443

444

445

PERU
by Fernando Tuesta Soldevilla*

1. Introduction 1.1 Historical Overview Peru has been independent for more than 150 years and its history during this period largely resembles that of the other Latin American countries, in that the country’s civilian governments have been constantly disrupted by coups d’état that have brought several dictators to power. Since independence in 1821, Peru has experienced 108 presidential terms, their lengths ranging from Manuel María Prado’s ephemeral tenure which lasted just three days (25–28 August 1930) to the eleven years of Augusto B. Leguía’s dictatorship who had himself reelected twice (1919–1930). Most of these governments succeeded each other during the 19th century, but the 20th century has been witness to thirty of them. There are several important turning points in Peruvian political history that are worth mentioning. The first period began in 1821 with national independence and lasted up to the election of 1871. This period was characterized by the absolute presence of the military in politics. A power vacuum followed the war of independence and no leading class was able to develop a national movement together with the other heterogeneous social classes. Therefore, the military, the winner of the war of independence, seized power, supported by select local groups. This meant that there was no chance for democratic elections or political parties. While the power and economic potential of the old aristocracy generally decreased after independence, a part of the bourgeoisie managed to rise politically, economically, and socially by exploiting the economic potential of guano. Between 1869 and 1879 the bourgeois landowners began to shift their economic focus from agricultural production towards new markets, facilitated by the work of semienslaved Chinese immigrants. During this time the state started to
*

The author would like to thank Piero Corvetto for his assistance.

446 participate more actively in the economic development of the country and thus helped the bourgeois class stabilize their new position as the economic and political leading group. This group, formed around Manuel Pardo, developed into the Partido Civil, and became the first Peruvian political party. The party won the 1872 elections, but this civilian government did not last long. It was interrupted by the war against Chile, which resulted in a reduction in the national territory, a bankrupt economy, an indebted country, and the return of the military to the political arena until 1895. In this year, a revolt finally ousted Andrés Avelino Cáceres, who had been elected in 1894 being the only candidate standing for election. Prior to the election, interim President colonel Borgoño had dissolved Congress and reinstated the electoral legislation of 1861. In 1894 a civil war broke out in the middle of a general crisis. Nicolás de Piérola assumed leadership of the rebels. In March 1895, Nicolás de Piérola’s troops entered the city of File where, after two days of military confrontation, the representatives of Cáceres signed an armistice that allowed a government to meet under the chairmanship of Manuel Candamo. The downfall of the military government in 1895 triggered what has come to be called the “Aristocratic Republic”, characterized by the reign of the Partido Civil. The party governed for over twenty years (with a brief interruption from 1912 to 1914). The political landscape in this period was marked by fighting between the oligarchic parties. The two main contenders were the Partido Civil and the Partido Democrático. The former had a clear focus on urban economic development and supported immigration from Europe to counter labor shortages. The latter envisioned a society with an oligarchic elite based on personal merits rather than birth and fought for a federal union between Peru, Chile, and Bolivia. A third party, the Partido Nacional played a minor role but its program was unclear. Elections during this period were barely competitive and were characterized by the exclusion of the majority of the population from political suffrage. Augusto B. Leguía’s seizure of power in 1919 put an end to the hegemony of the Partido Civil, although in the past decade he had been one of its leaders. He was supported by traders, civil servants, middle and lower ranked military, and workers, i.e. by social groups that had only recently emerged and that had different demands to those of the old political elite. Leguía gradually dismantled the bases of support for the Partido Civil, and built an ever-tighter alliance with US-American

447 investors, thereby displacing British investors along the national territory. The increasing numbers of workers began to organize themselves into guilds. This was the start of the Central General de Trabajadores del Perú (CGT), which owed much to the initiative and support of the Marxist Partido Comunista Peruano (PCP), founded by José Carlos Mariátegui, and the populist Partido Aprista Peruano (PAP), founded by Víctor Raúl Haya de la Torre. Both anti-oligarchic groups fought strongly against the „Leguiísmo“, which had banned them on several occasions. The economic crisis of the 1930s, caused by a combination of the worldwide depression and internal factors such as continued spending, brought about Leguía’s downfall, and with it the irruption of the masses into national politics. The oligarchy, unable to form new political parties, had no alternative but to support an army officer, Luis M. Sánchez Cerro, at the 1931 elections. As the PCP was banned, it could not contest these elections, and the defeated PAP labeled them fraudulent. In 1932, the government implemented a series of laws to restrict the political work of the PAP and its leader Haya de la Torre. Shortly afterwards, President Sánchez survived an assassination attempt by a young member of the PAP. The subsequent government repressions against the party and its supporters caused a series of uprisings and the death of many civilians. In 1933, Sánchez was eventually assassinated by another aprista (= member or supporter of the PAP) during a military parade. A state of emergency was declared and General Oscar R. Benavides seized power. This marked the beginning of the third period of military government, during which both apristas and communists were persecuted and repressed. Nevertheless, the apristas managed to gain undisputed leadership among a large sector of the organized population for the next three decades. The country experienced a series of oligarchic governments, not including José Luis Bustamante y Rivero’s government from 1945 to 1948, which was brought to an end by a coup d’état. This period was characterized by the banning of political parties, the impoverishment of most of the population, the lack of political rights, and the strong presence of US-American interests. The oligarchy could not address issues crucial to the majority of the national population, as this would have jeopardized their own economic interests. The processes of industrialization and urbanization, which had begun in the 1950s, went hand in hand with a process of migration to the urban areas that caused overcrowding in Lima and other cities, dramatically exposing the problems of the farming world and threatening the basis of the oligarchic power. At this time, the military’s

448 power of veto, which had been introduced in 1932, was abolished and the PAP joined the political system, yet it had to pay a price: the party aligned itself more closely with the oligarchy and even had to enter into coalitions with them later. In 1956 the PAP supported Manuel Prados’ bid for the Presidency and thereafter maintained a so-called “state of contact” with its former enemies in the government. The antioligarchic stance was partly abandoned and two new reformist parties emerged: Acción Popular (AP) and Democracia Cristiana (DC). Together, the AP and DC won the 1963 presidential elections with their candidate Fernando Belaúnde Terry. However, the failure of Belaúnde Terry’s reformist government worsened the serious problems of Peruvian society, and in 1968 a new military government emerged with a clear program of reforms. It finally displaced the traditional elite political parties from power. General Juan Velasco Alvarado’s government tried to gain popular support, but his authoritarian attitude towards the population gave rise to a marked opposition from a radical union movement and a large group of Marxist parties from the so-called „New Left“, which were established as a radical alternative to the PAP and the CP. The military government of Velasco Alvarado ended in 1975 amidst a wave of social protest and an economic crisis heightened by excessive spending. The military dictator Francisco Morales Bermúdez succeeded Velasco Alvarado as President. However, in 1977, a general strike forced him to call elections to a Constituent Assembly and, three years later, the ongoing economic crisis mobilized suchstrong opposition that the dictator was forced to retire. The process of transition began in 1978 with the “Political Transfer Plan”. An elected Constituent Assembly drafted the constitution that governed the country’s institutional and political life up to the coup d’état of 5 April 1992, led by President Alberto Fujimori. The traditional parties reappeared (PAP, AP, PPC) and other Marxist parties emerged as a consequence of their activity against the dictatorship. All parties were legalized and participated in the transition except for AP, Sendero Luminoso, and Patria Roja. In 1978, an unprecedented series of elections began: one election to the Constitutional Assembly (1978), four municipal elections (1980, 1983, 1986, and 1989), a regional election (1989), and three presidential and parliamentary elections (1980, 1985, 1990). These led to three consecutive constitutional governments as well as many local and

449 regional governments, thereby effectively generating political power. However, the stabilization of democratic institutions did not coincide with an increase in social democracy, so extreme poverty continued to affect the majority of the population, victims of a devastating economic crisis. This abject poverty led to the formation of terrorist groups such as Sendero Luminoso (Lightning Path), but they failed to gain massive popular support for their proposals. Nevertheless, the unstable political system, built on an extremely confused society, and the political institutions descended into a crisis, paving the way for Alberto Fujimori`s coup d’état on 5 April 1992. The 1993 Constitution was drawn up in this state of absolute power, and the Constitution made it possible for the President to be reelected in 1995. President García implemented an extensive fiscal policy, aimed mainly at stimulating economic demand by subsidizing basic products, but these policies led to a substantial increase in the public sector, to inefficiency, and hyperinflation. Alberto Fujimori emerged as an alternative for major sectors of the population, who were disillusioned with politicians in general. During the two first years of his government Fujimori managed to control inflation, albeit at the cost of a deep recession. He also opened up the economy to foreign capital. These achievements, and the Peruvian population’s general distrust of political parties, facilitated Fujimori’s coup d’état in 1992, the so-called autogolpe. At this time Fujimore could count on massive support for his actions, and his leadership was further consolidated thanks to the capture of Abimael Guzmán Reinoso, leader of the Sendero Luminoso, and to the victories in the elections to the Constituent Assembly and the subsequent approval of the Constitution in the 1993 referendum. The election campaign for Fujimori’s third term was marked by a dirty campaign against opposing candidates and electoral fraud. His main contender, Alejandro Toledo, withdrew from the runoff after serious allegations of fraud during the first round, which Fujimori narrowly won. Fujimori’s assumption of office for his third term was accompanied by numerous protests. His final downfall, however, was initiated by the publication of a video tape in September 2000 showing his close advisor Vladimiro Montesinos handing over a large sum of money to a congressman who had defected from the opposition to Fujimori’s ranks. Montesinos fled the country and shortly afterwards Fujimori sought asylum in Japan during a trip to Asia and resigned as President.

