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CNG NGH MNG WiMAX

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CHNG 1: GII THIU MNG WiMAX


1.1 Cng ngh bng rng khng dy
1.1.1 Th no l bng rng khng dy Bng rng khng dy l m t cng ngh ha h n nhng kt ni tc cao trong khng trung. N s dng sng radio truyn v nhn d liu trc tip ti v t nhng ngi dng bt c khi n o h mun. Cc cng ngh nh 3G, WiFi, hay WiMAX v UWB s lm vic cng nhau p ng nhu cu duy nht n y ca khch hng. Truy nh p khng dy bng rng (BWA) l h thng im a im c to nn t cc trm pht sng c s v cc thit b ca khc nh hnh 1.1. Hnh ny ch ra mt trm pht sng c s c kt ni vi mng ng trc (backbone). Thay v s dng cc kt ni vt l gia cc trm c s v cc thu bao, cc trm pht sng c s s dng anten ngoi tri nhn v gi d liu, thoi tc cao ti cc thu bao. Cng ngh n y gim c nhng yu cu v c s h tng hu tuyn ng thi cun g cp nhng gii php mm do v hiu qu cho nhng chng cui.

Hnh 1.1: M hnh bng rng khng dy 1.1.2 Li ch ca bng rng khng dy - Bng rng ha h n cc dch v thoi d liu v truyn hnh tc cao. - BWA c thi gian trin khai nhanh chng, tn t chi ph hn cc phng php truyn thng, khng cn phi xy dng c s h tng hu tuyn tn km.
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- N a ra nhng kt ni nhng chng cui, m DSL hay bng rng hu tuyn khng th t ti. - Thi gian trin khai nhanh hn, d d ng m rng hn, mm do hn do vy n em li nhng dch v thay th cho nhng khch h ng vn khng tha mn vi cc d ch v bng rng hu tuyn. - N vt qua s thc thi v tin cy ca cc mng hu tuyn vi ng dy thu ring. - To ra mt mi trng cnh tranh cho s pht trin cc dch v v cc sn phm mi. Cc c tnh ca BWA s thu ht cc cng ty cc nh u t vo ngnh cng nghip bng rng khng dy.

1.2. Gii thiu v WiMAX


1.2.1 nh ngha WiMAX WiMAX (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access) hay IEEE 802.16 - wireless microwave access - truy cp v tuyn sng cc ngn), tiu chu n k thut ny sinh ra t dng 802.xx ngy mt pht trin ca IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers). IEEE 802.16 Broadband Wireless Metropolitan Area Network (Wireless MAN) Standard cung cp gii php kt ni bng rng ti nhng ngi dng c nh di ng do n kinh t hn c s h tng hu tuyn. IEEE 802.16 Working Group on BWA ang pht trin chun d nh cho m ng WMAN vi kh nng ng dng trn phm vi to n cu t thng 7 nm 1999. Chun IEEE 802.16 lin quan n giao tip khng gian gia cc thu bao v cc trm pht sng. Chun IEEE 802.16 c cng b vo ngy 8 thng 4 nm 2002. Cc chun dnh cho mng WMAN c th kt ni cc im nng 802.11 ti Internet v a ra gii php truy nhp bng rng nhng chng cui thay th cho DSL v cp. Chu n WMAN s h tr cc dch v truy nhp khng dy bng rng ti cc ta nh, ch yu thng qua cc anten ngoi tri ti cc trm pht sng c s. Phm vi c th ln ti 50 km v cho php ngi s dng t c kt ni bng rng m khng cn tm nh n thng ti cc trm pht sng. The IEEE 802.16 Working Group ang pht trin cc chun truy nhp bng rng khng dy cho h thng bng tn 10- 66 GHz v di 11 GHz. Chun n y tp trung vo lp MAC v lp vt l.

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Hnh 1.2: M hnh mng WiMAX 1.2.2 c im ca cng ngh WiMAX

Hnh 1.3: c im cng ngh WiMAX

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* Kin trc mm do: WiMAX c mt vi kin trc nh Point to Point dnh cho backhaul, Point to Multipoint cho BS (base station) n SS (subscriber). Nu ch c mt SS trong mng WiMAX th BS s giao tip vi SS trn nn tng Point to Point. Cc trm BS trong m hnh Point to Point c th dng mt anten vi nh hng cao t c khong cch ln hn * An ninh mnh: WiMAX h tr AES (advanced Encryp tion Standard) v 3DES (triple Data Encryption Standard). Vi vic bo mt tuyn gia BS v SS,WiMAX cung cp s ring t v an ton giao tip khng dy bng rng. An ninh m ng WiMAX cn cho php cc nh vn h nh m ng chng li s nh cp cc dch v. Ngoi ra WiMAX cng cho php xy dng mng ring o (VPN),cho php bo v nhng d liu c gi i t nhng ngi s dng khc nhau trong cng mt BS. * Cung cp QoS: WiMAX cung cp QoS trn tng kt ni p ng tt c cc d ch v nhy cm vi tr nh thoi , truyn h nhv cc d ch v a phng tin. * S trin khai nhanh chng: So vi s trin khai mng hu tuyn th WiMAX c th c trin khai nhanh hn rt nhiu. Ch vi mt anten v thit b ci t c cung cp ngun l WiMAX sn sng phc v cc dch v. Trong nhiu trng hp s trin khai WiMAX c th c tnh b ng gi so vi h ng thng i vi cc gii php khc. * Cung cp dch v nhiu mc (multi_level service): Vi vic p ng cc mc QoS khc nhau da trn tha thu n v mc dch v SLA (gia nh cung cp d ch v v ngi s dng cui cng ca mng WiMAX). Ngoi ra WiMAX cn cho php mt nh cung cp dch v c th a ra cc SLA khc nhau ti cc thu bao khc nhau ho c thm ch ti nhng ngi s dng khc nhau trn cng mt SS. * Kh nng hot ng cng cc thit b kh c( Interoperability) WiMAX l mt cng ngh pht trin sau ny nn cn phi m bo kh nng tng thch vi cc thit b trc c th c th trng chp nhn. * Kh nng di ng (Portability): Ging nh h thng cellular mt WiMAX SS c bt ln t n s xc nh mnh v quyt nh cc c tnh ng truyn ti BS. Ngay khi SS c ng k trong c s d liu ca h thng,n s tho thun v c tnh ngtruyn. * Kh nng di dng han tan (Mobility): Chun IEEE 802.16 sa i c thm c tnh quan trng l h tr di ng. p ng kh nng di ng lp vt l dng OFDM v OFDMA c nng cp ng k. S ci thin ny bao gm Scaleable OFDM, MIMO (multi input- multi output) v h tr dng Idle/sleep v handoff cho php s di ng tc ln ti 160 km/h. * Phm vi ph sng rng khp: WiMAX h tr nhiu mc iu ch bao gm BPSK, QPSK, 16_QAM, 64_QAM. Khi ho t ng vi b khuch i cng sut ln v mc iu ch thp BPSK, QPSK WiMAX vn c th bao ph mt vng rng vi ng truyn gia BS v SS trong mi trng LOS. * Hot ng trong ng truyn NLOS: WiMAX d a trn cng ngh OFDM c kh nng x l trong mi trng NLOS (non light of sight) m cc sn ph m khc khng th. 1.2.3 Bng tn ca WiMAX
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802.16 cho php nhiu lp vt l do n c th hot ng trong bng tn rng t 2GHz n 66 GHz . V sng in t khng th lan truyn trong phm vi rng nh vy, nn chu n 802.16 chia phm vi tn s ny thnh cc bng tn khc nhau, mi bng tn dng mt lp vt l ring. C 3 dng bng tn chnh: * 10-66 GHz (licensed band): Truyn dn trong bng tn ny yu cu ng truyn LOS gia BS v SS. V thc t l trong phm vi tn s n y bc sng ngn do phi m bo cn bng s nh hng ca suy hao do c im a hnh hay do giao thoa. Tu y nhin u im ca bng tn ny l c th t c tc d liu cao. * 2-11 GHz (licensed band): Truyn dn trong bng tn ny khng yu cu ng truyn LOS, tuy nhin nu khng c ng truyn LOS th cng sut tn hiu c th rt khc nhau gia BS v SS. * 2-11 GHz (unlicensed band): y c tnh ca bng tn 2 -11GHz khng cn cp php gn ging nh bng tn c cp php 2-11 Ghz. Tuy nhin v chng l bng tn khng cn cp php nn khng c s m bo rng s khng xy ra s giao thoa bi cc h thng khc hay ngi dng khc dng cng mt bng tn. 1.2.4 Gii thiu cc chun lin quan 1.2.4.1 Chun 802.16-2001 Chun WiMAX u tin l chu n 802.16 - 2001 c ph chun vo thng 12 nm 2001, chun n y h tr ng dng truy nhp khng dy bng rng c nh trong m hnh im - im v im - a im. Chun s dng iu ch sng mang n trong phm vi tn s 10Ghz n 66Ghz v s dng c hai phng php ghp knh phn chia theo thi gian (TDD) v ghp knh phn chia theo tn s (FDD). Cc s iu ch c s dng l QPSK, 16QAM v 64 QAM. Kh nng thay i phng php iu ch v phng php sa li trc cho php mng thch nghi c vi s bt thng ca thi tit do p ng c ch t lng dch v cho ngi s dng. Cc trm pht sng BS to ra cc nh x (Map) knh hng ln v knh hng xu ng sau s chia s n ti cc nt trong m ng. Cc nh x n y bao gm s ln truyn pht, khong thi gian v ph ng php iu ch. Theo cch ny vn v nt n c th b loi b. Cc thu bao lc ny ch tp trung vo mt trm pht sng BS m chng khng cn phi lng nghe bt k mt nt n o khc trong mng. Cng nh thut ton n y mng khng bao gi b qu ti hay s thu bao tng ln t ngt. Cc thu bao c th tha thun v di tn c cp pht t burst ny n burst (burst to burst) khc ng thi cung cp lch trnh truy nhp mm do. Nh ni trn cc s iu ch c s dng gm: QPSK, 16 QAM v 64QAM, tuy nhin cc thu bao khc nhau hon ton c th s dng cc s iu ch khc nhau, v cc khung khc nhau cng c th s dng s iu ch khc nhau. Cc s iu ch c la chn phi p ng c cc mc ch cui cng l m bo s kt n i n nh v ch t lng ca kt ni. Mt c tnh rt quan trng ca 802.16 -2001 l kh nng cung cp cht lng dch v (QoS) khc nhau lp vt l. Mt m nh n dng lu lng d ch v (Service Flow ID) s thc hin kim tra QoS. Cc dng lu lng dch v
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ny c m t bi cc thng s QoS nh thi gian tr ti a, hay lng jiter cho php. Cc lu lng dch v ny c th c to ra bi trm pht sng BS hay thu bao SS. 802.16 - 2001 ch hot ng trong mi trng tm nhn thng v vi cc thit b CPE ngo i tri. 1.2.4.2 Chun 802.16a -2003 Vo thng 1 nm 2003 IEEE cng b chun 802.16a-2003 cung cp s hot ng trong bng tn 2Ghz n 11Ghz. Trong khi 802.16 hot ng trong bng tn 10Ghz n 66Ghz phi yu cu tm nhn thng th vi bng tn 2Ghz 11Ghz 802.16a cho php kt ni khng cn tm nhn thng, trnh c tc ng ca cc vt cn nh cy ci nh ca. Kh nng ny m ra cho WiMAX mt phm vi ph sng rng ln ln ti 50km , cho php ngi dng kt ni bng rng m khng cn tm nh n thng ti trm pht sng BS, tc c th ln ti hng trm Mbps mi trm ng thi lun cung cp bng thng p ng tc th i h ng trm cng ty vi nhng ng kt ni T1/E1 v hng ngn h gia nh vi nhng kt ni DSL ti 1 trm BS. Tuy nhin kh nng mi ny li em n cho 802.16a nhng thch thc lp vt l, l vic phi thay lp vt l sao cho p ng c s hot ng d i tn 2-11 Ghz. Do vy ngo i cc phng php iu ch gii thiu trong 802.16,chun sa i ny cn a ra 3 d ng lp vt l: - Single carrier - 256 point FFT OFDM - 2048 point FFT OFDMA p ng s tng thch vi cc chun hin c WiMAX mi a ra hai d ng lp vt l single carrier v 256 point FFT OFMD vo cc sn phm, cn d ng th ba s c trin khai khi th trng yu cu. Cc khung OFDM c la chn l do kh nng u vit hn so vi cng ngh CDMA v n c th hot ng trong mi trng khng cn tm nhn th ng trong khi vn t c hiu sut ph ln nht. Trong trng hp CDMA, bng thng RF phi ln hn thng lng d liu nhiu chng giao thoa. Nu s dng cng ngh CDMA thc hin khng dy bng rng di tn s 11 Ghz v tc ln ti 70Mbps th bng thng yu cu phi t 200Mpbs c th hot ng khng cn tm nh n th ng. Bn cnh mt vi c tnh ca lp vt l cng c nu ra nh rng knh m m do, dng burst thch ng, v h thng anten thch ng ci thin v phm vi v dung lng, s la chn tn s ng gip lm gim ti thiu giao thoa, m ha khng gian gip nng cp s thc hin trong mi trng fading nh mt khng gian dy c. Cc c tnh trn l rt cn thit cho ng dng truy nhp bng rng khng dy ngoi tri, c bit rng knh mm do l mt yu cu u tin WiMAX c th c trin khai rng ri, bi v mi nc bng tn l khc nhau, kch thc knh cng khc nhau. Trong khi bng tn cp php cc nh vn h nh mng phi tr cc ph cho tng Mhz c cp nn h lun mun tn dng ht bng thng c cp. V d nh mt nh vn hnh mng thu mt bng tn 14 Mhz, h s khng mun s dng cc knh vi rng 6 Mhz v s lng ph 2 Mhz m h mun h thng ca mnh phi trin khai c cc knh vi rng l 7Mhz; 3,5Mhz hay thm ch 1,75Mhz tn dng ht di tn.
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V mt an ninh 802.16a-2003 a ra ci tin l yu cu lp bo mt l bt buc trong khi chun 802.16-2001 th lp bo mt ny l ty chn. 802.16a cng th m vo h tr mng li.iu ny c ngha l cc lu lng t mt thu bao SS ny ti SS khc c th c nh tuyn. y l mt s thay i trong m hnh im - a im m trc kia cc lu lng u phi qua trm pht BS. S thay i lp MAC ny cho php cc thu bao trong mng Mesh c th lp lch trnh ti nhau m khng cn thng qua trm pht BS. 1.2.4.3 Chun 802.16c- 2002 Vo thng 12 nm 2002 chun 802.16c - c cng b, bn sa i mi ny xem xt li mt s vn v giao thc, th m mt s dng h thng chi tit hn cho bng tn 10-66Ghz ng thi cng sa mt s li v s mu thun ca cc b n trc . 1.2.4.4 Chun 802.16-2004 Chun 802.16 - 2004 c ph chun vo ngy 24/07/2004 v c Cng b vo thng 9 nm 2004, cn c bit n vi ci tn chu n 802.16-Revd. Chun 802.16 -2004 chnh l s thng nht ca cc chun 802.11-2001, 802.16a- 2003 v 802.16c-2002 to nn mt chun mi. Ban u n c xem nh l s xem xt sa i nhng chun trc nhng nhng thay i mi ny hnh thnh nn mt chun mi ton din v c p dng cho chng nhn chu n WiMAX. Chun 802.16 - 2004 a ra kh nng t ci t cc thit b trong nh, n em li s tin li ln cho ngi s dng. Cc thit b hot ng trong bng tn cp php s s dng ghp knh phn chia theo thi gian (TDD) cn i vi bng tn khng cp php c th s dng c hai phng php ghp knh phn chia theo thi gian (TDD) v ghp knh phn chia theo tn s (FDD). Ngoi ra lp MAC l ti u cho nhng tuyn ng truyn di v n c thit k vi khong tr ln hn v tr bin i.

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Hnh 1.4: S pht trin cc chun 802.16 1.2.4.5 Chun 802.16e v s m rng Chun 802.16 l chun c thm vo c tnh h tr di ng v vn ang c nghin cu. Ngoi ra chun ny cn a vo h thng bo mt cao cp (AES), mt yu cu bt buc cho cc chng nhn WiMAX. Tuy nhin v chu n ny vn cha c ph chu n nn chng ta khng th ni g v nhng thay i mi ny cho n khi bn phc tho cui cng c ph duyt. Bn cnh chun 802.16 e th cc chun nh 802.16f, 802.16g ang c nghin cu. Cc chun ny ch yu tp trung vo cc giao thc qun l mng.

Bng 1.1: c im cc chun 802.16

1.3 So snh WiMAX vi cc cng ngh khng dy khc


Ta bit rng hin nay mt s cng ngh truy cp Internet nh thng qua modem th t tc thp, ADSL t tc 8Mbps nhng cn c dy, cc knh thu ring th t v kh trin khai. Cc h thng hin ti ch t tc 9,6kbit/s.
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GSM, GPRS (2,5G) t tc 171,2kbit/s, EDGE 300-400kbit/s, h thng 3G t tc 2Mbit/s. Mng WiFi (LAN khng dy) ch t c khong cch ngn. Nhng WiMAX cung cp phng tin truy cp khng dy tng hp thay th ADSL, WiFi, c th t tc ln ti 70Mbit/s, bn knh ph sng 50km vi m hnh ph sng ging in thoi t bo. Bng bn di m t mt s c im ca cc cng ngh khng dy hin nay.

Bng 1.2: c im ca mt s cng ngh khng dy

1.4 M hnh trin khai


Sau khi ra i, 802.16a nhanh chng c trin khai ti chu u, M v th hin mt s li ch c th. 1.4.1 Mng trc 802.16a l cng ngh khng dy l tng lm mng trc ni cc im hotspot thng mi v LAN khng dy vi Internet. Cng ngh khng dy 802.16a cho php doanh nghip trin khai hotspot 802.11 linh hot khi gp a hnh him tr, i hi thi gian ngn v nng cp linh hot theo nhu cu th trng. Chun 802.16a cho php trin khai nhng mng trc tc cao, chi ph thp. Ti chu u, ni cc nh vn h nh t chp nhn chia s cp trc vi i th cnh tranh, mng trc WiMax c t pht trin v c s dng trong 80% thp sng. Ring ti M, do c iu lut qui nh cc nh cung cp dch v th ba phi thu tuyn cp trc t nh cung cp mng trc Internet nn tc ng dng WiMax chm hn chu u. Tuy vy, t l ng dng WiMax lm mng trc cng chim n 20% v sp ti s pht trin rt nhanh v FCC ang
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chu n b b rng bu c v tuyn cp trc vi cc nh cung cp dch v th ba. i vi cc nc ang pht trin th gii php kt ni khng dy 802.16a cho php nng cp nng lc dch v nhanh chng theo nhu cu thc t m khng phi lo ngi v vn o ng, thay i kin trc h tng. 1.4.2 K t ni mng khng dy doanh nghip Chun 802.16a c dng lm c s lin thng cc mng LAN khng dy, hotspot WiFi 802.11 hin c. Doanh nghip c th t do m rng qui m vn phng m mi trng mng cc b vn c lin lc nu c m ng trung gian khng dy chun 802.16a. Nhn rng hn, doanh nghip c th trin khai m ng LAN khng dy thng nht cho tt c vn phng trong phm vi mt quc gia. 1.4.3 Bng rng theo nhu cu H thng khng dy cho php trin khai hiu qu ngay c khi s dng ngn hn. Vi s h tr ca cng ngh 802.16a, h thng hotspot 802.11 vn nng lc phc v dch v kt ni tc cao ti nhng hi ch, trin lm c n hng ngn khch. Nh cung cp dch v c th nng cp hoc gim bt nng lc phc v c a h thng theo nhu cu thc t, gip nng cao hiu qu kinh doanh, tng tnh cnh tranh ca doanh nghip. 1.4.4 M rng nhanh chng, tit kim H thng 802.16a cho php ph sng n nhng vng him tr, thiu cp trc y. Do tuyn cp DSL ch c th p ng trong bn knh 4,8 km tnh t trm iu phi trung tm nn cn nhiu vng a h nh him tr m nh cung cp khng th vi ti. Thng k gn y cho thy c hn 2.500 nh cung cp dch v khng dy (Wireless ISP) a phng hot ng hiu qu trn 6.000 th trng ti M. Khng ch trin khai dch v d liu tc cao, h thng cn cho php trin khai d ch v thoi cho nhng ngi dng vng su vng xa. 1.4.5 Lin thng dich v Vi cng ngh IEEE 802.16e m rng t 802.16a, trong tng lai ngi dng s c h tr dch v roaming tng t in thoi di ng, t ng chuyn kt ni n nh cung cp dch v Internet khng dy a phng ngay khi ra ngoi vng ph sng ca mng gia nh, cng ty. D kin n 2006, cng ngh WiMAX s c tch hp vo my tnh xch tay, PDA nh Wi-Fi hin nay v tng bc hnh thnh nn nhng vng dch v khng dy bng rng mang tn "MetroZones".

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Hnh 1.5 M hnh trin khai WiMAX

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CHNG 2: CU TRC MNG WIMAX


Chun IEEE 802.16a c xy dng di d ng giao thc ngn xp vi nhiu giao din c nh ngha. Lp MAC bao gm ba lp con: Lp con hi t chuyn bit dch v (Service Specific Convergence Sublayer), lp con MAC phn chung (MAC Common Part Sublayer) v lp con bo mt (Privacy Sublayer). Gia PHY v MAC l mt lp con hi t truyn dn TC (Transmission Convergence Sublayer). V tr tng i ca cc lp con MAC v lp PHY c trnh by trong hnh 2.1.

Hnh 2.1: Cu trc giao thc mng WiMAX

2.1 Lp vt l
2.1.1 Gii thiu Chun IEEE 802.16 l chu n h tr nhiu giao tip mi trng vt l khc nhau. Chu n c pht trin t phin b n nm 2001 v n nay vn c Nghin cu. Trc kia 802.16 ch s dng dng iu ch sng mang n nhng n nay h tr cng ngh truy nhp da trn ghp knh phn chia theo tn s trc giao m rng (SOFDMA). Ban u ch s dng bng tn 10 - 66 GHz n nay chun cho php hot ng c hai bng tn 2 -11 Ghz v 10 -66 Ghz.

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Hnh 2.2: Tng quan v chc nng lp vt l trm pht sng WiMAX 10- 66Ghz : Trong bng tn 10 -66 Ghz lp vt l ca 802.16 phi h tr mi trng truyn sng trong tm nh n th ng do vy dng iu ch sng mang n c la chn. Giao tip khng trung ny c gi l WirelessMAN- SC. Nhiu thch thc trong vn thit k vn tn ti tuy nhin do kin trc s dng y l im - a im nn v c bn cc trm pht sng BS s s truyn pht tn hiu TDM, trong cc trm thu bao s c nh ra cc khe thi gian lin tip nhau. hng ln uplink s dng cng ngh truy nhp phn chia theo thi gian TDMA. V sau bn thit k s dng dng burst c la chn bi v n cho php c hai dng ghp knh theo thi gian v ghp knh theo tn s. S dng ghp knh phn chia theo thi gian cc knh hng ln uplink v knh hng xung downlink u c th s dng cng mt knh truyn dn nhng khng c pht cng mt lc, cn s dng ghp knh phn chia theo tn s hai knh hng ln uplink v knh hng xung downlink s dng hai knh khc nhau i khi c th truyn pht cng lc. Dng burst cho php c TDD v FDD c x l tng t nhau, tuy nhin cc thu bao ch s dng FDD bn song cng. Hai dng TDD v FDD c th thay th nhau v u s dng dng burst vi s m ha v iu ch l ty chn, c gn ng trn tng burst. 2 - 11Ghz : Trong di tn 2 -11 Ghz IEEE 802.16 s dng c bng tn cp php v khng cn cp php trong mi trng truyn dn khng yu cu tm nhn thng. Cc bn phc tho hin ti a ra 3 d ng lp vt l khc nhau, mi d ng u c th tng thch vi nhau. - WirelessMAN- SCa: dng n y s dng iu ch sng mang n - WirelessMAN - OFDM: d ng ny s dng ghp knh phn chia theo tn s trc giao vi 256 im bin i FFT. y l giao tip bt buc trong bng tn khng cn cp php. - WirelessMAN - OFDMA: d ng ny s dng truy nhp phn chia theo tn s trc giao vi 2048 im bin i FFT. Do yu cu v truyn sng dng vt l ny s h tr h thng anten tin tin.

