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Quintana 1 Daniel Quintana Literature Review Final Draft ENC 1102 Mrs.

. Wolcott Social Media as a Sports Marketing Tool The idea of social media marketing in sports is a relatively new discussion considering the time period social media was first introduced, and the overwhelming advancements it has undergone over recent years. For instance, MySpace, one of the first big social media websites, was launched 11 years ago in 2003, Facebook following in 2004, Twitter in 2006, and eventually Instagram in 2010. Throughout this era, society as a whole has adjusted to these technological changes, and has allowed social media to consume a great portion of their lives. This being said, it does not exclude the world of sports, especially the marketing behind it. As a sports marketer, it is that persons job to promote sports events and teams, as well as promote other products and services through sporting events and sports teams (Merriam-Webster). Therefore, sports marketers (like any other marketer) are constantly in search of the next new thing to successfully promote their product. In recent years, the next new thing that has been experimented with has been the use of social media, and with good reason. As of September 2013, a total of 73% of people ages 18+ in the United States used some sort of social media website (Pew Research). Considering how new this topic is, the research that follows these claims is meant to determine whether or not social media is really an effective tool, and how it should/should not be used amongst sports marketers to reach a selected

Quintana 2 audience. In addition, the research also sets out to help people gain a better understanding of how to properly utilize social media as a marketing tool, as well as how to take advantage of social media marketing in sports in attempt to create a tighter bond with whichever team/sport industry they choose. The scholarly articles found were all retrieved from the UCF library database and are highly credible. Review of Literature (Synthesis): Social media (specifically Facebook and Twitter) is a positive/effective sports marketing tool: As previously mentioned, the concept of using social media as a sports marketing tool is still a relatively new idea. Therefore, only so much research has been conducted on it, and a number of questions still remain unanswered. Nevertheless, amongst the research that does surround this topic, there is a common consensus/finding of social media (specifically Facebook and Twitter) actually being a positive/effective sports marketing tool (Bayne et al; Cooper; Eagleman; Lough; Mitchell et al; Pronschinske et al; Schoenstedt et al; Sutton; Walsh et al). In fact, certain findings reveal that social media marketing is one of the most, if not the most important tools of marketing sports in this day in age (Cooper; Eagleman; Lough). Correlations can also be made between specific research findings, including the ones found in the article, Ladies First, Men Second: The 2010 Western and Southern Financial Group Masters and Womens Tennis Open and Use of Social Media Marketing. According to this scholarly article, The 2010 Open ended with website traffic up to 62%, over 5,600 Facebook fans, a 59% increase in Twitter fans, over 29,000 retweets and 92,000 YouTube views as well as an increase of 4% in ticket

Quintana 3 sales (Schoenstedt et al). This clearly demonstrates the positive impact social media marketing has had on the sports world, and this article is not the only one that proves it. Moreover, through analyzing peoples awareness/interest through Facebook statuses/posts, researchers were able to conclude the positive affects social media has had on sports marketing throughout recent years (Bayne et al; Mitchell et al; Pronschinske et al; Sutton; Walsh et al). Social media marketing in sports must be utilized correctly to be impactful: Research gathered demonstrates that social media marketing in sports must be utilized correctly to be truly impactful (Kaplan; Mitchell et al; Rothschild; Williams et al). In other words, it is important for sports marketers to fully understand how to market their product(s) knowing who to target, how to target them, etc. This research is especially important to the topic of social media marketing in sports because every fan is different whether it is due to their nationality, sports preference, or individual characteristics (Kaplan; Mitchell et al; Williams et al). In the scholarly article, Chinese fandom and potential marketing strategies for expanding the market for American professional sports into China, research points out the significant differences between two cultures of fans American and Chinese concluding that although both cultures were fans of American sports, they tended to follow different aspects of the sports, using different social media websites, and portraying different levels of fan motivation (Kaplan). Additional research demonstrates the idea that different kinds of people respond differently to different kinds of social media (Mitchell et al; Williams et al). For example, sports marketers tend to categorize people on social media as either posters or lurkers. These labels simply indicate those

