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Designed by: Checked by: DESIGN LOADS & LOAD COMBINATION Wind Load, WL

Project: Element:

Wind load on buildings is estimated in accordance with BS 6399: Part 2: 1997 Section 2. Standard Method Design wind speed, Vs Basic wind speed, Vb Altitude factor , Sa Direction factor, Sd Seasonal factor, Ss Probability fator, Sp Vs Effective wind speed, Ve He = = = = = = = = = Vb x Sa x Sd x Ss x Sp 35 m/s 1 1 1 1 35 m/s Vs x Sb 17.2 m (Conservatively taken as the max. height of the building) Cl. 1.7.3 (Depends on the location in the country) Location/State/Country : Pekan. Pahang (Depends on the site altitude above mean sea level) (normally taken as 1) (normally taken as 1) (normally taken as 1)

Terrain & building factor, Sb

1.90

(Depends on location of the building, whether close to the sea or in town, also depends on effective height. The height may refer to the total height of the building or the height of the part under consideraation. In multi-storey building wind load increases with height and the Sb should be increased at every floor or every 3 or 4 floors. Range between 1.07-2.12) Cl. 2.2.3, Table 4

Ve Dynamic pressure, qs

= =

66.5 m/s 0.613Ve^(2) (Pressure on a surface normal to the wind and is modified by dimensions of the building and by openings in the building) Cl. 2.1.2

= = Press. act. on a ext. surface, pe =

2711 N/m2 2.711 kN/m2 qs x Cpe x Ca Cl. 2.1.3.1

He =Hr =H

Ext. pressure coef. , Cpe

= =

-1.30 (-ve) (Values of Cpe are given for rectangular plan 0.20 (+ve) buildings and for different types of roofs) Cl. 2.4 for walls & rect. building, Cl. 2.5 for roof 0.82 (For extertal pressures. In calculating the size effect factor Ca, the diagonal dimension of the loaded area above the level being considered is used) Cl. 2.1.3.4, Figure 4 & Figure 5

Size effect factor, Ca

pe

= = =

-2.89 kN/m2 0.445 kN/m2 qs x Cpi x Ca (Depends on whether openings occur on the windward or leeward sides, internalk pressure or suction exists inside the building) Cl. 2.1.3.2 (+0.2 & -0.3) Cl. 2.6, Table 16 17.2 m 35 m 100 m

Press. act. on a int. surface, pi

Int. pressure Coef., Cpi Internal volume of stry

= =

0.2 H B L 391.9

Size effect factor, Ca pi Net pressure, p p

= = = = = = = =

Cl. 2.1.3.4, Figure 4 & Figure 5 0.73 0.396 kN/m2 (pe - pi) Cl. 2.1.3.3 -3.29 kN/m2 (-ve) 0.049 kN/m2 (+ve) 0.85 x (1+Cr) x p 0.04 -2.9 kN/m2 0.043 kN/m2 Cl. 1.6, Table 1 &Figure 3 (-ve) (+ve)

Net load , P Dynamic augmentation fact, Cr P

= =

Designed by: Checked by:

AM Ir Khai

Project: Element:

Arena Sukan

DESIGN LOADS & LOAD COMBINATION Truss max. spacing Roof Pitch : : 10 m

1.0 Dead Load, DL Metal Deck (G24) Aluminium cover = = 0.1 kN/m2 0.1 kN/m2 0.2 kN/m2

1.4

0.3 kN/m

2.0 Live Load, LL Without access(except for cleaning/repair) = 0.25 kN/m2 x 1.451 = 0.4 kN/m

Design Load, n span (support to support)

= =

0.972 kN/m 7.5 m

= =

66.68 lb/ft 24.61 ft

Designed by: Checked by: DESIGN LOADS & LOAD COMBINATION Truss max. spacing Roof Pitch : : 7.5 m

Project: Element:

1.0 Dead Load, DL a. Top Chord Truss Selfweight Batten/Purlin Selfweight Metal Deck (G28) Concrete Tiles

= = = =

0.08 0.015 0.1 0 0.195

kN/m2 kN/m2 kN/m2 kN/m2 kN/m2

1.93

0.4 kN/m

b. Bottom Chord M&E services Ceiling Weight

= =

0.2 kN/m2 0 kN/m2 0.2 kN/m2

1.93

0.4 kN/m

2.0 Live Load, LL Without access(except for cleaning/repair) 3.0 Wind Load, LL = 0.25 kN/m2 x 1.93 = 0.5 kN/m