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Bng 2.1 : M t cc dng thit k lp vt l Lp vt l c thit k cho s hot ng trong bng tn 10 -66 Ghz c thit k vi s mm do cho php cc nh cung cp dch v c kh nng trin khai h thng mt cch ti u trong vic lp cc cell, tnh chi ph, kh nng ca sng radio, cc dch v hay dung lng ca h thng. cho php s dng ph hiu qu, c hai phng php ghp knh TDD v FDD u c s dng. Bn cnh c hai phng php ny u s dng cc burst truyn dn, mi burst c burst profile cha cc thng s truyn dn nh s iu ch, s m ha, v chng c th c iu chnh trn mi thu bao da trn tng khung mt. 2.1.2 Xy dng khung Lp vt l s dng cc khung nh b ng 2.2 Trong mi khung l cc khung con hng ln v khung con h ng xung. Cc khung con hng xung b t u vi cc thng tin cn thit cho vic iu khin v ng b khung. Trong trng h p TDD cc khung con hng xu ng s pht trc tip sau l cc khung con hng ln. Trong trng hp FDD s truyn pht d liu hng ln xy ng thi vi hng xung. Mi thu bao SS s c gng nhn ht cc burst hng xung ngoi tr nhng burst m burst profile khng c thc hin bi SS v nh ng burst c tn hiu khng mnh so vi cc burst profile hin ti ca thu bao SS . Cc SS trong m hnh bn song cng s khng cn thit phi nghe cc ph n ca knh hng xu ng.

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Bng 2.2: di khung vt l 2.1.3 M hnh hot ng FDD Trong m hnh hot ng FDD cc knh h ng ln v hng xung s dng tn s khc nhau. Cc tuyn hng xung c th s dng nhiu loi iu ch khc nhau v cho php truyn pht ngay lp tc nu h tr song cng. 2.1.4 M hnh hot ng TDD Trong trng hp TDD s truyn pht d liu hng ln v hng xung s dng cng tn s nhng nhng thi im khc nhau. Mt khung TDD c mt khong thi gian c nh, v cha mt khung con hng ln v mt khung con hng xung. Cc khung TDD c ch ra hng ln v hng xung l rt khc nhau tng ng vi dung lng ca tuyn. TTG TTG l mt khong gia burst hng xung v burst hng ln theo sau. Kho ng ny m ra mt khong thi gian trm pht sng BS c th chuyn t trng thi pht tin sang trng thi nhn tin v cho php thu bao SS chuyn t trng thi nhn tin sang trng thi truyn tin. Trong khong thi gian n y, trm pht sng BS v thu bao SS khng c pht b t c d liu g c iu ch tuy nhin n cho php b pht sng ca BS c th pht i nhng xung dc xung, cc anten pht /thu khi ng, b thu tn hiu ca BS tch cc. Sau khong thi gian ny b thu ca trm pht sng BS s tm kim cc tn hiu u tin ca burst uplink. RTG RTG l mt khong gia burst hng ln v cc burst hng xung theo sau. Kho ng ny cho php trm pht sng BS chuyn trng thi t nhn d liu sang pht d liu, trong khong thi gian ny BS khng pht d liu iu ch,tuy nhin cho php BS pht i tn hiu dc ln, anten thu/pht tn hiu khi ng, b thu tn hiu ca thu bao SS c tch cc. Sau khong thi gian n y thu bao SS s tm nhng tn hiu ca d liu iu ch QPSK trong burst hng xung. Kho ng thi gian n y l bi s ca khong thi gian ca mt khe vt l PS (physical slot) bt u tnh t bin gii ca khe vt l ny. Khe vt l c dng cho mc ch nh ra bng thng v nh n dng s chuyn tip lp vt l. Khe vt l PS thng c xc nh bng cc k hiu 4 QAM. 2.1.5 Lp vt l hng xung (Downlink PHY)
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Bng thng sn c trn cc knh h ng xung c tnh bng khe thi gian vt l PS, cn bng thng hng ln tnh bng mt minislot, trong chiu di mt minislot c tnh bng 2m PS (m = 0..7). S lng khe vt l trong mi khung to nn tc k hiu (symbol rate). Tc k hiu trong mi khung thng c la chn l s nguyn ln PS. V d vi tc k hiu l 20 MBd, th s c 5000 PS trong mt khung 1ms. Khung con hng xung (Downlink subframe) Cu trc ca khung con hngxung s dng TDD c minh ha theo hnh 2.3. Khung con hng xung bt u vi phn mo u ng b khung c s dng ng b v cn bng khung. Tip theo sau l ph n iu khin khung cha DL-MAP v UL-MAP, sau l phn mang d liu TDD c t chc th nh dng burst, trong mi burst c mt burst profile khc nhau, gip to ra mc khc nhau trong truyn dn. Burst profile ch a cc thng s c t cc c tnh truyn dn hng Ln v h ng xung. Mi profile cha cc thng s nh loi iu ch, sa li trc, chiu di phn mo u ng b, khong bo v Thng thng cc burst u tin c truyn i thng s dng phng php iu ch n gin nht, thng l QPSK sau l 16 QAM v tip theo l 64_QAM. Mi thu bao SS nhn v gii m cc thng tin iu khin trn knh hng xung sau tm kim phn mo u lp MAC.

Hnh 2.3: Cu trc khung con hng xung Cng ging nh TDD cc khung con hng xung cng bt u bng phn m o u ng b, theo sau l phn iu khin khung v ph n d liu TDM, c t chc thnh dng burst. Cc khung con hng xung s tip tc vi phn TDMA c s dng truyn d liu ti bt k mt thu bao bn song cng no c lp lch trnh truyn pht d liu trc khung m chng nh n c. iu n y cho php cc thu bao c nhn c th gii m cc ph n khung c th trong khung hng xung m khng cn phi gii m ton b khung con hng xung. Trong phn TDMA mi burst s bt u vi phn mo u burst TDMA hng xung (downlink TDMA Burst Preamble) dng ng b li.
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Cc burst trong phn TDMA khng cn tun theo th t iu ch t thp n cao. Phn iu khin khung FDD cha c hai nh x burst TDM v TDMA.

Hnh 2.4: Cu trc khung con hng xung FDD Trong khung con h ng xung TDD vn cha cc d liu truyn ti cc thu bao SS, v cc SS s truyn tin trong mt khung khc sau khung m chng nhn c. Vic n y ging vi cu trc khung con hng xung FDD khng h tr bn song cng, khi cc thu bao SS c lp lch trnh pht d liu trc khi chng nhn c khung. 2.1.6 Lp vt l hng ln (Uplink PHY) Khung con hng ln (uplink subframe) Cu trc khung con hng ln c s dng bi thu bao SS truyn tin ti BS c ch ra h nh 2.5. y c 3 loi burst c truyn i trong mt khung con hng ln: - Burst c pht i vi mc ch cnh tranh dnh cho ranging khi u. - Burst c pht i vi mc ch cnh tranh c xc nh bi khong yu cu (Request Interval) dnh cho vic p li poll multicast hay broadcast. - Burst c pht i trong cc khong khc nhau c xc nh bi Data Grant IE dng nh ra bng thng cho tng SS. Cc burst ny c th tn ti trong bt c khun g no, xut hin bt k thi im no v s lng khng hn ch (ch b hn ch bi s khe vt l PS) trong mt khung. Bng thng c ch ra cho ranging khi u v c hi cnh tranh yu cu (Request contention opportunies) c th c nhm li vi nhau v lun c dng cng vi burst profile hng ln c ch ra trong UIUC (ranging khi u c UIUC =2, kho ng yu cu c UIUC =1). SSTG (SS transition gap)
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c dng tch bit s truyn pht ca cc SS khc nhau trong cng mt khung con hng ln. Khong trng n y c dng xung dc xung v c theo sau bi mt phn m o u cho php BS ng b vi SS mi. Phn m o u v khong trng ny c qung b theo nh k trong thng ip UCD.

Hnh 2.5: Cu trc khung con hng ln Mt s nt c trng khc ca lp vt l chun IEEE 802.16a m do phng php iu ch mang li l cng sut pht ln trong mt vng rng, rng cc knh c tnh m m do, mt mt thch ng v tc , t hiu chnh li, ph thuc vo cc h thng anten cao cp ci thin vng ph sng v dung lng h thng, phng php la chn tn s DFS s lm cho nhiu gim ti mc nh nht c th, phng php m ha theo cc khong thi gian tng cng s thc hin trong mi trng pha inh v vt qua c tnh a dng v khng gian. 2.1.7 Kim sot li Chun IEEE802.16 s dng hai phng php kim sot li lp vt l: Sa li trc (FEC) v yu cu truyn li t ng (ARQ). Sa li trc l phng php rt ph bin cc giao tip v tuyn. Chun IEEE 802.16 s dng Reed Solomon GF (256) FEC, tuy nhin cho php la chn m Block Turbo tng phm vi ph sng ca BS hoc tng thng lng. Yu cu truyn pht li t ng l mt c tnh lp vt l c s dng x l nhng li xy ra trong qu trnh lan truyn bt thng. ARQ bao gm c s truyn pht li tng bt d liu b mt trong qu trnh truyn dn ban u. Vic truyn li ring tng bt cho php lp vt l c th t sa li trc khi gi d liu ln cc lp cao hn. y l m t c tnh ch c lp vt l ca 802.16a khng c trong chun 802.16. 2.1.8 Tc baud v rng bng thng Mt lng ln bng thng lun c sn di tn 10- 66 GHZ cho h thng im a im. Mc d nhng yu cu quy tc rt khc nhau nhng vng a l
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nhng vn c nhng tiu chun chung cho rng knh RF nh bng 2.3. iu ny l cn thit m bo xy dng mt chun c tnh tng thch cho cc sn phm.

Bng 2.3: Tc baud v rng knh Trong bng 2.3 tc baud c chn l s nguyn ln khe vt l PS trn mi khung. Khong thi gian ca khung c chn da trn c s cn bng gia hiu sut truyn ti v tr. 2.1.9 Kim sot h thng v tuyn 2.1.9.1 K thut ng b B gii iu ch hng xung cung cp mt ng h tham chiu c ly t ng h k hiu hng xung. Tham chiu ny c s dng bi cc trm thu bao t c s nh thi khi ng h hng xung b kha tham chiu chnh xc ti BS. Vic ng b cc khe thi gian hng ln mt cch chnh xc uc thc hin thng qua th tc chnh ranging c xc nh lp MAC m bo rng vic truyn dn bi nhiu ngi dng khng b giao thoa vi nhau. Do lp vt l ph i cung cp s nh thi chnh xc t BS v m m do trong vic chnh nh thi pha SS theo cc c tnh ca b pht. 2.1.9.2 Kim sot tn s Kim sot tn s l mt thnh ph n ca lp PHY. Li tn s rt khc nhau theo tng thi k v nhit trong n v sng v tuyn, c bit l tn s cao. gim phc tp trong cc thnh phn tn s SS tn s sng mang hng ln v hng xung s tham chiu ln nhau. Tuy nhin vic chnh tn s v cng sut cng tn ti trong qu trnh ranging. Sau khi tn s ban u c iu chnh cc bin php chnh lch tn s theo chu k pha BS s c thc hin lp vt l v gi ti SS thng qua thng ip lp MAC nu cn thit. 2.1.9.3 iu khin cng sut Cng vi vic kim sot tn s, thut ton iu khin cng sut cng c h tr tuyn ln vi c hai kh nng l iu chnh ban u v iu chnh theo chu k vi mc tiu khng mt d liu. BS c kh nng o chnh xc cng sut ca tn hiu n nhn c. Gi tr ny c so snh vi mc cng sut chun. Nu c li, nhng li ny s c gi li SS trong mt thng ip iu chnh ti t lp MAC. Thut ton iu chnh cng sut s c thit k h tr s suy hao cng su t do khong cch, do s thay i cng sut mc cao nht l 10dB/s vi su thp nht l
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40 dB. Vic thc hin thut ton ny mt cch chnh xc s c a ra bi cc nh cung cp c th. Phm vi iu khin cng sut tng bao gm c phn c nh v ph n c iu khin t ng bng thng tin phn hi. Thut ton ny cng tnh n c s nh hng ln nhau ca b khuch i cng sut vi cc dng burst profile khc nhau. 2.1.10 Lp con hi t truyn dn Gia PHY v MAC l m t lp con hi t truyn TC (transmission convergence). Lp ny thc hin s bin i cc PDU (protocol data units) MAC di c th thay i vo trong cc block FEC di c nh (cng th m c th l mt block c rt ngn vo on cui) ca mi burst. Lp TC c mt PDU c kch thc khp vi block FEC hin thi b y. N bt u vi mt con tr ch ra v tr u mc PDU MAC tip theo bt u bn trong block FEC. Khun dng PDU TC cho php ng b ha li PDU MAC tip sau trong trng hp block FEC trc c nhng li khng th phc hi c. Khng c lp TC, mt SS hay BS nhn s mt ton b phn cn li ca mt "burst" khi mt li khng th sa cha xut hin. Ni tm li vi cc nt c trng ca lp vt l n s c mt s li ch nh sau: - Vi phng php iu ch 256 point FFT OFDM, n s to ra nhng s h tr cho vic xy dng cc a ch mng a ng trong mi trng LOS vng Outdoor v NLOS. - Vi kh nng thch ng iu ch v phu ng php m - ha c kh nng t hiu chnh li trong mt cm RF, m bo mnh cho cc knh RF trong khi vn m bo s bt / giy cho mi mt khi cc thu bao l ln nht. - Vi vic h tr truy nhp TDD v FDD, th vic thay i a ch trn ton din rng c quy nh mt ni no hoc tt c nhng ni cho php. - Vi mm do v kch thc ca knh, n cung cp tnh mm do cn thit cho s hot ng mt s bng tn khc nhau vi s thay i knh theo nhu cu trn ton th gii. - Vi s h tr ca h thng anten smart, s lm tng kh nng trit nhiu nh vy h thng s ln ln v gi thnh s gim xung. Tt c cc c trng trn u l nhng yu cu thit yu c s cho k thut FBWA outdoor ho t ng. Tnh mm do ca kch c knh cng l mt iu bt buc nu n mun c th c thi trn phm vi ton th gii. Khi m trong d i ph cho php s hot ng trong h thng phi tr gi cc cho tng MHz, th l vn cp thit cho vic trin khai h thng s dng tt c cc phn ca di ph v cung cp tnh mm do trong mng t ong cellular.

2.2 Lp MAC
2.2.1 Vn v cng ngh Giao thc lp MAC ca IEEE 802.16 c thit k cho cc ng dng truy nhp bng rng khng dy. N p ng tc d liu cao trn c hai tuyn uplink v downlink. Thu t ton truy nhp v cp pht bng thng phi p ng hng trm thit b u cui trn mi knh trong mi thit b c th c dng chung bi nhiu ngi dng.
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Do vy cc dch v phc v mi ngi dng ny l khc nhau, gm c thoi v d liu c ghp knh theo thi gian, cc kt ni IP hay VoIP. p ng cc dch v khc nhau ny lp MAC phi p ng c hai dng lu lng d ng lin tc (continuous) hay dng xung (bursty). Ngo i ra nhng dch v n y phi p ng c QoS trn tng lu lng. Lp MAC 802.16 cho php mt phm vi ng dng rng ri t cc loi d ch v tng t ti cc dng dch v chuyn giao bt ng b (ATM) cng nh cc d ng mi nh tc khung c m bo(GFR guaranteed frame rate). Giao thc lp MAC cng h tr cc yu cu khc nhau ca mng backhaul nh chuyn giao b t ng b (ATM) hay cc giao thc da trn gi d liu. Lp con hi t c s dng nh x cc dng lu lng t lp truyn ti ti lp MAC, y l mt lp dch v mm do mang bt c loi lu lng no. Thng qua cc c tnh nh chn phn u ti tin, ng gi, phn on lp hi t v lp MAC c th lm vic cng nhau to mt c ch truyn ti hiu sut hn. Vn hiu sut truyn ti cng c a ra gia lp MAC v lp PHY. V d nh s m ha v iu ch c ch ra burst profile c th iu chnh tng ng vi mi dng burst v mi thu bao. Lp MAC c th s dng burst profile t hiu sut bng thng cao nht vi iu kin tuyn truyn dn tt. C ch yu cu/ cp pht (request/ grant) gip cho mng c th m rng quy m, t hiu sut cao hn. H thng truy nhp 802.16 s khng gim hiu sut khi n phc v nhiu kt ni trn mi thit b u cui, p ng nhiu mc QoS trn mi thit b u cui v phc v s lng ngi dng ln nht. Trong khi vic cp pht bng thng m rng v c ch QoS c chu n ha th chi tit ca vic lp lch trnh v c ch qun l dnh ring cha c chu n ha cung cp cho cc nh u t c hi to s khc bit trong thit b ca mnh. Cng vi nhng nhim v c bn nh nh bng thng, truyn ti d liu lp MAC cn c lp con bo mt cung cp s xc thc mng truy nhp v thit lp kt ni trnh vic trm dch v, cung cp s trao i kha v b o mt d liu c nhn. p ng nhiu dng lp vt l khc nhau v cc yu cu dch v khc nhau bng tn 2 -11 GHz lp MAC ca 802.16a phi c nng cp cung cp yu cu lp t ng (automatic repeat request ARQ) v h tr mng li ch khng ch l kin trc mng im - a im. Lp MAC gm c ba lp con: lp hi t chuyn bit dch v giao tip vi cc lp bn trn, n m trn lp MAC con phn chung thc hin chc nng quan trng ca lp MAC. Lp bn di l lp con bo mt

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Hnh 2.6: S khi chc nng lp MAC 2.2.2 Lp con hi t chuyn bit dch v Lp con hi t chuyn bit cc dch v nm trn lp MAC phn chung. Thng qua SAP lp MAC phn chung s cung cp cc dch v cho lp hi t phn chung. Chun IEEE 802.16 xc nh hai lp con hi t chuyn bit cc d ch v nh x cc dch v ti v t cc kt ni lp MAC. Lp hi t phn chung thc hin cc chc nng c th sau: - Nhn cc PDU t cc lp cao hn. - Thc hin phn loi cc PDU ca cc lp trn. - X l cc PDU da trn s phn loi. - a cc CS PDU n cc MAC SAP tng ng. - Nhn cc CS PDU t cc thc th ngang hng. 2.2.2.1 Lp con hi ATM Lp con hi t ATM s dng cho cc dch v ATM, nhn cc cell ATM t cc lp ATM thc hin phn lp , chn m o u ti tin, v a cc CS PDU n cc MAC SAP tng ng. 2.2.2.1.1 Dng PDU

Hnh 2.7: Dng PDU ca lp hi t con ATM PDU ca lp hi t con ATM c hai ph n: phn m o u PDU v phn ti tin PDU nh hnh 2.8. 2.2.2.1.2 S phn lp
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Mt kt ni ATM c xc nh bi hai gi tr nhn dng ng o VPI (Virtual Path Identifier) v nhn dng knh o VCI (Virtual Channel Identifer) trong m hnh chuyn mch theo ng hay chuyn mch theo knh. Trong m hnh chuyn mch theo ng tt c cc VCI trong mt VPI s t ng c nh x n li ra ca VPI. Trong m hnh chuyn mch theo knh cc gi tr VPI/VCI s c nh x n cc VPI/VCI tng ng. Khi thc hin chn phn mo u ti tin th s phn bit hai loi m hnh ny ring. M hnh chuyn mch VP Trong m hnh ny trng VPI dnh 12 bt cho giao tip mng - mng (NNI) v 8 bit cho giao tip ngi dng - mng (UNI) c nh x ti CID 16 bit. M hnh chuyn mch VC Trong m hnh ny trng VPI v VCI c tng s 28 bit cho NNI v 24 bit cho UNI, cng cnh x ti CID. Tuy nhin phm vi ca VPI/ VCI l 2 28cho NNI v 2 24 UNI khng c h tr cng mt lc. 2.2.2.1.3 Chn mo u ti tin (PHS payload header suppression) Ch n phn m o u ti tin, bn sao ca phn m o u ti tin s c loi b bn gi v c khi phc ti bn nhn. Khi khng c chn mo u ti tin th khng mt phn n o ca phn mo u c lo i b k c HEC (Header Error Check). Kh nng n y cung cp s to n vn phn m o u cell. Vic c p dng PHS trong kt ni ATM hay khng c ch ra trong thng ip DSAREQ qu trnh to kt ni, ng thi m hnh VPI hay VCI cng s c ch ra trong thng ip ny. PHS ca kt ni ATM da trn chuyn mch ng:

Hnh 2.8: CS PDU trong kt ni ATM da trn chuyn mch ng PTI: payload type indicator CLP: cell loss priority PHS ca kt ni ATM da trn chuyn mch knh:

Hnh 2.9: CS PDU trong kt ni ATM da trn chuyn mch knh 2.2.2.1.4 Th tc bo hiu Giao din ATM h tr 3 loi kt ni:
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- Knh o chuyn mch SVC ( switched virtual circuit) - Knh o c nh PVC (permanent virtual circuit ) - Knh o c nh mm soft PVC (soft permanent virtual circuit) T c nh m ch rng knh c thit lp cho mc ch qun l. Mc d c PVC v Soft PVC u c thit lp qun l nhng PCV dng cho qu trnh x l d phng cn soft PVC c s dng bo hiu. Mng ATM s dng bo hiu knh chung (CCS common channel signaling) trong thng ip bo hiu c truyn trn nhng kt ni c lp vi kt ni ca ngi s dng. Mt knh bo hiu s mang tn hiu bo hiu ca mt s ngi dng nh t nh. Knh o chuyn mch chu trch nhim khi to th tc bo hiu bng vic pht i mt thng ip bo hiu tng ng v thc hin vic nh x cc thng ip bo hiu ATM ti MAC CPS. Knh o c nh mm (soft PVC) c s dng trong h thng qun tr m ng. Knh ny c nhim c thit lp v gii phng kt ni khi cuc lin lc kt thc hay trong trng hp chuyn h thng hay tuyn lin kt b li. Bn cnh cng c nhim v chuyn thng ip bo hiu ti MAC CPS. 2.2.2.2 Lp con hi t gi Lp con hi t gi nm trn lp MAC CPS, d ng cho cc d ch v gi nh IPv4,IPv6, Ethernet, mng LAN o (VLAN). Nhim v chnh ca lp con ny l phn lo i n v d liu dch v (SDU) ti cc kt ni MAC tha ng, duy tr v cho php cc thng s QoS v cho php cp pht bng thng. Vic nh x c rt nhiu dng khc nhau ty thuc vo cc lo i d ch v. Ngoi cc chc nng c bn ny lp con hi t c th thc hin cc chc nng tinh vi hn nh chn ph n mo u ti tin v ti to nng cp hiu sut tuyn truyn dn. Chc nng c th nh sau: - Phn lp cc PDU giao thc lp cao hn ti nhng kt ni tngng. - Ch n phn mo u ti tin. - a cc CS PDU ti cc MAC SAP lin kt vi cc dng d ch v chuyn sang cc MAC SAP ngang hng. - Nhn cc CS PDU t cc MAC SAP ngang hng. - Xy d ng li bt k mt thng tin no ca phn mo u ti tin. CS bn gi s chu trch nhim a MAC SDU ti cc MAC SAP. Lp MAC s a MAC SDU ti MAC SDU ngang hng theo ph hp vi QoS, phn on, ghp ni v cc chc nng khc lin quan n cc c tnh ca dng d ch v. Bn nhn s chuyn cc MAC SDU ti cc lp giao thc cao hn. 2.2.2.2.1 Dng MAC SDU