450 The Congress declared Valentín Paniagua transitional President. He formed a cabinet of renowned national personalities who prepared the way for the elections of 2001, which were won by Alejandro Toledo. 1.2 Evolution of Electoral Provisions Many different regulations have governed Peru’s electoral law and system. The following laws have governed the Peruvian electoral processes: Electoral Law of 26 April 1822, Law of 2 December 1849, Law of 4 April 1861, Law of 20 November 1896, Law 4907 of 30 January 1924, Electoral Statue-Decree-Law 7177 of 26 May 1931, amended by the Decree-Law 7287, Constitution of 1931, Law of 17 September 1955, Decree-Law 14250 and amendments, and the Constitutions of 1979 and 1993. Throughout Peru’s electoral history the President has been elected together with his two Vice-Presidents, and a two-chamber parliament (senators and deputies). There were also elections to a Constituent Assembly, three of them in the 20th century (1931, 1979, and 1993). The presidential terms varied from five to six years. Since 1931 Parliament has been elected on the same day as the President, and its term of office resembles that of the President. Regarding Peruvian electoral law, all the Constitutions before 1979 (eight in total) were restrictive. During the 19th century, suffrage was limited, voluntary, indirect, and public. The Electoral Law of 1896 granted the right to vote to all male, literate, and tax-paying Peruvian citizens over 21. In 1931 the right to vote was extended to all literate men over 21. Suffrage became compulsory, direct, and secret. However, female suffrage was first introduced in 1955, and women could vote for the first time in 1956. In 1979 the new Constitution finally abolished all remaining requirements that excluded major sectors of the population from voting. Illiterate people voted for the first time in 1980. Until 1979 each Constitution had provided for the indirect election of the president, be it through an electoral college, through parliament, or by direct suffrage. The method applied was plurality. From 1931, the President of the Republic needed to win one third of the vote to be elected. If he failed to muster this amount, Parliament selected one of the top three candidates. However, this only happened once, in 1962. In general, immediate presidential reelection was forbidden, except on two occasions: in 1826, with Bolivar’s ephemeral „Constitución Vitalicia“

451 (Lifelong Constitution), which lasted 54 days, and during Leguía’s eleven-year dictatorship. In parliamentary elections Peru has traditionally had a system of proportional representation. Elections were held in two kinds of constituencies, one for the House of Representatives and one for the Senate. Politically, Peru is divided into departments, which are in turn divided into provinces. Until 1980, the 60 Senators were elected in one single constituency. Thereafter they were elected at the departmental level in multi-member constituencies. The 1979 Constitution stipulated that former presidents became lifelong senators after completing their terms, but this was abolished in the 1993 Constitution. Before the 1979 Constitution, the 180 Representatives were elected at provincial level. As of 1979, the 180 deputies were elected in 24 departments and the constitutional province of Callao. These were also multi-member constituencies but due to their small size many of them were actually single-member districts. The 180 deputies were elected in multi-member constituencies that corresponded to the 24 departments, Lima Metropolitana, Callao port, and the remaining provinces of the department of Lima. In accordance with a transitional provision of the Constitution, Lima was allocated 40 deputies while the rest of the seats were distributed according to population densities: two constituencies of eleven deputies, two of ten, three of nine, three of eight, two of seven, one of six, two of four, four of three, two of two, and three of one. Up to 1931 some parliamentary elections were held at different times to the presidential elections; the reason for this was that only one-third of Parliament was elected at the same time. Since 1931, parliamentary elections have been held at the same time as presidential elections, with the same ballot paper but a different vote. Before this year there had been one single vote with closed and blocked lists. With regard to seat allocation in Parliament, the systems applied were the simple electoral quota at the department or provincial level and the method of the largest remainder. Between 1978 and 1984 parties were required to submit at least 40,000 supporting signatures before national elections to be able to run. In 1984 this number was raised to 100,000 signatures, and as of 1995, parties were required to submit a number of signatures corresponding to 4% of the registered voters. 1.3 Current electoral provisions

452 Sources: Constitution of 1993, Ley Orgánica de Elecciones (No. 26859 / 11/01/1997), Ley de Elecciones Municipales (No. 26864 / 10/14/1997), Ley de los Derechos de Participación Ciudadana (No. 26300) Ley de Elecciones de los Jueces de Paz No Letrados (No. 27539 / 10/25/2001), Ley de Elecciones Regionales (No. 27683 / 03/15/2002). Suffrage: Universal, equal, direct, and secret suffrage for all citizens over the age of 18. Voting is compulsory until the age of 70. Registered citizens have a libreta electoral (electoral card) and a national identity card that enables them to vote. Citizens living abroad may vote at presidential elections and elections to the National Assembly. Members of the armed forces and the national police can neither vote nor be elected. Elected national institutions: The president and his vice presidents are elected on the same ballot paper with only one vote. The term of office is five years. Peru has a unicameral Parliament with 120 members. These 120 members are elected in multi-member constituencies since the 2001 General Elections. Its term coincides with the presidential term. Nomination of candidates: Since 2000 parties have to submit supporting signatures of at least 5% of the registered voters to be allowed to present candidates. The Jurado Nacional de Elecciones delists a party if it did not gain 5% of the vote in the last elections. Candidates can stand for elections on either party or independent lists. Both president and parliamentarians can be reelected. Electoral system: The president and his two vice presidents are elected by absolute majority. If they do not reach this majority a second round is held between the two candidates with the most votes. The president can be reelected. The National Assembly is elected in multi-memeber constituencies with proportional representation since the 2001 General Elections. The party lists are closed and non-blocked. Citizens may cast an optional preferential vote, which means that they can select up to two representatives from the list. The same ballot is used for presidential and parliamentary elections, but with a different vote for each. Seats are allocated following the d’Hondt formula. There is no threshold of representation. If parliamentarians resign or die they are replaced by the

453 candidate on the list who received the highest number of preferential votes. Organizational context of elections: The electoral organization is distributed among three different bodies: the Jurado Nacional de Elecciones (JNE), responsible for electoral justice, the Oficina Nacional de Procesos Electorales (ONPE), responsible for the organization of the electoral process , and the Registro Nacional de Identificación y Estado Civil (RENIEC), in charge of the registry office.

1.4. Comment on the electoral statistics The electoral data presented in the following tables is based on information fromthe Jurado Nacional de Elecciones (JNE), except in some specific cases. Unfortunately, the data before 1963 is incomplete, because the military government that seized power the year before took all the electoral information from the JNE and did not return it. The intention was to examine an alleged case of electoral fraud in favor of the APRA. Only the datafrom 1978 is generally complete, although there are only official publications for the years 1978, 1980, 1983, 1985, 1986, and 1995. No information is available for the presidential elections of 1990, for the elections to the Constituent Congress of 1992, and for the 1993 referendum. Percentages have been calculated by the author.

2. Tables 2.1 Dates of National Elections, Referendums and Coups d’État
Year Presidential elections Parliamentary elections Lower Upper Chamber Chamber 1930 1931 1939 25/08 11/10 22/10 11/10 22/10 22/10 Elections Referendums for Constit. Assembly Coups d’état

454
1945 1948 1950 1956 1962 1963 1968 1975 1978 1980 1985 1990 1990 1992 1993 1995 2000 2000 2001 2001 2005 2006 2006
a b

10/06 02/07 17/06 10/06a 09/06

10/06 02/07 17/06 10/06a 09/06

10/06 27/08 02/07 17/06 10/06a 09/06 18/06 18/07 03/03 03/10 29/08

18/05 14/04 08/04 (1st) 10/06 (2nd) 09/04 09/04 (1st) 28/05c (2nd) 08/04 (1st) 03/06 (2nd) 09/04 (1 ) 04/06 (2nd)
st

18/05 14/04 08/04

18/05 14/04 08/04 22/11 31/10 05/04 31/10

09/04 09/04b 08/04 b 30/10 09/04b

b

Elections have been anulled by coup d’état. The Political Constitution of 1993 abolished the bicameral Parliament (House of Representatives and Senate) and replaced it with the unicameral National Assembly. c The runoff was boycotted by the opposition and its candidate Alejandro Toledo Manrique of Perú Posible.

2.2. Electoral Body 1931 – 2001
Year Type Populationb of electi ona Registered voters Total number Votes cast

% Total number po p. 323,654 339,193 —

1931 1939 1939

CA/P r Pr R

— 6,080,313 6,080,313

392,363 — 597,182 9.8 — —

% reg. vote rs 82. 5 56. 8 —

% pop.

