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Communication Skills

BY: Muhammad Hamza Azam Class: BCS-2nd(B) Reg Num: Cs120132083

We would like to give thanks to providing us an opportunity to make this Assignment .Acknowledgement We deeply acknowledge the support of Sir Muhammad Hussain who initially helped and motivated us to embark on this strenuous .

whether in writing or orally. • Decoding# lastly. !ffective communication is all about conveying your messages to other people clearly and unambiguously. "t's also about receiving information that others are sending to you. Thus 'to communicate' means 'to make common' or 'to make known'. The Communication Process Communication that is what we try to do speak to those near us • Thought# $irst. signals. communication is sharing information. information exists in the mind of the sender. a message is sent to a receiver in words or other symbols. "n fact. or when they talk on telephone. with as little distortion as possible. ideas or the like. the receiver translates the words or symbols into a concept or information that he or she can understand. communication is only successful when both the sender and the receiver understand the same information as a result of the communication. asically. This can be a concept. idea. speech or writing. This act of making common and known is carried out through exchange of thoughts.Communication Skills The term 'Communication' has been derived from the Latin word 'communis' that means 'common'. or feelings. information. or when they exchange information through letters. People are said to be in communication when they discuss some matter. The exchange of thoughts and ideas can be had by gestures. . • Encoding# %ext. signs.

. not 4ust a give. This feedback tells the sender that the receiver understood the message. so even simple messages can be misunderstood. the look in the sender's eyes. etc. 2ow do you know it has been properly received3 y two'way communication or feedback. (e all use and interpret the meanings of words differently.&uring the transmitting of the message. two elements will be received# content and context. we often trust the accuracy of nonverbal behaviors more than verbal behaviors. Communication is an exchange. and what must be done with it. ) message has %1T been communicated unless it is understood by the receiver *decoded+. they are powerful communicators that help us to understand each other.+ that can be detected. " told /im to do it. 0ore than likely. confidence. and state of emotions *anger. its level of importance. /im misunderstood the message. body language. )nd many words have different meanings to confuse the issue even more. fear. "ndeed. Context is the way the message is delivered and is known as paralanguage ' it is the nonverbal elements in speech such as the tone of voice. Content is the actual words or symbols of the message which is known as language ' the spoken and written words combined into phrases that make grammatical and semantic sense. uncertainty." don't know why it did not get done. . as all parties must participate to complete the information exchange.. -ome leaders think they have communicated once they told someone to do something. )lthough paralanguage or context often cause messages to be misunderstood as we believe what we see more than what we hear. hand gestures.

+ %on'verbal communication makes conversation short and brief. 5erbal communication is one way for people to communicate face'to'face. . 9+ 7ou can communicate something which you don't want others to hear or listen to.Types of communication 1. -ome of the key components of verbal communication are sound. "on Ver al Communication 1. Ver al Communication !. words. :+ 7ou can communicate if you are far away from a person. Ver al Communication The basis of communication is the interaction between people. Types of Ver al Communication There are basically two types of verbal communication#'  1ral'which means spoken words  (ritten'which means in written form !. "on Ver al Communication %onverbal communication can be best defined as the procedure of communicating with a person or party without using any form of speech to grab an audience attention or to exploit a message. %onverbal communication is often used to make an expression of a thought or thought sand make your message more appealing and interesting to whom you are speaking. speaking. . The person can see but not hear you. The ad#antages of non$#er al communication are% 6+ 7ou can communicate with someone who is hard of hearing of deaf. 8+ 7ou can communicate at place where you are supposed to maintain silence. and language.

Types of "on#er al Communication (hat are the types of nonverbal communication3 There are . !ye Contact 8. and credibility. -miling is often contagious and people will react favorably. <+ %ot everybody prefers to communicate through non'verbal communication. concern. warmth. warmth. types of nonverbal communication are the following# 6. $acial !xpressions 9. warm and approachable.. >+ Cannot create an impression upon people?listeners. :+ Cannot be used as a public tool for communication. @estures :.+ Less influential and cannot be used everywhere. "t signals interest in others and increases the speaker's credibility. . People who make eye contact open the flow of communication and convey interest.<+ 7ou can save on time and use it as a tool to communicate with poeple who don't understand your language. Proximity <. Posture A ody 1rientation . 5ocally • Eye contact% This helps to regulate the flow of communication. They will be more comfortable around you and will want to listen more. types of nonverbal communication. -o. • &acial Expressions% -miling is a powerful cue that transmits happiness. 9+ &ifficult to understand and re=uires a lot of repetitions. friendliness. friendly. and liking. if you smile fre=uently you will be perceived as more likable. . 8+ Cannot discuss the particulars of your message. The disad#antages of non$#er al communication are% 6+ 7ou cannot have long conversation. the .