Quintana 4 who post on social media websites, and those who stalk social media posts. Results show that lurkers are generally more responsive to social media marketing (Williams et al). Moreover, the means by which sports marketers choose to use social media, as well as their level of confidence/experience with social media, plays a major role in how impactful social media marketing in sports is (Mitchell et al; Rothschild). Research has proven that making fans feel as if they have a tighter bond with their sports team(s) through the use of social media (Mitchell et al) is an impactful method, but it can only be done if those marketing are confident in their abilities (Rothschild). The negative effects social media marketing can have: Although research has proven that social media marketing is generally a positive marketing scheme in sports, additional research has proven that it can also lead to negative outcomes in certain cases (Auger et al; Brison et al; Witkemper et al). According to the research, negative outcomes can translate to a number of things. For instance, a common negative outcome of marketing sports through social media is when sports marketers market a product/event, and it is misunderstood for something completely different or in worse case scenario, as something inappropriate/offensive (Auger et al; Brison et al). In the article, "Children and youth perceive smoking messages in an unbranded advertisement from a NIKE marketing campaign: a cluster randomized controlled trial," research demonstrated how something as simple as the wording of an ad online can blow up in a sports industrys face (Auger et al). In addition to miscommunication between sports marketers and their audience, negative outcomes can also be caused by certain constraints that can arise in social media (Witkemper et al). Research demonstrated that negative constraints, rather than

Quintana 5 motivators, greatly impacted the number of people who decided to follow athletes on Twitter (Witkemper et al). Research Gap: Without a doubt, for as new as the topic of social media marketing in sports is, the research done on it so far has revealed a number of truths concerning it. However, upon analyzing the research presented, it was clear that there was a missing gap within it. The research never once examined the impact social media marketing has on societys youth. Throughout the research, everything examined came with an age limit of 18+. Although it is understandable why researchers would mainly focus on an older generation of users, it does not take away from the fact that over 80% of Americas youth uses social media. Also, compared to adults, children generally grasp ideas/react differently. The age difference definitely matters, and because of this, it is obvious that the research done on social media marketing in sports needs to fill in this missing gap. Project Proposal: The research gap identified above resembles a gap that can be filled with a traditional research project, using either a survey or interview. As seen in the research already presented, the majority of it was made up of either surveys or interviews. Therefore, conducting a survey would be ideal in attempting to reveal the impact social media marketing in sports has on children. Initially, if I were to conduct such a survey, I would set the age limit for those who could partake in it from ages 12-17. In order to gather as much information as possible, and be sure it is concise, I would administer the survey to a number of middle schools and high schools, and ask for permission to distribute the survey during random

Quintana 6 classes to random students. From there, the findings needed to fill the research gap would rely on the questions asked throughout the survey. Like any other traditional survey, this survey would not ask for any persons name. However, it would be important to find out each individuals address due to the idea that location could identify a difference/similarity in the findings. This concept would also apply to finding out what each persons race was, whether or not they were bilingual, how old they were, etc. Nevertheless, the bulk of the research would come from the more specific questions that followed this generic information. It is crucial to keep in mind though that the survey would not be made up of a large number of questions, nor would the wording be overly complicated. As mentioned before, children are definitely different from adults, and in most cases this correlates with their education level, as well as their attention span. Thus, the main questions asked in the survey would include: 1) Are you a fan of a sport(s) team? 2) Do you use social media website(s)? 3) How often do you use social media websites? 4) Which social media website are you on most often? 5) Do you follow any sports related pages on social media? 6) How often do you see sports related topics on social media? Have you ever posted/commented on a sports page on social media? Clearly, these questions are very basic, but they definitely address the research gap. Upon obtaining the results from the survey, I would not only share them, but compare them to research results relating to those 18+, and identify the significance age may or may not play in this field of research. I feel like creating a chart/graph to help fully resemble this comparison would be ideal. However, if the findings happened to

Quintana 7 appear flaw in any way, I would either come up with a different set of questions, or conduct the survey in additional schools.