— 5.6 —

455
1939 1945 1945 1945 1950 1950 1950 1956 1956 1956 1962 1962 1962 1963 1963 1963 1978 1980 1980 1980 1985 1985 1985 1990 1990 1990 1990 1992 1993 S Pr R S Pr R S Pr R S Pr R S Pr R S CA Pr R S Pr R S Pr (1st) Pr (2nd) R S CA Ref 6,080,313 6,857,538 6,857,538 6,857,538 7,632,460 7,632,460 7,632,460 8,904,874 8,904,874 8,904,874 10,516,473 10,516,473 10,516,473 10,825,832 10,825,832 10,825,832 16,414,402 17,295,274 17,295,274 17,295,274 19,697,549 19,697,549 19,697,549 22,332,100 22,332,100 22,332,100 22,332,100 22,462,000 22,639,443 — — 776,572 11. 3 — — — — 776,132 10. 2 — — — — 1,575,741 17. 7 — — — — 2,221,906 21. 1 — — — — 2,070,718 19. 1 — — — — 4,978,831 30. 3 6,471,101 6,431,651 37. 2 6,431,651 37. 2 8,333,433 42. 3 8,282,545 42. 0 8,282,545 42. 0 10,013,225 44. 8 10,007,614 44. 8 10,012,325 44. e 8 10,013,225 44. 8 11,339,756 50. 5 11,620,820 51. — 456,310 — — — — — 1,324,229 — — 1,969,288 — — 1,954,284 — — 4,172,962 5,121,328 4,573,141 5,258,247 7,544,836 6,608,533 7,206,943 7,837,116 7,958,232 6,818,536 5,539,680 8,086,312 8,178,742 — 58. 8 — — — — — 84. 0 — — 88. 6 — — 94. 4 — — 83. 1 79. 1 71. 1 81. 8 90. 6 79. 8 87. 0 78. 2 79. 5 68. 1 55. 3 71. 3 70. — 6.7 — — — — — 14.9 — — 18.7 — — 18.1 — — 25.4 29.6 26.4 30.4 38.3 33.6 36.6 35.1 35.6 30.5 24.8 36.0 36.1

456
1995 1995f 2000 2000 2000 2001 2001 2001 2005 2006 2006 2006
a

Pr NA Pr (1st) Pr (2nd) NA Pr (1st) Pr (2nd) NA Ref Pr (1st) Pr (2st) NA

23,531,701 23,531,701 25,939,329 25,939,329 25,939,329 26,346,840 26,346,840 26,346,840

11,974,396 11,865,283 14,567,468 14,567,468 14,567,468 14,898,435 14,898,435 14,898,435 7,234,321 16,494,906 16,494,906 16,494,906

3 50. 1 50. 4 56. 2 56. 2 56. 2 56. 6 56. 6 56. 6

8,803,049 7,961,114 12,066,229 11,800,310 11,942,810 12,264,349 12,128,969 11,987,641 6,267,650 14,632,003 14,468,278 14,632,003

4 73. 5 67. 1 82. 8 81. 0 82. 0 82. 3 81. 4 80. 5 86. 6 88. 7 87. 7 88. 7

37.4 33.8 46.5 45.5 46.0 46.5 46.3 45.5

Pr = President; NA = National Assembly; R = House of Representatives (Lower Chamber), S = Senate (Upper Chamber), CA = Constitutional Assembly, Ref = Referendum. b The population data are based on the census of 1940: 6,208,040; 1961: 9,906,746; 1972: 13,538,208; 1981: 17,754,800 and 1993: 22,048,356. Numbers for the remaining years are estimates and projections based on these data by Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Informática (INEI). Population data for 2000/2001 is taken from INEI. e The difference between the number of voters registered for the Lower and the Upper Chamber elections is due to the fact that Peruvians living abroad cannot vote in the former because of the lack of a national circumscription. f The Constitution of 1993 abolished the bicameral Parliament (House of Representatives and Senate) and replaced it with the unicameral National Assembly.

2.3 Abbreviations of Names of Parties and Alliances
AF AP APP APS Alianza por el Futuro Acción Popular (Popular Action) Alternativa Perú Puma (Alternative Peru Puma) Acción Política Socialista (Socialist Political Action)

457
AR ARS C 90a C 90/NMa CC CN CODEb CODE/PP Acción Republicana (Republican Action) Acción Revolucionaria Socialista (Revolutionary Socialist Action) Cambio 90 (Change 90) Cambio 90/Nueva Mayoría (Change 90/ New Majority) Coalición Conservadora (Conservative Coalition) Coalición Nacional (National Coalition) Convergencia Democrática (Democratic Agreement) Convergencia Democrática/País Posible (Democratic Agreement/Possible Country) COONAN Cooperación Nacional (National Cooperation) DC Democracia Cristiana (Christian Democracy) FAHF Frente Agrícola Humanista Femenino (Humanist-Feminist Agricultural Front) FC Frente de Centro FDN Frente Democrático Nacional (National Democratic Front) FDUN Frente Democrático de Unidad Nacional (Democratic Front of National Unity) FIM Frente Independiente Moralizador (Moralizing Independent Front) FIRN Frente Independiente de Reconciliación Nacional (Independent Front of National Reconciliation) FJD Frente de Juventudes Democráticas (Front of Democratic Youths) c FLN Frente de Liberación Nacional (National Liberation Front) d FNTC Frente Nacional de Trabajadores y Campesinos (National Worker’s and Farmer’s Front) FOCEP Frente Obrero Campesino Estudiantil y Popular (Worker’s, Farmer’s, Student’s and People’s Front) FP Frente Patriótico (Patriotic Front) FREDEMO Frente Democrático (Democratic Front)
e

FREPAP INd ISf IUg LADI LICN LIDJ LIDNC LIFRIH M7J MAS

Frente Agrícola Peruano (Peruvian Agricultural Front) Izquierda Nacionalista (National Left) Izquierda Socialista (Socialist Left) Izquierda Unida (United Left) Lista Avanzada Democrática Independiente (Progressive Independent Democratic List) Lista Independiente Cooperación Nacional (Independent National Cooperation List) Lista Independiente Democrática Junín (Independent Democratic Junín List) Lista Independiente Democracia Nissei Callao (Independent List Democracy Nissei Callao) Lista Independiente Frente Revolucionario de Izquierda de Huánuco (Independent List Leftist Revolutionary Front of Huánuco) Partido Movimiento Nacional 7 de Junio (National Movement 7th of June Party) Movimiento de Avanzada Socialista (Progressive Socialist

458
MBH MDI MDPh MIA MII MINP MIR MIRA ML MNP MPAIS MSI MSP NM OBRAS OPRP P 2000 PADIN PAIS PAN PAP PC PCC PC DEL P PCP PCP-BR PCR PCRP PD PDP PDRP Movement) Movimiento de Bases Hayistas (Movement of the Hayistas’ Basis) Movimiento Democrático de Izquierda (Democratic Leftist Movement) Movimiento Democrático Pradista (Pradista Democratic Movement) Movimiento Independiente Agrario (Independent Agricultural Movement) Movimiento Independiente Inca (Independent Inca Movement) Movimiento Independiente Nuevo Peru (Independent Movement New Peru) Movimiento de Izquierda Revolucionario (Movement of the Revolutionary Left) Movimiento Independiente Regionalista Ancashino (Independent Regionalist Ancashino Movement) Movimiento Libertad (Liberty Movement) Movimiento Nuevo Perú (Movement New Peru) Movimiento Popular de Acción e Integración Social (People’s Movement of Social Action and Integration) Movimiento Social Independiente/Recambio (Social Independent Movement/Change) Movimiento Social Progresista (Social Progressive Movement) Nueva Mayoria (New Majority) Movimiento Cívico Obras (Civil Works Movement) Organización Política de la Revolución Peruana (Political Organization of the Peruvian Revolution) Perú 2000 Partido de Integración Nacional (National Integration Party) Partido de Avanzada e Integración Social (Progressive and Social Integration Party) Partido de Avanzada Nacional (National Progressive Party) Partido Aprista Peruano (Peruvian Aprista Party) Partido Civil (Civil Party) Partido Constitucional (Constitutional Party) Partido Comunista del Perú; Patria Roja (Communist Party of Peru; Red Fatherland Partido Comunista Peruano (Peruvian Communist Party) Partido Comunista Peruano – Bandera Roja (Peruvian Communist Party – Red Flag) Partido Comunista Revolucionario (Revolutionary Communist Party) Partido Constitucional Renovador del Perú (Renovating Constitutional Party of Peru) Partido Demócrata (Democratic Party) Partido Descentralista del Perú (Descentralistic Party of Peru) Partido Democrático Reformista Peruano (Democratic Peruvian

459
PL PMLN PMR PN PND POMR PP PPC PRP PR PRT PSDN PSP PSR PST PUM PyD R SODE UCI UD UDPi UIj UNk UNM UNIRl UNOk UN y CD UPP (1) UPP (2) UR VR VR-PC
a

Reform Party) Partido Liberal (Liberal Party) Partido Mariateguista para la Liberación Nacional (Mariateguista Party for the National Liberation) Partido Mariateguista Revolucionario (Revolutionary Mariateguista Party) Partido Nacional (National Party) Partido Nacional Democrático (National Democratic Party) Partido Obrero Marxista Revolucionario (Revolutionary Workers’ Marxist Party) País Posible (Possible Country) Partido Popular Cristiano (People’s Christian Party) Partido Reformista del Perú (Reformist Party of Peru) Partido Restaurador (Restaurative Party) Partido Revolucionario de los Trabajadores (Revolutionary Worker’s Party) Partido Social Demócrata Nacionalista (Nationalist Social Democratic Party) Partido Socialista del Perú (Socialist Party of Peru) Partido Socialista Revolucionario (Revolutionary Socialist Party of Peru) Partido Socialista de los Trabajadores (Socialist Worker’s Party) Partido Unificado Mariateguista (Unified Mariateguista Party) Paz y Desarrollo (Peace and Development) Movimiento Renovación (Renovation Movement) Solidaridad y Democracia (Solidarity and Democracy) Unión Cívica Independiente (Independent Civic Union) Unión Democrática (Democratic Union) Unidad Democrática Popular (Democratic People’s Union) Unidad de Izquierda (Unity of the Left) Unidad Nacional (National Unity) Unidad Nacional (National Unity) Unión de Izquierda Revolucionaria (Union of the Revolutionary Left) Unión Nacional Odriísta (National Odriísta Union) Unidad Nacional y Concordia Democrática (National Unity and Democratic Concordance) Unión Popular Peruano (Popular Peruvian Union) Unión por el Perú (Union for Peru) Unión Revolucionaria (Revolutionary Union) Vanguardia Revolucionaria (Revolutionary Vanguard) Vanguardia Revolucionaria - Proletariado Comunista (Revolutionary Vanguard – Communist Proletariat)

Cambio 90 participates in the 1990 elections. In the 1992 elections it joins forces with the electoral alliance Nueva Mayoría, forming Cambio 90/Nueva Mayoría. b Front formed by PPC, MBH and independents. c Front, formed mainly by the PCP and some independent individuals.