Hnh 2.10: Dng MAC SDU


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Trong SDU c trng PHSI 8 bit l trng ch dn chn m o u ti tin. Nu gi tr trng ny bng 0 th khng c PHS trong SDU. 2.2.2.2.2 S phn lp Phn lp l mt qu trnh m MAC SDU c nh x ti cc kt ni truyn dn c th gia cc MAC ngang hng. Vic nh x cc MAC SDU ti mt kt ni to s lin kt vi cc c tnh ca dng dch v ca kt ni . c th thc hin phn lp tng gi tin cn c cc thng tin nh th t u tin phn lp, tham chiu ti CID hay loi gi tin ca cc giao thc c th (v d nh gi tin IP). Nu khng c cc thng tin phn lp ny gi tin s c n nhng kt ni m c nh hoc b loi b. Vic phn lp c th c thm vo thng qua s qun l m ng ho c thng qua s hot ng (nh bo hiu ng) hay giao thc SNMP. 2.2.2.2.3 Chn mo u ti tin Ch n mo u ti tin l b n sao ca thng tin mo u ca lp cao hn s c hy b bn gi v c khi phc li bn thu. Mi SDU s c PHSI (payload header suppression identify) ch ra trng ch n mo u ti tin PHSF ( payload header suppression field). PHS c mt trng l PHSV (payload header suppression valid) xc nh n phn ti tin trc khi ch n. PHS cng c trng PHSM cho php la chn nhng byte s khng cn chn. PHSM c s dng khi gi nhng byte thay i nh s chui IP trong khi cc byte khc khng thay i. Bn gi s dng cc thng tin phn lp nh x cc gi tin trong cc dng dch v. Vic nh x cc gi tin lin quan n quy tc PHS. Bn nhn s dng CID v PHSI khi phc PHSF. Mi PHSF c gn ti mt PHSI, v s khng thay i. thay i gi tr PHSF trn dng d ch v phi c cc quy tc PHS mi c a ra. Ch c cc lp trn mi c th to ra cc quy tc PHS m i. 2.2.2.2.4 Qu trnh chn mo u ti tin Khi SS nhn c mt gi tin t lp hi t gi, n s so snh cc byte trong mo u gi tin vi cc byte trong PHSF nu ph hp SS s chn cc byte trong PHSF hng ln ngoi tr byte c che bi PHSM. Sau SS gn PHSI vo u PDU v gi to n b MAC SDU ti MAC SAP truyn ln hng ln. Khi mt gi tin c nhn bi BS , BS s kim tra phn mo u chung. BS gi PDU ti MAC SAP ca CID . Lp hi t gi s dng CID v PHSI tm ra PHSM, PHSF, PHSS. Sau BS tp hp cc gi tin v x l nh mt gi tin bnh thng. 2.2.3 Lp con phn chung (common part sublayer) Ni chung lp MAC c thit k h tr kin trc im - a im vi mt BS trung tm c th x l nhiu sector c lp cng mt lc. Trn cc tuyn hng xung d liu ti SS c ghp knh phn chia theo th i gian. Cc tuyn hng ln s dng a truy nhp phn chia theo thi gian (TDMA). Lp MAC 802.16 l lp nh hng kt ni. Tt c cc dch v khng kt ni s c nh x ti mt kt ni. Kh nng n y cung cp mt c ch p ng bng thng theo yu cu gn QoS v cc thng s l u lng, qu trnh truyn ti v nh tuyn d liu ti cc lp con hi t tng ng.

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Cc kt ni s c ch ra bi CID 16 bit v c th yu cu bng thng lin tc hay bng thng theo yu cu. Mi SS c 48 bt a ch MAC dng nhn dng thit b. Trn li vo mng SS c gn 3 kt ni qun l theo mi hng. kt ni ny ph n nh cc yu cu QoS khc nhau bi cc mc qun l khc nhau. Kt ni u tin l kt ni c bn c dng chuyn cc thng ip lp MAC vi thi gian ngn, hay cc thng ip iu khin lin kt v tuyn (RLC), qung b d liu ban u, yu cu bng thng, ranging khi u. Kt ni th hai l kt ni chnh (primary) c s dng chuyn cc thng ip vi thi gian d i hn v c th c tr, thng l cc thng ip xc thc hay thit lp kt ni. Cui cng l thng ip qun l th cp c dng chuyn cc thng ip qun l theo chun nh Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP), Trival File Transfer Protocol (TFTP) v Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP). Ngoi nhng kt ni qun l n y cn c kt ni truyn ti mang lu lng ngi dng. Ngoi ra MAC cn d tr cc kt ni b sung cho nhng mc ch khc nh s truy nhp lc khi u trn c s cnh tranh, s truyn qung b (broadcast) cho ng xung cng nh cho bo hiu kim tra tun t (polling). 2.2.3.1 MAC PDU M t MAC PDU MAC PDU l mt n v d liu trao i gia lp MAC ca BS v SS. MAC PDU gm c mt mo u MAC c chiu di c nh, v ph n ti tin c chiu di bin i, phn CRC ty chn.

Hnh 2.11: MAC PDU C hai d ng phn mo u, c phn bit bi trng HT. Mt l ph n mo u chung (generic header) v phn m o u yu cu bng thng (bandwidth request header). Phn mo u yu cu bng thng n y khng c
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phn ti tin i km. MAC PDU ch a thng ip qun l lp MAC hoc d liu lp con hi t. C 3 lo i mo u con lp MAC (subheader): - Phn mo u con qun l cp php c SS dng chuyn i cc nhu cu qun l bng thng ti BS. - Phn mo u con phn on cha cc thng tin ch ra s hin din v nh hng trong phn ti tin ca bt k on SDU no. - Phn m o u con ng gi dng ch ra s ng gi ca cc SDU trong mt PDU.

Hnh 2.12: Cu trc khung phn mo u chung ca MAC PDU Phn mo u con phn on v cp php bng thng c chn trong PDU ngay sau phn mo u chung v c ch ra bi trng Type. Phn m o u con ng gi c chn trc mi SDU cng c ch ra bi trng Type.

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Bng 2.4: Cc trng trong phn mo u chung GH

Hnh 2.13: Cu trc khung phn mo u yu cu bng thng

Bng 2.5: Cc trng trong phn mo u y u cu bng thng Xy dng MAC PDU:
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Chun IEEE 802.16 li dng vic kt hp qu trnh phn on v ng gi vi qu trnh cp pht bng thng to ra s mm do v hiu qu cao nht. Chun IEEE 802.16 cho php s phn on v ng gi xy ra cng lc nng cao hiu sut s dng bng thng: - Ghp ni: l qu trnh ghp ni nhiu MAC PDU trong mt ln truyn d n. Qu trnh ny c thc hin c hng ln v hng xung. - Phn on: l qu trnh phn chia mt MAC SDU vo nhiu MAC PDU. Kh nng ny h tr cc dch v m MAC SDU c kch thc rt ln nh cc ng dng truyn h nh. S phn on c th c thc hin c hai hng ln v hng xung. - ng gi: l qu trnh ng gi nhiu MAC SDU vo mt MAC PDU. Qu trnh ny cng c thc hin c hng ln v hng xung. Truyn dn MAC PDU: Lp MAC ca chun IEEE 802.16 h tr cc giao thc lp cao hn nh ATM IP. Trn li vo cc MAC SDU t cc lp con hi t tng ng s c to d ng theo dng ca MAC PDU tc l c th c phn on hay ng gi trc khi c chuyn ln cc cc kt ni tng ng ph hp vi giao thc lp MAC. Sau khi c chuyn ln cc tuyn truyn dn MAC PDU s c khi phc li thnh cc SDU gc, do vy vic iu chnh dng khung c th c hin b i lp MAC l trong sut i vi bn nhn d liu.

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Bt u

ng gi SDUs ? on SDU ph hp cha Phn on theo th t ?

Thm subheader ca cc on ng gi subheader v cc on SDU


Phn on SDU. ng gi subheader v cc on SDU Phn on cn thit ? Phn on cn thit

Dung lng cn cha thm SDU ?

a SDU vo ti tin

a subheader v on SDU vo ti tin Phn on. a on SDU vo ti tin a cc on SUD vo ti tin

Cha x l cc phn mo u con khc

Tnh ton thm CRC

C bo mt ti tin

Thm generic MAC header

M ha bo mt

Ghp PDU vo burst Up/Down link

C CRC ?

Hnh 2.14: Xy dng MAC PDU

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2.2.3.2 H tr lp vt l v cu trc khung MAC IEEE 802.16 h tr c TDD ln FDD. Trong FDD, cc ng xung "continuous" (lin tc) v "burst" (khng lin tc) u c h tr. Cc ng xung continuous c tnh n cc k thut nng cao hiu sut nh interleaving (chn). Cc ng xung burst (ho c FDD hoc TDD) cho php s dng nhiu k thut nng cao kh nng v dung lng hn nh burst profiling thch ng mc thu bao v cc h thng ngten ci tin. Dng lin tc: cc knh hng ln v hng xung s dng tn s khc nhau do vy chng c th truyn tin v nh n tin cng lc. Ngoi ra vic truyn pht c hai hng khng c nh di ca mt khung. Trong loi h thng ny cc knh hng xung s truyn tin lin tc v cc thu bao cng phi lun lun lng nghe n. Do lu lng c gi theo cch qung b s dng TDM trong cc knh h ng xung. Cc knh hng ln s dng TDMA. Dng burst: cc knh hng ln v hng xung c th s dng tn s ring v d liu hng xung truyn pht trong cc burst. di khung l c nh cho c hng ln v hng xung. Tuy nhin chng c th s dng cc loi iu ch khc nhau v cng cho php s dng m hnh song cng ln bn song cng. MAC xy d ng khung con (subframe) ca hng xu ng bt u vi mt on iu khin khung c cha cc thng ip DL-MAP v UL-MAP. Chng ch ra nhng chuyn tip PHY trn hng xung cng nh s cp pht bng thng v cc burst-profile hng ln. DL-MAP lun c th ng dng cho khung hin thi v lun c di ti thiu l hai block FEC. S chuyn tip PHY u tin c biu th trong block FEC u tin, cho php thi gian x l thch ng. Trong c hai h thng TDD v FDD, UL-MAP cung cp cc nh v bt u khng mun hn khung hng xung tip theo. Tuy vy, UL-MAP c th nh v s khi u khung hin thi, min l nhng thi gian x l v nhng tr ton phn (round-trip delay) phi c gim st. 2.2.3.3 iu khin tuyn v tuyn (Radio link Control) Cng ngh nng cp lp vt l yu cu s iu khin tuyn v tuyn cao cp tng ng c bit l kh nng chuyn i t dng burst profile ny sang d ng burst profile khc. RLC phi kim sot nhng kh nng ny nh chc nng truyn thng ca RLC trong qu trnh iu khin cng sut v ranging. RLC bt u vi vic qung b BS burst profile theo chu k la chn tuyn ln v tuyn xung. c bit dng burst profile s dng trn mi knh c la chn da trn mt s nhn t nh ma hay kh nng ca thit b. Dng burst profile hng xung c DIUC Downlink Interval Usage Code cn hng ln c UIUC (Uplink Interval Usage Code). Trong qu trnh khi to SS thc hin khi to mc cng sut v ranging bng mt yu cu RNG- REQ (ranging request message). S iu chnh thi im pht ca SS cng nh cng sut s c p li trong thng ip RNG-RSP. Trong qu trnh ranging v ch nh cng sut BS c th pht thng ip RNG-RSP t nguyn ra lnh cho SS iu chnh cng sut v nh thi ca n Trong qu trnh ranging khi u SS s yu cu c phc v trong tuyn xung thng qua burst profile c bit vi vic pht i s la chn DIUC ca n ti BS. S la chn ny da trn cht lng tn hiu hng xung n nhn c,
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v c th c hin trc hay trong qu trnh ranging kh i u. BS c th cho php ho c loi b s la chn ny trong thng ip tr li qu trnh ranging. Tng t nh vy BS s gim st qu trnh ch t lng tn hiu hng ln n nhn c t SS. BS ra lnh cho SS s dng cc dng burst profile hng ln c th bng cch gp burst profile UIUC trong thng ip UL- MAP. Sau qu trnh quyt nh burst profile hng ln v hng xung gia BS v SS c th, RLC s tip tc gim st iu khin burst profile. Trong iu kin khc nghit nh ma lm m tn hiu n c th bt SS a ra yu cu burst profile mnh hn, trong iu kin mi trng tt n c th cho php SS hot ng vi nhiu dng burst profile mnh hn. RLC tip tc to s thch nghi gia burst profile tuyn ln v tuyn xung ca SS t c s cn bng gia hiu sut v mnh ca burst profile. V BS lin tc gim st iu khin tn hiu hng ln nn vic thay i burst profile cho SS rt n gin, BS ch cn ch ra dng burst profile trong UIUC khi no cp php bng thng cho SS. Vic n y loi b nhu cu bo xc nhn ACK v SS lun lun nhn c c UIUC v cp php do vy khng c s khng ph hp gia BS v SS. Trong tuyn hng xung, SS s l bn gim st cht lng tn hiu nhn c v cng nh vy dng burst profile c th thay i, tuy nhin BS s iu khin s thay i ny. C hai phng php cho SS yu cu s thay i burst profile tuyn xung ty thuc vo vic SS hot ng m h nh cp php trn mi kt ni hay cp php cho mi SS. phng php th nht BS s nh ra khong cch duy tr gia trm v SS, SS c th s dng thng ip RNG - REQ yu cu thay i d ng burst profile hng xung. Phng php c u tin hn l SS pht i yu cu thay i burst profile hng xung DBPC-REQ (downlink burst profile request). BS c th t chi hoc ng thay i. Nhc im l giao thc ny c th b li bt (khng th khi phc c nn phi rt cn thn trong qu trnh xy dng khung) 2.2.3.4 Polling Polling l mt qu trnh c BS s dng nh ra c hi yu cu bng thng cho SS. Khi BS mun thng bo cho SS v mt kh nng yu cu bng thng, n s s dng th nh ph n thng tin ca thng ip UL-MAP (UL-MAP IE). UL-MAP IE s cp y bng thng cho SS hoc SS c php yu cu bng thng trong mt khong thi gian ch ra. C hi yu cu bng thng c th c thc hin theo dng unicast, multicast hay broadcast. Polling c thc hin trn kt ni c bn. Unicast Khi mt SS c kim sot ring, s khng c mt thng ip ring no c gi ti n thc hin qu trnh polling. Vic ch ra bng thng cho SS s c thc hin trong UL-MAP. Nu SS khng cn bng thng n s nhi y cc bt 1 trong phn thng tin ca UL-MAP (0xFF). Cc SS hot ng trong m hnh cp pht bng thng cho tng SS (GPSS) s c mt kt ni cp pht bng thng t nguyn s khng cn thc hin qu trnh polling tr khi chng thit lp bt Poll-Me trong phn mo u ca gi tin thuc kt ni UGS. Multicast v broadcast

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Nu c nhiu SS cng thiu bng thng, cc SS n y s c kim sot trong cc thng ip Polling multicast hay broadcast. Vic cp php bng thng s c ch ra trong cc kt ni broadcast hay multicast. Khi qu trnh polling c ch ra ti cc thng ip qung b hay multicast, mt SS thuc nhm nhn c thng ip ny c th yu cu bng thng trong kho ng thi gian c ch ra trong kt ni , yu cu n y s c gi i trong UL-MAP bi phn thng tin yu cu (request IE). gim kh nng xung t vi cc thng ip polling multicast v broadcast cc yu cu ca SS s s dng c ch cnh tranh la chn mt khe truyn pht i yu cu bng thng khi u. Nhng thng ip yu cu khng yu cu bng thng s khng c pht i trong khong thi gian yu cu bng thng multicast v broadcast ny. SS c th cho rng vic pht i thng ip ca n c th khng thnh cng nu khng c s cp php no m n nh n c sau khong thi gian timeout, n s lin tc pht i yu cu nu khong thi gian m BS nh ra cha kt thc. Bit Poll-Me SS s dng kt ni cp pht bng thng t nguyn s thit lp bt Poll-Me (trong phn m o u qun l cp php) ca gi tin MAC thuc kt ni cp php t nguyn (UGS). Thng thng cc SS s khng yu cu bng thng nhng khi mun c to c hi yu cu bng thng SS s phi thit lp bt Poll-Me. Tuy nhin vic yu cu bng thng cng c th xy ra trong trng hp m cc kt ni UGS khng p ng cc thng s QoS nht nh. Mt BS pht hin ra yu cu ny s p ng ngay. gim kh nng b l bt poll- Me SS s thit lp tt c cc bt trong phn mo u qun l cp php thuc MAC UGS.

Hnh 2.15: S dng bit poll- me


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2.2.3.5 Dch v lp lch trnh hng ln Mi kt ni hng ln u c nh x ti dch v lp lch trnh. Mi d ch v lp lch trnh ny u c lin kt vi mt lot cc quy tc nh s chu trch nhim ca BS nh ra dung lng tuyn ln, cc giao thc yu cu cp php gia SS v BS. Cc chi tit c th v cc d ch v lp lch trnh c s dng cho kt ni hng ln s c m phn trong thi im thit lp kt ni. Dch v cp php t nguyn c s dng chnh cho cc dch v thi gian thc, ng b vi cc dng d liu c di c nh trong khong thi gian nh k, nh ATM tc bt c nh, T1/E1 trn ATM hay VoIP. Trong cc d ch v n y BS a ra cc nhng cp php cho nhng d liu c chiu di c nh c to ra theo chu k. Kh nng ny c m phn trong qu trnh thit lp kt ni, khng cho php SS gi cc yu cu xin bng thng. Dch v kim sot vng thi gian thc (real-time polling service) c a ra h tr cc dng d ch v thi gian thc vi kch thc gi khc nhau theo chu k v d nh hnh nh MPEG. Dch v ny to ra nhng c hi yu cu cc ng dng thi gian thc, chu k hay n hng, n cn cho php SS ch ra kch thc cp php n cn. Dch v n y yu cu nhiu phn m o u hn dch v cp php bng thng t nguyn nhng cho php nhiu kch thc bng thng khc nhau, ti u ha hiu sut s dng bng thng. Cc dch v kim sot khng yu cu thi gian thc (The Non-RealTime Polling Service (nrtPS) h tr cc dng dch v khng cn thi gian thc yu cu kch thc lo i burst cp php d liu khc nhau, v d nh yu cu bng thng cao hn cho FTP. Dch v n y a ra s kim sot vng ti thi im yu cu, n m bo rng cc dng lu lng nhn c c hi yu cu thm ch trong thi gian mng b tc nghn. BS s kim sot CID nrtPS tng giy mt ho c t hn. Dch v ny th c hin trn nh ng kt ni c tr ln v t nhy cm vi tr jiter, ph hp vi cc ng dng nh truy nhp internet vi tc m b o ti thiu v dng cho nhng kt ni ATM GFR. Dch v n lc tt nht (Best Effort Service) l nhng dch v khng lin quan n thng lng, s m bo tr nht nh. Cc kt s dng c hi yu cu bng thng da trn s cnh tranh. Dch v n lc tt nht l d ch v s dng bng thng hiu qu nht v n khng dnh ring bng thng cho cc thu bao hin khng cn n. 2.2.3.6 Cp pht v yu cu bng thng Yu cu a ra mt c ch cho php SS ch ra cho cc BS rng chng cn thm bng thng hng ln. Yu cu ny c th c to ra c lp hay l thng ip Piggybacked Request Bi v cc burst profile c th thay i ng, tt c cc yu cu xin bng thng s c to nn bi s lng byte cn thit c mang trong ph n header hay trong phn ti tin nhng khng c trong ph n mo u lp vt l. Yu cu bng thng ch c truyn i trong khong thi gian sau: + Request IE + Bt k Data Grant Burst Type IE Yu cu bng thng c th l xin thm bng thng hay gim bt bng thng. Khi BS nhn c yu cu xin thm bng thng. N s th m mt lng bng thng nht nh cho kt ni ang cn. Khi BS nhn c yu cu ct bt bng thng n s thay th lng bng thng hin ti bng lng bng thng cn
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thit. Trong ph n mo u yu cu bng thng s c mt trng type ch ra loi yu cu bng thng. Tuy nhin yu cu bng thng Piggybacked khng c trng ny nn yu cu bng thng Pggybacked lun dng xin thm bng thng. Bn cht t sa li ca giao thc yu cu /cp php yu cu cc SS phi s dng yu cu gim bt bng thng theo chu k. Khong chu k ny l mt chc nng ca dch v QoS ca cc dch v v cht lng tuyn truyn dn. Yu cu bng thng s c truyn trong cc Request IE qung b hay multicast. Lp MAC chun 802.16 cung cp hai phn lp SS, phn bit vi nhau bi kh nng cp php bng thng cho tng kt ni (grant per connection GPC) hay cho ton b SS (grant per SS GPSS). C hai yu cu bng thng phn lp SS trn tng kt n i cho php thut ton lp lch trnh hng ln quan tm tha ng n QoS khi nh ra bng thng. Vi s cp php trn tng kt ni ca lp SS, bng thng c cp cho tng kt ni ring ca SS v SS ch c s dng cho kt ni . RLC v cc giao thc qu n l khc s s dng bng thng dnh ring cho kt ni qun l. Vi vic cp php cho tng SS, cc SS khc nhau c th s dng bng thng thng nht chung trong mi s cp php. Cc GPSS SS cn phi thng minh hn trong vic x l QoS, n phi bit s l bng thng trn tng kt ni. V d nu trng thi QoS ca nt kt ni no thay i tnh t ln xin cp php cui cng n s s dng nhiu bng thng cho nhng d liu yu cu QoS cao hn bng cch ly thm bng thng ca nhng kt ni c QoS thp hn. Cp php bng thng cho tng SS (GPSS) ch s dng cho lp vt l 10- 66 GHz. Vi c hai phng php cp bng thng ny lp MAC u s dng giao thc self-correcting ch khng dng giao thc bo nhn ACK, nn ch cn s dng bng thng t hn. Hn na giao thc bo nhn ACK cn quan tm n thi gian, tr. Tuy nhin phng php self- correcting c nhc im l c th xy ra trng hp bng thng s khng c cp theo yu cu khi c mt s li sau: + BS khng nh n c yu cu do li lp vt l khng th sa c hoc do xung t trong qu trnh cnh tranh. + SS khng thy c cp php do li vt l khng pht hin ra. + BS khng c bng thng sn sng. t c hiu sut bng thng cao nht, BS khng ch c th cp bng thng cho SS m cng c th thu hi bng thng m SS khng s dng. SS s lun thng tin cho BS tng s bng thng hin ang s dng cho mi kt ni, nh BS s c th cp php li bng thng cho SS nu SS khng tn dng ht bng thng hin c. i vi cc tuyn E1/T1 SS khng cn yu cu bng thng, bng thng s c cp cho SS mt cch t nguyn. 2.2.3.7 Thu nhn knh Giao thc MAC bao gm mt th tc khi to c thit k loi tr nhu cu hnh th cng. Vo lc ci t, mt SS bt u qut danh sch tn s ca n tm ra mt knh hot ng. N c th c chng trnh ho ng k vi mt BS xc nh, tham chiu n mt broadcast ID BS (c kh nng chng trnh ho). c tnh ny gip ch cho vic trin khai ni m SS c th "nghe"

