, slandering, harsh s-eech and /ain tal.= 7 $ight action a abstaining from .illing, stealing and se0ual misconduct= M $ight li/elihood a abstaining from a li/elihood connected *ith immoral s-eech or immoral action. A -erson can fulfil the abo/e moral reIuirements by obser/ing the fi/e -rece-ts. It is better if he can obser/e eight, nine or ten -rece-ts. Most meditation centres in Myanmar as. their yogis to obser/e eight or nine -rece-ts. !ne main reason is to sa/e all the troubles and the money for -re-aring and ser/ing food in the afternoon. Another reason is that yogis *ill ha/e more time to meditate and *ill meditate better *ithout consuming food in the afternoon and in the e/ening. 5resh fruit& >uices and certain light drin.s *ithout mil., barley or any coo.ed /egetables are, ho*e/er, allo*ed. 5or mon.s the -urity of morals consists of four .inds of sWla or disci-line' @ 6;timo..ha&sa[/ara&sWla a moral disci-line as -rescribed by the 6;timo..ha, 7 Indriya&sa[/ara&sWla a mindfulness to -re/ent the arising of defilements :.ilesas< at the fi/e doors :eye, ear, nose, tongue and body<, M X>i/a-;risuddhi&sWla a disci-line as regards -urity of li/elihood.

E E using the necessaries of life in order to -re/ent the arising of defilements in using them. #ay&-ersons should also obser/e the abo/e sWlas for these sWlas de/elo- not only moral culture but also mental culture a both of *hich -a/e they *ay to the arising of concentration. !f course eight or nine -rece-ts ser/e as 6;timo..ha&sa[/ara&sWla for lay&-eo-le. 7 +itta&/isuddhi :6urity of Mind< 5or -urity of mind, the yogis must de/elo- the three sam;dhi maggaTgas' @ $ight effort a underta.ing tranIuility meditation, 7 $ight mindfulness a being mindful on the ob>ect of meditation, M $ight concentration a concentrating one1s mind on the ob>ect of meditation. )hen the meditation -rogresses to the stage of u-ac;rabh;/an;, neighbourhood or access&concentration is attained. At this stage, all the hindrances :ni/;ranas< are tem-orarily dri/en a*ay from the mind. So the mind is free form defilements :.ilesas< and it is -ure. The yogi is said to attain citta&/isuddhi at this stage. If, ho*e/er, the yogi can raise his concentration to >h;na&sam;dhi :ecstatic absor-tion< by continuing his meditation till a--an;bh;/an; is attained, then his mind *ill be free from defilements for longer -eriods of time. The >h;na&concentration is much more stable than access&concentration. It is definitely stated in Abhidhamma that in order to attain -urity of mind, one must attain either u-ac;ra&sam;dhi :access

concentration< or a--an;&sam;dhi :>h;na&concentration<. A--an;sam;dhi means the concentrations associated *ith the fi/e rO-;/acara >h;nas or the four arO-;/acara >h;nas. So to attain 6urity of Mind, one must at least de/elo- access& concentration. )ithout this concentration one cannot -enetrate into the ultimate realities in insight&meditation, and so one cannot gain insight&.no*ledge. A thorough in/estigation has been carried out in 6a&au. Ta*ya Meditation +entre that yogis cannot e/en -enetrate through the body to see the internal organs, let alone to see the ultimate rO-a, the cittas in the cogniti/e series and the cetasi.as associated there*ith, if one is not eIui--ed *ith the sam;dhieye i.e. the mind&eye accom-anied by access&concentration or >h;na&concentration, the more -o*erfully can one -enetrate into the ultimate realities, and so the better. The reader should not forget the simile of the stage&coach. If one misses one coach, one cannot catch the remaining coaches. If one cannot de/elo- Moral 6urity, one shall miss the 6urity of Mind. If one cannot de/elo- 6urity of Mind, one shall miss the ne0t coach, i.e. 6urity of ?ie*, and so on. M DiYYhi&/isuddhi :6urity of ?ie*< EIui--ed *ith sam;dhi&eye, the yogi first loo.s into his body to see thousands and thousands of rO-a&.al;-as :cor-oreal grou-s< arising and dissol/ing incessantly. He analyses the .al;-as to .no* the ultimate rO-as /iJ., -atha/W, ;-o, te>o, /;yo, /aPPa, gandha, rasa, o>;, >W/ita&rO-a :-hysical /itality<, ca..hu&-as;da, etc. Then he characterises each rO-a by means of its salient characteristic :la..haPa<, its function or essential -ro-erties :rasa<, the result of its function or the *ay it a--ears to the yogi1s mind :-accu

-aYYh;na<, and the immediate causes *hich condition its arising :-adaYYh;na<. -aYYh;na<, and the immediate causes *hich condition its arising :-adaYYh;na<. He then characterises each citta and each cetasi.a by means of la..haPa, rasa, -accu-aYYh;na and -adaYYh;na as he has done *ith each rO-a. By characterising each ty-e of citta, each ty-e of cetasi.a and each ty-e of rO-a in his mind and body, he comes to .no* that only the feeling grou- :/edan;<, the -erce-tion grou- :saQQ;<, the grou- of mental formations :saT.h;ra<, the consciousness grou- :/iQQ;Pa< and the cor-oreality grou- :rO-a< e0ist, and that nothing else, such as ^atta1, ^self1 or ^ego1, e/er e0ists. He also understands that >ust as the combination of *heels, a0le, /ehicle&body, horse, etc., is called a carriage, so also the combination of the fi/e grou-s :.handhas< is called ^I, you, he, she or -erson`. His /ie* is no* free from the *rong notion that ^I, you, he, she, atta, self or -erson e0ists1. He is said to attain the 6urity of ?ie* :DiYYhi ?isuddhi<. The ability to characterise each ty-e of citta, each ty-e of cetasi.a and each ty-e of rO-a by means of la..haPa, rasa, -accu-aYYh;na and -adaYYh;na is called ^n;ma&rO-a&-ariccheda&Q;Pa1 :the .no*ledge of characteriJation of mental grou-s and cor-oreal grou-<. This .no*ledge is the landmar. of 6urity of ?ie*.

Note' Note' means of la..haPa, rasa, -accu-aYYh;na and -adaYYh;na is systematically carried out in 6a&au. Ta*ya Meditation +entres. E "aT.h;&/itaraPa&/isuddhi :6urity by Transcending Doubt< ^"aT.h;1 means ^doubt1, it may be either intellectual or ethical double, i.e. methodical doubt or sce-tical doubt. !nly the sce-tical doubt, *hich is identical *ith /ici.icch;, is re>ectable and .ammically un*holesome, as it hinders the inner de/elo-ment of man. The @N doubts enumerated in the Suttas, such as the second Sutta in Ma>>hima Ni.;ya, are as follo*s. a 5i/e doubts concerning the -ast' i Ha/e I been in the -astL ii !r, ha/e not been in the -astL iii )hat ha/e I been in the -astL i/ Ho* ha/e I been in the -astL / 5rom *hat state into *hat state did I change in the -astL b 5i/e doubts concerning the future' i Shall I be in the futureL ii !r, shall I not be in the futureL iii )hat shall I be in the futureL i/ Ho* shall I be in the futureL / 5orm *hat state into *hat state shall I change in the futureL c Si0 doubts concerning the -resent'

