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Corporate Accounting 1st Maintaining the accounts relating to issue, forfeiture and reissue of shares.

When we issue share first time, it is the duty of accountant to records all the transactions relating to issue of share must be recorded in the books of company. The process of issue is completed the following way. getting the application money with application getting the allotment money when shares are allotted to shareholders getting the final amount in the form of IST, second and final calls. So when any amount we receive, it must be recorded by accountant of company. If we are refunding the amount then also its record must be kept in company books. In company accounts, the accountant can face the problems of forfeiture of shares and reissue of forfeited shares. Many inexperienced accountant do 90% mistake in passing the voucher entries relating to forfeiture and reissue of shares. This is broad concept and I will write full tutorial on forfeiture and reissue shares. Today I am concentrating our all area of company accounts. 2nd Maintaining the debentures Accounts Debenture is just loan which is taken by any company, so it is the duty of the accountant to record relating to issue and repayment of debentures. 3rd Maintaining the accounts of Bonus Shares Bonus shares are the shares to existing shareholder. When company thing that it is according to the company policies, then company can issue the bonus shares. So record of bonus is all very necessary in company accounting. 4th Maintaining the accounts of Right shares Right shares can also issue to existing shareholder on the proportion of their existing shares .These shares are also very important from recording point of view. 5th Maintaining regular accounts Regular accounts means to pass the voucher entries related to purchase, sale, expenses, and losses, incomes of company or on the behalf of company. The recording way is equal to the recording way of sole trade or firm’s transactions. 6th Maintaining the final accounts of Company Maintaining the final accounts of company is very necessary because company laws of different countries have given strict provision for making and publishing the final accounts of company. There the final statement is made in final accounts of company by accountants of company. Profit and loss account This account is equal to the profit and loss account of other organization. Profit and loss appropriation account It is very compulsory to make profit and loss appropriation account. In company level business , shareholder is differ from management or directors , so what is the dividend and what amount of profit and loss reserves in company will write in the debit side of this account. Other thing I will discuss in next articles. Balance Sheet

This sheet shows the assets and liabilities of company. Company must show his contingent liabilities in the footnote in the below of this balance sheet. 7th Calculation of Managerial Commission From accounting point of view, it is very necessary to calculate commission of different full time and part time directors of company. Different countries’ company laws can make the rules and regulations regarding these commissions, so you must know the current rates of such commission if you have the responsibility of making the company accounts. The area of expenses and incomes of company is so wide, so thinking of company accountant must be so wide. 8th Dividend and Interest Calculation Company account’s main part is to calculate the dividend and interest and then record. There are different types of dividend which is issue by company but interest is given on loan and debentures issued by company. 9th Corporate tax Current rules and regulations relating to corporate tax depend on the finance bill and budget , so before calculation and recording of corporate tax. Meaning of Bonus shares Bonus means premium or gift which is paid normally in cash Bonus shares Bonus shares mean a gift or premium in form of stock by a company to its shareholders . It may be stated as extra dividend to share holder in a joint stock co. from surplus profits in the legal context a bonus share is neither dividend nor a gift . It is governed by regulations of the company law that it can neither be declared like a dividend nor gifted away . . Source of bonus shares The bonus shares can be issue out of profit or reserve which have been earned by the company these are profit or reserve which are free for the purpose of dividend and as specified in company act . but it can not view , those reserve and surpluses which are not earned by company that is which are existing due to revaluation of assets etc. Profit and loss account general reserve revenue reserve free reserves dividend equalization fund capital reserve sinking fund debenture redemption reserve only after redemption development rebate reserve allowance after expiry of 8 years

" Source of bonus shares The bonus shares can be issue out of profit or reserve which have been earned by the company over the previous years . it means a premium or gift which is paid normally in cash. It may be stated as extra dividend to shared holder in a joint stock company from surplus profit s in the legal context a bonus share is neither dividend nor a gift . •Profit and loss account •general reserves •revenue reserves •free reserves •dividend equalization fund •capital reserves •sinking fund or debenture redemption reserve only after redemption •Development rebate reserve /allowance after 8 years •Capital redemption reserve •Shares premium or security premium if received in cash Corporate Accounting Part-II SEBI Guidlines for determining maximum quantom of bonus issue First test Residual reserve test As per this guidline the residual reserve after the proposal of capitalisation ( bonus issu) should be at least 40% of increased paid up capital 5 Free reserve . " issue of bonus shares in liew of dividend is not allowed . but it can not views those reserve and surpluses which are not earned by company that is which are existing due to revaluation of assets etc. Bonus shares Bonus shares means a gift or premium in the form of stock by company to its shareholders .capital redemption reserve share premium or security premium if received in cash Bonus Bonus is an accounting term .Normally these are profit or reserve which are free for the purpose of dividend and as specified in company act. It is governed by regulations of the company law that it can neither be declared like a dividend nor gifted away.2 paid up capital before the bonus issue = --------------------------------------------------------- .