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(nhn bit) mt BS th cp do s gim m c chn lc hoc khi SS bt c mt sidelobe ca mt ngten BS gn ngay cnh. Sau khi quyt nh trn knh no, SS c gng th ng b ho s truyn ng xung do pht hin ra cc on u khung theo chu k (periodic frame preambles). Mt khi lp vt l c ng b ho, SS s tm kim nhng thng bo UDC v DCD qung b nh k cho php SS nhn bit s iu ch v cc k hoch FEC s dng trn sng mang. Sau khi ng k SS s c mt a ch IP thng qua DHCP v thit lp thi gian trong ngy thng qua Internet Time Protocol. DHCP server cng s cung cp a ch ca TFTP server nh SS c th yu cu cu h nh file. Cc file ny cung cp giao din chun a ra thng tin cu hnh c trng ca nh sn xut. 2.2.3.8 Thit lp kt ni Chun 802.16 s dng cc dng dch v xc nh s truyn ti theo mt h ng duy nh t ca cc gi tin trn tuyn ln hoc tuyn xung. Cc dng d ch v ny c m t bi mt tp cc thng s QoS nh tr, jiter. Mi dng d ch v c kch ho t s c nh x ti mt kt ni lp MAC vi mt CID duy nht Nhn tng th, vic ci t cc lung dch v trong IEEE 802.16 c khi to bi BS trong thi gian khi to CPE. Tuy vy cc lung dch v c th cng c thit lp ng bi BS hoc CPE. in hnh CPE ch khi to cc lung dch v nu c mt kt ni c bo hiu ng nh mt SVC (switched virtual connection) t mt mng ATM. S thit lp cc lung dch v c thc hin thng qua mt giao thc three-way handshaking" (b t tay ba bc) m ti yu cu thit lp lung dch v c p ng v s p li c xc nhn. Ni chung cc dng dch v ny lu tr trc v vic thit lp dch v ny c khi u bi s khi u ca BS hoc SS. Tuy nhin cc dng d ch v c th c thit lp ng bi BS ho c SS. SS s ch khi u cc dng dch v ny khi c nhng kt ni ng nh kt ni o chuyn mch SVC ( swichted virtual connection) t mng ATM. Vic thit lp cc dng d ch v c thit lp thng qua qu trnh bt tay 3 bc gm c yu cu thit lp dng dch v, thng ip p li v thng ip xc nhn s p li. 2.2.3.9 Quy t nh cnh tranh BS iu khin vic cn chnh cc knh hng ln thng qua UL-MAP v quyt nh vic canh tranh da trn minislot (1 minislot = 2PS). Xung t xy ra trong qu trnh duy tr khi u v khong yu cu c xc nh bi cc IE tng ng. S xut hin xung t trong khong yu cu ph thuc vo CID trong IE tng ng. Phn n y s m t s truyn dn hng ln v nhng quyt nh cnh tranh. Mi SS c nhiu dng dch v mi dng dch v c mt CID ring. Vic cnh tranh s quyt nh trn CID hay trn cc thng s v QoS. Quyt nh cnh tranh da trn mt ca s li (backoff window) kh i u v m t ca s li vi kch thc ln nht c kim sot bi BS. Gi tr c th c ch ra trong trong thng ip UCD v c hai gi tr mc cng sut. V d n u trong ca s c gi tr l 4 th SS s c truyn tin trong mt ca s thuc khong 0 15, gi tr bng 10 SS truyn tin trong phm vi ca s l t 0- 1023.
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Khi SS c tin mun gi i v mun tham gia vo qu trnh cnh tranh n s thit lp mt ca s li trong yu cu khi u hay trong khong thi gian ranging ban u. SS la chn mt s ngu nhin trong ca s li ca n. Gi tr ngu nhin ny ch ra s lng c hi truyn dn cnh tranh m SS s phi nhng b trc khi c php truyn tin. Vic truyn tin ca SS c quyt nh bi Request IE, trong mi IE c nhiu c hi truyn dn c ch ra. V d trong yu cu bng thng gi tr ca s ca SS l 11 n m trong phm vi 0- 15 SS s phi nhng 10 c hi truyn tin cho cc thu bao khc. Nu trong Request IE u tin ch ra 6 c hi, SS khng c php s dng v n ph i i thm 5 c hi khc na khng c s dng. Nu trong Request IE th hai ch ra 2 c hi SS vn khng c s dng. Trong Request IE th 3 ch ra 8 c hi SS s ch 3 c hi i qua v bt u truyn tin trong c hi th 4. SS s coi c hi cnh tranh b mt nu n khng nhn c s cp php d liu trong khong thi gian nht nh. Lc n y SS s tng gi tr ca s li ln nh ng gi tr ca s mi phi lun nh hn ca s ln nht v li to ra mt gi tr ngu nhin ri thc hin li qu trnh cnh tranh t u. Trong khi yu cu bng thng nu SS nhn c Request IE n hng b t k thi im n o trong khi ang nhng b cc c hi cnh tranh, n s dng vic cnh tranh v s dng ngay c hi ny. 2.2.3.9.1 C hi truyn dn. C hi truyn dn c xc nh bi bt k mt minislot no trong SS c bt u truyn tin. S lng c hi truyn tin lin quan n Request IE v ph thuc vo khong thi gian nh ra cho yu cu hay cho qu trnh ranging ban u. V d trong yu cu bng thng da trn cnh tranh khung vt l c di l 1ms, 4 k hiu cho mt PS v 2 PS to thnh mt minislot. Phn mo u hng ln l 16 k hiu (2 minislot), khong chuyn tip l 24 k hiu (3 minislot) khi c hi truyn dn l 8 minislot. Nu Request IE ca BS c 24 minislot s c 3 c hi truyn dn trong mt IE nh hnh 2.16

Hnh 2.16: V d c hi truyn dn trong thng ip yu cu bng thng 2.2.3.10 Gia nhp mng v khi to Trc khi tm hiu v cc vn an ninh trong mng chng ta cn bit v qu trnh gia nh p mng hay s khi to ban u bit v cc bc xin gia nhp mng ca cc thu bao m cc giao thc an ninh chnh s c s dng.
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c th truy nhp mng cc thu bao SS phi thc hin ln lt cc bc sau: 2.2.3.10.1 Qut tn s v ng b SS ph i tm nhng tn hiu c gi xung t BS v c gng ng b vi n. Nu nhng knh hng xung trc vn tn ti SS c th s dng li nhng thng s hot ng ca knh . Tri li SS phi tm nhng knh hng xung khc v phi ng b c vi knh tch ra c phn m o u ca khung theo chu k. 2.2.3.10.2 Tch cc thng s ca knh uplink/downlink Sau khi ng b c thit lp lp vt l, SS tip tc tm nhng thng ip mang nhng k hiu knh downlink (DCD) v uplink (UCD) c BS qung b theo chu k. Thng ip DCD, UCD mang nhng thng tin lin quan n c tnh lp vt l ca c hai knh downlink v uplink. Ngoi ra nhng thng ip ny cn cho php SS bit c v cc s iu ch sng mang, sa li trc (FEC) m BS s dng. Tu thuc vo lp vt l s dng BS s pht theo nh k cc thng ip UL-MAP v DL-MAP xc nh thi im bt u ca xung tn hiu. Thng qua nhng thng ip ny BS c th ch ra s truy nhp ti nhng knh tng ng. 2.2.3.10.3 Ranging v m phn v kh nng Trong giai on ny, BS thc hin ranging l mt qu trnh chnh thi im truyn dn ca SS bt u khe thi gian cnh tranh truy nhp. Qu trnh ny l mt phn ca lp khung (framing) v truy nhp mi trng.(Ranging c thc hin mt knh ring gi l ranging interval, c xem l truy nh p da trn cnh tranh). y SS s gi mt gi tin ranging reques (RNG-REQ) trong khe thi gian cnh tranh ranging ban u. Nu thng ip ny c gi ti BS mt cch chnh xc, BS s p li bng mt gi tin ranging response (RNG-RSP) cha cc thng tin v nh thi v iu khin cng sut cho SS. N cho php SS iu chnh nh thi v iu chnh cng sut ca tn hiu nhn c t BS. Bn cnh thng ip n y cng cho SS bit v ID kt ni (CID) do BS la chn. Ngoi ranging kh i u cn c ranging theo chu k, qu trnh ny cho php SS gi thng ip ranging ti BS yu cu chnh li v mc cng sut, nh thi v chnh lch tn s. Sau khi qu trnh ranging hon thnh, SS s thng bo cho BS v kh nng lp vt l ca n, gm c s iu ch v m ho m SS s dng v n u SS dng FDD th n h tr bn song cng hay song cng. BS c th chp nhn cc thng s n y ho c loi b nhng kh nng n y ca SS. 2.2.3.10.4 SS xc thc, trao quyn v ng k Trong giai on n y SS phi xc thc vi BS v c t c s trao quyn t BS. Mi SS c gn mt chng nhn s X.509, c gn vo thit b phn cng trong qu trnh sn xut. Sau khi xc thc v trao quyn ho n thnh, SS tip tc giai on ng k. SS gi thng ip ng k ti BS, BS p li
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cng vi ID kt ni qun l th cp v phin bn IP ang dng cho kt ni qun l th cp (secondary management connection). 2.2.3.10.5 Kt ni IP giai on cui ca qu trnh ng k, SS s c mt a ch IP thng qua giao thc DHCP, nh n c th c c nhng thng tin thi im hin ti v c c cc thng s khc t BS. 2.2.4 Lp con bo mt Privacy Sublayer gm hai giao thc chnh: + Encapsulation protocol: Giao thc ny xc nh mt tp cc s bo mt h tr vic mt m cc gi d liu gia BS v SS. Tp ny gm cc thng tin lin quan n cc thut ton m ho d liu v xc thc, v cc quy tc cho php p dng cc thut ton khc trn phn ti tin MAC PDU. + Key management protocol: Giao th c n y cho php qun l v phn phi d liu to kho t BS ti SS. Chun 802.16 dng giao thc privacy key management (PKM). 2.2.4.1 Security Association (SA) SA th hin mi quan h gia bn gi v bn nh n trao i thng s an ninh cho cc dng lu lng. D liu SA gm: - ID nhn dng SA (SAID) di 16 bit - Mt mt m bo v d liu c trao i trn cc kt ni. Chu n c dng l DES- CBC. - Hai kho TEK m ho d liu. - Hai bt nhn dng kho, mi bt cho mt kho TEK - Thi gian sng ca TEK. Gi tr mc nh l na ngy, gi tr nh nh t l 30 pht, gi tr ln nht l 7 ngy. - Vector khi u 64 bit cho mi TEK. - Trng ch th loi SA ang s dng. Lp MAC 802.16 privacy sublayer s dng 3 loi SA: Primary SA: Mi SS s thit lp duy nht mt primary SA vi BS. Primary SA c thit lp trong qu trnh khi u ca SS trong kt ni qun l th cp. Static SA: Static SA c to ra bi BS. N c dng cho nhng mc ch trong BS, thng thng n c dng cho nhng ng dng unicast. Dynamic SA: Dynamic SA c to ra v c hu b tng ng vi mt dng tin mi c to ra hay kt thc . C static SA v dynamic SA u c th c s dng chung gia cc SS trong cc ng dng multicast. Cc dng tin hng ln lun s dng primary SA m ho v mi SS s c mt primary SA duy nht. Tuy nhin cc dng tin hng xung t BS dng primary SA khi l ng dng unicast, cn trong ng dng multicast BS s dng static SA hay dynamic SA. Trong nhiu s BS cng c th s dng static SA hay dynamic SA cho ng dng unicast. 2.2.4.2 Giao thc PKM 802.16 MAC security sublayer dng PKM thc hin kho v qun l SA gia BS v SS. Giao th c PKM mn mt phn ln cc chng ch ca DOCSIS c pht trin bi cable Laboratories (Cable Lab).

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SS dng giao thc PKM t c vic trao quyn v to kho lu lng (TEK) t BS. Ngoi ra SS cng dng PKM thc hin vic trao quyn li theo nh k v lm mi kho. PKM dng chng nhn s X.509 v hai kho 3-DES m bo vic trao i kho gia BS v SS theo m hnh client/server. y SS l client yu cu vt ch t kho trong khi BS l server p li yu cu n y v m bo rng mi SS ch nhn c mt vt cht to kho m chng c trao quyn. Giao thc PKM ban u s thit lp mt authorization key (AK) l m t kho i xng b mt gia BS v SS. AK s c s dng trong nhng qu trnh trao i traffic encryption keys (TEK). Vic s dng AK v s mt m i xng lm gim phn m o u. BS xc thc SS trong qu trnh khi u trao quyn. Mi chng nhn SS cha kho chung RSA (trong mt na ring c gn trong thit b phn cng, a ch MAC, s serial, ID ca nh sn xut. Trong qu trnh trao quyn SS s gi mt bn sao chng nhn thit b ny ti BS. BS s phi xc nhn cc thng tin ca SS. Nu tho mn BS s p li SS vi mt kho AK c m ho b ng public key ca SS. V ch c SS mi c kho ring tng ng nn ch c SS mi c th gii m c thng ip ny.

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Hnh 2.17: Giao thc PKM 2.2.4.2.1. Thit lp kho trao quyn AK y l qu trnh SS t c s trao quyn v kho AK t BS. Qu trnh ny bt du bng vic SS cung cp nhng thng tin nhn dng ca n cho BS trong sut qu trnh xc thc. Cc thng ip gi i gm c: Thng ip 1: SS BS: Cert (manufacturer (SS)) Thng ip 2: SS BS: Cert (SS) | capabilities | SAID Thng ip 3: BS SS: RSA-Encrypt (pubkey(SS),AK) | AK lifetime | Seq No(4 bit) | SAID Thng ip 1: (thng ip v cc thng tin xc thc). y SS l client s khi ng qu trnh yu cu trao quyn bng cch gi mt thng ip cha thng tin xc thc ti BS. Thng ip n y l tu chn v c th b BS t chi (bi v trong thng ip tip theo c xem l thng ip trao quyn cng cha cc thng tin ging nh vy). Tuy nhin thng ip ban u ny cho php BS bit trc v SS v cc kh nng ca SS. C th bn tin th nh t ny cha cc thng tin sau: - a ch MAC ca SS - RSA public key ca SS - Chng nhn X.509 ca SS ( do nh sn xut a ra) - Danh sch nh ng thut ton bo mt m SS c th s dng - Nhn dng primary SA ca SS (SAID) - Chng nhn X509 CA d nh cho nh sn xut cc thit b SS Thng ip 2: (thng ip yu cu trao quyn ) Ngay sau cc thng tin xc thc c gi i, SS s gi mt thng ip yu cu trao quyn, thc cht thng ip n y yu cu kho AK , SAID ca static SA m SS c s dng. Thng ip n y gm cc thng tin sau: - S serial ca thit b SS v ID ca nh sn xut - a ch MAC ca nh sn xut - RSA public key ca SS - Chng nhn X.509 ca SS - Danh sch cc thu t ton bo mt m SS c th s dng - SAID ca primary SA ca SS y SAID l b ng vi CID (connetion ID) m SS ly c t BS trong qu trnh gia nhp mng v khi to. Thng ip 3: (thng ip tr li ca BS) Sau khi nh n c cc thng ip trao quyn t SS, BS s kim tra li nhng chng nh n ca SS v kim tra cc thut ton bo mt m SS s dng. Nu tt c u tt v BS c th cung cp mt trong nhng kh nng bo mt ca SS, BS s gi thng ip cho php trao quyn, cha cc thng tin sau: - Mt kho AK duy nht, c m ho bng RSA public key ca SS. Kha ny di 160 bt - Mt chui 4 bit l kho c dng phn bit gia cc AK k tip nhau

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- Th i gian sng ca AK. Thi gian sng ca AK l t 1 n 70 ngy mc nh l 7 ngy. - SAID v cc c im ca primary SA Mt SS c trao quyn s lun lm m i kho AK v mc ch an ninh. thc hin vic ny SS gi i mt thng ip xin trao quyn (thng ip th 2), y vic xin trao quyn li khng cn b t u bng vic gi i thng ip 1 v BS bit v SS v bit rng SS t nht c mt kho AK. 2.2.4.2.2. Trao i kho TEK Sau khi c trao quyn, SS s tip tc qu trnh ly TEK t BS. Ta bit rng khi trao quyn cho SS, BS gi i mt thng ip cha SAID v cc c im ca kho chnh cng vi static SA SS c c cc thng tin v kho. Do SS thc hin qu trnh ny b ng vic bt u thc hin my trng thi TEK cho mi SAID c xc nh trong thng ip phn hi ca BS. Mi my trng thi TEK hot ng trong SS chu trch nhim cho vic qun l vt cht to kho vi SAID tng ng, bao gm vic lm m i vt cht kho cho mi SAID. Cc thng ip trao i trong qu trnh ny nh sau: Thng ip 1: BS SS: Seq No | SAID | HMAC (1) Thng ip 2: SS BS: Seq No | SAID | HMAC (2) Thng ip 3: BS SS: SeqNO | SAID | old TEK | new TEK | HMAC (3) Thng ip 1: y l thng ip do BS gi i, tuy nhin thng ip ny l tu chn. N c s dng khi BS mun ly li kho SA hoc mun to ra mt SA mi. Bng vic tnh ton gi tr HMAC (1) BS cho php SS pht hin k gi mo. Thng ip 2: SS s dng thng ip ny yu cu cc thng s SA. SS phi ly c SAID t giao thc trao quyn hoc t HMAC(1) thng ip 1 do BS gi i. SS to ra cc thng ip ny ring cho tng SA. N s tnh ton gi tr HMAC (2) cho php BS pht hin k gi mo. Thng ip 2 gm cc thng tin sau: - S serial ca thit b v ID ca nh sn xut - a ch MAC ca SS - RSA public key ca SS - SAID ca SA ang yu cu vt cht to kho - HMAC Thng ip 3: tr li SS, BS s phi kim tra HMAC pht hin s gi mo. Nu khng c du hiu gi mo, BS s gi mt thng ip p li c cha vt cht to kho c kch hot cho SA ang yu cu. Mt vn quan trng l ti bt k thi im no BS cng lun c hai vt cht to kho cho mi SAID. Thi gian sng ca hai kho ny c mt phn trng lp nhau. Thng ip ny cha cc thng tin sau: - Kho TEK c m ho bi 3-DES - Vector khi to CBC - S th t ca kha TEK - Thi gian sng cho mi vt cht to kho - HMAC

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y mi TEK c bo mt bng KEK (key encryption key) c gi ti SS trong thng ip th 3 trong qu trnh trao quyn. Thi gian sng ca vt liu to kha rt quan trng v n cho php SS tnh ton c th i im BS s chm dt TEK ny gip SS a ra c nhng yu cu v vt liu to kha mi trc khi BS chm dt kho TEK m n ang s dng. 2.2.4.3 Vn s dng kha 2.2.4.3.1 Kho AK cung cp kt ni khng b gin on BS s phi cung cp hai kho AK ng thi cho mi SS, v hai kho ny c mt phn thi gian sng trng lp nhau. Khi BS nhn c thng ip xin trao quyn li BS s p li bng mt thng ip c cha AK mi ng thi BS cng to ra mt AK th 3 d phng cho ln trao quyn li tip theo. Khi AK c vn cn hiu lc nn AK th hai n y s c thi gian sng b ng th i gian sng ca n cng vi thi gian sng cn li ca AK th nht bi v AK th hai s ch c dng sau khi AK th nht ht hiu lc. 2.2.4.3.2 Kho TEK Tng t nh kho AK, BS v SS cng dng chung hai kho TEK c kch ho t ti mi mt thi im. Tuy nhin khng ging AK c dng bo v cc thng ip mang kho TEK, TEK c s dng bo v cc dng d liu c hai hng downlink v uplink. Do vic chuyn tip cc kho s phc tp hn. Xem xt kha cnh chuyn tip kho c mt vi quy tc nh sau. BS s chuyn tip kho TEK khc nhau tu vo vic kho TEK c s dng cho hng ln hay hng xung: - i vi mi SAID c dng cho vic m ho, ti thi im chm dt kho TEK c BS s ngay lp tc chuyn sang dng kho TEK mi. - Vic chuyn tip kho c xem l hon thnh khi kho TEK c ht hiu lc. Mt vn y l BS s s dng kho TEK mi ngay khi kho c chm dt m khng quan tm n liu SS c nhn c kho mi hay khng. - i vi knh hng xung, BS s m ho dng thng tin bng kho TEK c hn trong hai ci c kch hot. V BS bit chc chn rng kho c vn cn tc dng. - gii m knh hng ln BS c th s dng mt trong hai ci kch hot TEK c hoc TEK mi v BS khng m bo rng SS s s dng ci no trong hai ci m n ang c. 2.2.4.4 Phng php bo mt M ha bo mt trong lp bo mt con s dng m hnh DES-CBC. Qu trnh m ha b o mt ch thc hin phn ti tin ca trong MAC PDU m khng m ha bo mt GMH MAC PDU hay ph n CRC. S m ha bo mt c th hin trong hnh 2.22.

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Hnh 2.18: Qu trnh m ha bo mt trong 802.16 Nu m nhn dng thut ton trong d liu ca SA c m l 0x01 th cc d liu trn kt ni lin quan n SA s s dng m hnh CBC (cipher block chaining) cng vi chun DES m ha b o mt phn ti tin MPDU. CBC IV s c tnh ton nh sau: CBC s bt u bng cch XOR gi tr IV trong thng tin to kha TEK vi ni dung ca trng ng b PHY ca DLMAP m i nht. Trn hng ln CBC s bt u bng cch XOR gi tr IV trong thng tin to kha TEK v ni dung trng ng b PHY ca DL - MAP c nh hng n s truyn dn tuyn ln. Qu trnh x l cc block cui tha s c s dng m ha cc block cui nu block n y c s bt t hn 64. V d nu block cui c n bt trong n < 64 th t by gi cc block cipher trc s c m ha ln th hai s dng m hnh ECB, v n bt ln nht sau khi m ha s c XOR vi n bt ca block cui v to ra mt block cipher ngn hn (ch c n bit). bn thu c th gii m c block cipher ngn hn n y bn thu s gii m cc block c m ha theo m hnh ECB sau thc hin php XOR vi n bt ng k nht vi n bit ca block cipher cui s thu c block cng khai cui. Trng hp c bit khi phn ti tin ca MAC PDU t hn 64 bt th IV s c m ha theo DES v n bt ln nht ca bn tin mt ny s c XOR vi s lng bt ca phn ti tin to ra mt bn tin mt ngn hn.