i i ii !r, am I notL iii )hat am IL i/ Ho* am IL / )hence has this being comeL /i )hether *ill it goL ^"aT.h;&/itarana&/isuddhi1 means ^-urity by transcending doubt1 or ^-urification by o/ercoming doubt1. Thus in order to reach this stage of -urity, one need to transcend or o/ercome the @N doubts mentioned abo/e as *ell as the G ty-es of /ici.icch; described in Abhidhamma :See +ha-ter 7, -.8G<. So one need to .no* one1s -ast li/es as *ell as one1s future li/es and ho* the -ast, the -resent and the future are inter&related by the #a* of De-endent !rigination. It is stated clearly in ?isuddhi Magga :II, 77@ Myanmar< and Abhidhamma&aYYha.ath; :II, @GC Myanmar< that there is no one, e/en in dreams, *ho became enlightened *ithout seeing the causal relations of De-endent !rigination *ith his o*n *isdom& eye. In order to correlate the -ast mental and cor-oreal -henomena *ith those of the -resent, one must .no* the mental and cor-oreal grou-s of the -ast li/es as *ell as those of the -resent life. Again to correlate the -resent *ith the future, one should also .no* the mental and cor-oreal grou-s of the future li/es. Ho* can one .no* the -ast mental and cor-oreal -henomena *hich ha/e already dissol/ed and the future -henomena *hich do not come into e0istence yetL )ell, the ability of the sam;dhi&mind is mar/ellous. )e ha/e learnt about -ubbeni/;s;nussati&abhiQQ; *hich can remember

thousands of one1s -ast li/es and an;gata[saQ;Pa *hich can .no* one1s future e0istences. thousands of one1s -ast li/es and an;gata[saQ;Pa *hich can .no* one1s future e0istences. The future mental and cor-oreal grou-s may also be obser/ed in a similar *ay by e0amining the -robable results of the fi/e causes of the -resent life. In 6a&au. Ta*ya Meditation centre, the yogi -erforms some meritorious at the shrine by offering candles and flo*ers. He ma.es the usual -rayers and ma.es a *ish as to the .ind of -erson he *ants to be in the ne0t future e0istence as the result of that good deed. He characterises the mental and cor-oreal -henomena *hich arise during this -erformance. He then goes to the common meditation hall and meditates together *ith the other yogis. He de/elo-s concentration, recalls the -re/ious -erformance of the meritorious deed and again analysis the mental and cor-oreal -henomena arising at that time. If he obser/es the same results as he has noted before, he is assured that he can characteriJe e0ternal n;ma&rO-a -henomena. No* based on the -resent fi/e causes /iJ., a/i>>;, taPh;, u-;d;na, saT.h;ra and .amma&bha/a a he tries to /isualiJe the

future life *hich *ill be formed as a result. He may see the same life as he has *ished for at the shrine, or it may be a different one, *hich is more often the case. )hate/er the ne* life may be the yogi again analyses the n;ma&rO-a -henomena of the ne* -erson and correlates the fi/e future effects /iJ., /iQQ;Pa, n;marO-a, sa\;yatana, -hassa and /edan; :see +ha-ter G, -age M@7< *ith the fi/e -resent causes. If he can actually obser/e the fi/e future effect being formed as the results of the fi/e -resent causes, then he is assured con/incingly that the -resent and the future correlation of the #a* of De-endent !rigination holds. The causal relations as described by the #a* of De-endent !rigination and the 7E conditions of 6aYYh;na are the ma>or causal relations *hich go/ern the arising and dissol/ing the mental and cor-oreal -henomena occurring in oursel/es as *ell as in others. There are certain immediate causes *hich the yogi has to in/estigate. 5or e0am-le, four causes must be -resent for the arising of ca..hu&d/;ra /Wthi :the eye&door cogniti/e series<. These causes are the eye&door, the /isible ob>ect, light and manasi.;ra :attention<. similar four causes are res-ecti/ely reIuired for the arising of the other door&cogniti/e series. Again in each cogniti/e series :/Wthi<, .usala cittas :moral .amma&formations< arise as >a/anas if there is ^yoniso manasi.;ra :*ise reflection<, and a.usala cittas :immoral .amma&formations< arise as >a/anas if there is ^ayoniso manasi.;ra1 :un*ise reflection<. De-ending on these .amma&formations again, rebirth consciousness as *ell as other resultant consciousness arise in the ne0t life.

The cor-oreal grou-s are -roduced by four causes /iJ., .amma, citta, utu :te>o< and ;h;ra :o>;<. These causes together *ith their resultants should be seen /i/idly by the sam;dhi&eye. The cor-oreal grou-s are -roduced by four causes /iJ., .amma, citta, utu :te>o< and ;h;ra :o>;<. These causes together *ith their resultants should be seen /i/idly by the sam;dhi&eye. 5urthermore, since the yogi has obser/ed the continuous chain of cause and effect relations occurring in accordance *ith the #a* of De-endent !rigination, he can discard the ^?ie* of the Inefficacy of Action1 :A.iriya&diYYhi<, the ^?ie* of Nihilism1 :Natthi.a&diYYhi<, the ^?ie* of Eternity of the Soul or Ego1 :sassatadiYYhi< and the ^?ie* of Annihilation of the Soul or Ego1 :ucchedadiYYhi<. Numerous s-eculati/e o-inions and theories, *hich at all times ha/e influenced and still are influencing man.ind, and *hich are not in accord *ith the causal relations, can all be eliminated. No* the mind of the yogi is free from all false /ie*s. Thus the stage of the ^6urity of ?ie*1 :DiYYhi ?isuddhi< is further reinforced. Besides since the yogi has no* o/ercome all the @N doubts :.aT.h;< mentioned abo/e as *ell as the sce-tical doubt :/ici.icch;< *ith res-ect to the causal relations, he is said to o/ercome or transcend all doubts. So he has also attained the ^6urity by Transcending Doubt1 :.aT.h;&/itarana ?isuddhi<.

The landmar. of this stage of -urity is %ath;&bhOta&Q;Pa :the .no*ledge *hich can discern the reality correctly< or 6accaya-ariggaha&Q ;Pa :the .no*ledge *hich embraces all the causes of mental and cor-oreal -henomena<. +Ola&Sot;-anna :Funior Stream&*inner< ^Sot;-anna1 is a noble -erson :Ariya< *ho has eliminated diYYhi and /ici.icch; com-letely. He *ill ne/er be reborn in the a-;ya abodes and he is destined to enter Nibb;na in no more than se/en rebirths in the .;ma&-lanes. No* the yogi, *ho has attained N;ma&rO-a&-ariccheda&Q;Pa and 6accaya&-ariggaha&Q;Pa, has tem-orarily eliminated diYYhi and /ici.icch; as described abo/e. So he resembles a sot;-anna but he is not a sot;-anna yet. He is called a cOla&sot;-anna meaning a >unior&sot;-anna. He *ill not be reborn in the a-;ya abodes in his subseIuent life. The t*o .no*ledge, i.e. N;ma&rO-a&-ariccheda&Q;Pa and 6accaya&-ariggaha&Q;Pa are /ery im-ortant. They are the basic .no*ledge in insight&meditations and they constitute the foundations for the arising of ten /i-assan;&Q;Pas in later stages. They are not included in /i-assan;&Q;Pas because they do not concentrate on the three characteristic mar.s :Tila..haPa< of e0istence. Ne/ertheless they re/eal the insight nature of the ultimate realities concerning n;ma and rO-a. They are im-ortant because they eliminate the *rong or e/il /ie*s :micch;&diYYhi< and strengthens the right /ie* :samm;diYYhi<. The *rong /ie*s are re>ected for being a source of e/il as-irations and conduct. It is stated in Anguttara Ni.;ya :Boo. II, Sutta 77< that'