460
Ran under the name “IN” in 1985 and continued under its own name afterwards. Front formed by AP, PPC, ML and SODE. f Front formed by PSR, PCR and several small groups. g IU is an electoral front formed by PSR, PCP, FOCEP, UDP, UNIR and PCR in 1980. In 1984 the member parties of UDP merged with PUM, which subsequently joined IU. In 1985 APS and PADIN were integrated into PUM, too. PADIN withdrew shortly thereafter. In 1989 the recently founded MAS was incorporated, but some time before the municipal elections of that year IU was definitively divided. PSR, PCR and independent individuals formed IS. In 1990 IU’ members were: PUM, PCP, UNIR, MAS, APS, FOCEP and PMR. h Former Democratic Pradista Movement (Movimiento Democrático Pradista) i Political front formed by VR, MIR and PCR in 1977. After the 1980 elections the front founded IU together with other parties. j Front formed by PCP, PR, FLN and VR-PC. The front joined with UDP and founded IU in 1980. k Participated in 1980 elections as “UN”. Afterwards it continued under its own name. l Front formed by PCP, PSR, PCP-BR. m Front formed by R, PPC and SN for the 2001 elections.
e d

2.4 Electoral Participation of Parties and Alliances 1931–2002
Party/Alliance AR PAPb PCRP PDP PSPc UR CC FP PCPd PR DCe FJD MDP UN y CD APf FLNg MSP UNO FNTCh UPP PDRP ARS FOCEPi Years 1931 1931; 1945; 1962–2001 1931 1931 1931;1962; 1980–1990 1931; 1945; 1963 1939 1939 1945;1962; 1978–1990 1950 1956–1978; 1985–1990 1956 1956; 1963–1980 1956 1962–2001 1962; 1980 1962 1962–1980; 1990 1963–1995 1963 1978 1978 1978–1990 Elections contested Presidential Parliamentarya 1 10 1 — 3 2 1 1 5 1 4 1 2 1 7 2 1 4 4 1 — — 4 1 11 1 1 5 3 1 1 6 1 6 1 4 1 8 2 1 5 6 1 1 1 4

461
PPCj PSRk PSTl UDPm APSn OPRP PAIS PRTo UI UNIR CODE FAHF FDUN IU M7J MBH PADINp PAN PMLN C 90 C 90/NM FIM FREDEMO FREPAP IS UCI UD UPP CODE-PPq OBRAS MNP PRP APP PyD FIRN R MIA Perú 2000 Perú Posible Somos Perúr Solidaridad Nacional Avancemos Solución Popular Todos por la 1978–1995 1978–1990 1978–1985 1978–1980 1980–1990 1980 1980 1980 1980 1980–1990 1985 1985 1985 1985–1995 1985 1985 1985 1985 1985 1990 1992–1995, 2001 1990–2001 1990 1990–2001 1990 1990 1990 1995–2001 1995 1995 1995 1995 1995 1995 1995 1995 1995 2000 2000–2001 2000–2001 2000 2000 2001 2001 3 3 3 1 3 1 1 1 1 3 1 — 1 3 1 1 1 1 — 1 1 1 1 3 1 — 1 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 — — 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 5 4 2 2 3 1 1 1 1 3 1 1 1 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 4 1 4 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 1

462
Victoria Proyecto País Renacimiento Andino Unidad Nacionals
a b

2001 2001 2001

1 1 1

1 1 1

Includes elections to the Constitutional Assemblies. Participated in the 1945 elections on the lists of the FDN. In 1985 parts of DC and SODE joined PAP. c In 1990 PSP participated on the lists of IU. d Participated on following parliamentary lists: 1945 on the FDN list; 1962 on the FLN list; 1980 on the UI list; 1985 on the IU list. It only ran under its own list in the Constitutional Elections of 1978. e Participated in the elections of 1985 on the lists of PAP and in 1990 on those of IS. f Formed by the base of the FJD. It participated in the elections of 1990 on the lists of FREDEMO. In all the other elections it participated with its own lists. g Participated 1980 within UNIR. h In 1995 it participates in the races for the presidency and the Congress together with the alliance Perú al 2000/FNTC. i Front formed by PST, POMR, PCP-BR and independent individuals in 1978. In 1980 the front is dissolved, FOCEP becomes a political party and participates as such in the 1980 elections. From 1985 on it participated on the lists of IU. j Joined CODE for the 1985 elections and FREDEMO for the 1990 elections. k Participated on the lists of PRT in 1980, on the lists of UI in 1985 and on the lists of IS in 1990. l With other groups it formed the FOCEP. In 1980 it participated on the list of PRT and in 1985 it under its own name. m Joined PUM in 1984, with the exception of a PCR wing. n Joined IU in 1985 o In 1980 it included candidates of PST and POMR on its lists. p Participated on the list of IU in 1985. q Former CODE in alliance with País Posible (PP). r Alliance with Causa Democrática. s Alliance of PPC, SN and R.

463 2.5 Referendums
1993 Registered voters Votes cast Invalid votesa Valid votes Yes No
a

Total number 11,620,820 8,178,742 734,645 7,444,097 3,895,763 3,548,334

% – 70.4 8.9 91.0 52.3 47.7

Invalid votes include blank votes.

2005 Registered voters Votes cast Invalid votesa Valid votes Yes No Total number 7,234,321 6,267,650 503,975 5,763,675 1,436,861 4,326,814 % -86.6 8.0 92.0 24.9 75.0

2.6 Elections for Constitutional Assembly 1931–1992
1931a Registered voters Votes cast Invalid votesb Valid votes UR PAP AR Partido Constitucional Renovador del Perú
a

Total number 392,363 323,645 23,818 299,827 152,149 106,088 21,950 19,640

% – 82.5 7.4 92.6 50.8 35.4 7.3 6.5

Seats

%

145 — — — —

100 — — — —

The elections for Constitutional Assembly have been held simultaneously with the presidential elections. b Invalid votes include blank votes.

1978 Registered voters Votes cast Invalid votesa Valid votes

Total number 4,978,831 4,172,962 661,576 3,511,386

% – 83.7 15.8 84.1

Seats

%

464
PAP PPC FOCEP PSR PCP UDP FNTC DC PUN MDP ARS PDRP
a

1,240,674 835,285 433,413 323,520 207,612 160,741 135,552 83,075 74,137 68,619 20,164 19,594

35.4 23.8 12.3 6.6 5.9 4.5 3.8 2.3 2.1 1.9 0.5 0.5

100 37 25 12 6 6 4 4 2 2 2 – –

– 37.0 25.0 12.0 6.0 6.0 4.0 4.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 0.0 0.0

Invalid votes include blank votes.

1992 Registered voters Votes cast Invalid votesa Valid votes C 90/NM PPC FIM R MDI CODE FNTC FREPAP SODE MIA
a

Total number 11,339,756 8,086,312 1,910,255 6,176,057 3,040,552 602,110 437,908 435,414 338,746 326,219 237,162 169,303 126,189 105,703

% – 71.3 23.7 76.3 49.2 9.8 7.1 7.1 5.5 5.3 3.8 2.7 2.0 1.7

Seats

%

80 44 8 7 6 4 4 3 2 1 1

100 55.0 10.0 8.755 7.5 5.0 5.0 3.75 2.5 1.25 1.25

Invalid votes include blank votes.

2.7 Parliamentary Elections 2.7.1. National Assembly 1995–2001
Year Registered voters Votes cast 1995 Total number 11,865,283 7,961,114 2000 % Total number – 14,567,468 67. 11,942,810 % – 82.0

465
Invalid votes Valid votes C90/NM (95) UPP (2) PAP FIM CODE/PP AP PPC R OBRAS IU FREPAP Perú al 2000/FNTC MIA MNP Perú 2000 Perú Posible Somos Perú Solidaridad Nacional Avancemos Other parties
a b

a

3,671,464 4,289,650 2,193,724 584,099 274,263 205,117 175,693 142,638 127,277 123,969 80,918 80,078 46,102 46,027 33,283 28,177 – – – – – 88,231

1 46. 2,007,685 1 53. 9,935,125 9 51. – 1 13. 254,582 6 6.4 546,930 4.8 751,323 4.1 – 3.3 245,115 3.0 – 2.9 – 1.9 – 1.9 – 1.1 216,953 1.1 – 0.8 – 0.7 – – 4,189,018 – 2,308,635 – 715,396 – 399,985 – 307,188 0,7 –

16.8 83.2 – 2.6 5.5 7.6 – 2.5 – – – – 2.2 – – – 42.2 23.2 7.2 4.0 3.1 –

Invalid votes also include blank votes. PRP: 12,484; APP: 11,961; Apertura para el Desarrollo Nacional: 10,224; FIRN: 9,988; MII: 9,281; MSI: 6,116; others: 88,231.