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CHNG 3: VN AN NINH MNG WIMAX

3.1 Khi nim an ninh mng.


3 .1.1 Cc vn v an ninh mng - Xc thc (Authentication): l kh nng ca cc b n tham gia giao tip bao gm cc nh khai thc mng v ngi s dng chng thc ln nhau. - Trao quyn (Authorization): l kh nng ca mt b n (v d nh cung cp m ng) quyt nh xem liu mt ngi s dng no c c cho php truy nhp vo mt mng c th n o hay cc dch v mng hoc cc thng tin ca m ng hay khng. Trao quyn c xem nh l iu khin truy nhp mng. - Tnh ton vn (Integrity):lin quan n vic bo v thng tin khi nhng thay i khng c php. - S b mt (Confidentiality hay Privacy ): S b mt thng tin l gi cho cc thng tin c nhn c b mt ch c nhng ngi dng c trao quyn mi c th hiu c.S b m t t c b ng phng php bo mt. - S sn sng (Availability ): Cc nh khai thc m ng cn ngn cn nhng ngi dng him c khi nhng cuc truy nhp gi mo mng lun sn sng phc v nhng ngi dng h p php. - Khng th ph nhn (Nonrepudiation): l kh nng ca mng cung cp nhng chng thc khng th ph nhn chng minh vic truyn tin v truy nhp mng c thc hin bi mt ngi dng no . 3.1.2 Cc cuc tn cng an ninh Cc cuc tn cng an ninh c hai loi: tn cng th ng (pasive attacks) v tn cng ch ng (active attacks). - Tn cng th ng: l nhng cuc tn cng khng c gng gy thit hi cho nhng h thng b tn cng. Nhng cuc tn cng ny ch l vic nghe trm (eavesdrops) hay gim st v phn tch lu lng m n g. Bn cht ca nh ng cuc tn cng kiu ny kh pht hin. - Tn cng ch ng: l nhng cuc tn cng lin quan n vic chnh sa thng tin, gy gin on vic trao i thng tin v to dng nhng thng ip gi. Cc cuc tn cng kiu ny gm c: +Cu c tn cng gy t chi dch v (Denial of service): Mt cuc tn cng t chi dch v s tm cch ngn cn mt dch v n o c php ph c v mt hay nhiu ngi dng v gy ra vic gin on ng k ti cc dch v. V d mt k tn cng c th khi ng mt s lng ln cc kt ni v gy ra s qu ti lm cho vic cung cp cc dch v l khng th hoc kh khn hn, v nh vy nhng ngi s dng hp php s b t chi truy nhp mng. +S gi mo Masquerade: Mt k tn cng trc ht s c gng nm bt c nhng thng tin nhn dng ngi dng hp php. Sau chng s gi mo ngi dng d c trao quyn ny truy nhp vo mng nm bt thng tin v cc ti nguyn khc. +Cuc tn cng ca k th ba (Man in the middle): V tr ca k tn cng nm gia nhng bn tham gia lin lc, chng s nm bt thng tin, iu khin cc
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thng ip gia cc bn tham gia lin lc. V d k tn cng c th lm tr, iu chnh hoc gi mo thng ip. K tn cng cng c th phn pht thng ip ti nhng v tr khc trc khi chuyn chng n cc b n tham gia lin lc. c im ca nhng cuc tn cng kiu ny l truc khi cuc tn cng b pht hin nhng bn tham gia lin lc hp php vn tin rng h ang trao i thng tin trc tip vi nhau. + Cu c tn cng ly li (repaly): K tn cng nm c v ghi li phin lin lc h p php, sau k tn cng s to ra (gi li) mt cuc trao i thng tin khc vi nhng thng tin ly c lc trc.S dng nhng cuc tn cng replay k tn cng c th cn tr nhn g ngi dng c trao quyn truy nhp vo m ng hay trao i thng tin thm ch ngay c khi nhng thng tin lin lc ny c bo mt v c khi k tn cng khng bit v v kho an ninh cn thit gii m nhng thng tin nm c. V d k tn cng c th bt li mt phin lin lc trng sao chp li phin lin lc trc .

3.2 Phn tch an ninh mng WiMAX


3.2.1 Nhng im yu v mt giao thc L hng an ninh xy ra c lp vt l v lp MAC ca mng 802.16. V an ninh mng nm lp MAC nn mng khng c s bo v chng li cc cuc tn cng mc vt l. Mt dng tn cng in h nh l Water Tortune. y l d ng tn cng m k tn cng gi i mt chui cc khung lm gim nng lng ca bn thu. Mt dng tn cng khc l dng tn cng gy tc nghn ph v tuyn. S dng cuc tn cng ny s gy ra s t chi dch v i vi cc b n tham gia mng. Tuy nhin cc cuc tn cng ny d d ng b pht hin bng cc thit b gim st ph. 3.2.1.1 Thiu s xc thc hai chiu. Mt im yu r rng trong vic thit k an ninh cho mng 802.16 l thiu ch ng nhn BS. V trong qu trnh trao quyn xc thc khng c s xc thc ca BS vi SS nn SS khng th bit c n ang giao tip vi mt BS tht hay mt BS gi mo. Do vy cch khc phc duy nht l a ra mt s xc thc khc trong c s xc thc hai chiu gia BS v SS. S xc thc hai chiu l mt yu cu cho bt k mt mng khng dy no. 3.2.1.2 Li trong qun l kha Ta bit rng kha TEK c 2 bt nhn dng kha nh vy vi 2 bt ny c th to ra 4 kha khng trng nhau. Nh vy s bt nhn dng kha l qu t, n khng th bo v chng li cc cuc tn cng lp li. 3.2.1.3 Li trong vic bo v d liu Chun 802.16 s dng DES trong m h nh CBC. CBC yu cu vector khi u IV phi l ngu nhin m bo an to n cho m hnh. Vector khi u trong mng 802.16 c to ra bng cch XOR vector khi u SA vi ni dung trng ng b lp vt l ly t phn GMH gn nht. Trong khi vector khi u SA l khng i v c cng khai trong TEK ca n v trng ng b vt l cng bit trc do gi tr vector MPDU l bit trc. Vy mng 802.16 khng cung cp s xc thc d liu.
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3.2.2 So snh mt s nhc im an ninh trong mng WiFi v WiMAX Chun IEEE 802.11 l mt trong nhng mng khng dy ang rt ph bin hin nay, v vy chun ny thu ht nhiu s quan tm tm ra nhng im yu ca n. Khng may mn khi 802.11 c chng minh c mt s im yu ng k. Nhng l hng an ninh c a ra bi cc chuyn gia, cc hacker, cracker, v th m ch t nhng ngi s dng. Mt s loi c bit n nh nhng im yu trong trin khai mng, bo mt yu, hay cc cuc tn cng gy t chi dch v. y chng ta s tm hiu mt s im yu ca 802.11 c cng b v tm hiu xem liu nhng im yu n y c cn tn ti trong 802.16 hay khng. Nhng im yu ca 802.11 c chia thnh hai dng chnh: im yu nhn dng v im yu iu khin truy nhp mi trng. im yu nhn dng: xy ra trong qu trnh iu khin xc thc b li v cc thng ip mang tin tc. Chun 802.11 khng c c ch xc thc bn gi m nh trong lp MAC, do cc trm nhn c thng ip khng th xc nh ai gi thng ip ny, v n u thng ip khng b sa i v c gi bi mt a ch c xem l h p php th trm thu s nhn n v coi nh mt thng ip gc. Kt qu l cc thng ip iu khin lp MAC khc c th b s dng b i nhng k dng mt trng chiu di gi trong gi tin, v b ng cch ny hn c th t c khong thi gian truyn tin di hn. Trong khi k tn cng truyn tin, cctn cng khai thc nhng im yu khc. im yu iu khin truy nhp mi trng: xy ra mi trng truyn d n. dng ny c hai lo i tn cng. Trong cuc tn cng u tin, c ch lng nghe sng mang lp vt l b tn cng bng cch k tn cng gi i cc gi tin ngn lin tip nhau v sau tt c cc nt s tin rng mi trng b s dng b i mt nt khc. Tt c cc nt khc s lng nghe mi trng v i cho n lt mnh, nh ng s khng bao gi n lt n v k tn cng lin tc truyn tin. Trong cuc tn cng th hai, vic thc hin s kh hn rt nhiu. K tn cng s gi rt t cc gi tin tri ngc vi cuc tn cng trc nhng k tn cng s nt b tn cng thm ch s khng s dng c ch lng nghe mi trng xem mi trng c bn hay khng. Cc nt b tn cng s tnh theo tng mili giy cho n khi qu trnh truyn tin ca k tn cng kt thc nhng s l mt khong thi gian rt d i . 3.2.2.1 Cuc tn cng hy b xc thc (Deauthentication Attack) 802.11 Cc cuc tn cng trong qu trnh hy b xc thc c thc hin gn nh hon ho do c tha hng im yu nhn dng. Trong m ng 802.11, khi mt nt mi mun gia nhp mng, n cn thc hin qu trnh xc thc v qu trnh lin kt sau s c cho php truy nhp mng. C hai loi xc thc trong 802.11: Open, trong c ch ny bt k mt nt no cng c th gia nhp mng v Shared Key, c ch ny nt no mun gia nhp mng phi bit c mt khu ca mng. Sau qu trnh xc thc, cc nt s chuyn sang qu trnh lin kt v sau n c th trao i d liu v qu ng b trn ton mng. Trong qu trnh xc thc v lin kt ch c rt t cc khung d liu, qun l v iu khin c php pht i. Mt trong nhng thng ip l thng ip cho php cc nt c th hy b s xc thc t mt nt khc. Thng ip ny c s dng khi mt nt mun chuyn sang mt mng khng dy
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khc. V d nh trong cng mt vng tn ti nhiu mng khng dy khc nhau th thng ip ny s c s dng. Khi mt nt nhn c thng ip ny, n s loi b bn thn n ra khi mng v tr v trng thi c bn. Trong cuc tn cng vo qu trnh hy b xc thc ny, k tn cng s dng mt nt tm ra a ch ca im truy nhp (AP) ang iu khin mng. iu n y c ngha rng AP l mt phn ca mng kt ni mng hu tuyn vi m ng LAN v tuyn. Khng kh khn g trong qu trnh tm ra a ch ca AP v AP khng s dng mt phng php bo mt no. Mt vi AP khng qung b a ch ca n trong mng, nh ng a ch ca n c th tm thy nu lng nghe tt c cc lu lng gia AP vi cc nt khc. Thng thng a ch ca AP ch dng cho php thu bao tm ra t mt mng no m n mun hy b s xc th c khi mng v a ch ca AP ny khng cn s dng trong qu trnh xc thc do vy AP khng phi lo lng v s xut hin n ca n. Khi k tn cng nhn c a ch ca AP, hn s s dng a ch qung b mc nh v gi thng ip hy b xc thc ti tt c cc nt n c th. Nhng nt ny nhn c thng ip ngay lp tc s ngng giao tip vi mng. Bc tip theo l tt c cc nt b hy b xc thc s c gng kt ni li, trao quyn li v lin kt li vi AP. Vic pht li thng ip hy b xc thc ny s khin mng ngng hot ng hon ton. Theo cch nh vy, cc thng ip khc c s dng trong 802.11 c th b li dng gy ra cc vn tng t. V d nh thng ip hy b lin kt. Tuy nhin kiu tn cng n y khng hiu qu i vi k tn cng v hn phi gi m o nhiu thng ip. Mt thc t l c nhiu thng ip khc c th s dng thc hin cc cuc tn cng kiu n y v nhng cuc tn cng u c gi chung l cuc tn cng hy b xc thc. C 3 im khin cho cc cuc tn cng kiu ny c th thc hin c l: th nht cc thng ip hy b xc thc khng c chng thc, ngoi tr kim tra v mt logic a ch ngun ca thng ip. Th hai l khng c s bo mt no bo v cc thng tin c dng trong thng ip, v vy k tn cng c th d dng tm th y cc thng tin. Th ba cc nt nhn c cc thng ip gi ny s chp nhn n m khng ch n thi gian n c gi i. 802.16 Ging nh 802.11 trong 802.16 cc thng ip lp MAC c s dng theo cch tng t. Trc tin mt thng ip Reset Command (RES-CMD) c trm pht sng BS gi i ti mt thu bao SS c th sau xc lp li b n thn n. Khi SS nhn c thng ip n y n s khi to li a ch MAC ca n v c gng lp li qu trnh truy nh p h thng ban u. BS cng c th gi De/Reregister Command (DREGCMD) ti SS SS thay i trng thi truy nhp. Thng ip ny c gi i khin SS di b knh truyn dn. Tri ngc vi IEEE 802.11, IEEE 802.16 c s bo v bn trong chng li s lm dng nhng lnh ny. C ch bo v u tin c s dng l Hashed Message Authentication Code (HMAC) m xc thc a nng c tnh ton s dng thng ip gc v kha b mt dng chung. Trong 802.16 gi tr 160 bit Hash c thm vo thng ip gc.

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Hnh 3.1: Tn cng bng thng ip RES-CMD Khi bn thu nh n c thng ip s tnh ton li Hash s dng thng ip nh n c v kha bo mt chng bit. Sau bn thu s so snh Hash nhn c vi Hash tnh c, nu chng ging nhau th c ngha l hai bn u c chung mt kha b mt. T trc n nay 802.16 c xem nh khng th xy ra cc cuc tn cng hy b xc thc v kha dng chung gia BS v SS c xem l b m t. Khi chng ta xem xt 802.11 th thy iu ny l khng th thc hin c v nhng l hng an ninh trong thut ton WEP. Khi l hng ny c cng b c ch xc thc c xem nh khng cn hiu qu. S khc bit ca 802.16 l chu n mt m c s dng mnh hn WEP. 802.16 c hai s la chn l Triple- DES vi kha 128 bt hay RSA vi kha 1024 bt. Vn th hai l thut ton Hash key l ph ng php b o mt m ng m. iu ny c ngha l k tn cng s khng th to ra Hash ng. 3.2.2.2 Cuc tn cng lp li (Replay attack) 802.11 Khi chng ta s dng thut ng tn cng lp li, chng ta ng mt cuc tn cng m k tn cng ch cn nm bt c mt s thng tin hp php v s
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dng li n, v thng tin y m ch mt thng ip. K tn cng khng cn phi thay i thng ip ch cn pht li thng ip y vo kho ng thi gian tha ng. Trong mng 802.11 cc cuc tn cng lp li hu ht u to ra s t chi d ch v. Bi v cc nt nhn c thng ip v coi l hp php, cho rng bng thng c s dng ht v s tnh ton thi gian gii m thng ip sau n li tch cc li. im yu ca 802.11 khin n nhy cm vi cc cuc tn cng kiu ny v n thiu s nh du th t thng ip, b n cnh cng khng c mt phng php no pht hin v loi b cc cuc tn cng kiu ny. 802.16 Trong 802.16 k tn cng nm bt ton b thng ip (bao gm c HMAC) v pht li thng ip m khng c mt s sa i no. Trong khi HMAC ch m bo rng khng c s thay i no trong thng ip ch khng cung cp cho chng ta bt k thng tin no khc. Ch c bn gi v ni dung thng ip l c xc thc. Nu k tn cng pht li thng ip h n nm c, thng ip s c xc thc ng cch nu nh kha bo mt vn cn hiu lc. Trong 802.16 k tn cng phi cn c trm pht sng BS v thu bao SS thc hin mt cuc tn cng replay th nh cng. Nu mng lm vic trong m hnh FDD, BS v SS truyn tn hiu trong nhng tn s khc nhau, do vy mun to ra cc cuc tn cng trong h thng FDD k tn cng phi nhn thng tin v pht li thng tin trn cng tn s. HMAC c a ra ch m bo rng thng ip c gi i khng b thay i, nn kh nng thng ip b s dng li l hon ton c th , nu trong thng ip khng c cc tin tc nh nhn thi gian, s serial. K tn cng c th s dng Reset Command (RES-CMD) to ra cc cuc tn cng lp li. N c xem nh mt thng ip hon ho cho k tn cng v khng cha nh n thi gian, s serial. Tuy nhin k tn cng s khng th nh cng v 802.16 yu cu HMAC phi c tnh ton s dng thng ip v phn m o u lp MAC. HMAC cn c gi nguyn trong cc cuc tn cng replay. Trong phn mo u lp MAC cha CID ca SS, CID n y c th c thit lp li. Sau khi thit lp li SS s c mt CID mi c cung cp bi BS. CID mi ny c 16 bt tc l mt BS c th to ra 65536 s la chn CID khc nhau, v nh vy kh nng s dng li CID l rt kh. Th m ch nu iu ny c th xy ra th SS s dn xp mt tp cc kha m i xc thc thng ip, do vy s khng c kt qu khi k tn cng c gng thc hin mt cuc tn cng replay s dng RES-CMD. Vic s dng DREGCMD cng gp phi nhng l do tng t. Trong khi k tn cng khng thnhcng trong cuc tn cng replay th hon ton c th thc hin cuc tn cng lp thng ip (repeat message), 802.16 khng c mt c ch n o bo v m nh khi cc cuc tn cng kiu ny. Vn t ra y l cc cuc tn cng ny gy thit hi g cho m ng ch khng phi l liu n c thnh cng hay khng. Trong trng hp th nht cc thng ip ca k tn cng xut hin nh mt ngun nhiu. N gy tc ng n hiu sut ca mng, tuy nhin vi s thay i ca phng php sa li trc v iu ch gip gim thit hi ti mng.
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Trong trng hp th hai vn s ln hn. K tn cng s gi nhng gi tin ti BS gi mo mt SS c th no . Vic ny khin BS gi gi tin RESCMD ti SS, sau SS s ngng ton b qu trnh qu ng b ca mnh, n s thit lp li v tr v trng thi khi u. trng thi n y BS s gi RESCMD ti SS nu SS khng p li BS hoc BS pht hin ra c s bt bnh thng v truyn d n trong tuyn ln t SS. Tuy nhin chu n khng ch ra c th chnh xc nhng g s c ch nh tip theo s bt thng ny. Mt lot cc iu kin c th trong RES-CMD s c quyt nh bi nh sn xut. 3.2.2.3 Gi mo im truy nhp (Access Point Spoof) 802.11 Gi mo im truy nhp chnh l m t dng tn cng man- in- the- middle. Cuc tn cng kiu man- in - the - middle l d ng tn cng m k tn cng gia hai nt thao tng to n b cc lu lng gia hai bn. Dng tn cng ny rt nguy him v k tn cng c th nm tt c cc thng tin lu hnh trn m ng. Vic thc hin kiu tn cng ny rt kh trong mng hu tuyn v n yu cu vic truy nhp tht s vo mi trng truyn dn. Tuy nhin trong mng khng dy mi vic tr n n d dng hn. K tn cng ch cn thit lp mt AP c kh nng thu ht hn so vi AP h p php. AP gi mo ny c th c to ra bng cch sao chp ton b cu hnh ca mt AP hp php nh SSID, a ch MAC v.v Bc tip theo l lm cho nn nhn kt ni vi AP gi mo ny. Cch th nht l i cho n khi cc nt t kt ni vi n, cch th hai l gy ra t chi dch v ti tt c cc AP hp php ngi dng s kt ni li. Trong mng 802.11 vic la chn cc AP da vo cng tn hiu nhn c. Ch c mt vic k tn cng c th thc hin l m bo cho AP ca n c cng tn hiu mnh hn ti cc nn nhn. t c iu ny c th t v tr AP ca n gn vi nn nhn hn AP hp php, hoc s dng mt cng ngh khc nh anten nh hng hay b khuch i RF. Sau khi nn nhn kt ni vi AP gi mo ny, ngi s lm vic nh th ang kt ni vi mt AP hp php v nh vy mi tin tc s c truyn thng qua AP gi mo ny. K tn cng sau s s dng mi tin ch to ra mt web server nm bt mt khu khi nn nhn c gng ng k vo mt trang gi mo ny. Sau k tn cng s c tt c nhng g cn thit gia nhp mt mng hp php. Cc cuc tn cng ny tn ti trong mng 802.11 v mng khng yu cu s xc thc hai chiu gia AP v cc nt. Chng nhn y nhim AP thng c qung b trong mng. iu ny khin cho k tn cng d dng nghe trm mng trong mt thi im v c c tt c cc thng tin cn thit. WEP c s dng cc nt t xc thc chng vi AP nhng WEP cn nhiu im yu. K tn cng nghe ton b lu lng v t gii m nm c mt khu. 802.16 Cng ging nh m ng 802.11 vic gi mo BS vn tn ti. IEEE s dng giao thc PKM vi mt vi thng ip c trao i gia BS v SS nhn d ng ln nhau. Qu trnh xc thc SS c thc hin nh sau: SS gi thng ip ti BS cha chng nhn s X509 c xc nh bi nh sn xut. SS gi trng ip th hai m khng cn ch i s phn hi t BS. Thng ip th hai n y cng cha chng nhn s X509 v kha chung ca SS, kh nng an ninh v SAID ca SS.
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Ch ng nhn s c s dng BS bit kha chung ca SS to mt thng ip phn hi. Nu BS cho php SS c trao quyn n s p li bng mt thng ip th ba khi to SA gia BS v SS. Nhng BS li khng thc hin xc thc vi SS, v vy vic gi mo BS hon ton c th . 3.2.2.5 Gi mo a ch MAC (MAC Address Spoofing) 802.11 Trong m ng 802.11 lc a ch MAC AP l mt cch ngn cn ngi dng bt hp php truy nhp mng. Bi l vic gi mo a ch MAC l rt d i vi k tn cng. Trong khi cc gi tr m ha phn cng l khng thay i, hoc c cng b trong nhng chng trnh c s ca cc phn cng c th sa i. Hin nay c rt nhiu chng trnh cho OS khc nhau c th sa i a ch MAC c thc hin cc b thch ng mng. Cc th t c ny rt d dng v c th c thc hin trong vi pht. Thm ch sau khi vic gi mo a ch MAC tr n n ph bin IEEE 802.11 vn s dng s trao quyn ny v 48 bt a ch MAC l di cho nhng cuc tn cng brute force. Nhng cc chng trnh m i cho php k tn cng khc phc kh khn ny. K tn cng lc n y khng cn tm ra a ch MAC bi v a ch MAC s c qung b trn ton m ng khi c a vo chu n. Vy l ch c mt vi gi tin cn thit s c n m gi c th ly c a ch MAC v s c nhn dng nh mt ngi dng hp php. 802.16 Trong mng 802.16 chun yu cu tt c cc b thch ng ca mng phi c 48 bt a ch MAC c chn ti phn c s. Gi tr ny c s dng trong sut qu trnh initial ranging v xc thc cho BS v SS nhn dng ln nhau. Cc nh ch to cho rng a ch MAC ca 802.16 l khng th gi mo. Nh ni trn RNG-REQ m SS gi ti BS s c a ch MAC v trong thng ip RNG-RSP (Ranging Response) ca BS cng cha a ch MAC. V vy k nghe ln s phi nm bt c tuyn ln ho c xung c c a ch MAC ca mt SS c trao quyn. S khc bit gia cc thit b ca 802.11 l kin trc khc nhau v vn gi mo a ch MAC vn l mt cu hi. Hin nay cc sn phm WiMAX vn ang c ph chun, v ang tn ti c lp nn vic sa i a ch MAC s yu cu thay i chng trnh c s. y khng phi l mt nhim v d dng, tr khi nh sn xut cung cp kh nng ty chn. Trong tng lai khi cc sn phm ca WiMAX khng tn ti c lp m c tch h p vi cc cng ngh khc th vic gi mo a ch MAC s cn nhiu vn cn nghin cu. 3.2.3 Nhng im yu mi trong mng WiMAX 3.2.3.1 Nn tng cng ngh ca cc cuc tn cng tn cng vo mng 802.16 k tn cng phi truy nhp vo s trao i thng tin gia hai bn c ngha l s phi tim vo v pht thng ip cn thit thc hin cuc tn cng. Vn u tin l ph i to ra mt thng ip. Vn tip theo l tm c ng thi im tim thng ip vo m ng. Trong chng ny chng ta