_No other thing than e/il /ie*s do I .no*, ! mon.s, *hereby to such an e0tent the un*holesome things not yet arisen arise, and the un*holesome things already arisen are brought to gro*th and fullness. No other things than e/il /ie*s do I .no*, *hereby to such an e0tent the *holesome things not yet arisen are hindered in their arising, and the *holesome things already arisen disa--ear. No other thing than e/il /ie*s do I .no*, *hereby to such an e0tent human beings at the dissolution of the body at the death are -assing to a *ay of suffering into a *orld of *oe into hell.` _No other thing than e/il /ie*s do I .no*, ! mon.s, *hereby to such an e0tent the un*holesome things not yet arisen arise, and the un*holesome things already arisen are brought to gro*th and fullness. No other things than e/il /ie*s do I .no*, *hereby to such an e0tent the *holesome things not yet arisen are hindered in their arising, and the *holesome things already arisen disa--ear. No other thing than e/il /ie*s do I .no*, *hereby to such an e0tent human beings at the dissolution of the body at the death are -assing to a *ay of suffering into a *orld of *oe into hell.` _)hate/er a man filled *ith e/il /ie*s -erforms or underta.es, or *hate/er he -ossesses of *ill, as-iration, longing and tendencies, all these things lead him to an undesirable, un-leasant and disagreeable state, to *oe and suf fering`. 8 Magg;magga&Q;Padassana ?isuddhi :6urity of ?ision in Discerning the 6ath and not&6ath< The criteria of this 6urity of ?ision is Sammasana&Q;Pa and the first -art of Udayabbaya&Q;Pa. Sammasana&Q;Pa is the .no*ledge that can in/estigate the three characteristic mar.s of n;ma&rO-a in the fi/e aggregates of e0istence. Udayabbaya&Q;Pa is the .no*ledge that can in/estigate the arising and -assing a*ay of the ultimate n;ma and rO-a. Strictly s-ea.ing /i-assan;&bh;/an; *hich is the in/estigation of the three characteristic mar.s of n;ma and rO-a in the thirty&one -lanes of e0istence, begins at this stage. There are four

methods for in/estigating the three characteristic mar.s of e0istence. methods for in/estigating the three characteristic mar.s of e0istence. This is the in/estigation of all conditioned things :saT.h;ra or n;ma&rO-a< in the thirty&one -lanes of e0istence in terms of fi/e grou-s or aggregates *ithout differentiating them as belonging to the -ast, -resent or future. +onsidering all the cor-oreal grou-s in the M@ -lanes that ha/e arisen *ith causes, he meditates' _ This material grou- has the nature to dissol/e and -ass a*ay, so it is im-ermanent :anicca<. It has the nature of fearfulness because of their incessant dissolution, so it is unsatisfactory or suffering :du..ha<. It -ossesses no substantial entity *hich does not dissol/e, so it is not ^I1, not ^-erson1, not ^ego1 nor ^atta1 :anatta<. Then he considers all the feeling grou-, the -erce-tion grou-, the grou- of mental formations and the consciousness grou- in turn and meditates in the same *ay as abo/e. 7 Addh;na&sammasana Method This method in/estigates the conditioned things in the M@ -lanes of e0istence by *ay of duration. He di/ides the conditioned things into the -ast, the -resent and the future grou-. He meditates li.e this' _The material grou- in the -ast life has all dissol/ed in the -ast life. It does not -roceed or -ass on to the -resent. Because of its nature of dissol/ing and -assing a*ay, it is anicca. Because of it nature of fearfulness it is du..ha. Because of its nature of not ^ego or atta1 it is anatta`.

Then considering the fact that all the material grou- in the -resent life *ill dissol/e in this life and *ill not -ass on to the future life, he again meditates on the -resent material grou- as anicca, du..ha and anatta. Then considering the fact that all the material grou- in the -resent life *ill dissol/e in this life and *ill not -ass on to the future life, he again meditates on the -resent material grou- as anicca, du..ha and anatta. M Santati&sammasana Method This method in/estigates the conditioned things in the M@ -lanes of e0istence in terms of continuous series. To -ractise this method the yogi di/ides the cor-oreal grou-s in one life as a series of hot rO-a, a series of cold rO-a, etc. He then meditates thus' _The hot series or rO-a has all dissol/ed. It does not -ass on to the cold series of rO-a. Because of its nature of dissolution, it is anicca. Because of its nature of fearfulness, it is du..ha. Because of its nature of not ^ego or atta1, it is anatta`. Similarly considering the /arious cogniti/e series of consciousness, he meditates that ca..hu&d/;ra /Wthi&cittas dissol/e soon after they are formed and they do not -ass on to sota&d/;ra /Wthi&cittas that sota&d/;ra /Wthi&cittas also dissol/e soon after they are formed and they do not -ass on to gh;na&d/;ra /Wthi&cittas, and so on. So they are anicca, du..ha and anatta on account of their dissolution, fearfulness and not ^ego or atta1 natures. E "haPa&sammasana Method This method in/estigates the conditioned things in the M@ -lanes of e0istence by *ay of momentariness. He meditates li.e this' _The cor-oreal grou- *hich is formed in the -ast moment has all dissol/ed in the -ast. It does not -ass on to the -resent

moment. Because of its dissolution nature, it is anicca. Because of its nature of fearfulness, it is du..ha. Because of its nature of not ^ego or atta1 it is anatta.` moment. Because of its dissolution nature, it is anicca. Because of its nature of fearfulness, it is du..ha. Because of its nature of not ^ego or atta1 it is anatta.` _The mental grou-s :citta and cetasi.as< that ha/e arisen at the moment of bha/aTg;&calana ha/e all dissol/ed at that moment. They do not -ass on to the moment of bha/aTgu&-accheda. Because of their nature of dissolution, they are anicca. Because of their nature of not ^ego or atta1, they are anatta`. The yogi can e0tend this method as far as his .no*ledge can embrace the natural -henomena of n;ma and rO-a. 5or those yogis, *ho ha/e systematically in/estigated the fi/e grou-s of e0istence in the -resent as *ell as in the -ast and the future li/es, and ha/e characteriJed each ty-e of rO-a, citta and cetasi.a by means of la..haPa, rasa, -accu-aYYh;na, -adaYYh;na, and ha/e also correlated these ultimate realties according to the #a* of De-endent !rigination, they can /i/idly see the long chain of arising and dissol/ing of n;ma&rO-a -henomena e0tending from the earliest -ast life they ha/e in/estigated to the subseIuent -ast li/es, to the -resent life and then to the future li/es. Since they can see the arising and the dissolution of indi/idual n;ma and rO-a in the chain, they can easily meditate on the three characteristics of e0istence. According to the e0-erience of 6a&au. Ta*ya yogis, the long chain of arising and dissol/ing of the mental and cor-oreal