Quintana 8 Bibliography: Auger, Nathalie, M Daniel, B Knuper , MF Raynault, and B Pless. "Children and youth perceive smoking messages in an unbranded advertisement from a NIKE marketing campaign: a cluster randomized controlled trial." BMC Pediatrics. 11. (2011): 26. Web. 5 Mar. 2014.

Bayne, Kendra, and Beth A. Cianfrone. The Effectiveness of Social Media Marketing: The Impact of Facebook Status Updates on a Campus Recreation Event. Recreational Sports Journal. 37.2 (2013): 147. Web. 5 Mar. 2014.

Brison, Natasha, Thomas Baker III, and Kevin Byon. "Tweets and Crumpets: Examining U.K. and U.S. Regulation of Athlete Endorsements and Social Media Marketing." Journal of Legal Aspects of Sport Summer2013. 23.2 (2013): 55-71. Web. 14 Mar. 2014.

Cooper, Coyte. "New Media Marketing: The Innovative Use of Technology in NCAA Athletic Department E-Branding Initiatives." Journal of Marketing Development & Competitiveness. 5.1 (2010): 23-32. Web. 13 Mar. 2014.

Eagleman, Andrea. "Acceptance, motivations, and usage of social media as a marketing communications tool amongst employees of sport national governing bodies." Sport Management Review. 16.4 (2013): 488-497. Web. 9 Mar. 2014.

Quintana 9 Kaplan, Sam. Chinese fandom and potential marketing strategies for expanding the market for American professional sports into China. International Journal of Sports Marketing & Sponsorship. 14.1 (2012): 7-21. Web. 5 Mar. 2014.

Lough, Nancy. "Industry Insider: Tonya Antonucci." Sport Marketing Quarterly. 19.3 (2010): 123-124. Web. 13 Mar. 2014.

Mitchell, Mark, Dustin Thorn, and Donald Rockey. "Sports Fantasy Camps: Offering Fans a More Immersive Experience." Sport Journal. 16.1 (2013): 1-1. Web. 13 Mar. 2014.

Pronschinske, Mya, Mark D. Groza, and Matthew Walker. Attracting Facebook Tans: The Importance of Authenticity and Engagement as a Social Networking Strategy for Professional Sport Teams..Sports Marketing Quarterly. 21.4 (2012): 221-231. Web. 5 Mar. 2014.

Rothschild, Philip. "Social media use in sports and entertainment venues." International Journal of Event & Festival Management. 2.2 (2011): 139-150. Web. 5 Mar. 2014.

Schoenstedt, Linda J., and Jackie Reau. Ladies First, Men Second: The 2010 Western and Southern Financial Group Masters and Womens Tennis Open and Use of Social Media Marketing..Journal of Sports Media. 8.1 (2013): 87-116. Web. 5 Mar. 2014.

Quintana 10 Sutton, William. "Looking Forward: A Vision for Sport Marketing Inquiry and Scholarship." Sport Marketing Quarterly. 20.4 (2011): 242-248. Web. 5 Mar. 2014.

Walsh, Patrick, Galen Clavio, David Lovell, and Matthew Blaszka. "Differences in Event Brand Personality Between Social Media Users and Non- Users. "Sport Marketing Quarterly. 22.4 (2013): 214-223. Web. 5 Mar. 2014.

Williams, Jo, Robert Heiser, and Susan Chinn. "Social media posters and lurkers: The impact on team identification and game attendance in minor league baseball." Journal of Direct, Data & Digital Marketing Practice. 13.4 (2012): 295-310. Web. 13 Mar. 2014.

Witkemper, Chad, and Adia Choong Hoon Lim Waldburger. Social Media and Sports Marketing: Examining the Motivations and Constraints of Twitter Users. Sport Marketing Quarterly. 21.3 (2012): 170-183. Web. 5 Mar. 2014.