Year Registered voters Votes cast Invalid votes b Valid votes Perú Posible PAP UN FIM Somos Perú C 90/NM AP UPP (2) Solución Popular

2001 Total number 14,898,435 11,987,641 2,565,932 9,421,709 2,477,624 1,857,416 1,304,037 1,034,672 544,193 452,696 393,433 390,236 336,680

% – 80.5 21.4 78.6 26.3 19.7 13.8 11.0 5.8 4.8 4.2 4.1 3.6

466
Todos por la Victoria 191,179 FREPAP 156,264 Proyecto País 155,572 Renacimiento Andino 127,707
a

2.0 1.7 1.7 1.4

Invalid votes also include blank votes.

Year Registered voters Votes cast Invalid votes b Valid votes UPP PAP UN AF FC PP RN

2006 Total number

%

21 21 15 13 7 4

2.7.2 House of Representatives 1980–1990
Year Registered voters Votes cast Invalid votesa Valid votes AP PAP PPC UNIR UDP PRT UI FNTC FOCEP UN MDP APS OPRP PAIS 1980 Total number 6,431,651 4,573,141 941,802 3,631,339 1,413,233 962,801 348,578 172,430 156,415 151,447 124,751 93,416 61,248 31,443 22,573 22,708 21,609 16,493 % – 71.1 27.9 79.4 38.9 26.5 9.6 4.8 4.3 4.2 3.4 2.6 1.7 0.9 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.5 1985 Total number 8,282,545 6,608,533 777,823 5,830,710 491,581 2,920,605 – – – – – – – – – – – – % – 79.8 11.8 88.2 8.4 50.1 – – – – – – – – – – – –

467
IU CODE IN FUN Other parties Independents
a b

– – – – 9,786b 22,408

– – – – 0.3 0.6

1,424,981 649,404 110,695 59,455 74,797c 99,192

24.4 11.1 1.9 1.0 1.3 1.7

Invalid votes include blank votes. PSP c PSP: 14,775; M7J: 24,466; PAN: 19,131; PST: 16,425.

Year Registered voters Votes cast Invalid votesb Valid votes FREDEMO PAP C 90 IU IS FNTC FREPAP UCI Movimiento Regionalista Loreto Other parties Independents
a

1990a Total number 10,012,325 6,818,536 1,857,066 4,961,470 1,492,513 1,240,395 819,527 497,764 264,147 124,544 62,955 41,210 23,836 58,411 336,168

% – 68.1 27.3 72.8 30.1 25.0 16.5 10.0 5.3 2.5 1.3 0.8 0.5 1.2 6.8

The legislative period of five years has been interrupted by the coup d´état on 05/04/92. b Invalid votes include blank votes. c Frente Tacneñista: 18,035; Movimiento Independiente en Acción: 14,547; UNO: 10,788; UD: 7,762; MBH: 5,047; Somos Libres: 2,232.

2.7.3 Senate 1980–1990
Year Registered voters Votes cast Invalid votesa Valid votes PAP 1980 Total number 6,431,651 5,258,247 1,116,044 4,142,203 1,144,203 % – 81.8 21.3 78.8 27.6

468
FNTC AP PSP PPC UNIR PRT UDP UI FOCEP UN OPRP APS Other partiesb
a b

92,892 1,694,952 11,299 385,674 189,080 165,191 145,155 146,085 69,412 25,551 23,339 10,102 30,268

2.2 40.9 0.3 9.3 4.6 4.0 3.5 3.5 1.7 0.6 0.6 0.5 0.7

Invalid votes include blank votes. MDP: 17,560; PAIS: 12,708.

Year Registered voters Votes cast Invalid votesb Valid votes FREDEMO C 90 PAP IU IS FNTC FREPAP UCI Somos Libres CODE AP IN FUN PAN Other parties
a b

1985 Total number 8,282,545 7,206,943 1,162,305 6,044,638 – – 3,099,975 1,521,461 – – – – – 675,621 492,056 103,874 56,859 25,843 69,129d

% – 80.7 16.1 83.9 – – 51.3 25.2 – – – – – 11.2 8.1 1.7 0.9 0.4 1.1

1990a Total number 10,012,325 6,875,950 1,336,270 5,539,680 1,791,077 1,204,132 1,390,954 542,049 303,216 112,388 63,879 45,171 30,671 – – – – – 56,143c

% – 68.7 19.4 80.6 32.3 21.7 25.1 9.8 5.5 2.0 1.2 0.8 0.6 – – – – – 1.0

The legislative period of five years has been interrupted by the coup d´état on 05/04/92. Invalid votes include blank votes. c UNO: 16,479; MBH: 13,616; FIR: 9,065; UD: 8,041; COONAM: 4,002; Movimiento Independiente Solidaridad: 3,142; Confederación Honorífica de Lucha Organizada Independiente: 1,798. d Frente Agrícola Humanista Femenino: 17,540; PST: 16,113; M7J: 15,126; PSP: 12,991; PMLN: 7,359.

469 2.8 Composition of Parliament 2.8.1 National Assembly 1995–2001
Year 1995 Seats % 120 100 4 67 6 8 – – — 17 — — — – 1 – – 5 2 1 2 1 3 3 – – 4.2 1.7 0.8 1.7 0.8 – – – – – — — — – 0.8 – – — 14.2 — — — 3 2 52 5 – – – – – – – 3.3 55.8 – 5 6.7 2000 Seats % 120 100 4 – 9 6 29 9 — 3 — — — 2.5 1.7 43.3 4.2 — — — — — — — — — — — — 2.5 7.5 5 24.2 7.5 3.3 2001 Seats % 120 100 3 3 11 28 45 4 17 6 1 1 1 — — — — — — — — — — — 2.5 2.5 9.2 -23.3 37.5 3.3 14.2 5 0.83 -0.83 -0.83 ------------2006 Seats % 120 100 5 4* 13 11 -36 30 2 2 2 1 5 4* 17 14 45 --------------38

AP AF C 90/NM FIM PAP Perú Posible RN Somos Perú Unidad Nacional UPP (2) Renacimiento Andino Solución Popular Todos por la Victoria Avancemos FREPAP Perú 2000 Solidaridad Nacional CODE/PP IU MIA OBRAS Perú al 2000/FNTC PPC R

2.5 – 2.5 –

470

2.8.2 House of Representatives 1963–1990
Year 1963 1980 1985 1990a Seats % Seats % Seats % Seats % 139 100 180 100 180 100 180 100 56 39 26 10 2 – 3 – – – – – – 3 – – – – – – – 2.2 – – – – – 2.2 – 40.3 28.1 8.7 – 7.2 – 1.4 – 58 98 – – – 10 10 4 – – – – – – 5.6 5.6 2.2 – – – – – 2 32.2 54.4 – – – 12 48 1 – – – – – 1.1 107 10 – – – 6.7 26.6 0.5 59.4 5.6 – – – 25 16 3 32 9 7 4 2 3 53 26 – – – 13.9 8.9 1.7 17.8 5 3.9 2.2 1.1 1.7 29.4 14.4

PAP AP UNO DC MDP PPC IU FNTC (IN) C 90 ML FIM IS SODE Independents
a

The legislative period of five years has been interrupted by the coup d´état on 05/04/92.

2.8.3 Senate 1963–1990
Year PAP AP UNO DC IU b PPC/CODE PRT UDP UNIR UI FOCEP 1963 Seats 45 18 15 7 5 – – — — — — — % 100 40.0 33.3 15.6 11.1 – – — — — — — 1980 Seats 60 18 26 – – — 6 2 2 2 2 1 % 100 30.0 43.3 – – — 10.0 3.3 3.3 3.3 3.3 1.6 1985 Seats 61 30a 6 1a – 15 7 — — — — — % 100 50.1 8.3 – 1.6 25.0 11.6 — — — — — 1990e Seats 62 17c 8 – – 6 5 — — — — — % 100 27.4 12.9 – – 9.7 8.1 — — — — —

471
FNTC SODE C 90 ML IS Independientes
a

– – – – – –

– – – – – –

1 – – – – –

1.6 – – – – –

1 1a – – – –

1.6 1.6 – – – –

1 1 14 6 3 1

1.6 1.6 22.6 9.7 4.8 1.6

DC and SODE participated on the list of the PAP and got one senator each. b IU was founded five months after the 1980 election by Members of Parliament for PRT (02), UDP (02), FOCEP (01), UNIR (02) and UI (02). c Former presidents Belaúnde and García are senators for lifetime after completing their presidential terms. Belaúnde is counted under AP and García under PAP. d The legislative period of five years has been interrupted by the coup d´état on 05/04/92.

2.9 Presidential Elections 1931–2006
1931 Total number Registered voters 392,363 Votes cast 323,645 a Invalid votes 23,818 Valid votes 299,827 Luis M. Sánchez Cerro (UR) 152,149 Víctor Raúl Haya de la Torre (PAP) 106,088 José María de la Jara y Ureta (AR) 21,950 Antonuio Osores (PCRP) 19,640
a

% – 82.5 7.4 92.6 50.8 35.4 7.3 6.5

Invalid votes include blank votes.

1939 Registered voters Votes cast Invalid votesa Valid votes Manuel Prado Ugarteche José Quesada
a

Total number 597,182 — — 339,193 262,971 76,222

% – — — — 77.5 22.5

Invalid votes include blank votes.

1945 Total number Registered voters 776,572 Votes cast — a Invalid votes — Valid votes 456,310 José Luis Bustamante y Rivero 305,590 (FDN) Eloy G. Ureta Montehermoso (UR) 150,720
a

% – — — — 66.9 33.0

Invalid votes include blank votes.