-henomena is so distinct that they >ust *atch the arising and the dissol/ing of the -henomena and meditate on them by *ay of anicc;nu-assan; for @9&@8 minutes then by *ay of du..h;nu-assan; for another @9&@8 minutes and again by *ay of anatt;nu-assan; for @9&@8 minutes. -henomena is so distinct that they >ust *atch the arising and the dissol/ing of the -henomena and meditate on them by *ay of anicc;nu-assan; for @9&@8 minutes then by *ay of du..h;nu-assan; for another @9&@8 minutes and again by *ay of anatt;nu-assan; for @9&@8 minutes. Then the conditioned things are in/estigated according to the causal relations. Because the cause arises, the effect arises. )hen the cause dissol/es, the effect also dissol/es. The causes that condition rO-a to arise are a/i>>;, taPh;, .amma and ;h;ra. The causes that condition the cetasi.as to arise are a/i>>;, taPh;, .amma and -hassa. The causes that condition the arising of cittas are a/i>>;, taPh;, .amma and n;ma&rO-a. These the yogi comes to .no* *ell. By meditating in this *ay for thousands of times, the yogi1s in/estigating .no*ledge im-ro/es more and more until he is able to see the arising instant and the dissol/ing instant of n;marO-a /ery clearly. At this stage, the yogi sto-s considering the cause&effect relations, and concentrates on the arising instant and the dissol/ing instant of n;ma&rO-a. The arising and the dissol/ing -henomena of mental and cor-oreal grou-s become /ery distinct *hen the .no*ledge .no*n as Udayabbaya&Q;Pa *hich obser/es these -henomena also arises. As this .no*ledge gathers in strength, the ten U-a..ilesas :im-urities or corru-tion< normally arise. These u-a..ilesas are

/ery distinct, and so they re-resent a /ery good criterion for >udging *hether one has really attained Udayabbaya&Q;Pa. U-a..ilesa :Ten Im-urities of ?i-assan;< . @ !bh;sa a rays emitting from the body on account of insight, 7 6Wti a fi/e .inds of ra-ture :un-recedented >oy<, M 6assaddhi a both .;ya& and citta&-assadhi a tranIuility or Iuietude. E Adhimo..ha a the controlling faculty of strong faith, 8 6aggaha a intense effort *hich su--orts /i-assan;&citta N Su.ha a -leasant feeling in the *hole body due to *holesome citta>a&rO-a, H ];Pa a Iuic. insight *isdom, G U-aYYh;na a mindfulness fi0ed on .ammaYYh;na, C U-e..h; a tatrama>>atu-e..h; and a/a>>anu-e..h;, :the former re-resents tatrama>>attat; cetasi.a *hich can obser/e -henomena effortlessly= the latter refers to the cetana associated *ith a/a>>ana&citta that can reflect on -henomena Iuic.ly< @9 Ni.anti a mild attachment to /i-assan;&Q;Pa *hich is accom-anied by -Wti, -assaddhi, su.ha and obh;sa. !f the ten im-urities mentioned abo/e, only ni.anti :attachment< belongs to .ilesas :defilements<. The remaining ones are *holesome Iualities. %et *hen one is -resented *ith these Iualities, es-ecially the body&rays, un-recedented >oy, Iuietude and ha--iness on account of -leasant feeling, strong religious fer/our due to intense faith, the insight *isdom and the ability to obser/e the arising and -assing a*ay of conditioned things Iuic.ly and effortlessly, one may de/elo- gras-ing diYYhi :the

*rong /ie* that they occur in me<, /icious m;na :the -ride that I alone -ossess these mar/ellous Iualities< and gras-ing taPh; :strong attachment that the Iualities are mine<. These diYYhi, m;na and taPh; really defile one1s meditation because they are real defilements :.ilesas<. *rong /ie* that they occur in me<, /icious m;na :the -ride that I alone -ossess these mar/ellous Iualities< and gras-ing taPh; :strong attachment that the Iualities are mine<. These diYYhi, m;na and taPh; really defile one1s meditation because they are real defilements :.ilesas<. All these -eo-le *ho ha/e such a *rong /ie* :diYYhi< or a /icious -ride :m;na< or a gras-ing attachment :taPh;< are on the *rong 6ath= their meditation *ill be at a standstill and may e/en decline. Those -eo-le, *ho ha/e sufficient .no*ledge of Dhamma, .no* /ery *ell that these unusual -henomena of aura, >oy, ha--iness= etc., are >ust u-a..ilesas and that they do not re-resent a Magga or 6hala yet. To be on the right 6ath, one must meditate on the arising and -assing a*ay of the conditioned things. This .no*ledge *hich can differentiate bet*een the *rong 6ath and the right 6ath is called Magg;magga&Q;Padassana ?isuddhi. The yogi *ho -ossesses this .no*ledge is said to attain the 6urity of ?ision discerning the 6ath and not&6ath. N 6aYi-ad;&Q;Padassana&/isuddhi :6urity of ?ision of the 6ath&-rogress< The 6urity of ?ision of the 6ath&-rogress ranges from the later -art of Udayabbaya&Q;Pa to the last /i-assan;&Q;Pa, co/ering nine insight .no*ledge in all. These .no*ledge ha/e to be de/elo-ed one after another by earnestly and strenuously meditating on the three characteristic mar.s of the conditioned things :saT.h;ra a n;ma&rO-a<.

Udayabbaya&Q;Pa After attaining the 6urity of ?ision discerning the 6ath and not&6ath, the yogi earnestly underta.es the /i-assan;&meditation again, meditating on the three characteristic mar.s of e0istence, *ith -articular attention to the arising -henomena and the dissol/ing of the conditioned things. 4radually the yogi1s Udayabbaya&Q;Pa becomes matured. Udayabbaya&Q;Pa After attaining the 6urity of ?ision discerning the 6ath and not&6ath, the yogi earnestly underta.es the /i-assan;&meditation again, meditating on the three characteristic mar.s of e0istence, *ith -articular attention to the arising -henomena and the dissol/ing of the conditioned things. 4radually the yogi1s Udayabbaya&Q;Pa becomes matured. solution of the ultimate n;ma and rO-a is called BhaTga Q;Pa. If the yogi can obser/e the dissol/ing instant of the BhaTga Q;Pa, that in/estigates the dissol/ing instant of a conditioned thing, *ith a subseIuent BhaTga Q;Pa, then his BhaTga&Q;Pa is said to reach its culmination. Bhaya&Q;Pa )hen the yogi obser/es the incessant dissolution of the conditioned things continuously, he realiJes the fearful

nature of n;ma&rO-a and the fi/e aggregates of e0istence. The yogi is said to attain Bhaya&Q;Pa *hich is the .no*ledge that realiJes the fearful nature of n;ma&rO-a. nature of n;ma&rO-a and the fi/e aggregates of e0istence. The yogi is said to attain Bhaya&Q;Pa *hich is the .no*ledge that realiJes the fearful nature of n;ma&rO-a. Nibbid;&Q;Pa )hen the yogi finds fault in n;ma&rO-a and .no*s *ell ho* unsatisfactory the conditioned things are, he de/elo-s disgust in these things. He is no longer ha--y to -ossess them. He is said to de/elo- Nibbid;&Q;Pa *hich is the .no*ledge of disgust in n;ma&rO-a. MuQcitu.amyat;&Q;Pa )hen the yogi has disgust in n;ma&rO-a, the conditioned things, he *ants to esca-e from the entanglement of n;ma&rO-a >ust as the fish in the net of the fisherman and the little frog in the mouth of the sna.e *ant to esca-e. Thus MuQcitu.amyat;&Q;Pa, i.e. the .no*ledge of the desire to esca-e from the entanglement of n;marO-a arises in the mind of the yogi. 6atisaT.h;&Q;Pa The yogi, *ho *ants to esca-e from the net of n;marO-a finds no *ay out other than to meditate on the three characteristics of e0istence in the fi/e aggregates both internally and e0ternally.