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s xem xt cc cuc tn cng d n mc no v liu n c phi l vn cn quan tm trong mng hay khng. To thng ip v tim vo mng: Hu ht cc cuc tn cng din ra trong mng 802.11 s dng thng ip ty ch n t c mc ch. Tt nhin trong nhng ngy u ca mng 802.11 khng c cc chng trnh gip k tn cng to ra thng ip nh vy. Vic n y mt nhiu thi gian th nghim. Chu n 802.16 l mt chun m i vn cha c thc hin, n ch c thit k v th nghim trn giy.Hin nay vn khng c mt thit b n o sn c trn th trng v c s dng v vy cc cracker hay cc chuyn gia an ninh c th tao ra thng ip ty tim vo m ng. Tt nhin vic ny c th din ra trong cc phng th nghim sn xut nhng cho n nay chng ta khng h bit v vn n y. Trong mng 802.11 ngi to ra cc khung qun l bng cc cng g ri v lu tr trong b m ca card mng. Bng cch ny thng ip ty ch n s c tim vo mng ngay trc thi im truyn pht v thng ip s c gi i m khng qua qu trnh kim tra li ca phn cng. Trong m ng 802.16 cc im truy nhp dch v SAP (Service Acces Point) c dng giao tip gia hai giao thc lp vt l khc nhau v n s xc nh nhng thng ip no c php truyn qua. Do vy khng th bit trc c rng n c b la cho thng ip ty ny i qua hay khng. Nu cc nh sn xut to ra cc sn phm v cho php ngi s dng c kh nng truy nhp kiu g ri (debug type access) ti phn cng th k tn cng s c c hi thc hin vic ny. Thi im tim thng ip (Timing to inject the messsage) Gi s k tn cng to c mt thng ip ty , bc tip theo l phi tim c vo mng. Vn y khng ch l tim vo mng m phi lm th no nn nhn bit c thng ip v x l n nh mt thng ip tht (thng ip hp php). Vn n y d ng nh s kh hn v khng c nhiu thng ip qun l gi mo. Th hai l vn thi im tim thng ip. K tn cng phi tm ra nhng thi im h trong mt lch trnh v tim thng ip ng lc. Ngoi vn chng ta phi ngh v s ng b v r rng l n u k tn cng mun gi thng ip t SS ti BS th s tr lan truyn c th bit c thng qua qu trnh ranging khi u. Nhng nu k tn cng mun gi thng ip nh mt BS anh ta s phi bit c tr lan truyn l bao nhiu.V nu nn nhn nhn c thng ip n y trong mt thi im sai th s khng nhn thng ip v lo i b n. Ta bit rng 802.16 s dng hai m hnh vt l l FDD v TDD. y chng ta s xem st v thi im c th tim thng ip vo mng theo hai m hnh ny s xy ra nh th no? FDD Trong FDD cc knh h ng ln v knh h ng xung lm vic tn s khc nhau v knh hng xung c pht i trong cc dng burst ri rc. V tuyn ln v tuyn xung c lp trnh h tr bn song cng nn c thi im knh hng ln v knh hng xung khng c s dng, v y chnh
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l th i im k tn cng tim thng ip ca anh ta vo m ng. hng ln tt c s truyn pht u c lp lch trnh. Tuy nhin hung xung BS ch ra s chuyn i dng iu ch v sa li trc cho SS m khng ch ra thi im c th m mt lu lng t SS s c gi i. Tt c cc SS trong mng lun phi lng nghe cc tuyn hng xung tm kim thng ip c gi cho chng. Do vy k tn cng c th tm ra thi im khi BS khng gi bt k gi tin no v anh ta c th gi thng ip ty ca mnh. Mt vn ny sinh l k tn cng c th gi thng ip cng thi im vi BS v do s c xung t xy ra. Nu lng ti ca mng t, anh ta s gy ra t xung t cho n khi thnh cng. Nhng nu mng qu ti BS s khng cn kho ng trng no gia cc gi tin hng xung th rt kh k tn cng t c m c ch. TDD Trong h thng TDD c mt cht s khc bit, khng c bt k mt khong trng n o hng xung, ton b cc khung con hng xung u c in y bi s truyn pht ca BS. Bt k khung lp MAC no ngn hn s c nhi th m cc khung trng (null) t chiu d i cn thit. Sau cc tuyn xung l cc khung con hng ln, gia chng ch c mt khong trng l Tx/Rx Time Delay. Trn tuyn hng ln c th c cc khe trng. Khi s truyn cc khe trng xy ra BS gi thng ip null mc cng sut thp hn v SS khng c php pht tin. cui khung hng ln c mt khong trng khc trc khi n khung tip theo l Rx/Tx Time Delay.

Hnh 3.2: V tr c th tn cng trong cu trc khung TDD 3.2.3.2 Lp MAC Trong phn trc chng ta ch ni v vn thi im nhng cn mt vn khc l trng thi lp MAC ca b n nhn. Lp MAC ca 802.16 c xem nh mt my trng thi hot ng da trn s chuyn t trng thi n y sang trng thi khc. iu ny c ngha rng mt lp MAC c th loi b mt thng ip xc nh l tt (c gi mo tt) nu n khng trng thi ng nhn thng ip y. V d nh trong qu trnh khi u SS gi i mt yu cu trao quyn (Auth Request) ti BS. Sau khi BS kim tra anh ta s p li. Nu SS hp php s c tham gia mng, sau BS gi li mt thng ip p li trao quyn (Authorization Reply) cha kha trao quyn cng vi cc thng tin khc tip tc xc thc. Nu BS quyt nh loi b n s gi thng ip hy b trao quyn
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(Auth Reject). Khi SS vn trng thi ny, v sau mt thi gian s c gng trao quyn li. Ngi ta thng tin rng vic loi b trao quyn l mt cng c tn cng. Bi v thng ip loi b trao quyn khng cha s th t hay nhn thi gian hay s HMAC c th chng minh l ca BS. K tn cng c th gi rt nhiu thng ip ti cc SS trong mng. Tuy nhin y khng phi l vn quan tm chnh v lp MAC ch trong trng thi ny vi khong thi gian rt ngn sau khi gi thng ip trao quyn do vy nu thng ip ca k tn cng n khng ng thi im n s b loi b ngay. 3.2.3.3 Cc cuc tn cng tim n trong mng 802.16 3.2.3.3.1 Cuc tn cng s dng thng ip RNG-RSP u tin khi SS mun gia nhp mng n phi gi mt thng ip yu cu Ranging (RNG-REQ). Thng ip n y thng bo cho BS v s hin din ca SS v yu cu cc thng s nh thi im truyn pht, cng sut, tn s v cc thng tin trong burst profile, thng ip ny c SS gi i theo chu k. BS p li bng mt thng ip RNG-RSP. Trong cc phin b n c ca 802.16 SS gi thng ip ny theo chu k . Nu SS khng hon thnh qu trnh ranging theo chu k n s b loi khi mng v phi thc hin qu trnh gia nhp mng ban u. Tuy nhin phin bn 802.16a khng yu cu SS phi gi thng ip n y theo nh k, thay vo SS c th nhn bt c thng ip no t pha BS v s dng n iu chnh ranging. V BS gi thng ip RNG-RSP thng bo cho SS v s thay i cc knh hng ln, hng xung, mc cng sut pht v cng c th s dng thng dip ny hy b s truyn dn ca SS v b t SS khi u li.

Bng 3.1: Dng thng ip RNG-RSP L do chnh khin thng ip ny tr th nh im yu l v n khng h c bo mt. V khi SS nhn c thng ip ny n s hot ng theo s ch d n trong thng ip. C mt s cch s dng thng ip ny trong qu trnh tn cng nh sau: - Cch 1:k tn cng s dng thng ip ny vi trng trng thi ranging bng 2 (Ranging Status) tc l hy b s truyn dn hin ti ca SS. - Cch 2: dch nn nhn ln mt knh khc. Nu k tn cng s dng mt BS gi mo mt knh ring th SS s b buc phi giao tip vi BS gi mo n y. Nu khng c mt BS no trn knh ch ra SS s li tr li knh ban u.

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Sn sng hot ng

Duy tr bng thng hng ln

Timeout 3

Timeout 4

RSG-RSP

Reset T4

M ranging c vt qu phm vi

t m ranging vo khe ranging

Xa T3

Reset T4
Gi gi liu hng ln Li: khi to li MAC

M trng thi ranging

Li: khi to li MAC

iu chnh thng s trong RNG-RSP

Gi RNG-REQ sau khi chnh sa

iu chnh thnh cng

Gi RNG-REQ Reset T3( nu khng hot ng)

M ranging

Sn sng hot ng

Hnh 3.3: Qu trnh tn cng bng thng ip RNG-RSP

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Tn

Loi ( 1 byte )

Chiu di ( byte ) 4

Gi tr iu chnh lch nh thi( gm 32 bit). Ch ra thi im ca SS gi tin gi tin n c BS ng thi im. iu chnh lch cng sut pht( gm 8 bit, n v s dng l 0.25 dB). Ch ra s thay i v cng sut pht sao cho SS c th truyn ti BS vi mc cng sut ph hp. iu chnh lch tn s( gm 32 bit, n v tnh bng Hz). Ch ra s thay i tn s ph hp vi BS hn. S thay i ny ch xy ra trong mt knh. Dng ch ra liu cc thng ip hng ln c c BS chp nhn hay khng.1=tip tc, 2=hy b, 3=thnh cng, 4=ranging li. Tn s trung tm, ca knh mi m SS s dng khi u li. n v tnh bng kHz. M nhn dng knh hng ln m SS s s dng khi u li. Thng s ny c s dng p li thng ip RNG-REQ a ch MAC ca SS gm 48 bit. CID c bn c gn bi BS trong qu trnh truy nhp ban u. CID qun l chnh c gn bi BS trong qu trnh truy nhp ban u. c thm vo cung cp h tr OFDMA v AAS

iu chnh nh thi 1 (Timing Adjust)

iu chnh mc cng sut 2 Power Lever Adjust iu chnh lch tn s 3 (Offset Frequency Adjust)

Trng thi ranging 4 (Ranging Status)

Downlink frequency

Uplink channel ID 6 override Downlink Operational Burst 7 Profile SS MAC Adress Basic CID Primary Management CID PHY Values Specific 8 9

1 6 2

11 12-16

Bng 3.2: Cc m trong thng ip RNG-RSP

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3.2.3.3.2 Cuc tn cng vo thng ip thng bo quyn khng hp l Ta bit rng my trng thi trao quyn l mt phn ca giao thc PKM.Nh thng l n s dng hai thng ip qun l PKMREQ v PKM RSP. SS gi PKM REQ ti BS. BS p li bng PKMRSP. Loi thng ip qun l 9 = PKM- RSP 10= PKM-REQ M thng ip Nhn dng PKM Thuc tnh PKM (8 bt) Nhn dng loi S serial ca Khc nhau ty thng ip PKM thng ip thng ip Bng 3.3: Dng thng ip PKM M thng ip l mt trng 8 bit ch ra chnh xc loi thng ip PKM. Nu thng ip c m khng h p l th s b loi b. M 0-2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13-255 Loi thng ip PKM Cha s dng Security association add Auth request Auth reply Auth reject Key request Key reply Key reject Auth invalid Tek in valid Auhthentication info Cha s dng

Bng 3.4: M thng ip PKM Phn nhn dng PKM l mt trng 8 bit c dng nh s serial. Mi ln PKM- REQ gi bi SS phn nhn dng PKM-REQ s tng ln mt gi tr. Khi BS p li bng thng ip PKM - RSP s gm mt phn nhn dng tng ng vi thng ip n nhn c. Nu SS nhn c b t k thng ip no c phn nhn khc yu cu c gi i SS s t chi. Trng thuc tnh PKM rt khc nhau ty theo loi thng ip PKM. Trng ny th ng cha thng tin v m sa li, thi gian sng ca kha, chui hin th. Theo bng trn ta thy c 4 thng ip c th c s dng tn cng l: - Auth Reject - Key Reject - Auth Invalid - TEK Invalid
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y l nhng thng ip c kh nng ph nhn qu trnh trao quyn ca SS. S dng nhng thng ip ny s to ra nhng cuc tn cng ging dng Deauthentication. Tuy nhin trong cc thng ip trn c 3 thng ip Auth Reject, Key Reject v TEK Invalid khng c s dng. V nhng thng ip ny yu cu s HMAC xc thc thng ip. Nh ta bit rt kh to ra mt HMAC chnh xc. Ch c mt cch l ph v s bo mt. Hn na nhng thng ip ny ch c th nhn c trong mt khong thi gian rt ngn. Thng ip cui cng cn li l thng ip Auth Invalid. Thng ip n y khng yu cu xc th c bng HMAC, khng bao gm nhn dng PKM. N cng khng cn mt trng thi n o c xem l hp php. Thng ip ny l mt thng ip khng trng thi, SS c th nhn n ti mi thi im. Nhng l do ny khin k tn cng c th s dng n d d ng hn.

Bng 3.5: Thuc tnh thng ip Auth Invalid Mt khc trong phn m li c gi tr bng 0 khng a ra mt l do n o v s khng hp l ca thng ip s to iu kin tn cng.

Bng 3.6: Gi tr m li trong thng ip xc thc Khi SS nhn c thng ip Auth Invalid s chuyn t trng thi c trao quyn sang trng thi i trao quyn li. Nh vy SS s i cho n khi n nhn c tin ph n hi t BS. Nu thi gian i trao quyn li chm dt trc khi SS nhn c tin t BS, SS s gi 1 thng ip xin trao quyn li (Reauth Request) c gng gia nhp mng. V trong khi ang i trao quyn li SS c th s nhn c thng ip loi b trao quyn li (Reauth Reject).
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y l trng hp li trao quyn c hu. Ri vo trng hp ny SS s tr v trng thi yn lng, khng gi bt k mt tin no v lun sn sng p li bt k mt thng ip qu n l no c gi t BS. Vi c ch nh trn k tn cng c th to ra mt my trng thi trao quyn nguy him.

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CHNG 4: WIMAX TRONG MI TRNG LOS V NLOS SO SNH WIMAX VI MT S CNG NGH TRUY CP V TUYN BNG RNG KHC
4.1 Tm tt
Trong khi mng bng rng c nh vi nhiu cng ngh sn c th mng v tuyn ch c th cung cp kh nng ph sng tm nhn thng (line of sight LOS). V th nn tng cng ngh WiMAX c ti u ho cho ra i kh nng ph sng khng theo tm nh n thng (non line of sight NLOS). Cng ngh tin tin WiMAX c th cung cp tt nht v khong cch ph sng ln ti 50km di cc iu kin tm nhn th ng LOS v bn knh cell ln ti 8km di cc iu kin khng theo tm nhn thng NLOS.

4.2 Truyn sng LOS v NLOS


Thng thng, knh v tuyn ca mt h thng truyn thng khng dy c m t hoc kiu tm nh n th ng (LOS) hoc khng theo tm nhn thng (NLOS). Trong mt ng truyn LOS, tn hiu i theo ng trc tip v khng c chng ngi vt gia pha pht v pha thu. Mt ng truyn LOS yu cu phi c c tnh l ton b min Fresnel th nht khng h c chng ngi vt (h nh 1), nu c tnh ny khng c m bo th cng ca tn hiu s suy gim ng k. Khng gian min Fresnel ph thuc vo tn s hot ng v khong cch gia trm pht v trm thu.

Hnh 4.1: Min Fresnel cho trng hp LOS Trn mt ng truyn NLOS, tn hiu ti pha thu thng qua s phn x, tn x v nhiu x. Cc tn hiu nhn c pha thu bao gm s tng hp cc
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thnh phn nhn c t ng i trc tip, cc ng phn x, nng lng tn x v cc thnh ph n nhiu x. Nhng tn hiu ny c nhng khong tr, s suy gim, s phn cc v trng thi n nh lin quan ti ng truyn trc tip l khc nhau.

Hnh 4.2. Truyn sng trong iu kin NLOS Hin tng a ng cng c th l nguyn nhn dn n s thay i phn cc tn hiu. Do s dng phn cc cng nh s dng li tn s m c thc hin bnh thng trong trin khai LOS li kh khn trong cc ng dng NLOS. Lm th no mt h thng v tuyn s dng nhng tn hiu a ng ny cung cp mt dch v m bo trong iu kin NLOS. Mt sn phm n thun ch tng cng sut xuyn qua c vt cn (i khi gi l gn tm nhn thng) khng phi l cng ngh NLOS bi v cch tip cn n y vn da vo cng tn hiu i trc tip (direct path) m khng tnh n cng ca tn hiu i gin tip (indirect path). iu kin ph sng ca c LOS v NLOS b chi phi bi cc c tnh truyn sng ca mi trng, tn hao ng truyn (path loss) v qu ng truyn v tuyn. Mt s u im m NLOS mong mun trin khai c. V d, cc yu cu hoch nh chnh xc v cc hn ch cao anten thng khng cho php anten c t cc v tr thun li cho LOS. Do mng t bo khng ngng m rng trong khi s dng li tn s ngy cng c hn, h thp cc anten chnh l u im gim nhiu ng knh gia cc cell ln cn. Tuy nhin iu n y li lm cho cc trm gc phi hot ng trong iu kin NLOS. Cc h thng LOS khng th h thp cao ca anten bi lm th s nh hng n tm nhn thng t CPE (thit b ti nh khch hng) ti trm gc. Cng ngh NLOS cng gim c chi ph ci t do CPE c th ci t c nhiu iu kin a hnh phc tp. Khng nhng th, cng ngh ny cng
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gim thiu c yu cu kho st v tr trm (trc khi lp t) v nng cao chnh xc ca cc cng c hoch nh NLOS.

Hnh 4.3. V tr CPE iu kin khng theo tm nhn thng NLOS Chnh cng ngh NLOS v cc c tnh cao cp trong WiMAX lm n c th s dng thit b ti nh ca khch hng CPE. iu ny c hai tr ngi chnh: th nht l phi khc phc c tn hao thm nhp to nh, th hai l ph sng c ti cc khong hp l vi cng sut pht thp hn v li anten ph h p vi cc CPE trong nh. WiMAX cho php th c hin c iu n y v ph m vi ph sng ca NLOS cn c th c ci tin hn na nh s dng cc tnh nng tu chn ca WiMAX. 4.2.1 Cc gii php cng ngh NLOS Cng ngh WiMAX gii quyt hoc lm gim nh cc tr ngi do NLOS b ng cch s dng: Cng ngh OFDM Knh con ho (sub-channelization) Anten nh hng Phn tp thu v pht iu ch thch nghi Cc k thut hiu chnh li iu khin cng sut 4.2.2 Cng ngh OFDM Cng ngh ghp knh phn chia theo tn s trc giao OFDM em li cho cc nh khai thc hiu qu ng k kh nng khc phc kh khn khi truyn sng trong iu kin NLOS. Dng sng OFDM trong WiMAX c u im l hot ng c trong mi trng NLOS vi tr lan truyn ln. Nh u im ca thi biu trng OFDM v s dng mt tin t vng, dng sng OFDM loi b c cc vn nhiu lin biu trng (inter-symbol interference ISI) v s phc tp ca s cn bng thch nghi. Bi v dng sng OFDM bao gm nhiu sng mang trc giao bng hp, fading la chn c nh v cho mt tp con cc
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sng mang tng i d cn bng. Mt v d ch ra di y s so snh gia mt tn hiu OFDM v mt tn hiu sng mang n, vi thng tin c gi song song cho OFDM v hng lot sng mang n.

Vng nt chm biu din ph pht,vng nt lin biu din u vo pha thu Hnh 4.4 Sng mang n v tn hiu thu OFDM Kh nng khc phc tr, a ng v ISI mt cch c hiu qu cho php tng tc d liu. Mt v d ch ra vic cn bng cc sng mang OFDM ring l d dng hn so vi vic cn bng tn hiu sng mang n. V tt c nhng l do n y, cc tiu chun quc t n y (IEEE, 802.16, ETSI BRAN, ETRI) thit lp OFDM nh mt cng ngh la chn. 4.2.3 Knh con ha Knh con ho (sub-channelization) trn ng ln l tu chn trong cng ngh WiMAX, khi khng s dng knh con ho, nhng s hn ch iu tit v yu cu cc CPE chi ph hiu qu gy ln qu ng truyn khng i xng, iu ny cng dn n phm vi h thng trn ng truyn ln b hn ch. Knh con ho cho php qu ng truyn c cn bng lm cho li (gain) ca h thng l tng t nhau i vi c ng truyn ln v xung. Knh con ho tp trung ng sut pht vo mt vi sng mang OFDM; iu ny lm tng li h thng v m rng h thng, khc phc c tn hao thm nhp to nh ho c gim cng sut tiu th ca CPE. Vic s dng knh con ho cn c m rng hn trong truy nhp a sng mang phn chia theo tn s trc giao (OFDMA) cho php s dng linh hot hn ti nguyn cung cp cho di ng.

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Hnh 4. 5: Hiu ng knh con ho (sub channelization) 4.2.4 Anten trong cc ng dng khng dy c nh Cc anten nh hng tng d tr (fade margin) bng cch thm vo li, iu ny lm tng kh dng ca ng truyn c ch ra bi h s K - h s so snh gia anten nh hng v anten ng hng. tr truyn dn s gim bi anten nh hng ti c trm gc v CPE. M hnh anten ngn bt k tn hiu a ng no nh n c ti bp sng chnh (sidelobes) v bp sng ph (backlobes). Mc hiu qu ca phng php ny c chng minh v th hin vic trin khai thnh cng d ch v vn hnh di s nh hng ng k ca fading NLOS. Cc h thng anten thch ng (Adaptive antenna systems AAS) l mt phn tu chn trong chun 802.16. Chng c cc thuc tnh to tia m c th hng s tp chung vo mt hoc nhiu hng xc nh. iu n y c ngha l trong khi truyn, tn hiu c th b gii hn ti hng yu cu ca b thu nh mt tia sng. Ngc li khi thu, h thng AAS c th c thit k ch tp chung vo hng tn hiu n. Chng cng c c tnh kh nhiu ng knh t cc trm khc. Cc h thng AAS c coi l s pht trin trong tng lai v thm ch c th ci tin ti s dng li ph v dung lng ca mng WiMAX. 4.2.5 Phn tp thu pht Nguyn l phn tp c s dng thu nhng tn hiu a ng v phn x xut hin trong trng hp truyn NLOS. Phn tp l mt c im tu chn trong WiMAX. Thut ton phn tp c cung cp bi WiMAX trn c pha pht v pha thu lm tng kh dng ca h thng. Tu chn phn tp trong WiMAX s dng m ho khng gian thi gian cung cp tnh c lp ngun pht; iu n y lm gim yu cu v d tr suy gim v chng nhiu. i vi phn tp thu, cc k thut kt hp khc nhau c sn ci thin c kh dng ca h thng. V d, t s truyn kt hp cc i (Maximum Radio Combining MRC) mang li li ch cho hai chui thu khc nhau gip khc phc fading v gim tn hao ng truyn. Phn tp c chng minh l mt cng c hiu qu cho truyn NLOS.
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4.2.6 iu ch thch nghi iu ch thch nghi (adaptive modulation) cho php h thng WiMAX iu chnh nguyn l iu ch tn hiu theo t l tn hiu trn nhiu (SNR) ca ng truyn v tuyn. Khi ng truyn v tuyn c cht lng cao, nguyn l iu ch cao nht c s dng lm tng thm dung lng h thng. Trong qu trnh suy gim tn hiu, h thng WiMAX c th chuyn sang mt nguyn l iu ch thp hn duy tr ch t lng v s n nh ca ng truyn. c im ny cho php h thng khc phc hiu ng fading la chn thi gian. c im quan trng ca iu ch thch nghi l kh nng tng di s dng ca nguyn l iu ch mc cao hn, do h thng c tnh mm do i vi tnh trng fading thc t.