472

1950 Registered voters Votes cast Invalid votes Valid votes Manuel Odría (PR)a
a

Total number — — — — 550,779

% – — — — —

After the eleimination of his adversary Ernesto Montage of the Liga Democrática, Odría was the only candidate.

1956 Registered voters Votes cast Invalid votesa Valid votes Manuel Prado Ugarteche (MDP) Fernando Belaúnde Terry (FJD) Hernando de Lavalle Vargas (UN/CD)
a

Total number 1,575,741 1,324,229 75,931 1,248,298 567,713 457,966 222,619

% – 84.0 5.4 94.3 45.5 36.7 17.8

Invalid votes include blank votes.

1962a Total number Registered voters 2,221,906 Votes cast 1,969,288 b Invalid votes 279,730 Valid votes 1,689,558 Víctor Raúl Haya de la Torre (PAP) 557,007 Fernando Belaúnde Terry (AP) 544,180 Manuel A. Odría Amoretti (UNO) 480,378 Héctor Cornejo Chávez (DC) 48,792 César Pando Egúsquiza (FLN) 33,341 Luciano Castillo Coloma (PSP) 16,658 Alberto Ruiz Eldredge (MSP) 9,202
a b

% – 88.6 14.2 85.8 33.0 32.2 28.4 2.9 2.0 1.0 0.5

Elections were annulled because of a coup´état. Invalid votes include blank votes.

1963 Registered voters Votes cast

Total number 2,070,718 1,954,284

% – 94.4

473
Invalid votesa Valid votes Fernando Belaúnde Terry (AP/DC) Víctor Raúl Haya de la Torre (PAP) Manuel A. Odría Amoretti (UNO) Mareio Samamé Boggio (UPP)
a

139,716 1,814,568 708,662 623,501 463,085 19,320

7.2 92.9 39.1 34.4 25.5 1.1

Invalid votes include blank votes.

1980 Total number Registered voters 6,471,101 Votes cast 5,121,328 a Invalid votes 1,130,074 Valid votes 3,991,254 Fernando Belaúnde Terry (AP) 1,793,190 Armando Villanueva del Campo 1,087,188 (APRA) Luis Bedoya Reyes (PPC) 382,547 Hugo Blanco Galdós (PRT) 160,713 Horacio Zevallos Gámes (UNIR) 134,321 Leonidas Rodríguez Figueroa (UI) 116,890 Carlos Malpica Santisteban (UDP) 98,452 Roger Cáceres Velásquez (FNTC) 81,647 Genaro Ledesma Izquieta (FOCEP) 60,853 b Other candidates 75,453
a b

% – 79.1 22.1 77.9 44.9 27.2 9.6 4.0 3.4 2.9 2.5 2.0 1.5 1.9

Invalid votes include blank votes. Carlos Carrillo Smith (UN): 18,170; Javier Tantaleán Vanini (OPRP): 17,737; Gustavo Mohme Llona (APS): 11,607; Alejandro Tudela Garland (MDP): 9,875; Waldo Fernández Durán (PAIS): 9,350; Luciano Castillo Coloma (PSP): 8,714.

1985 Registered voters Votes cast Invalid votesa Valid votes Alan García Pérez (PAP) Alfonso Barrantes Lingán (IU) Luis Bedoya Reyes (CODE) Javier Alva Orlandini (AP) Roger Cáceres Velásquez (IN)b Francisco Morales Bermúdez (FDUN) Other candidatesc
a

Total number 8,333,433 7,544,836 1,044,181 6,500,550 3,452,111 1,605,139 773,313 471,150 91,968 54,899 52,212

% – 90.6 13.8 86.2 53.1 24.7 11.9 7.3 1.4 0.8 0.8

Invalid votes include blank votes.

474
FNTC was called IN during the election. It was renamed to its old name afterwards. Jorge Campos Arredondo (PAN): 26,366; Enrique Fernández Chacón (PST): 15,696; Peter Uculmana (M7J): 10,150.
c b

1990 (First round) Registered voters Votes cast Invalid votesa Valid votes Mario Vargas Llosa (FREDEMO) Alberto Fujimori Fujimori (C 90) Luis Alva Castro (PAP) Henry Pease García (IU) Alfonso Barrantes Lingán (IS) Roger Cáceres Velásquez (FNTC) Ezequiel Atacusi Gamonal (FREPAP) Other candidatesb
a b

Total number 10,013,225 7,837,116 1,195,532 6,641,584 2,163,323 1,932,208 1,494,231 544,889 315,038 86,418 73,974 31,503

% – 78.3 15.3 84.7 32.6 29.1 22.5 8.2 4.7 1.3 1.1 0.5

Invalid votes include blank votes. Dora Larrea de Castillo (UNO): 21,962; Nicolás de Piérola y Balta (UD): 9,541.

1990 (Second round) Registered voters Votes cast Invalid votesa Valid votes Alberto Fujimori Fujimori (C 90) Mario Vargas Llosa (FREDEMO)
a

Total number 10,007,614 7,958,232 760,044 7,198,188 4,489,897 2,708,291

% – 79.5 9.6 90.4 62.4 37.6

Invalid votes include blank votes.

1995 Registered voters Votes cast Invalid votesa Valid votes Alberto Fujimori Fujimori (C90/NM) Javier Pérez de Cuéllar (UPP [2]) Mercedes Cabanillas (PAP) Alejandro Toledo Manrique (CODE/PP) Ricardo Belmont (OBRAS) Raúl Diez Canseco (AP)

Total number 11,974,396 8,803,049 1,576,708 7,226,341 4,645,279 1,555,623 297,327 234,964 175,042 121,872

% – 73.5 17.9 82.1 64.3 21.5 4.1 3.3 2.4 1.7

475
Ezequiel Ataucusi (FREPAP) Augustín Haya de la Torre (IU) Other candidatesb
a

56,827 41,985 60,021

0.8 0.6 0,8

Invalid votes include blank votes. b Includes Luis Cáceres Velásquez (Perú al 2000/FNTC): 24,640; Sixtilio Dalmau (MNP): 9,583; Víctor Echegaray (PRP): 8,829; Edmundo Inga (APP): 6,740; Miguel Campos (P y D): 6,143; Carlos Cruz (FIRN): 5,106.

2000 (First Round) Registered voters Votes cast Invalid votes Valid votes Alberto Fujimori Fujimori (Perú 2000) Alejandro Toledo Manrique (Perú Posible) Alberto Andrade Carmona (Somos Perú) Federico Salas Guevara Schultz (Avancemos) Luis Castañeda Lossio (Solidaridad Nacional) Abel Salinas Izaguirre (PAP) Ezequiel Ataucusi Gamonal (FREPAP) Other candidatesb
b

Total number 14,567,468 12,066,229 980,359 11,085,870 5,528,568 4,460,895 333,048 247,054 199,814 153,319 80,106 83,066

% – 82.8 8.1 91.9 49.9 40.2 3.0 2.2 1.8 1.4 0.7 0.7

Víctor Andrés García Belaúnde (AP): 46,523; Máximo San Román Cáceres (UPP [2]): 36,543.

2000 (Runoff) Registered voters Votes cast Invalid votes Valid votes Alberto Fujimori Fujimori (Perú 2000) Alejandro Toledo Manrique (Perú Posible)b
b

Total number 14,567,467 11,800,310 3,672,410 8,127,900 6,041,685 2,086,215

% – 81.0 31.1 68.9 74.3 25,7

Toledo and his coalition inofficially withdrew from the runoff and asked their followers to boycott the election.

2001 (First round) Registered voters Votes cast Invalid votes

Total number 14,898,435 12,264,349 1,662,629

% – 82.3 13.6

476
Valid votes Alejandro Toledo Manrique (Perú Posible) Alan García Pérez (PAP) Lourdes Flores (UN) Fernando Olivera (FIM) Carlos Boloña (Solución Popular) Ciro Gálvez (Renacimiento Andino) Marco Arrunategui (Proyecto País) Ricardo Noriega (Todos por la Victoría) 2001 (Runoff) Registered voters Votes cast Invalid votes Valid votes Alejandro Toledo Manrique (Perú Posible) Alan García Pérez (PAP) 10,601,720 3,871,167 2,732,857 2,576,653 1,044,207 179,243 85,436 79,077 33,080 86.4 36.5 25.8 24.3 9.8 1.7 0.8 0.7 0.3

Total number 14,898,435 12,128,969 1,675,484 10,453,485 5,548,556 4,904,929

% – 81.4 13.8 86.2 53.1 46.9

2.10 List of Power Holders 1821–2002
Head of state José de San Martín Matorras José B. de la Torre Tagle Francisco J. de Luna Pizarro José B. de la Torre Tagle José de la Riva Agüero y Sánchez Boquete Antonio J. de Sucre José B. de la Torre Tagle Years 1821–1822 1822 1822 1823 1823 1823 1823–1824 Remarks
Military officer. General en Jefe del Ejército Libertador from 28/07/21 to 03/08/21 and Protector del Perú from 03/08 until 20/09/22. “Supreme Delegate”, elected by the Congress. Governed betweeen 19/01 until 19/08. Military officer. President of Constitutional Assembly between 20/09 and 22/09. Military officer. Governed from 27/02 until 20/02. Military officer. President from 28/02 until 23/06.

Military officer. “Military Supreme Chief” from 23/06 until 17/07. Military officer. President and delegate for Sucre between 17/07/23 and 02/09/24.