There is a good e0am-le here. A fisherman uses a bell&sha-ed bamboo&bas.et *ith a *ide o-ening at the bottom to catch fish. He lo*ers the bas.et into *ater in a cree. until it touches the bottom of the cree., -uts his hand in from a narro* mouth at the to- of the bas.et, and stirs the *ater in the bas.et *ith his hand to see *hether the bas.et has enclosed some fish. If his hand touches a fish, he *ill catch it. !ther*ise he lifts the bas.et and lo*ers it again and again into *ater a fe* ste-s a*ay from the -re/ious -lace. There is a good e0am-le here. A fisherman uses a bell&sha-ed bamboo&bas.et *ith a *ide o-ening at the bottom to catch fish. He lo*ers the bas.et into *ater in a cree. until it touches the bottom of the cree., -uts his hand in from a narro* mouth at the to- of the bas.et, and stirs the *ater in the bas.et *ith his hand to see *hether the bas.et has enclosed some fish. If his hand touches a fish, he *ill catch it. !ther*ise he lifts the bas.et and lo*ers it again and again into *ater a fe* ste-s a*ay from the -re/ious -lace. At first he thought that he had caught a big fish and so he *as delighted. E/ery *orldling feels delighted in a similar *ay to -ossess mind and body because he does not .no* the fearful nature of n;ma&rO-a yet. )hen the fisherman sa* the three stri-es on the nec. of the sna.e, he .ne* the sna.e to be a *ater&cobra and to be /ery dangerous. This is analogous to the situation *hen the yogi sa* the three characterisitc mar.s of e0istence and the fearful nature of the conditioned things :n;ma&rO-a<. This is the time *hen the yogi attain Bhaya&Q;Pa. )hen the fisherman sa* danger, he found the situation to be unsatisfactory and the sna.e to be disgusting. In the same *ay the yogi, *ho realiJed the

fearful nature of the conditioned things, found them to be unsatisfactory and de/elo-ed disgust on them. These corres-ond to the times *hen the yogi de/elo-ed Xdina/a&Q;Pa and Nibbid;&Q;Pa, res-ecti/ely. fearful nature of the conditioned things, found them to be unsatisfactory and de/elo-ed disgust on them. These corres-ond to the times *hen the yogi de/elo-ed Xdina/a&Q;Pa and Nibbid;&Q;Pa, res-ecti/ely. The fisherman, *ho *ants to esca-e from the sna.e, dares not free the sna.e, because it *ill bite him if he frees it. So, *hether he li.es it or not, he gri-s the sna.e, -ulls it out of the *ater, raises it o/er his head, s*irls it around three or four times, thro*s it a*ay as far as he can and hurries to the high ground. In the same *ay the yogi, *ho *ants to esca-e from n;ma and rO-a, cannot neglect them and forget them. He must ta.e a firm gri- on them by meditating on the three characterisitc mar.s of e0istence. This corres-onds to 6aYisaT.h;&Q;Pa. SaT.h;ru-e..h;&Q;Pa The fisherman, *ho has thro*n a*ay the sna.e and hurried to the high ground, soon feels safe and rela0ed. In a similar manner, the yogi, *ho earnestly meditates on the three characteristics of the conditioned things, soon de/elo-s eIuanimity to*ards n;ma&rO-a. He has either disgust on nor attachment to n;ma&rO-a. He can .ee- a balanced mind e/en though he is obser/ing the true nature of n;ma and rO-a.

Here again there is a good illustration. A man had a beautiful *ife. )e might thin. that he *as luc.y. But his *ife1s beauty attracted the attention of other men, some of *hom *ent out of their *ay to use e/ery means to *in her lo/e. If she *as not faithful or if her mind *as not firm, she might commit adultery. Here again there is a good illustration. A man had a beautiful *ife. )e might thin. that he *as luc.y. But his *ife1s beauty attracted the attention of other men, some of *hom *ent out of their *ay to use e/ery means to *in her lo/e. If she *as not faithful or if her mind *as not firm, she might commit adultery. After that, e/en though the man .ne* that she *as going out *ith se/eral men as usual, he did not feel u-set as her conduct *as not concerned *ith him any more. Similarly the yogi, *ho has de/elo-ed SaT.h;ru-e..h;&Q ;Pa, can maintain eIuanimity to*ards n;marO-a and conditioned things e/en though he is obser/ing the incessant dissolution and the unsatisfactory nature of them. Anuloma&Q;Pa The yogi, *ho can maintain eIuanimity to*ards n;marO-a and conditioned things, carries on his meditation on the three characteristics of e0istence by *ay of the three Anu-assan;s. Ho*e/er, his mind no longer *ants to obser/e the conditioned things. His mind is loo.ing out for Nibb;na, and so long as it does not find Nibb;na, it .ee-s on obser/ing the conditioned things. )hen it

finds Nibb;na, ho*e/er, it de-arts from the conditioned things and enters the realm of Nibb;na. finds Nibb;na, ho*e/er, it de-arts from the conditioned things and enters the realm of Nibb;na. After sailing on for a cou-le of days, the sailors again set free another cro*. The cro* *ould fly as far as it could and , if it did not see land, it *ould come bac.. But if it sa* land, it *ould fly on to the land *ithout returning to the shi-. Then the sailors .no* that land *as near and sailed the shi- to*ards the land. In the same *ay the in/estigating mind *ould .eecoming bac. to SaT.h;ru-e..h;&Q;Pa so long as it did not see Nibb;na. !nce it sa* Nibb;na, it did not come bac.= it -roceeded on to*ards Nibb;na through Magga/Wthi. The Magga&/Wthi has been discussed on -age @HE in +ha-ter I?. It occurs li.e this' a Magga&/Wthi in manda&-aQQ; :slo*&*itted< -erson' _Na&Da&Ma&6a&U&Nu&4o&Magga&6hala&6hala`&Bhaa b Magga&/Wthi in ti..ha&-aQQ; :Iuic.&*itted< -erson' _Na&Da&Ma&U&Nu&4o&Magga&6hala&6hala&6hala`&Bhaa In the abo/e /Wthis the insight .no*ledge associated *ith ^6a&U&Nu1 is .no*n as Anuloma&Q;Pa. 6a a 6ari.amma a -re-aration for the arising of magga.