30% of average profit before tax of previous 3 year must yield 10% dividend on the increased capital Accounting treatment of bonus shares I am giving the full detail of accounting treatment of bonus shares step by step . Bonus shares not permitted in less existing partly paid up shres are converted into fully paid up shares 2. In brief the following steps should be consider for the purpose of bonus 1.--7 2nd test Profitability requirement test As per this guidline 30% of average amount of profit before tax in the previous three year should yield a rate of dividend of expended capital base of the company at 10% = 3 average profit . Bonus can not exist teh paid up equity capital of the company 3.existing share capital 3rd test Maximum limit requirement This test indicates teh maximum amount which can be utilised for issue shares capital at one time shall not exceed the total amount of paid up equity capital of the company Amount of bonus < total existing quity paid up capital To determine a maximum amount of bonus which can be decleared the test mention above will be apply . The balance of residual reserve must not less than 40% of increased capital 4. Firstly the first two test will be consider the amount of bonus will be restricted upto the lower amount but this amount will not exceed the existing paid up capital of the company .

then the following journal entry will pass Capital reserve account debit general reserve account debit revenue reserve account debit free reserve account debit dividend equalization fund account debit profit and loss account debit Bonus to equity shareholders account credit For amount due on final call of shares ( Existing shares unpaid amount Share final call account debit Share capital account credit For adjustment of final call amount out of profit Bonus to shareholder account debit share final call account credit 2nd case When new fully paid up bonus shares are issued a) for providing amount of bonus Capital reserve account debit share premium account debit capital redemption reserve account debit other general reserve account debit Profit and loss account debit bonus to shareholder account credit b) for issue of bonus Bonus to equity shareholder account debit equity share capital account credit Calculation the value of bonus shares Steps for calculation the value of bonus shares 1st step Take the basis of bonus issue for the purpose of determining for purpose of total amount of bonus basis of bonus issue. (a) To convert the existing partly paid up shares into fully paid up shares .1st case When the partly paid up shares are converted into fully paid up shares through bonus issue For providing the amoutn of bonus out of reserve .

Because company is an artificial person and do work with separate entity. Capital budgeting is long term planning for making and financing proposed capital out laying Steps for capital budgeting process Ist step Identification involved in capital budgeting proposals 2nd step Screening the proposal 3rd step Evaluation of various proposals 4th step Fixing the priorities 5th step Final approval and planning the capital expenditure 6th step Implementing the proposal 7th step Performance review Terms used in Corporate Accounting ¤ Corporate or Company Corporate or company is the synonym. Company means association of person which do any business for earning profit. of bonus shares X issue price Steps of capital budgeting process Capital budgeting is process of selecting best long term investment project . But it must register and formed under any company law of any country.Numbers of existing equity shares X unpaid amount b) To determine the number of bonus shares Bonus shares numbers Total no. Company has . of issued shares = ________________ X _________________ Basis issue numbers c) Amount of new bonus shares = no.

¤ Shares This is main term of corporate accounting. It is issued under company seal. these shares are get preference of their repayment. ¤ Preference Shares Preference shares are the main type of shares if company issues that type of shares. Its other name is divisible profit. When we divide total capital of company into parts then each part is called share. In this paper company accepts that he will repay the loan taken by him after certain period with given rate of interest. When company issued debenture then company also writes the mode of redemption of debenture. if you have 100000 capitals and if you divide into 1000 parts. Suppose. Dividend may be given by cash or through bonus or any other type. The shareholder of these shares has no preference relating getting dividend or any repayment.its own charter and internal article of association. ¤ Redemption Redemption is technical term in corporate accounting . ¤ Equity Shares Equity Shares are the shares which are differ from preference shares. There are different ways of . In the end of company. Then it means company has 1000 shares of 100 rupees each. They are real owner of company and have the right to give the vote. then the share holder of these types of shares has the benefit that they can get part of profit with fixed rate and before giving the part of profit to equity shareholders.It means repayment of loan taken by company. ¤ Debenture Debenture is just paper which is given by company when company takes loan from public. ¤ Dividend Dividend is that part of profit which distribute among shareholder.

It is very compulsory to make general reserve in company for payment of contingent liabilities or for development of company. The following entry will passed in the books of company For the due of share Allotment money 1. This is called issue of shares on premium.Shares Allotment Account Debit xxxx ( with the total amount ) Shares Capital Account Credit xxxx ( With the face value of shares) . issue shares on premium. 105 it means company is also demanding RS. Every finance bill has right to amend or change the rate of % in general reserve. ¤ General Reserve General reserve is the part of retained profit. All money which got with name of premium will transfer to security premium account . In both situations we must know the basic concept before doing any accounting treatment. Company must open security premium account. Suppose if the face value of shares is RS. Issue of shares on premium Issue of shares on premium means that if company wants to get more money of each share.100 Company can issue of his 10000 @ Rs. 5 per share as premium. if co. According to new amendments in Company law 1956. So that company can pay his taken loan without any tension. This part is not issued as dividend Accounting Treatment of issue of shares on premium and discount Some time a company can decide to issue of shares on premium or on discount. The best way is to create sinking fund and keep some part of profit in it as annual installment.redemption of debenture. Then the company can demand premium with the face value or nominal value of shares.