477
Simón Bolívar Palacios José de La Mar Cortázar Hipólito Unanue Pavón José de La Mar Cortázar 1824–1826 1825 1825–1826 1826
Military officer. Nominated by Congress on 02/09/24. Governed until 16/02/1826. Military officer. President of the Council of Ministers, elected by Simón Bolívar. Governed from 24/02 until 01/04. President of the Council of Government, elected by Simón Bolívar. Governed from 01/04/25 until 05/01/26. Military officer. President of the Council of Government, elected by Simón Bolívar. Governed from 05/01 until 25/02. President of the Council of Government, elected by Simón Bolívar. Governed from 25/02 until 28/06. Military officer. President of the Council of Government, elected by Simón Bolívar. Governde from 28/06/26 until 04/06/27. Military officer. President elected by Congress. Governed from 09/06/27 until 07/06/29. Transitional Governor elected by Congress on 20/05/28. Overthrown by a coup d´etat on 06/06/29. Military officer. “Supreme Chief” on 06/06. Overthrown by a coup d'état on 07/06. Military officer. Constitutional President from 07/06/29 until 19/12/33. Vice President, delegate for Agustín Gamarra, in power from 04/09/30 until 16/04/31. President elected by the Senate. Delegate of the Council of State. Governed from 18/04 until 21/12. President elected by the Senate. Delegata for Agustín Gamarra. Governed from 27/09 until 01/11. Vice President of the Council of Government and delegate for Agustín Gamarra. Governed from 30/07 until 22/11. Military officer. Transitional President, elected by the Congress on 20/12/33. Overthrown by a coup d'état on 22/02/35. Military officer. Transitional "Supreme Chief" from 04/01 until 28/01. His government was only recognized by the departments of Cuzco, Puno, Ayacucho and Huancavelica. "Supreme Delegate", delegate for Luis Orbegoso. In power from 20/03/34. Overthrown by a coup d'état on 22/02/35. Military officer. "Supreme Chief" from 22/02/35 until 08/01/36.

Hipólito Unanue 1826 Pavón Andrés de Santa Cruz 1826–1827 Calaumana José de La Mar Cortázar Manuel Salazar y Baquíjano Antonio Gutierrez de la Fuente Agustín Gamarra 1827–1829 1828–1829 1829 1829–1833

Antonio Gutierrez de 1830–1831 la Fuente Andrés Reyes 1831 Manuel Tellería José Braulio del Campo Redondo Luis J. Orbegoso Pedro Bermúdez Ascarza Manuel Salazar Baquíjano Felipe Santiago Salaverry 1832 1833 1833–1835 1834

1834–1835 1835–1836

478
Agustín Gamarra Juan Bautista de Lavalle Zugasti 1835 1835
Military officer. President of the Council of Government, designated by Felipe Santiago Salaverry. In power from 12/09 until 10/10. Military officer. President of the Council of Government, designated by Felipe Santiago Salaverry. Governed from 10/10. Overthrown by a coup d'état on 28/10/36. Military officer. "Protector de la Confederación" from 28/10/36 until 20/02/39. Military officer. President of the Council of Government from 24/01. Overthrown by a coup d'état on 04/1837. Military officer. Constitutional President from 24/08/38 until 18/11/41. President of the Council of State, took over power from Agustín Gamarra on 14/07/41. Overthrown by a coup d'état on 16/08/42. Military officer. Second Vice President from 16/08. Overthrown by a coup d'état on 17/10. Military officer. Second Vice President from 28/07/42 until 15/03/43. Vice President from 16/03. Overthrown by a coup d'état on 19/03. Military officer. "Supreme Delegate" from 17/04/43. Overthrown by a coup d'état on 17/06/44. Military officer. President of the Junta of Government from 03/09/43. Overthrown by a coup d'état on 17/02/44. Prefect in charge of the northern command from 17/06. Overthrown by a coup d'état on 10/08. President of the Council of Government from 10/08 until 11/08. President of the Council of Government from 11/08 until 07/10. President of the Council of State from 07/10/44 until 20/04/45. Military officer. President elected by Congress. Governed from 20/04/45 until 20/04/51. Military officer. President elected by Congress. Governed from 20/04/51 until 17/07/54. Military officer. President of the Council of State from 17/07/54. Overthrown by a coup d'état on 05/01/85.

Andrés de Santa Cruz 1836–1839 Calaumana Pío Tristán y 1837 Moscoso Agustín Gamarra Manuel Menéndez Juan Crisóstomo Torrico Francisco Vidal Justo Figuerola Estrada Manuel I. Vivanco Domingo Nieto Domingo Elías Carbajo Manuel Menéndez Justo Figuerola Estrada Manuel Méndez Ramón Castilla José R. Echenique Benavente Miguel Medina 1838–1841 1841–1842 1842 1842–1843 1843 1843–1844 1843–1844 1844 1844 1844 1844–1845 1845–1851 1851–1854 1854–1855

479
Ramón Castilla José M. Raygada Ramón Castilla Juan M. Del Mar Ramón Castilla Miguel San Román 1855–1857 1857–1858 1858–1859 1859–1860 1860–1862 1862–1863
Military officer. Transitional President from 05/01/55 until 01/04/57. Military officer. President of the Council of Ministers from 01/04/1857 until 25/10/1858. Military officer. Constitutional President from 25/10/1858 until 29/09/1859. Military officer. President in charge from 29/09/1859 until 22/03/1860. Military officer. Constitutional President from 22/03/1860 until 24/10/1862. Military officer. President elected by Congress, governed from 24/10/1862 until 03/04/1863. Military officer. Second Vice President from 03/04/1863 until 05/08/1863. Military officer. First Vice President from 05/08/1863 until 06/11/1865. Military officer. He was second Vice President under Juan Pezet and succeeded him on 06/11/1865. Overthrown by a coup d'état on 28/11/1865. Military officer. Governed from 28/11/1865 until 12/10/1867. Military officer. He was first Vice President under Mariano Prado and succeeded him. He governed from 12/10/1867 until 07/11/1868. Military officer. Provisional President from 07/01/1868 until 02/08/1868. Military officer. President from 02/08/1868 until 22/07/1872. Military officer. Governed from 22/07/1872 until 26/07/1872. Military officer. First Vice President, in power from 26/07/1872 until 02/08/1872. Vice President, in power from 02/08/1872 until 28/11/1874. First Vice President, in power from 28/11/1874 until 18/01/1875. President from 18/01/1875 until 02/08/1876. Military officer. President from 02/08/1876 until 18/12/1879. Military officer. He was first Vice President under Mariano Prado and succeeded him. In power from 18/12/1879 until 23/12/1879. Governed from 23/12/1879 until 28/11/1881. Transitional President from 12/03/1881 until

Pedro Diez Canseco 1863 Corbacho Juan A. Pezet 1863–1865 Pedro Diez Canseco 1865 Corbacho Mariano I. Prado Luis La Puerta Mendoza 1865–1867 1867–1868

Pedro Diez Canseco 1868 Corbacho José Balta Montero 1868–1872 Tomás Gutierrez 1872

Manuel Herencia 1872 Cevallos Manuel Pardo Lavalle 1872–1874 Manuel Costas 1874–1875

Manuel Pardo Lavalle 1875–1876 Mariano I. Prado 1876–1879 Luis La Puerta Mendoza Nicolás de Piérola Villena Francisco García 1879 1879–1881 1881

480
Calderón Landa Lizardo Montero Flores 1881–1882
10/07/1881 and President from 10/07/1881 until 06/11/1881. Military officer. He was first Vice President under Francisco García Calderón Landa and succeeded him. Governed from 09/11/1881 until 25/12/1882. Military officer. President elected by Congress on 25/12/1882. Governed until 03/12/1885. President of the Council of Ministers from 03/12/1885 until 03/06/1886. Military officer. Constitutional President from 03/06/1886 until 10/08/1890. Military officer. Constitutional President from 10/08/1890 until 01/04/1894. He died in office. Military officer. He was Second Vice President under Remigio Morales Bermúdez and succeeded him after his death. Governed from 01/04 until 10/08. Military officer. Constitutional President from 10/08/1894. Overthrown by a coup d'état on 20/03/1895. President of the Junta of Government from 20/03 until 08/09. Constitutional President from 08/09/1895 until 08/09/1899. Constitutional President from 08/09/1899 until 03/09/1903. Constitutional President from 08/09/1903 until 18/04/1904. He died in office. He was the second Vice President under Candamo and succeeded him after his death. President from 18/04/1904 until 24/09/1904. Constitutional President from 24/09/1904 until 24/09/1908. Constitutional President from 24/09/1908 until 24/09/1912. President, elected by Congress on 24/09/1912. Overthrown by a coup d'état on 04/02/1914. Military officer; he took over the presidency of the Junta of Government on 04/02/1914 and was formally appointed by Congress on 15/05/1914. He acted as transitional President from 15/05/1914 until 18/08/1915. Constitutional President for the second time from

Miguel Iglesias Pino 1882–1885 Antonio Arenas Merino Andrés A. Cáceres Dorregaray Remigio Morales Bermúdez Justiniano Borgoño Castañeda 1885–1886 1886–1890 1890–1894 1894

Andrés A. Cáceres Dorregaray Manuel Candamo Iriarte Nicolás de Piérola Villena Eduardo López de Romaña Alvizuri Manuel Candamo Iriarte Serapio Calderón Chirinos

1894–1895 1895 1895–1899 1899–1903 1903–1904 1904

José Pardo y Barreda 1904–1908 Augusto B. Leguía 1908–1912 Salcedo Guillermo 1912–1914 Billinghurst Angulo Óscar R. Benavides 1914–1915 Larrea