:It is absent in ti..ha&-aQQ; -erson.< U a u-ac;ra a -ro0imity of magga Nu a anuloma a ada-tation or connection, 4o a gottrabhu a the citta that cuts the -utthu>>ana&lineage to form the ariya&lineage. In the abo/e cogniti/e series, -ari.amma, u-ac;ra and anuloma cittas ta.e tila..haPa as their ob>ect and thus they are included in /i-assan; cittas. 4ottrabhu&Q;Pa 4ottrabhu, on the other hand, ta.es Nibb;na and not tila..haPa as its ob>ect. so it is not included in /i-assan; cittas. The insight .no*ledge associated *ith gottrabhu is called 4ottrabhu Q;Pa. Magga&Q;Pa and 6hala&Q;Pa As gottrabhu -oints the *ay to*ards Nibb;na. Maggacitta and 6hala&cittas follo* immediately ta.ing Nibb;na as their ob>ect. The *isdom :-aQQ;< associated *ith Magga and 6hala are called Magga&Q;Pa and 6hala&Q;Pa, res-ecti/ely. The Magga&Q;Pa, though it arises >ust once, is /ery -o*erful. It simultaneously accom-lishes four functions namely, @ com-rehension of the Truth of suffering, 7 eradication of cra/ing *hich is the cause of suffering, M realiJation of Nibb;na and E full de/elo-ment of the eight constituents of the 6ath. _As the tra/eler by night sees the landsca-e around him by a f lash of lightening and the -icture so obtained s*ims long thereafter before his diJJled eyes, so the indi/idual see.er, by

the f lashing light of insight, glim-ses Nibb;na *ith such clearness that the after -icture ne/er more fades from his mind.` o D$. 6AU# DAH#"E the f lashing light of insight, glim-ses Nibb;na *ith such clearness that the after -icture ne/er more fades from his mind.` o D$. 6AU# DAH#"E 6acca/e..haPa&Q;Pa After the magga&/Wthi and a fe* bha/aTg;&cittas, fi/e -acca/e..haPa&/Wthis normally arise. By these /Wthis the yogi :@< reflects on the 6ath, :7< reflects on the 5ruits, :M< reflects on the Nibb;na he as realiJed, :E< reflects on the defilements he has annihilated and :8< reflects on the defilements he has yet to annihilate. The .no*ledge associated *ith -acca/e..haPa&>a/ana cittas is called 6acca/e..haPa&Q;Pa. Si0teen ];Pas in Series U- to no* the yogi has attained @N Q;Pas /iJ., N;ma&rO-a-ariccheda&Q ;Pa, 6accaya&-ariggaha&Q;Pa, ten /i-assan; Q;Pas :Sammasana&Q;Pa to Anuloma&Q;Pa<, 4ottrabhu Q;Pa, Magga&Q;Pa, 6hala&Q;Pa, and 6acca/e..haPa&Q;Pa. H ];Padassana&/isuddhi :6urity of ?ision of the .no*ledge of the four 6aths< The effort to -urify the mind stage by stage begins *ith sWla/isuddhi. )hen anuloma&Q;Pa is attained, the first si0 stages are com-leted. !n attainment of Magga and 6hala, the final stage of -urification called ];Padassana&/isuddhi is reached.

];Padassana&/isuddhi com-rises four maggas *hich ];Padassana&/isuddhi com-rises four maggas *hich from all defilements stage by stage as described belo*. @ Sot;-attimagga a It is the first magga attainable by yogis. It may be regarded as the first stage of Sainthood. Sota a the stream leading to Nibb;na, A-atti a entering for the first time, Magga a the noble Eightfold 6ath. Sot;-attimagga annihilates t*o .ilesas :defilements< /iJ., diYYhi and /ici.icch; and three 5etters :Samyo>ana< namely, sa..;ya&diYYhi, /ici.icch; and sWlabbata-ar;m;sa. Sa..;ya&diYYhi a -ersonality belief ta.ing the com-le0 combination of -sycho&-hysical aggregates as -erson or self or I. ?ici.icch; a Sce-tical doubt about :@< the Buddha, :7< the Dhamma, :M< the Sangha, :E< the Training, :8< the -ast li/es, :N< the future li/es, :H< both the -ast and the future li/es, and :G< the #a* of De-endent !rigination. SWlabbata-ar;m;sa a adherence to the false /ie* that one becomes -ure and thus be liberated by bo/ine and canine morality or by rites and ceremonies. 7 Sa.ad;g;mi&magga a It is the second magga attainable and may be regarded as the second stage of Sainthood. It does not annihilate any of the remaining .ilesas and 5etter= but it reduces the strength of these defilements. M An;g;mi&magga a It is the third magga attainable and may be regarded as the third stage of Sainthood. It annihilates one more .ilesa, i.e., dosa :hatred<, and t*o more 5etters a namely, .;mar;ga and -aYigha.

Dosa a 6aYigha a hatred or ill*ill ";mar;ga a attachment to sense&ob>ects. Dosa a 6aYigha a hatred or ill*ill ";mar;ga a attachment to sense&ob>ects. Arahatta&magga a It is the fourth magga attainable by yogis and it may be regarded as the fourth and last stage of Sainthood. It annihilates all the remaining .ilesas and 5etters. Ariyas :Noble 6ersons< There are eight ty-es of ariyas a namely, four maggaYYha&-ersons and four -halaYYha&-ersons. The maggaYYha&-ersons, ho*e/er, e0ist only for a conscious moment each, i.e., during the magga&citta they are e0-eriencing. After the dissolution of the magga&citta, they become -halaYYha&-ersons. 5or e0am-le, a -erson is called sot;-atti&maggaYYha -erson *hile the sot;-atti&magga citta is arising in him. After the dissolution of this citta, sot;-atti&-hala citta arises in him and he is .no*n as a sot;-atti&-halaYYha -erson or sot;-anna from this moment on*ards. If a sot;-anna again underta.es /i-assan; meditation, he *ill attain sa.ad;g;mi&magga in due course. During this second maggacitta, he is called a sa.ad;g;mi&maggaYYha -erson. After the dissolution of this citta, sa.ad;g;mi&-hala citta arises in him and he is .no*n as a sa.ad;g;mi&-halaYYha -erson or sa.ad;g;mi from this moment on*ards. A sa.ad;g;mi may again underta.e /i-assan; meditation. )hen he attains the third magga, he is .no*n as an anagamimaggaYYha -erson *hile that magga&citta last. As soon as the maggacitta dissol/es, an;g;mi&-hala citta arises in him and he is called an an;g;mi&-halaYYha -erson or an;g;mi from that moment on*ards.