Tng quan bn knh cell trong iu ch thch nghi Hnh 4.6. Bn knh cell 4.2.7 Cc k thut hiu chnh li Cc k thut hiu chnh li c kt hp vo WiMAX gim yu cu t l SNR ca h thng. M ho xon vng Reed Solomon FEC v cc thut ton ghp xen c s dng pht hin v hiu chnh cc li ci tin thng lng. Cc k thut hiu chnh li tt gip khi phc li cc khung b li l cc khung b mt do fading la chn tn s hoc li cm. Thut ton yu cu t ng gi li ARQ c s dng hiu chnh cc li m khng sa c bng thut ton FEC. Thut ton n y ci tin ng k hiu sut BER i vi cng mt mc ngng. 4.2.8 iu khin cng sut Cc thut ton iu khin cng sut c s dng ci tin hiu sut tng th ca h thng, n c thc hin nh trm gc gi thng tin iu khin cng sut ti tng CPE n nh mc cng sut pht sao cho mc thu c ti trm gc lun mc nh trc.

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Trong mt mi trng fading thay i khng ngng mc hiu sut nh trc ny c ngha l CPE ch truyn cng sut theo yu cu, ngc li mc cng sut pht ca CPE s khng ph hp. Cng sut pht s lm gim nng lng tiu th tng ca CPE v nhiu tim n t cc trm gc ln cn. Vi LOS, cng sut pht ca CPE xp x t l vi khong cch ca n ti trm gc, vi NLOS n ph thuc rt nhiu vo kho n g trng v trng ngi vt. 4.2.9 Cc m hnh truy n NLOS Trong mt knh NLOS, tn hiu c th b tn x, nhiu x, thay i s phn cc, v suy gim do phn x. Cc nhn t ny s nh hng n cng ca tn hiu thu. Trong knh LOS, nhng suy gim ny thng khng xut hin pha pht v thu. 4.2.9.1 Cc m hnh NLOS Trong nhng nm va qua, nhiu loi m h nh c pht trin nhm c tnh ho mi trng v tuyn v d on cng tn hiu v tuyn. Nhng m hnh kinh nghim ny c s dng d on vng ph sng din rng cho cc h thng truyn thng v tuyn trong cc ng dng mng t bo. Nhng m hnh ny c tnh c tn hao ng truyn (path loss) c tnh n khong cch gia pha thu v pha pht, yu t a hnh, cao anten thu pht v tn s sng mang. Nhng khng mt cch tip cn no trong s trn ch ra c nhu cu mng khng dy c nh bng rng mt cch hp l.Nhm Wireless AT&T thu thp th m d liu hin trng t mt s khu vc ti M c lng mt cch chnh xc hn mi trng v tuyn RF khng dy c nh. M hnh ca nhm Wireless AT&T c ph chun (tng phn vi cc h thng v tuyn c nh) v thu c kt qu ng k. M hnh ny l c s ca m hnh tha nhn cng nghip (industry-accepted) v c s dng chnh cho cc chu n IEEE802.16. S tha nhn ca IEEE vi m hnh ca nhm Wireless AT&T c gi l IEEE802.16.3c- 01/29r4. Cc m hnh knh cho cc ng dng v tuyn c nh ca Erceg 4.2.9.2 Cc m hnh SUI M hnh SUI (Stanford University Interim) chnh l m hnh m rng ca nhm Wireless AT&T v Erceg. N s dung ba loi a hnh c bn: Loi A - i ni/ c mt cy ci t va n rm rp Loi B - i ni/ mt cy ci tha hoc a hnh ph ng/ c mt cy ci t va n rm rp Loi C - a hnh ph ng/ mt cy ci tha Cc lo i a hnh trn cung cp mt phng php n gin nh gi chnh xc hn suy hao ng truyn ca cc knh v tuyn (RF channel) trong iu kin NLOS. M hnh c thng k trong thc t v chng t n c th biu din ng di suy hao trong mt ng truyn v tuyn thc t. Cc m hnh knh SUI c la chn thit k, xy dng v kim th cho cng ngh WiMAX vi 6 kch bn khc nhau (t SUI-1 n SUI-6). S dng cc m hnh knh ny c th d on chnh xc kh nng ph sng ca mt
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sector trm gc, v cc c tnh kh nng ph sng li c s dng tip tc hoch nh mng. Ly v d, n c th c s dng xc nh s cc trm gc cn thit cung cp dch v cho mt vng a l xc nh. Cc m hnh ny khng phi l cc hoch nh chi tit ca trm nhng n c th a ra mt c tnh trc khi qu trnh hoch nh bt u. iu ny rt quan trng cho cc hot ng quy hoch tn s v tuyn RF m c tnh n cc tham s do mi trng, nhiu ng knh, v cc hiu ng a hnh, nhiu. 4.2.10 D on kh nng ph sng Trong cc iu kin LOS, khong cch ph sng ph thuc vo mc LOS nh trong sut ca vng Fresnel. Trong cc iu kin LOS, c mt khi nim sn sng che ph (c tnh bng t l % ) cho bit xc sut thng k m cc khch hng tim nng trong vng ph sng d on c th c phc v. V d, xc sut che ph 90% c ngha l 90% khch hng tim nng trong vng che ph d on s c cht lng tn hiu m bo. Vic chun ho ng truyn v tuyn WiMAX s cho php cc nh cung cp cng c hoch nh tn s v tuyn pht trin cc ng dng c th cc d on NLOS theo thi gian. Ngoi ra, n u c 100 khch h ng tim nng ng mt bn che ph d on NLOS, th s c 90 trong s h c th s c cung cp ngay c khi c nghn gia trm gc v CPE. Yu cu hoch nh tn s v tuyn v d on vng che ph c tch hp cng ngh NLOS cho php nh gi chnh xc mc u tin i vi nhng khch hng no. 4.2.11 Phm vi ph sng ca WiMAX Phn ny s trnh b y hai kiu trm gc chnh v tnh nng ca chng.Kiu trm gc vi tnh nng c bn (standard base station) Thc hin chc nng WiMAX c bn (ch c nhng tnh nng bt buc). Cng sut u ra RF c bn cho mt trm gc gi thnh thp (theo nh cung cp thit b). Kiu trm gc vi y tnh nng (full featured base station) Cng su t u ra RF cao hn trm gc c bn (theo nh cung cp thit b ). Kt hp phn tp Tx/Rx vi m ho khng gian thi gian v s thu nhn MRC. Knh con ho. ARQ. C trm gc vi tnh nng c bn hay y tnh nng u tun theo chu n WiMAX, tuy nhin hiu sut ca mi kiu li khc nhau. Bng 1 di y cho bit s khc nhau gia hai kiu trm n y khi xt trong cng mt cu hnh h thng chun. iu quan trng l trong WiMAX c mt s tu chn cho php nh khai thc v nh cung cp thit b kh nng xy dng cc mng hon ton ph h p vi cc ng dng v thng mi ca h. Thng lng cc i hng ln (uplink) trong Bng 1 gi nh cho mt knh con n l c s dng m rng vng ph ca cell xa nht c th.

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Hnh 4.7 Minh ho hai kiu trm: tnh nng c bn v y tnh nng Nhn thy hiu sut t c v vng che ph vi trm y tnh nng ch cc CPE t ci t trong nh (indoor self-installed CPE) gp 10 ln so vi trm c tnh nng c bn. Hnh 8 di y biu din biu nh hng ca LOS v NLOS i vi hai kiu trm khc nhau.

Hnh 4.8 Bn knh cell ca trm c tnh nng c bn v y tnh nng Gii php mng ti u s s dng kt hp hai kiu trm gc ny (tnh nng c bn v y tnh nng).

4.3 So snh WiMax vi mt s cng ngh truy nhp v tuyn bng rng khng dy khc:
4.3.1 Tng quan v cc chun truy nhp v tuyn bng rng. Mt lot cc chun v mng truy nhp v tuyn bng rng c nhiu t chc nghin cu, xy dng v pht trin. Theo phm vi ng dng, cc chun ny c phn chia th nh cc mng nh sau:

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Hnh 4.9: Cc chun v mng truy nhp v tuyn bng rng. - Mng cc nhn (PAN - Personal Area Network): Chu n WPAN c ng dng trong phm vi gia nh, ho c trong khng gian xung quanh ca 1 c nhn, tc truyn dn trong nh c th t 480 MB/giy trong phm vi 10m. Trong m hnh m ng WPAN, c s xut hin ca cc cng ngh Bluetooth, 802.15 (hin nay 802.15 ny ang c pht trin thnh 802.15.3 c bit n vi tn cng ngh Ultrawideband - siu bng thng). - Mng ni b (LAN Local Area Network): m ng WirelessLAN s dng k thut 802.11x bao gm cc chun 802.11a, 802.11b, 802.11g, 802.11n, IPERLAN1/2.. WLAN l mt phn ca gii php vn phng di ng, cho php ngi s dng kt ni mng LAN t cc khu vc cng cng nh vn phng, khch sn hay cc sn bay. Cng ngh ny cho php ngi s dng c th s dng, truy xut thng tin, truy cp Internet vi tc ln hn rt nhiu so vi phng thc truy nhp gin tip truyn thng. - Mng th (MAN- Metropolitant Area Network): Mng WMAN s dng chu n 802.16, nh ngha c t k thut giao din khng gian WirelessMAN cho cc mng vng th. Vic a ra chun n y m ra mt cng ngh mi truy nhp v tuyn bng rng WIMAX cho php mng v tuyn m rng phm vi hot ng ti gn 50 km v c th truyn d liu, ging ni v hnh nh video vi tc nhanh hn so vi ng truyn cp hoc ADSL. y s l cng c hon ho cho cc ISP mun m rng hot ng vo nhng vng dn c ri rc, ni m chi ph trin khai ADSL v ng cp qu cao hoc gp kh khn trong qu trnh thi cng. - Mng din rng (WAN - Wide Area Network): Trong tng lai, cc kt ni Wireless WAN s s dng chun 802.20 thc hin cc kt ni din rng, hin nay cc chun ny ang c chun ha. 4.3.2 So snh WiMax di ng vi 3G
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Hai d ng khc nhau ca CDMA 3G c s dng rng ri l WCDMA gii php FDD da trn c s knh 5 MHz v CDMA2000 - gii php da trn c s knh 1,25 MHz. WCDMA c pht trin tng kh nng ng sung vi phin b n truy nhp gi ng xung tc cao (HSDPA) v truy nhp gi ng ln tc cao HSUPA . Nhm pht trin 3G cng cn nhc pht trin kh nng truyn xa hn cho WCDMA nh l cung cp MIMO vi HSPA. Tng t nh vy, CDMA 2000 c pht trin tng kh nng truyn d n s liu ti phin bn 1x EVDO-Rev 0 v 1x EVDO-Rev A. Mt nng cao na l phin bn EVDO Rev B a vo kh nng a sng mang. Do 1xEVDO v HSDPA/HSPA c pht trin t tiu chu n CDMA 3G cung cp dch v s liu thng qua mng ban u c thit k cho dch v thoi di ng do n tha hng c nhng u im v c nhng hn ch ca h thng 3G. WiMAX ban u c pht trin cho truy nhp v tuyn bng rng c nh v n c ti u cho truyn s liu. WiMAX di ng c pht trin trn c s ca WiMAX c nh v c iu chnh ph hp cho yu cu di ng. Vic so snh gia cc thuc tnh ca WiMAX di ng vi 3G trn c s h thng 1x EVDO v HSDPA/HDPA s cho ta thy r cng gnh no s p ng c cc i hi ca mng ch v s liu bng rng di ng. Cc thuc tnh c th c a ra trong bng :
Thuc tnh 1x EVDO Rev A HSDPA/HSUPA (HSPA) WiMAX di ng IEEE802.16e TDD

Tiu chun c s P.P song cng Hng sung (DL) a truy nhp h.ln (UL) rng bng DL Kch c khung UL iu ch DL

CDMA2000/IS-95 WCDMA FDD TDM CDMA 1,25 MHz 1,67 ms 6,67 ms QPSK/ 16QAM 8PSK/ FDD CDM-TDM

OFDMA CDMA 5,0 MHz 2 ms 5 ms TDD 2/ 10 ms QPSK/ 16QAM QPSK/ 16QAM/ 64 QAM QPSK/ 16 QAM CC, Turbo 46 Mbps, DL/UL=3 - 74 5; 7; 8,75; 10 MHz

iu ch UL M ha Tc nh DL

BPSK, 8PSK Turbo 3,1 Mbps

QPSK/

BPSK/ CC, Turbo 14 Mbps

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32 Mbps, DL/UL=1

Tc nh UL

7 Mbps, DL/UL=1 1,8 Mbps 5,8 Mbps 4 Mbps, DL/UL=3

H-ARQ

ng b 4 knh ng b 6 knh nhanh IR nhanh CC

ng b a knh CC

Lp lch Chuyn (Handoff)

Lp lch nhanh DL

Lp lch nhanh Lp lch nhanh DL UL v UL

vng Chuyn vng mn Ch. vng cng Ch. vng cng khi
o khi u t mng u t mng

Bng 4.1 : So snh WiMAX di ng v 3G.

4.4 K t lun chng:


Cng ngh WiMAX c th cung cp kh nng che ph trong c iu kin tm nhn thng (LOS) v khng theo tm nhn th ng (NLOS). Trong NLOS c nhiu u im trin khai cho php nh khai thc cung cp d liu bng rng n nhiu i tng khch hng. Cng ngh WiMAX cng c rt nhiu u im em li cc gii php iu kin NLOS vi nhiu tnh nng nh: cng ngh OFDM, iu ch thch nghi v hiu chnh li. Ngoi ra, WiMAX cng c nhiu tnh nng tu chn nh: ARQ, knh con ho, phn tp, v m ho khng gian - thi gian ha hn s em li cho nh khai thc hiu sut v cht lng dch v cao hn so vi cc i th cnh tranh s dng cng ngh hu tuyn. Trc tin cc nh khai thc dch v khng dy bng rng cn trin khai cc thit b chun ho vi s cn bng gia gi thnh v hiu sut; la chn cc tnh nng hp l cho m hnh kinh doanh c th.

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CHNG 5: NGHIN CU KH NNG TRIN KHAI V NG DNG WIMAX TRN MNG VIN THNG VIT NAM

5.1 Nhu cu v hin trng cc h thng truy nhp bng rng ti Vit Nam.
5.1.1 Nhu cu truy nhp bng rng ti Vit Nam. Hin nay, vi s pht trin bng n v nhu cu truyn s liu tc cao v nhu cu a dng ho cc loi h nh d ch v cung cp nh: truy nhp Internet, th in t, thng mi in t, truyn file, nhu cu truy nhp bng rng ti Vit Nam ang i hi l ht sc ln. Cc i tng c nhu cu s dng truy nhp bng rng rt a dng bao gm: Cc c quan, doanh nghip, h gia nh, cc qun Internet,vv... c bit vi n pht trin Chnh ph in t hay tin hc ha hnh chnh nh nc th nhu cu truy nhp bng rng ca cc c quan ng, chnh quyn, c bit l vi cc c quan ng, chnh quyn cp x phng c nh gi l rt ln v rng khp. iu ny c th hin qua vic trin khai cc d n thit lp ng truyn s liu tc cao cho cc c quan ng v chnh quyn ti cp x, phng c B Bu chnh Vin thng Vit Nam trin khai thc hin. 5.1.2 Hin trng truy nhp bng rng ti Vit Nam. C rt nhiu cng ngh truy nhp bng rng c nghin cu v a vo trin khai s dng ti Vit Nam. Tuy nhin, hin nay cc cng ngh ang c khai thc Vit Nam ch yu vn l truy nh p qua cp ng, truy nhp qua mi trng v tuyn v truy nhp qua v tinh. 5.1.2.1 Truy nh p bng rng qua h thng cp hu tuyn. Truy nhp bng rng qua h thng cp ng trc y rt hn ch v ch yu l cc dch v thu knh ring ho c qua mng ISDN. Tuy vy, trong nhng nm gn y vi vic trin khai cng ngh xDSL th vic truy nh p bng rng tr nn ph bin vi hai loi dch v ch yu l ADSL v SHDSL. Ba nh cung cp dch v truy nhp xDSL ln hin nay l Tp on Bu chnh Vin thng Vit Nam (VNPT), Cng ty FPT v Cng ty Vin thng Qun i (Viettel), trong VNPT c s thu bao ln nht. VNPT u t h thng cung cp dch v xDSL ti tt c cc tnh, thnh ph trn c nc. n nay, h thng ny c kh nng cung cp dch v truy nhp bng rng cho tt c cc qun huyn trong ton quc. Tuy nhin, h thng ny mi ch c kh nng cung cp n hu ht cho cc vng ti cc khu vc
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thuc cc tnh, thnh ph ln, vi cc huyn min ni th h thng ny ch yu m i ch cung cp c cho cc vng trong phm vi phc v ca tng i ti a n 5 km. FPT v Viettet cng cung cp dch v ADSL nhng phm vi phc v ch tp chung ti H Ni, H Ch Minh v mt s tnh, thnh ph ln. Ngoi ra, hin nay cng ty Vin thng in lc hin nay phi hp vi truyn h nh cp Vit Nam a dch v truy nhp bng rng qua cp ng trc ca mng truyn h nh cp. Tuy nhin vi mng cp n y th cng ch yu cung cp ti cc khu vc ca H Ni v H Ch Minh. 5.1.2.2 Truy nh p bng rng qua h thng v tuyn. H thng truy nhp bng rng qua mi trng v tuyn ti Vit Nam hin nay ch yu vn l cc mng LAN v tuyn (WLAN) s dng cc h thng truy nhp WiFi c trin khai ti cc khu vc Hotsport. Cc hot spots ny bao gm cc khch sn, sn bay, cc trung tm hi ngh, nh hng, u im ca WLAN trong cc m ng thng mi l n h tr tnh di ng cho i tng s dng, ng thi vn cho php kt ni c nh; cc mng ny ci t n gin, nhanh chng v khng cn c s h tng c sn; kh nng lp t rng hn v cho php lp t nhng ni m mng c dy khng th thit lp c; tit kim chi ph lp t do gim bt c th nh phn cp trong mng, vic m rng v thay i cu hnh m ng n gin. Tuy nhin, cc h thng WiFi c phm vi phc v tng i nh ch trong bn knh 50 n 100m. Mi y, Cng ty vin thng in lc cung cp dch v truy nhp bng rng qua h thng CDMA1x EV-DO lm vic ti tn s 450 MHz, cn c gi l CDMA450. H thng ny cng mi ch p ng c nhu cu truy nhp bng rng ti cc khu vc trung tm ca cc tnh, thnh ph trong phm vi ph sng ca cng ty Vin thng in lc. 5.1.2.3 Truy nhp bng rng qua v tinh. Hin nay, VNPT phi hp vi SSA xy dng h thng VSAT IP/IPSTAR quc t u tin ti Vit Nam. y l gii php mng bng rng th h mi s dng h thng v tinh iPSTAR, to ra kh nng mi tng cng ph cp dch v vin thng v Internet ti nng thn, vng su, vng xa. Vi h thng ny, kh nng cung cp dch v truy nhp bng rng c m rng trong phm vi ton quc. Tuy nhin h thng ny khng th pht trin theo h nh thc thng mi c v gi thnh ca thit b qu cao, mt khc cht lng dch v cn rt hn ch so vi cc gii php khc.

5.2 Cc m hnh trin khai cng ngh mng WiMAX.


n g dng cng ngh WiMAX c th phn vo hai dng chnh: Khch hng truy cp theo hnh thc c nhn, xy dng h thng truyn dn ring v khch hng ng dng WiMAX cung cp mng truy cp cng cng.
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Mng dng ring. - Cellular backhaul: ph sng m rng cho kiu cu trc t bo. Trong mi trng ngy cng cnh tranh cc dch v wireless cu trc cellular, mt nh kinh doanh truy cp thng tin lin tc vi mong mun thng tin nhanh, nhng gim thiu chi ph bng vic la chn cc gi cc ph hp. WiMAX s cung cp cho bn ng truyn im im vi khong cch ln n 50 km, tc d liu h tr ln n E1, T1, thit b WiMAX xy dng nn h tng mnh ti trm gc t m rng ra cc cellular xa.

Hnh 5.1. Cellular Backhaul. - Wireless Service Provider (WSP) Backhaul: Cc nh cung cp dch v v tuyn (WSP) s dng thit b WiMAX xy dng mt h tng lu thoi t trm gc.

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Hnh 5.2. WSP Backhaul. So vi cc mng truy nhp khng dy c trin khai trc y th WiMAX c nhng u im: trin khai nhanh. - Mng ngn hng: Cc ngn hng trung tm c th kt ni n cc chi nhnh ca mnh thng qua mng WiMAX c nhn chuyn ti thoi, data v video. Thng thng cc ngn hng thng nm phn b trong cc khu vc rng, nhng li cn bng thng ln v an ninh cao.

Hnh 5.3. Mng ngn hng. - Mng gio dc Cc ban ph trch trng hc dng m ng WiMAX kt ni cc trng v cc vn phng ban trong cng mt khu vc qun, huyn. Chng hn vi yu cu bng thng cao (>15Mbps), kh nng thng tin im -im hoc im -a im vi mt vng ph sng tri rng cung cp cc dch v nh: in thoi, data (s liu v sinh vin), email, internet, o to t xa gia vn phng ban ph trch trng vi cc trng trong qun hay gia cc trng vi nhau. Trong mi trng gio dc , mt camera trng B c trh truyn tn hiu t lp hc (th i gian thc) n trng A.

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Hnh 5.4. Mng gio dc. Vng ph sng rng, chi ph hp l, c bit hiu qu i vi cc trng nng thnni c h tng c s truyn dn km, ni m cc gii php ko cp lun i hi mc chi ph cao. - An ton cho cc truy nhp cng cng (Public Safety): Bo v cc c quan chnh ph nh: cng an, cha chy, cu h. C th dng mng WiMAX h tr trong cc tnh hung tr gip khn cp, cung cp chc nng thai 2 chiu gia trung tm v cc i ng cu.. Cht lng dch v ny cng cho php thay i lu thai theo nhng yu cu khc nhau. Gii php WiMAX l ph sng su rng iu gip cho cc i cu h ti ni xy ra tai nn, cc s kin, s vic hay cc thm ha thin nhin c th ci t mt m ng tm thi trong mt vi pht gi tn hiu v trung tm. H cng c th ch ng c lng lng khi gi tn hiu v trung tm thng qua mng WiMAX hin hu, l mt trong s ng dng tha hng t WiMAX.

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Hnh 5.5. M hnh an ton cho cc truy nhp cng cng. i vi mc tiu di ng cng vy, chng hn nh mt ngi cnh st c th truy cp d liu trn mt chic xe ang chy, m t ngi lnh cha chy c th truy cp thng tin v ng i ngn nht n ni xy ra ha han. Mt camera trn xe cu ha c th a hnh nh v tnh trng ca bnh nhn ch ng cp cu trc khi xe a bnh nhn v n bnh vin. Trong tt c cc ng dng nu trn c ng dng WiMAX trn bng thng rng, trong khi i vi h thng bng thng hp khng th p ng c. - Thng tin lin lc xa b: WiMAX c th ng dng trong cc cng ty du kh trong thng tin lin lc gia t lin v gin khoan.