and gaBe aversion. background. loudness. • Proximity% Cultural norms dictate a comfortable distance for interaction with others.• 'estures% "f you fail to gesture while speaking you may be perceived as boring and stiff. 0any physical and psychological barriers exist# • Culture. leg swinging. • Vocal% -peaking can signal nonverbal communication when you include such vocal elements as# tone. learn to vary these six elements of your voice. /r. • Posture and ody orientation% 7ou communicate numerous messages by the way you talk and move. . and bias can be good as they allow us to use our past experiences to understand something new. it is when they change the meaning of the message that they interfere with the communication process. Listeners perceive this type of speaker as boring and dull. -tanding erect and leaning forward communicates to listeners that you are approachable. ) lively speaking style captures the listener's attention. and facilitates understanding. background. 7ou should look for signals of discomfort caused by invading the other person's space. 1ne of the ma4or criticisms of many speakers is that they speak in a monotone voice. $or maximum teaching effectiveness. (arriers to Communication %othing is so simple that it cannot be misunderstood. ' $reeman Teague. pitch. timbre. -ome of these are# rocking. makes the conversation more interesting. 1ur culture. )nything that prevents understanding of the message is a barrier to communication. tapping. -peaking with your back turned or looking at the floor or ceiling should be avoided as it communicates disinterest. and bias '(e allow our past experiences to change the meaning of the message. receptive and friendly. rhythm. "nterpersonal closeness results when you and the listener face each other. and inflection.

rather than the other person can lead to confusion and conflict. • *essage '&istractions happen when we focus on the facts rather than the idea. etc. or any other stimulus provides a potential distraction. an attractive person. • Stress 'People do not see things the same way when under stress. • )e '$ocusing on ourselves.0e @eneration. • Perception '"f we feel the person is talking too fast. values. and goals. (e listen uncritically to persons of high status and dismiss those of low status. • Smothering '(e take it for granted that the impulse to send useful information is automatic. -emantic distractions occur when a word is used differently than you prefer. • En#ironmental ' right lights. )lso our preconceived attitudes affect our ability to listen. (hat we see and believe at a given moment is influenced by our psychological frames of references ' our beliefs. %ot trueC Too often we believe that certain information has no value to others or they are already aware of the facts. we may dismiss the person. unusual sights. 1ur educational institutions reinforce this with tests and =uestions. The . superiority *we feel we know more than the other+. -ome of the factors that cause this are defensiveness *we feel someone is attacking us+. is out when it comes to effective communication.• "oise'!=uipment or environmental noise impedes clear communication. the word chairman instead of chairperson may cause you to focus on the word and not the message.. and ego *we feel we are the center of the activity+. experiences. . $or example. does not articulate clearly. The sender and the receiver must both be able to concentrate on the messages being sent to each other. not fluently. knowledge.

DTo be successful in the business world. -ay your name. !. • Leave. expect to be asked and do not take offense. . 0astering the art of the introduction will help put you and the people you are introducing at ease. Then state the nature of your call. • "dentify yourself when you place a call. an introduction conveys a level of respect and reflects how the person making the introduction views the other person's status. can change the way people perceive and 4udge you. "f you do not identify yourself.&o unto others as they would want you to do unto them. and apologiBe if the call is late. The key to proper business eti=uette is# . The confidence of knowing you can hold your own in any social setting. from the white'knuckled nervousness of a first interview to a casual business lunch.nteroffice Phone Eti+uette • &onFt hover outside a coworkerFs office or cubicle waiting for him or her to finish up a phone call. • Eeturn phones calls within 8: hours. Learning the basics ' and they are not very difficult ' is the first step. title. 'eneral Telephone Eti+uette • "dentify yourself. a person must use proper verbal eti=uette. with your first and last name. "ntroductions pro4ect information. The way we meet and greet them creates lasting impressions and paves the way for a productive encounter. and try again later. 1. esides the obvious elements of name. !very day we encounter people in a variety of business and social situations. . social skills and proper eti=uette can mean the difference between finding and winning the 4ob of your career and standing still in your career. the company. when answering the phone. business or department you represent.Eti+uette "n today's competitive business environment. There are se#en different aspects of telephone eti+uette to consider. and affiliation. 1ne important aspect of verbal eti=uette is a proper introduction.

• Heep your outgoing message current. -ay. Speakerphones • )lthough a speakerphone is a great convenience when several people need to participate in a conference call. Cellular phones • Try to remove yourself from a public area to a =uiet corner of the room so as not to bother others. "f youFre going to be out of the office. (hen you go away. Then =uickly return to your first caller. can you hold 4ust a second3. Voice *ail • 1utgoing messages should include your name and company name. . Take the other call. 0.• &onFt listen in on coworkersF phone conversations. in a two'person conversation. but try to keep busy while the person is talking G and never comment on what youFve 4ust overheardC -. ." have another call. this may be unavoidable. • Let the caller know how to reach a live person in an emergency. Ise it sparingly. Call$)aiting • Inless you are expecting an urgent call and say so. . Try to avoid using it with a client.. and always tell the person on the other end that a speakerphone is being used. state the date youFll be back and whether or not youFll be calling in for messages. it often annoys or offends the person whose voice is broadcast. explain youFre on another line and will call back shortly. "f applicable. itFs impolite to continually put the person to whom youFre speaking on hold while you take another call. mention the 4ob you handle to prevent having to route the message to someone else. "f you share office space with someone. or whom to contact in your absence. /. your message should say so.

1.• "f you must make or take a call. and wait for a response rather than assuming the answer is yes. Placing someone on hold • 0ake sure itFs for a good reason. thank them for holding. "f you have to take longer than that. • . • %ever keep a caller on hold for more than a minute. keep it short and as discrete as possible.(hen you return to the caller. • )sk the person if he or she will hold. and ask if she wouldnFt prefer that you call her back. . such as pulling the personFs file or answering another line. return to the person and tell them that you absolute have to take a few minutes longer.