Again an an;g;mi may underta.e /i-assan; meditation, and *hen he attains the fourth magga, he becomes an arahattamaggaYYha -erson. But as soon as the arahatta&magga citta dissol/es, arahatta&-hala citta arises and he becomes an arahatta&-halaYYha -erson or arahat from that moment on*ards. Thus the four maggaYYha -ersons e0ist for so short a duration that they cannot be -ointed at. !nly the four -halaYYha -ersons can be -ointed at. Their distinct characteristics may be noted as follo*s' @ Sot;-anna or Sot;-an A sot;-anna is one *ho has attained sot;-atti&magga and sot;-atti-hala. He :or she< can en>oy the -eace or Nibb;na *hene/er he *ishes by de/elo-ing the meditati/e absor-tion corres-onding to sot;-atti&-hala&sam;-atti. He is called a stream&*inner because he has entered the stream that leads to Nibb;na. The stream entered the stream that leads to Nibb;na. The stream re-resents the noble Eightfold 6ath. He is no longer a *orldling :-utthu>>ana<, but an ariya :noble -erson<. A sot;-anna has eradicated the t*o *orst defilements, i.e., diYYhi and /ici.icch;, and three basic 5etters namely, sa..;ya diYYhi, /ici.icch; and sWlabbata-ar;m;sa. He has also eliminated the coarse -ro-erties of the remaining defilements3the -ro-erties that can cast a -erson to the a-;ya abodes. So to him, the doors of the a-;ya abodes are closed for e/er, neither *ill he be re/erted to a *orldling again. He has un*a/ering faith in Buddha, Dhamma and Sangha. He *ill also steadfastly obser/e the fi/e -rece-ts and *ill abstain from committing any of the ten a.usala&.amma&-athas, i.e., ten ducaritas or un*holesome actions. The four lobha&mOla diYYhigata

sam-ayutta cittas and the moha&mOla /ici.icch;&sam-ayutta citta *ill ne/er arise in him. sam-ayutta cittas and the moha&mOla /ici.icch;&sam-ayutta citta *ill ne/er arise in him. There are three ty-es of sot;-anna' @ Satta..hattu&-arama&sot;-anna a one *ho enters Nibb;na after se/en li/es, 7 "ola[.ola&sot;-anna a one *ho enters Nibb;na after t*o to si0 li/es, M E.a/i>i&sot;-anna a one *ho enters Nibb;na after one life. 7 Sa.ad;g;mi or Sa.adagam A sa.ad;g;mi is one *ho has attained sa.ad;g;mi&magga and -hala. He :or she< can en>oy the -eace of Nibb;na *hene/er he *ishes by de/elo-ing the meditati/e absor-tion corres-onding to sa.ad;g;mi&-hala&sam;-atti. ^Sa.ad;g;mi1 literally means ^once returner1. A sa.ad;g;mi *ill be reborn only once in the sense s-here. He *ill then become an arahat and, after that last life, *ill be in Nibb;na for e/er. The cittas that arise in a sa.ad;g;mi are the same as those *hich arise in a sot;-anna *ith the only e0ce-tion that a sa.ad;g;mi en>oys sa.ad;g;mi&-hala&sam;-atti instead of sot;-atti-hala& sam;-atti. +om-ared to a sot;-anna, a sa.ad;g;mi has less r;ga, :lust, greed<, dosa :ill*ill, hated< and moha :delusion<. Thus he is nobler than a sot;-anna.

There are si0 .inds of sa.ad;g;mis, namely' There are si0 .inds of sa.ad;g;mis, namely' . Those *ho attain sa.ad;g;mi in the human *orld and attain -arinibb;na here, 7. Those *ho attain sa.ad;g;mi in the human *orld and attain -arinibb;na in a hea/enly realm, M. Those *ho attain sa.ad;g;mi in a hea/enly realm and attain -arinibb;na there, E. Those *ho attain sa.ad;g;mi in a hea/enly realm and attain -arinibb;na in the human *orld, 8. Those *ho attain sa.ad;g;mi in the human -lane, and after being born once in a hea/enly realm, attain -arinibb;na in the human -lane, N. Those *ho attain sa.ad;g;mi in a hea/enly realm, and after being born once in the human -lane, attain -arinibb;na in a hea/enly realm. M An;g;mi or An;gam An an;g;mi is one *ho has attained an;g;mi&magga and -hala. He :or she< can en>oy the -eace of Nibb;na *hene/er he *ishes by de/elo-ing the meditati/e absor-tion corres-onding to an;g;mi&-hala&sam;-atti. ^An;g;mi1 literally means ^no returner1. An an;g;mi *ill not be reborn in the sense s-here. If he does not attain the arahatshiin the -resent life yet, he *ill be reborn in a Brahma realm or 6ure Abode :Suddh;/;sa<, *here he *ill attain arahatshi- and -ass to Nibb;na. Since the an;g;mi&magga eliminates the .ilesa' dosa :hatred< and the t*o 5etters namely, .;mar;ga :sense desire< and -aYigha :hatred or ill*ill<, and an;g;mi *ill no longer e0-erience anger, hatred, *orry, des-air, fright, and any un-leasant mental feeling, neither *ill he en>oy sense -leasures.

His mind *ill al*ays be in -eace and he *ill en>oy the ecstatic -eace of Nibb;na *hene/er he *ishes by de/elo-ing an;g;mi&-hala&sam;-atti. If he attains all the eight >h;nas, he can also en>oy Nirodha&sam;-atti during *hich all consciousness and mental acti/ity are tem-orarily sus-ended. His mind *ill al*ays be in -eace and he *ill en>oy the ecstatic -eace of Nibb;na *hene/er he *ishes by de/elo-ing an;g;mi&-hala&sam;-atti. If he attains all the eight >h;nas, he can also en>oy Nirodha&sam;-atti during *hich all consciousness and mental acti/ity are tem-orarily sus-ended. 7 Those *ho attain arahatshi- *ithin the second half of the life of the 6ure Abode *here they are reborn, M Those *ho attain .ilesa&-arinibb;na :i.e., arahatshi-< *ithout ha/ing to struggle /ery hard, E Those *ho attain .ilesa&-arinibb;na after struggling /ery hard, 8 Those *ho do not attain arahatshi- in the four lo*er abodes of the fi/e 6ure Abodes, but attain arahatshi- in the highest 6ure Abode :i.e., A.aniYYha<. E Arahat An arahat is one *ho has attained arahatta&magga and -hala. He :or she< can en>oy the -eace of Nibb;na *hene/er he *ishes by de/elo-ing the meditati/e absor-tion corres-onding to arahatta-hala& sam;-atti. He can en>oy Nirodha&sam;-atti if he attains the eight >h;nas. Since arahatta&magga eliminates all the defilements :.ilesas<, an arahat has no greed, ill&*ill, delusion, conceit, -ersonality& belief and other bad mental factors. He has no attachment to anything= so he is free from all entanglements. He does not regard anything as his o*n= thus he has no reason to feel sad because something is ta.en or stolen from him.

