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EXC 6-1

Air Cooled Exchanger Construction


Module 6
EXC 6-2
Heat Exchangers - Course Content
Typical Arrangement
Header Types
Standards
Materials of Construction
Finned Tubing Types
Fan Arrangements
Fans and Drives
Temperature Control
Module 6 - Air Cooled Exchanger Construction
EXC 6-3
Typical Arrangement
Header
Nozzles
Tube Bundle
Supporting Columns
Fan
Drive Assembly
Plenum
Fan
Ring
Fan Deck
EXC 6-4
Header Types
Advantages
Easy cleaning
Easy access to tubes and tubesheet(easy inspection and repair)
Disadvantages
Gasket requirements
Mechanical design of long flanges is difficult for high pressure
and temperature (>300 psig and >350F)
Removable cover
Tubesheet
Gasket
Removable
Cover Plate
EXC 6-5
Header Types
(continued)
Advantages
Good cleaning of header and tubesheet
Header only or tubesheet only can be replaced
Disadvantages
Removal of piping necessary for tubesheet inspection
Gasket requirements
Mechanical design of bonnet is difficult for high pressure
and high temperature (>300 psig and >350F)
Removable bonnet
Tubesheet
Gaskets
Removable Bonnet
EXC 6-6
Header Types
(continued)
Advantages
Easy cleaning of tubes (brush, hydroblasting)
No gaskets
No long-flange design
Fewer bolts (many plugs)
Good for high pressure design (up to 3000 psi)
Good for hydrogen service
Disadvantages
headers have to be chemically cleaned (water, steam, light
hydrocarbon)
Plug headers
Plug
Tubesheet
EXC 6-7
Header Types
(continued)
For large temperature differences > 200F
One must deal with differential expansion of top and bottom
tubes
Example
First pass at 325F, second pass at 120F, Carbon Steel, 30
ft cold length (360 inches at 70F) is about 6.3x10
-6
F
-1
for carbon steel ( is the thermal expansion coefficient)
360.6 inches
360.1 inches
325F
120F
differential expansion is 0.5"
IN
OUT
EXC 6-8
Header Types
(continued)
Split headers
All headers require vents and drains - high and low points
EXC 6-9
Standards
API 661 / ISO 13706 Petroleum and Natural
Gas Industries -- Air-Cooled Heat Exchangers
Mechanical Design
Winterization
Noise Measurement
EXC 6-10
Materials of Construction
Tubes and Headers
Carbon steel
Killed carbon steel (H
2
, wet H
2
S service)
Chrome Moly steels
Stainless steel
Fins
Aluminum
Plenums, Fan Rings and Supports
Structural carbon steel (often galvanized)
EXC 6-11
Finned Tubing Types
Process temperature constrictions are dependent
Fin material
Fin construction - thermal contact of fin to tube
Problems
Separation of fin and tube
Thermal expansion
Poor heat transfer
EXC 6-12
Finned Tubing Types
(continued)
Description
Helical groove is cut into the
outside of the tube wall.
Metal is displaced on each side
of the groove.
Fins are wound into groove.
Displaced metal forced against
each side of the fin.
Embedded Fins (< 750F process temp)
C
L
height
thickness
EXC 6-13
Finned Tubing Types
(continued)
Description
Fins are formed by extrusion
from an aluminum outlet tube
Mechanically bonded to the
tube
Integral/Extruded (< 550F process temp)
C
L
EXC 6-14
Finned Tubing Types
(continued)
Footed (L-foot) (< 350F process temp)
C
L
Description:
Footed fins are tension
wrapped around tube
Each fin butts up against
the adjacent fin to cover
the complete tube
Shields tube against
atmospheric corrosion
EXC 6-15
Finned Tubing Types
(continued)
Footed (L-foot) (< 350F process temp)
C
L
Variations:
Overlapped footed -Next fin
on top of previous L leg.
Knurled footed - Tube and
fins are ribbed for better
holding power.
EXC 6-16
Finned Tubing Types
(continued)
Externally Bonded (<250F process temp)
C
L
Description
Fin is bonded to outside of
tube by welding, brazing or
hot-dip galvanizing.
EXC 6-17
Finned Tubing Types
(continued)
Tension wrapped (<250F process temp)
C
L
u o p
n o t a l l o w e d -
S p e c 4 - 1 3
Description
Fin is tension wounded around tube.
EXC 6-18
Finned Tubing Types
(continued)
Cost scale from least expensive to most expensive
Tension wrapped
Footed
Embedded
Extruded
Typical Tube Sizing
Tubes
1" OD tubes
12 BWG (0.109" thick)
2-1/2" triangular pitch
Fins
Height 0.6"
Thickness 0.12", usually aluminum
About 9-11 fins per inch
Finned area: bare tube area 18-20 : 1
EXC 6-19
Finned Tubing Types
(continued)
2.5"
2.2"
60
0.6"
EXC 6-20
Fan Arrangements and Types
Forced Draft - air is forced or pushed across tubes.
Fan is placed below the bundle.
bundle

Advantages Disadvantages
Lower horsepower (cool air) Air distribution not as good as induced.
Better accessibility of motor and
fan
Hot air velocity away from bundle is small.
Possibility of recirculation of hot air.
Easily adaptable to recirculation
for winterization
Low natural draft capability, unless skirt is
specified
EXC 6-21
Fan Arrangements and Types
(continued)
Induced Draft - air is pulled across tubes. Fan is
placed above the bundle.
bundle
Advantages Disadvantages
good air distribution across bundle higher fan-power required (air is hot)
hot air is blown far away from
bundle
air outlet temperatures must be limited
(prevent fan damage)
bundle is protected from above by
plenum and fan
fan maintenance - damage to bundle
has 'stack' to improve natural draft
(fan failure)
fan maintenance difficult (hot air,
accessibility)

EXC 6-22
Fan Arrangements -
Induced Draft
EXC 6-23
Fan Types
Fixed-pitch fans (2 types)
Blade pitch is permanent
Blade pitch can be adjusted manually when fan is
stopped
Variable pitch blades
Automatic or operator controlled during operation
Greater operational flexibility
Used for power conservation during turndown or low
ambient air temperature
Control of process outlet temperature
EXC 6-24
Driver Types
Standard Motors
Single Speed
Limited turndown/winterization capability
Poor temperature control
Low price
Two Speed Motors
Two forward operating speeds
Better turndown/winterization capability
Variable-Speed Motors
Vary electrical frequency to control motor speed
Used to vary air flow rate for temperature
control or energy conservation
Used instead of AV fans
EXC 6-25
Driver Types
(continued)
Steam Turbines
Vary steam flow rate to vary speed of turbine
Used to vary air flow rate
Same advantages as variable speed motors
Very high cost for equipment
Poor steam turbine efficiencies
Very infrequently used
EXC 6-26
Fan Blade Angle Inspection
EXC 6-27
Drive Belts
Use Direct Drive Cog Type Belt for Motors
Greater Than 20 HP
EXC 6-28
Temperature Control
Control temperature is accomplished by
Varying the air flow (vary T
corr
)
Louvers
Controlled manually
Controlled automatically
Disadvantage:
Snow, ice or corrosion affects operation of
louvers
EXC 6-29
Temperature Control
Control temperature is accomplished by
Two Speed Motors
Motor can be run at fast and slow speed as required
Auto-Variable Pitch Fans
Blade pitch adjusted to vary air flow rate as ambient
air temperature increases
Variable Speed Motors
Fan speed various when process or ambient conditions
changes
Louvers
Not recommended for temperature control