Hnh 5.6. S dng Wimax cho vic thng tin lin lc xa b. Trong cc hot ng thao tc thit b, i din vi cc vn phc tp, cc cng vic i hi mc gim st cao v cn truy xut d liu nng. Cc tn hiu ny c th gi v trm t lin cc b phn chuyn mn kp thi phn tch s l. Cng vic khai thc du kh cn m b o yu t an ton, trc cnh bo, gim st bng camera, b n cnh truyn ti c cc thng tin c bn nh: thoi, internet, email , hi ngh truyn hnh. WiMAX trin khai lp t nhanh chng, cn thit iu chuyn n ni mi cng d dng, c th khng cn ngi trc thit b, thit b t hot ng bng ch trang b thm pin nng lng. - Kt ni nhiu khu vc (Campus Connectivity)

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Hnh 5.7. Kt ni nhiu khu vc. - Cc cng trnh xy dng (mang tnh tm thi): Cc cng ty xy dng c th dng m ng WiMAX thit lp ng lin lc n vn phng trung tm ti cng trng ni ang xy dng ti ni ch huy ti ch: ngi qun c, cc k s, kin trc s

Hnh 5.8. Cc cng trnh xy dng. Trong trng hp ny ng dng WiMAX da trn u im trin khai nhanh, iu ny quan trng i vi cc cng trnh ang thi cng v n cho php cung cp nhanh thng tin v cng trng bao gm c thai ln d liu, cung cp c dch v theo di qua hnh nh ti nhng im nng trong iu kin gim st kh khn. Cng c th ci t mt im hotspot ti cng trng cho php mt c
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nhn c th thng tin lin lc, trao i d liu, thng tin v cc tin trnh cng vic ang din ra. Ging nh trong cc trng hp ng dng khc nu i hi v cht lng d ch v th WiMAX c xem xt u tin. V thit b WiMAX nh gn, tho lp t d dng, iu chuyn n cc ni khc nhau theo yu yu cu cng vic xy dng tin li. - Cc khu vc cng cng (Theme Parks): Phn chia mt phm vi rng cc dch v thng tin cho cc khu vui chi gii tr, cc hat ng ngo i tri, cc hot ng giao dch, trn xe but v cc d ch v vn ti khc.

Hnh 5.9. Cc khu vc cng cng. Mng trn c th h tr lu thoi bng thng rng hai chiu gi t mt trung tm iu khin, hnh nh gim st bao qut ton cng vin, kim sot d liu truy cp, gim st tnh trng ti ch, video theo yu cu, giao tip in thoi phc v va c nh va di ng, bo mt cao, suy hao thp, vng ph sng rng, vic di chuyn lp t d d ng ng bin vi cc thay i xy ra l mt s u tin la chn thit b WiMAX. Cc mng phc v cng ng. i vi mn g cng cng, ti nguyn c xem l ca chung, nhiu ngi s cng truy xut v chia s. xy dng mt mng cng cng ni chung yu cu mt chi ph hiu qu, m cung cp c vng ph sng ln v ngi s dng c th nhiu vi tr khc nhau c th c nh hoc thay i. Nhng p ng chnh ca cc mng cng cng l thoi v d liu, truyn hnh nh trc tuyn. ng
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thi an ninh mng cng l mt yu cu quan trng, mc phc tp cao v c nhiu ngi i tng s dng, mt s ng dng WiMAX mi trng trong m ng cng cng nh sau. - Mng truy nhp WSP: M rng phm vi cung cp dch v i vi cc WSPs (cc nh cung cp d ch v v tuyn). Cc nh cung cp dch v v tuyn (WSP) dng m ng WiMAX cung cp kt ni cho c khch hng l ngi dng ring l (thoi, d liu v truyn hnh) hay cng ty (thoi v internet tc cao), m t theo hnh v nh sau:

Hnh 5.10. Mng truy nhp WSP. WSP c th l mt CLEC (hnh thnh nh mt i th cnh tranh trong vng) bt u t cc cng ty kinh doanh vi c s nh. S d dng trin khai nhanh chng ca cc thit b WiMAX, WiMAX gn lin vi QoS, ph h p cho cc lo i lu lng sng mang s p ng theo tng mc dch v m khch hng yu cu. Mt h tng mng cung cp d liu thoi v video vi cht lng cao n ngi tiu dng trn c s dng chung mt ho n tnh tin duy nht v c tnh da trn lu lng d liu truyn ti. - Trin khai vng nng thn xa xi ho lnh
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Hnh 5.11. Trin khai vng nng thn xa xi ho lnh. Trin khai cng ngh WiMAX vo cc vng nng thn, cc ni tp trung dn c hay cc khu vc ngoi th nh ph. Vic kt ni n nhng vng nng thn xa xi cng l mt trong nhng mc tiu trng im pht trin x hi ca mt quc gia trong vic phc v nhng nhu cu thit yu nh thoi v internet, v nhng ni c s h tng gn nh khng c v vn ko cp l hon ton khng kh thi, gii php WiMAX cp n v kh nng ph sng rng, tit kim.

5.3 Tnh hnh trin khai WiMAX th nghim ti Vit Nam.


Vi cc tnh nng ni tri ca cng ngh WiMAX , cng vi nhu cu v truy bng rng v kh nng cung cp ti Vit Nam hin ti th vic trin khai WiMAX ti Vit Nam hin nay ang c c bit quan tm ca cc nh cung cp dch v. Vic trin khai th nghim thit b WiMAX din ra trc khi B Bu chnh Vin thng cp giy php th nghim WiMAX cho cc doanh nghip, mt s doanh nghip tin hnh th nghim mt s sn phm Pre - WiMAX nh: - VDC: tin h nh th nghim ti H Ni v ng Nai: + Ti H Ni, VDC tin hnh th nghim vi thit b ca 2 hng hot ng ti bng tn 5,8 Ghz. Thit b ca Alvarion, BS t ti Phm Ngc Thch cung cp th nghim Iternet trc tip cho 2 khch hng, CPE h tr ti a l 24 Mbps, c ly 50 Km. Thit b LAM ca Aperto, bng thng 5,5 Mbps, c ly truyn dn 5 km. + Ti ng Nai, VDC tin hnh th nghim vi thit b ca hng AirSpan ti di tn 2,4 GHz, bng thng ti a l 4 Mbps vi c ly 40 Km.

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- Bu in TP H Ch Minh: tin hnh th nghim vi sn phm Canopy ca Motorola theo chun 802.16a cc bng tn 2,4/ 3,5/ 5,2/ 5,8 MHz. Kt qu th nghim Bu in th nh ph H Ch Minh la chn di tn 5,8 MHz . Vic B Bu chnh Vin thng chnh thc cho php di tn dng th nghim thit b WiMAX l mt thun li ln cho cc nh cung cp trong qu trnh trin khai th nghim thit b WiMAX. Hin ti, cc doanh nghip thuc VNPT cng nh cc doanh nghip khc nh FPT, Viettel, VTC cng ang tin hnh chu n b tin hnh la chn thit b v th nghim k thut trin khai cc d n th nghim. Theo thng tin ban u, FPT s tin hnh th nghim vi c 2 dng l WiMAX c nh v WiMAX di ng, trong khi Viettel s ch tin hnh th nghim vi WiMAX di ng. Ti Giy php s 274/GP-BBCVT ngy 17 thng 3 nm 2006 ca B Bu chnh Vin thng Cp php Cho Tng cng ty Bu chnh Vin Thng Vit Nam (VNPT) cho php s dng tn s v tuyn in trong bng tn 3,3 GHz - 3,4 GHz thit lp mng li ca m nh. Cng trong Giy php ny, B Bu chnh Vin thng a ra cu hnh cho php th nghim mng WiMAX :

Hnh 5.12. Cu hnh th nghim WiMAX ca VNPT. Thc hin giy php do b Bu chnh Vin thng cp, VNPT giao cho VDC tin hnh lp phng n th nghim cng ngh v m hnh ng dng WiMAX. Ngy 14 thng 6 nm 2006, Intel, VDC cng C quan hp tc pht trin quc t Hoa K ti Vit Nam (USAID) cng nhau k kt Bn ghi nh phi hp trin khai trong d n ko d i 8 thng v cng ngh bng rng v tuyn
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c nh c s dng l Fixed WiMAX 802.16 - 2004 vi tn s 3,3 GHz - 3,4 GHz. Quy m th nghim bao gm: trm gc WiMAX Acces point (WiMAX AP) t ti Bu in Lo Cai c kh nng kt ni trong bn knh 5 Km vi tc truyn d liu d kin l 10 Mbps v c th ln ti 75 Mbps. D kin c 20 a im ti Lo Cai c la chn tham gia th nghim. Thit b c chn th nghim l thit b ca hng Alvarion. Anten ca trm gc s c treo trn ct ca Bu in Lo Cai trn cao 40-50 m, vi ph sng 3600, thit b u cui CPE ngo i tri (outdor), anten c t trn nc nh hng v pha trm gc. S kt ni tng th ti trm gc ti Lo Cai c th nh sau:

Hnh 5.13. S kt ni ti trm gc. WiMAX AP s ng vai tr nh mt Router kt ni ti mng ca VDC nh mt knh thu ring. Cc trm thu bao u c cp pht i ch IP theo ch cp pht ng. Nh ng ng dng s c trin khai l: truy nhp Internet tc cao, truy nhp c s d liu khuyn nng lp trang Web gii thiu tim nng v sn phm ca a phng v gi in thoi qua Internet. Trong khun kh th nghim, mi trm u cui s c trang b thm my tnh thit lp mt mng LAN, thay cho phng thc Dial-up vi mt my tnh hin nay

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Thit b CPE ti trm u c vai tr nh mt Router/Modem trong vai tr modem l to cc kt ni tc cao n WiMAX AP v Router l cung cp chc nng NAT v DHCP cho cc my tnh. S kt ni ti mi trm u cui

Hnh 5 .14. S kt ni trm u cui thu bao. Cc thng s k thut c bn ca thit b WiMAX TT 1 Tn s Thng s Trm gc BS Bng tn E: Tx: 3316 - 3335 Mhz; Rx: 3366-3385 Mhz Bng tn F: Tx: 3331 - 3350 Mhz; Rx: 3380-3400 Mhz Bng tn G: Gi tr

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Tx: 3376 - 3400 Mhz; Rx: 3300-3324 Mhz Trm u cui CPE Bng tn E v F Tx: 3366 - 3400 Mhz; Rx: 3316-3350 Mhz Bng tn G Tx: 3300 - 324 Mhz; Rx: 33766-3400 Mhz 2 3 4 5 Phng thc truy nhp rng knh rng a sng mang Anten (trm gc) TDMA FDD 3,5 MHz; 1,75 MHz 14 Mhz 10 dBi, Anten omni nh hng tn s 3,3 - 3,5 GHz 6 7 8 Anten (CPE) Tr khng anten Anten phn cc ng kt hp 50 Ohm

Cng su t ti a ti cng ra Trm gc: 28 dBm 1 dB anten CPE: 20 dBm 1 dB

Bng 5.1 Cc thng s k thut thit b WiMAX th nghim ti Lo Cai.

5.4 K t lun chng.


Vi nhu cu s dng cc dch v truy nhp bng rng ngy m t ln v cp thit, nht l vi nhng khu vc vng su, vng xa s l ng lc cho cc doanh nghip Vin thng trong nc trin khai cc h thng WIMAX. Vi s quan tm to iu kin ca cc c quan qun l v nhu cu trin khai cnh tranh, cc h thng WiMAX nht nh s c trin khai thnh cng Vit Nam trong thi gian gn y.

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CHNG 6: KT LUN V HNG PHT TRIN TI


6.1.K T LUN
Vi mc tiu l nghin cu cng ngh truy nhp v tuyn WiMAX. Qua nghin cu, so snh v nh gi vic thc hin trong ni dung n tt nghip em rt ra kt lun nh sau: WiMAX l cng ngh truy nhp v tuyn bng rng c pht trin da trn h tiu chu n IEEE 802.16 vi hai tiu chun ch yu c p dng c thng qua l IEEE 802.16-2004 l c s cho phin bn WiMAX c nh v tiu chu n IEEE 802.16 e l c s cho phin bn WiMAX di ng. Din n WiMAX l mt t chc gm cc cng ty cung cp thit b, nh cung cp dch v, ni dung... cng la chn ra cc tiu chu n trong cc tiu chu n IEEE 802.16 -2004 v IEEE802.16e a ra cc profile cho WiMAX. Cc profile v WiMAX c din n WiMAX thng qua v l c s cho vic sn xut thit b, iu ny cho php cc nh sn sut c kh nng hp tc cng pht trin thit b, gim cc chi ph cho nghin cu pht trin, gim gi thnh sn phm. Cng ngh OFDM vi nhng tnh nng ni tri nh kh nng chng nhiu, kh nng s dng ph cao, cho php truyn tin vi tc cao...c s dng trong WiMAX c nh cho php h thng c kh nng lm vic tt trong mi trng NLOS v tc truyn tin cao. Phin bn WiMAX di ng da trn tiu chun IEE802.16e l s sa i b sung cc yu cu cho tiu chu n IEEE 802.16 -2004 b sung nhng tnh nng mm do v hiu qu hn. Vic s dng OFDMA trong phin b n WiMAX di ng cho php s dng linh hot v hiu qu hn bng thng, cng nh tng cng cc kh nng cho an ten, .. Ngo i ra vi phin b n ny cn h tr th m nhiu tnh nng khc nh cht lng dch v, bo mt vv... Hai phin bn WiMAX s dng 2 cng ngh ghp knh khc nhau l OFDM v OFDMA do vy khng th s dng chung h tng WiMAX cho c 2 loi ny c. S c c hai hng WiMAX cng tn ti v pht trin cho cc yu cu truy nhp v tuyn bng rng c th trng c nh v di ng. Hn na cn ty vo vic ngi ta mun xy dng mt m ng l c nh hay di ng, khi la chn mt gii php WiMAX ngi vn hnh cn nh gi cc h s thm nh l cc phn on th trng ch, cc ph tn s dng, mt vi cc iu chnh rng buc v tin trin khai. So vi cc cng ngh truy nhp v tuyn bng rng c cng phm vi ng dng, WiMAX l cng ngh ang nhn c s quan tm c bit ca c cc nh sn xut cng nh ngi cung cp dch v v ngi s dng nh cc c tnh ni tri ca n, c bit khi nhu cu truy nhp d liu ngy cng m nh. Vi vic WiMAX c ti u cho dch v d liu, WiMAX
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c th song song tn ti cng vi cc mng nh 3G c ti u cho thoi. Ty thuc mc ch ca nh cung cp, yu cu khch hng, cc mng s c s pht trin tng ng. Thit b WiMAX c chun ha v thng mi ha, cng vi kt qu th nghim WiMAX trn th gii cng nh ti Vit Nam, cc chnh sch pht trin c B Bu chnh Vin thng a ra l mt m bo cho vic trin khai WiMAX ti Vit Nam. Kh nng p dng trin khai WiMAX ti Vit Nam l hon ph h p. Cc iu kin trin khai WiMAX ti Vit Nam sn sng. Trc mt, vic trin khai th nghim s thc hin vi WiMAX c nh, khi c kt qu, ty thuc vo cc iu kin, nh cung cp dch v c th trin khai WiMAX c nh hay di ng. Vi kh nng cung cp cc dch v truy nhp bng rng cho c c nh v di ng, WiMAX s l la chn mang tnh quyt nh cho cc nh cung cp dch v trong thi gian ti nhm chim lnh th trng cng nh tng kh nng cnh tranh ca m nh. Hiu r cc c im k thut, vn dng vo cc iu kin thc t trin khai h thng mt cch nhanh chng v hiu qu s em li nhng kh nng ht sc ln cho cc nh cung cp dch v v c ngi s dng. Vic trin khai WiMAX ti Vit Nam s p ng c cc i hi ngy mt ln v nhu cu truy nhp bng rng, gp phn thc y kinh t pht trin, c bit l cc khu vc nng thn, min ni v cc khu th mi.

6.2. HNG PHT TRIN TI


WiMAX l mt cng ngh mi ha hn kh nng pht trin ti Vit Nam. Vi c im ring ca mnh, khi a thit b vo mng Vit Nam cn c nhng la chn ph hp vi cc iu kin c th. Hng pht trin tip theo ca ti l nghin cu su hn v cc gii php iu khin trong WiMAX, c bit l vn v iu ch v h thng anten thch nghi nhm thit k vng phc v c hiu qu nht. Vn bo mt v vn iu ch trong WiMAX cng s c nghin cu su hn nhm a ra nhng yu cu c th ph hp vi mng li Vit Nam.

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THUT NG VIT TT

3G AAA ACK ACR ADSL AES ARQ ASK ATM BER BPSK BS BSS BTS CCS CDMA BWA CID CN CPE CS CSMA CTS DFS DHCP DNS DSL ECB EDGE ESS ETSI FBWA FDD FEC

3 rd generation (of mobile networks) Authentication Authority and Accounting Acknowledgement Access Control Router Asymmetric Digital Subcriber Line Advanced Encryption Standard Automatic Repeat Request Amplitude Shift Keying Asynchronous Transfer Mode Bit Error Rate Binary Phase Shift Keying Base Station Basic Service Set Base Transmit Station Common Channel Signaling Code Division Multiple Access Broadband Wireless Access Connection Identify Core Network Customer Premise Equipment Channel Switched Carrier Sense Multiple Access Clear To Send Dynamic Frequency Selection Dynamic host Configuration Protocol Domain Name System Digital Subcriber Line Electronic codebook

Mng di ng th h th 3 Nhn thc, cp quyn v tnh cc Xc nhn Router iu khin truy nhp ng dy thu bao s bt i xng Chu n m ha d liu cao cp T ng lp li yu cu Kho d ch chuyn bin Phng thc truyn dn ng b T s li bt Kha d ch pha nh phn Trm gc B dch v c s Trm pht sng gc Bo hiu knh chung a truy nhp phn chia theo M Truy nhp bng rng khng Dy Nhn dng kt ni Mng li Thit b ngi dng Chuyn mch knh a truy nhp cm ng sng mang Xa pht La chn tn s ng Giao thc cu hnh Host ng

H thng tn min ng dy thu bao s Mt phng php m ha bo mt Enhanced Data Rate For GSM Tc d liu tng sng cho Evolution GSM Extended Service Set B dch v m rng European Telecom Standard Institute Vin tiu chun vin thng Chu u Fixed Broadband Wireless Access Truy nhp bng thng rng khng dy c nh Frequence Division Duplex Song cng phn chia theo tn s Forward Error Correction Sa li trc - 92 -

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FSK GPRS GPSS GSM HEC HLR IEEE IP ISO LAN LOS MAC MAN NIC NLOS OFDM OFDMA OSI PDA PDG PDN PHY PMP PS PSK PSTN PTP QoS RAS RTS SDU SS TCP TDD TDMA TEK UE UMTS

Frequency Shift Keying General Packet Radio Service Grant per Subcriber Station Global System for Mobile Communications Header Error Check Home Location Register Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers Internet Protocol International Organization for Standardization Local Area Network Line Of Sight Medium Access Control Metropolitan Area Network Network interface Card Non light of Sight Orthogonal Frequency Multiplexing Orthogonal Frequency Multiplexing Access Open System Interconnection Personal Digital Assistance

Kha d ch chuyn tng s Dch v v tuyn gi chung Cp pht cho mi thu bao H thng thng tin ton cu cho TDD Kim tra li mo u B ng k v tr thng tr Hip hi cc k s in v in t Giao thc internet T chc quc t chuyn v cc tiu chun Mng cc b Phng thc truyn v tuyn phi tha mn tm nhn thng iu khin truy nhp mi trng Mng khu vc th Card giao tip mng Khng tm nhn thng Division Ghp phn chia tn s trc giao Division a truy nhp phn chia theo tn s trc giao Quan h gia cc h thng m

Thit b h tr c nhn k thu t s Packet Data Gateway Cng d liu gi Packet Data Network Mng d liu gi Physical Lp vt l Point to Multipoint im-a im Packet Switched Chuyn mch gi Phase Shift Keying Kha d ch chuyn pha Public Switched Telephone Network Mng in thoi chuyn mch cng cng Point to Point im im Quality of Service Cht lng dch v Radio access Control H thng truy nhp v tuyn Request to Send Yu cu gi Service data Unit n v d liu dch v Subcriber Station Trm thu bao Transmissition Control Protocol Giao thc iu khin truyn dn Time Division Duplex Song cng phn chia theo thi gian Time Division Multiple Access a truy nhp phn chia theo thi gian Traffic Encryption Key Kha b o mt d liu User Equipment Thit b ngi dng Universal Mobile Telecommunication H thng vin thng di ng - 93 -

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WAG WIMAX WLAN WMAN

seytem ton cu Wimax Access Gateway Cng truy nhp WiMax Worldwide interoperability for Truy nhp sng ngn tng Microwave Access tc ton cu Wireless Local Area Network Mng v tuyn cc b Wireless Metropolitan Area Network Mng v tuyn khu vc th

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TI LIU THAM KHO


1 . IEEE 802.16 2004, (October, 2004), Air Interface for Fixed Broadband Wireless Access Systems. [2]. IEEE 802.16e, (February, 2005), Air Interface for Fixed and Mobile Broadband Wireless Access Systems. [3]. wimax - broadband wireless access technology [4]. WiMAX Forum, (2006), Mobile WiMAX Part I: A Technical Overview and Performance Evaluation. [5]. WiMAX Forum white paper, WiMAXs technology for LOS and NLOS environments. [6]. Hng dn s dng Wimax, nh xu t bn Hng c [7]. www.ieee.org [8]. www.quantrimang.com [9]. www.vnmedia.vn [10]. www.vnpt.com.vn [11]. www.wimaxforum.org [12]. www.wimaxpro.org [13]. www.wimax.com [14]. www.3c.com.vn [15]. www.nhatnghe.com [16]. www.telecom-it.vn [17]. www.wifipro.org [18]. www.google.com.vn [19]. www.thongtincongnghe.com

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MC LC
LI M U MC LC
CHNG 1: GII THIU MNG WiMAX .......................................................... - 4 1.1 Cng ngh bng rng khng dy ................................................................... - 4 1.2. Gii thiu v WiMAX .................................................................................. - 5 1.3 So snh WiMAX vi cc cng ngh khng dy khc .................................. - 11 1.4 M hnh trin khai....................................................................................... - 12 CHNG 2: CU TRC MNG WIMAX ........................................................ - 15 2.1 Lp vt l .................................................................................................... - 15 2.2 Lp MAC .................................................................................................... - 23 CHNG 3: VN AN NINH MNG WIMAX ............................................. - 48 3.1 Khi nim an ninh mng. ............................................................................. - 48 3.2 Phn tch an ninh mng WiMAX ................................................................. - 49 CHNG 4: WIMAX TRONG MI TRNG LOS V NLOS SO SNH WIMAX VI MT S CNG NGH TRUY CP V TUYN BNG RNG KHC .... - 64 4.1 Tm tt ........................................................................................................ - 64 4.2 Truyn sng LOS v NLOS ......................................................................... - 64 4.3 So snh WiMax vi mt s cng ngh truy nhp v tuyn bng rng khng dy khc:.................................................................................................................. - 72 4.4 Kt lun chng:......................................................................................... - 75 CHNG 5: NGHIN CU KH NNG TRIN KHAI V NG DNG WIMAX TRN M NG VIN THNG VIT NAM ............................................ - 76 5.1 Nhu cu v hin trng cc h thng truy nhp bng rng ti Vit Nam. ....... - 76 5.2 Cc m hnh trin khai cng ngh mng WiMAX. ...................................... - 77 5.3 Tnh hnh trin khai WiMAX th nghim ti Vit Nam. .............................. - 85 5.4 Kt lun chng. ......................................................................................... - 89 CHNG 6: KT LUN V HNG PHT TRIN TI........................... - 90 6.1. KT LUN ................................................................................................ - 90 6.2. HNG PHT TRIN T I ................................................................ - 91 THUT NG VIT TT ..................................................................................... - 92 TI LIU THAM KHO ..................................................................................... - 95 -

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