Because he has u-rooted all dosa :anger, hatred or ill&*ill< from his mind, he *ill ne/er e0-erience un-leasant mental feeling *hich accom-anies dosa&mOla cittas. All the t*el/e a.usala&cittas :immoral consciousness< *ill ne/er arise in him. Because he has u-rooted all dosa :anger, hatred or ill&*ill< from his mind, he *ill ne/er e0-erience un-leasant mental feeling *hich accom-anies dosa&mOla cittas. All the t*el/e a.usala&cittas :immoral consciousness< *ill ne/er arise in him. As arahat, literally meaning a *orthy one, does not accom-lish fresh .ammic acti/ities, and he is not sub>ect to rebirth because the conditions for his re-roduction in matter ha/e been destroyed. Sot;-annas, sa.ad;g;mis and an;g;mis are called se.has because they ha/e yet to undergo a training. Arahats are called ase.has because they no longer need to undergo any training. The arahat realiJes that *hat is to be accom-lished has been done. A hea/y burden of misery has finally been thro*n a*ay, and all forms of cra/ing and all shades of delusion ha/e been annihilated. He no* stands on heights higher than celestial, far remo/ed from uncontrolled -assions and the defilements of the *orld. There are fi/e ty-es of arahats' @ 6aQQ;/imutta&arahat a one *ho is emanci-ated through -aQQ; :*isdom<, 7 Ubhatobh;ga/imutta&arahat a one *ho is emanci-ated in t*o *ays, namely by arO-a>>h;na and by ariy;magga, M Te/i>>a&arahat a one *ho -ossesses the three /i>>;s, E +hal;bhiQQa&arahat a one *ho -ossesses the si0 abhiQQ;s :su-ernormal -o*ers<,

8 8 +onclusion +ittena niyate lo.o. The citta : consciousness< rules o/er all the *orld. The citta of e/ery -erson controls the -erson, leads his e/ery action and sha-es his destiny. Men1s mind has -roduced modern science, has been de/elo-ing it /ery ra-idly and controls all the science technology including the atomic energy and the atomic *ea-ons. It is men1s mind *hich has sha-ed /arious cultures of the *orld and it *ill be men1s minds again *hich *ill direct the hands to -ull the triggers of the atomic *ea-ons *hich *ill *i-e out the human ci/iliJation and the human race from the surface of the earth. Indeed the mind is the most -o*erful agent in all the *orlds. It is the mind *hich mani-ulates the fate of each indi/idual to be born in an a-;ya abode or in the human *orld or in a de/a realm. So it is of -aramount im-ortance to understand the true nature of the mind and the function of each constituent of the mind. There is no doubt that only the Buddha Abhidhamma can analyse the mind in detail and correctly describe the functions of the citta and the cetasi.as *hich constitute the mind.

Moreo/er it is only Buddha Abhidhamma *hich fully and correctly e0-lains the co&relations bet*een the /arious factors of mind and matter in the form of the ma>estic #a* of De-endent !rigination *hich /i/idly describes the rounds of rebirth undergone by each indi/idual. 5urthermore, the Abhidhamma clearly e0-oses the theoretical as *ell as the -ractical as-ects of the Noble Eightfold 6ath, also .no*n as the Middle 6ath by *hich the mind is -urified from the defilements in se/en stages by de/elo-ing mental concentration and /i-assan; insight. The attainment of /arious blissful e0-eriences *hich sur-ass sensual en>oyment and the realiJation of the uniIue -eace of Nibb;na in this /ery life are /ery real, and the Abhidhamma brightly illuminates the right -ath to be follo*ed by e/ery -erson for the attainment of the highest goal in life. E/erybody should study Abhidhamma /ery seriously and use the Abhidhamma .no*ledge as the guiding torch of his life. May the guiding torch of Abhidhamma shine fore/er2 May the su-reme .no*ledge of Abhidhamma e/er enlighten the *hole *orld2

About the Author Dr. Mehm Tin Mon *as born in "ama*et /illage, Mudon to*nshi-, Mon State, Union of Myanmar, on Fanuary @M, @CME. His -arents *ere U %a* In and Da* Sein Tan *ho *ere de/out Buddhists. They belonged to the Mon race and made their li/ing by farming. Mehm Tin Mon attended "ama*et 6rimary School and Mudon State High School *here he to--ed his class e/ery year. He -assed the High School #ea/ing E0amination in @C8@ *ith distinctions in Mathematics and 4eneral Science. He also -assed the Matriculation E0amination in the same year from the first di/ision *ith distinction in Mathematics. He >oined the Uni/ersity of %angon in @C8@. In the Intermediate E0amination held in @C8M, he scored the highest mar.s in mathematics and +hemistry, and he *as a*arded the Uni/ersity Hoe )ah "ain 4old Medal as *ell as the Uni/ersity Scholarshi-. In the Bachelor of Science E0amination held in @C88, he stood first *ith distinctions in 6hysics, +hemistry and 6ure Mathematics. Again he *as a*arded a Uni/ersity gold medal called Esoof Bimiah 4old Medal. In @C8N he -assed the B.Sc. Honours E0amination in +hemistry *ith flying colours and a third Uni/ersity gold medal called U Sh*e #ay 4old Medal *as a*arded to him.

In @C8H he *ent to the United States of America to study at the Uni/ersity of Illinois on a State Scholarshi- s-onsored by the 4o/ernment of the Union of Myanmar. Here also he *as a*arded the Uni/ersity 5ello*shi- record. He gained the Master of Science Degree in @C8G and the Doctorate Degree in @CN9. He also *on membershi- to 6hi #ambaa U-silon Society and Sigma Di Society. In @C8H he *ent to the United States of America to study at the Uni/ersity of Illinois on a State Scholarshi- s-onsored by the 4o/ernment of the Union of Myanmar. Here also he *as a*arded the Uni/ersity 5ello*shi- record. He gained the Master of Science Degree in @C8G and the Doctorate Degree in @CN9. He also *on membershi- to 6hi #ambaa U-silon Society and Sigma Di Society. During his ser/ice to the State, he headed the Buddhist Association of the Institute of Medicine :@<, the Buddhist Association of the Institute of Education and the Buddhist Association of Ma*lamyine Uni/ersity. He also ser/ed as Secretary and later as 6resident of the +entral Buddhist Association of Uni/ersities and Institutes in %angon from @CGM to @CGN. He succeeded in raising funds and building the beautiful t*o&storey Dhammayone :+ommunity Hall for religious -ur-oses< and the sacred Shrine :6agoda< in the Uni/ersity of Ma*lamyine. Dr. Tin Mon also e0celled in $eligious e0aminations. He stood first in the Abhidhamma E0amination :!rdinary #e/el< in @CG@. He also stood first in the Abhidhamma E0amination :Honours #e/el< in @CGM. Again in @CGE he stood first in the ?isuddhi Magga E0amination. These E0aminations are held annually in Myanmar by the De-artment of $eligious Affairs. Dr. Tin Mon has *ritten o/er thirty boo.s on education as *ell as on Buddhism. He tra/elled throughout Myanmar as *ell as abroad deli/ering lectures on Buddhism and conducting short

intensi/e classes on Abhidhamma and meditation. He *as a*arded the title of Saddhamma Fota.adha>a by the 4o/ernment of Union of Myanmar in @CCE for his outstanding contribution to the -ro-agation of Buddhism. intensi/e classes on Abhidhamma and meditation. He *as a*arded the title of Saddhamma Fota.adha>a by the 4o/ernment of Union of Myanmar in @CCE for his outstanding contribution to the -ro-agation of Buddhism. #ectures on Abhidhamma and Buddhism Any interested society or organiJation may in/ite Dr. M. Tin Mon to lecture on Buddhism or teach Abhidhamma in any to*n or country. A full course on Abhidhamma by Dr. M. Tin Mon ta.es about M9 lecturing hours. 6lease contact' Dr. M. Tin Mon @8Z@C U )isara Estate Dagon 6.!. %angon Union of Myanmar. 6hone' C8&9@&7GNN@9