José Pardo y Barreda 1915–1919

481
Augusto B. Leguía Salcedo 1919–1930
18/08/1915 until 04/07/1919. Took over the presidency after leading a rebellion to defend his electoral triumph over the defeated Partido Civil. Governed as provisional President until 12/10/1919, when he was officially elected by Congress. He was a Constitutional President until 25/08/1930. Military officer; took over the government as President of the Junta of Government. Governed from 25/08 until 28/08. Military officer; led the rebellion against Leguía in Arequipa and took over the Presidency of the Military Junta of Government on 28/08/1930. Governed until 01/03/1931. President of the provisional Junta from 01/03 until 05/03. Military officer, became head of the Transitional Junta of Government after a rebellion. Governed from 05/03 until 11/03. President of the Junta of Government from 11/03 until 08/12. Held general elections. Constitutional President; governed from 08/12/1931 until 30/04/1933, the day of his assassination. Military officer; after the assassination of Sánchez he was appointed President of the Republic by Congress. Governed from 30/04/1933 until 08/12/1939. Constitutional President from 08/12/1939 until 28/07/1945. Constitutional President from 28/07/1945 until 27/10/1948. Overthrown in a coup d'état. Military officer; led the coup d´état against Bustamante y Rivero and governed as President of the Junta of Government from 27/10/1948 until 10/05/1950. Military officer, Transitional President from 10/05/1950 until 28/07/1950. Held general elections. Odría won the elections after having imprisoned his only opponent Ernesto Montagne. Governed from 28/07/1950 until 28/07/1956. Constitutional President for the second time. Governed from 28/07/1956 until 18/07/1962. Overthrown in a coup d'état. Military officer, governed first together with the other commanders-in-chief, then he became

Manuel M. Ponce Brousset Luis M. Sánchez Cerro

1930 1930–1931

Ricardo L. Elías Arias1931 Gustavo Jiménez David Samanez Ocampo Luis M. Sánchez Cerro Oscar R. Benavides Larrea 1931 1931 1931–1933 1933–1939

Manuel Prado y 1939–1945 Ugarteche José L. Bustamante y 1945–1948 Rivero Manuel A. Odría 1948–1950 Amoretti Zenón Noriega Agüero Manuel A. Odría Amoretti Manuel Prado Ugarteche 1950 1950–1956 1956–1962

Ricardo Pérez Godoy 1962–1963

482
chairman of the Junta from 18/07/1962 until 03/03/1963. Removed by Nicolás Lindley. Military officer. Governed from 03/07 until 28/07. Constitutional President from 28/07/1963 until 03/10/1968. Overthrown in a coup d'état. Military officer, President of the Revolutionary Government of the Army; Governed from 03/10/1968 until 29/08/1975. Military officer; President of the Revolutionary Government of the Army; Governed from 29/08/1975 until 28/07/1980. Constitutional President for the second time from 28/07/1980 until 28/07/1985. Constitutional President from 28/07/1985 until 28/07/1990. Won the elections in a runoff against the highly favored author Mario Vargas Llosa. Constitutional President from 28/07/1990. He led a coup d'état while being in office (“autogolpe”) and proclaimed himself President of the Emergency Government for National Reconstruction on 05/04/1992. Reelected twice (1995 and 2000). Resigned on 20/11/2000 in the middle of a scandal involving bribery of a Member of Parliament. President of the Congress since 16/11. Following the constitutional succession rules he became Transitional President on 22/11 after Fujimori’s two vice presidents resigned. He was a Transitional President until 28/07/2001. Constitutional President since 28/07/2001 until 28/07/2006. Consitutional Presidente since 28/07/2006

Nicolás Lindley López Fernando Belaúnde Terry Juan Velasco Alvarado Francisco Morales Bermúdez Cerruti Fernando Belaúnde Terry Alan García Pérez

1963 1963–1968 1968–1975 1975–1980 1980–1985 1985–1990

Alberto K. Fujimori 1990–2000 Fujimori

Valentín Paniagua Corazo

2000–2001

Alejandro Toledo Manrique Alan García Pérez

2001– 2006 2006 -

3. Bibliography 3.1 Official Sources
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3.2 Books and Articles
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Benavides Correa, A. (1946). Los partidos políticos del Perú. Estudio histórico-doctrinario. 2 volumes. BA thesis. Lima: Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Benvenutto, N. (1921–24). Parlamentarios del Perú contemporáneo (1904– 1924). 3 volumes. Lima. Bernales Ballesteros, E. (1980). Crisis política. ¿Solución electoral? Lima: Desco. Blanco, H. (1974). Tierra o muerte. Las luchas campesinas en Perú. Lima: Siglo XXI. Blondet Montero, C. (1999). Las mujeres y la político en la década de Fujimori. Lima: IEP. Boggio, M. R.; Romero, F.; and Ansión, J. (1991). El pueblo es así y también así. Lógicas culturales en el voto popular. Lima: Instituto Democracia y Socialismo. Bonilla, H. and Drake, P. (eds.) (1989). El Apra de la ideología a la praxis. San Diego, Cal.: University of California. Burga, M. and Flores Galindo, A. (1984). ‘Aprismo, comunismo y el proceso electoral de 1931’, in: M. Burga, (ed.), Apogeo y crisis de la República aristocrática. Vol. 3. Lima: Rikchay Perú, 213–265. Bustamante y Zapata, J. (1950). Elecciones generales de 1950. Lima: Torres Aguirre. CAAAP (1980). Elecciones, partidos políticos y la Amazonía. Lima: CAAAR. Cámara de Diputados (1917). El proceso electoral de Lima de 1917 en la Cámara de Diputados. Lima: Torres Aguirre. Carpio Marcos, E. (2000). ‘El proceso electoral Peruano’, Revista de Derecho Político 48–49: 43–67. Castillo Ochoa, M. (1990). ‘El populismo conservador. Sánchez Cerro y la Unión Revolucionaria’, in: A. Adfianzón (ed.), Pensamiento político peruano 1930–1968. Lima: Desco, 84–113. Castro Pozo, H. et al. (1989). Regionalización, elecciones y consultas populares. Lima: Ipadel. Celadec (1981). Elecciones presidenciales del Perú. Lima: Celadec. Chanamé Orbe, R. (1990). ‘El sufragio en el Perú’, Socialismo y Participación 52 : 53-87 Chanduví Tomes, L. (1988). El Apra por dentro. Lo que hice, lo que vi, lo que sé. 1931–1957. Lima. Chang Rodríguez, E. (1985). Opciones políticas Peruanas 1985. Lima: CDI. Chávez, L. A. (1998). ‘Mecánica naranja. Cambio 90, Nueva Mayoría y ahora Vamos Vecino’, Quehacer 113/mayo-junio: 18–28. Chávez Molina, J. (2000). ‘Candidatura de Alberto Fujimori Fujimori’, Diálogo con la jurisprudencia 16: 65–72.

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— (2000). Mis votos singulares. Historia del fraude que nunca se debe repetir. Lima: Horizonte. Chirinos Soto, E. (1962). Cuenta y balance de las elecciones de 1962. Lima. — (1982). La nueva Constitución y los partidos. Lima: Centro de Documentación Andina. Chirinos Soto, F. (1985). Democracia y elecciones. Lima: AFA. CIED (1980). ¿El voto perdido? Critica y autocrítica de izquierda en la campaña electoral de 1980. Lima: CIED. — (without year). Partidos y conciencia en las barriadas. Lima: CIED. Coloma Marquina, J. M. (1996). ‘Postulación de candidaturas y el rol de los partidos políticos. Una visión comparada’. Simposio sobre reforma electoral. Lima, 1996. Comisión Andina de Juristas (2000). Perú 2000. Un triunfo sin democracia. Lima: CAJ. Córdova, M. (1990). ‘Perú 1989. El desborde de los partidos’, Temas de Actualidad 2: 65–75 Cotler, J. (1990). ‘Los partidos políticos y la democracia en el Perú’, in: L. Pásara and J. Parodi (eds.), Democracia, sociedad y gobierno en el Perú. Lima: IEP, 101–112. — (1991). ‘Partidos y presidencialismo. Problemas políticos de la democracia en el Perú’, in: L. Pásara (ed.), Las formas políticas de la democracia en los países andinos. Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Perú. Lima: IFEA, 23–44. — (1994). Política y sociedad en el Perú. Cambio y continuidades. Lima: IEP. Daeschner, J. (1993). La guerra del fin de la democracia. Mario Vargas Llosa versus Alberto Fujimori. Lima: Perú Reporting. Dancuart, P. E. (1906–10). Crónica parlamentaria del Perú. Historia de los congresos que han funcionado en la República desde 1822. 4volumes. Lima. Davies, Th. Jr. and Villanueva, V. (1983). Secretos electorales del APRA. Correspondencia y documentos de 1939. Lima: Horizonte. Degregori, C. I. (1990). El surgimiento de Sendero Luminoso (Ayacucho 19691979). Lima: IEP. —, and Grompone, R. (1991). Demonios y redentores en el nuevo Perú (Elecciones 1990: Una tragedia en 2 vueltas). Lima: IEP. Diaz Zegarra, W. A. (2000). El derecho electoral en el Perú. Lima: Palestra. Dietz, H. (2000). Pobreza urbana, participación política y política estatal. Lima 1970–1990. Lima: PUCP. Echegaray Correo, I. R. (1966). La Cámara de Diputados y las constituciones del Perú (1822–1965). Lima.

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