According to Section 78 . For Allotment money Received Bank Account Debit xxxx ( face value + Premium ) To Share Allotment Account xxxx If company has demanded the premium with his call money from share holders . We will use this fund according to guidelines of law. then company can issue shares to supplier of fixed asset .Security Premium Account Credit xxxx( With the amount of premium) 2. When allotment money actually received Bank account debit xxx( face value of allotment –discount) To share allotment account Accounting treatment of issue of share for purchasing an fixed asset In the situation when company want to buy any fixed asset . Meaning of Issue of shares at discount :It means that company demands less amount than face value of shares . then on the place share allotment account we must write share call account . all other journal entry will be same. Journal entry of discount on issue of shares When we receive allotment by giving discount on issue of share 1 Amount due of allotment Share Allotment Account Debit xxxx( face value of allotment – discount) Discount on issue of share account Debit xxxx( amount of discount) To Share capital account 2. At this time company pass the following journal entries :For purchasing fixed on credit Fixed asset account debit xxx Creditor account credit xxx .This less amount is called discount on issue of shares .

120000 by issue of shares at Premium of shares of 20% if face value of share is RS. of shares =120000/12 = 10000 . of shares =90000/9 = 10000 Amount of discount =RS.For issue of shares Creditor account Debit xxx Share Capital Account credit xxx In case if company issue in premium or on discount to the suppliers of fixed asset . Then we first calculate the number of shares for doing any accounting treatment for this In case of issue at premium Numbers of shares Value of Fixed asset = -----------------------Value of per share (Face value + premium) In case if issue of shares at discount Numbers of shares Value of Fixed asset = -----------------------Value of per share (Face value – Discount per share) After this the following journal entry will pass Suppose xy company purchase the machinery of RS.10 Journal entries Machinery account debit 90000 Creditor account credit 90000 2 for issue shares to creditors at discount No. 90000 by issue of shares at discount of shares of 10% if face value of share is RS.10 Journal entries Machinery account debit 120000 Creditor account credit 120000 2 for issue shares to creditors at discount No.10000 Creditor account Debit 90000 Discount on issue of share account debit 10000 Share capital account credit 100000 Suppose xy company purchase the machinery of RS.

I have already explained call in arrear and call in advance. I want to explain. this is the asset of company and it must deduct from call up capital for calculation paid up capital. how you will do the adjustment in balance sheet for call in arrear.But if shareholder does not pay his allotment money on due date it deems as call in arrear . Call in arrear must be deduct from Called up capital Called up Capital = Capital demanded at the time of Application + Allotment + and calls money Less call in arrear = at the time of allotment and due date of call money After deducting. In my earlier article. There may be the case of call in arrear. If there is no any rule the company has right to get 5% interest on call in arrear. In this article.Amount of Premium =RS. Journal Entries for call in arrear in the books of company 1st journal entry will write at the time of due but not received the allotment money from share holder Call in Arrear Account Debit xxxx To Share Allotment Account xxxx . it we can easily calculate paid up capital Accounting Treatment of Call in arrear and call in advance Call in Arrear Call in arrear means company has demanded his due amount of allotment or call money but .20000 Creditor account Debit 120000 Share capital account credit 100000 Security premium account credit 20000 Adjustment in company’s balance sheet for call in arrear When a company makes the balance sheet after first time issue of shares.

Company will not pay his received fund from shareholder. after 14 days if shareholder did not pay then company will forfeit his shares and cut off his name from the register of shareholder. Company is liable to pay 6% interest on call in advance to shareholder Journal Entry for call in Advance 1st journal entry will pass for adjustment of advance money of allotment received at the time of application Share Allotment Account Debit xxxx To Call in Advance xxxx 2nd Journal entry will pass for when the amount of allotment due Call in Advance Account Debit xxxx To Share Allotment Account xxxx 3rd Journal Entry for paying the interest on call in advance to shareholder Interest on call in advance Account Dr. Deep accounting treatment is divided in .So this is the liability of company .Company will give 14 days notice. This is the income of company:Bank Account Debit xxxx To Interest on Call in Arrear xxxx Call in Advance Call in advance means that company did not call the allotment or calls but shareholder gives the call money in advance form . xxxx To Bank Account xxxx Definition of share forfeitures Share forfeitures means cancel the power of share holder if he does not pay his call money when company demands for this .2nd When call in Arrear received from shareholder Bank Account Debit xxxx To Call in arrear Account xxxx 3rd journal entry is related to company’s interest received on due amount of call in arrear.

following parts 1st situation Simple accounting treatment In this situation shares issue at part and there is no pro-rata situation. then if we did not receive the premium. then we write in journal entry otherwise we will not show security premium account in share forfeiture journal entry Share capital Account Debit (called up amount of forfeited shares) Security premium account Debit (If premium is not received from share holder) Share forfeited Account Credit (Amount received of forfeited shares) Share Allotment Account Credit (If allotment money is not received) Share call in arrear Account Credit (Amount did not receive of forfeited shares) In case shares are issued on discount Share Capital Account Debit Share Forfeiture Account Credit Share Allotment Account Credit Share call in arrear account credit Discount on issue of shares account credit 3rd situation When shares issue pro-rata base In case there is also difficulty to calculate the net amount of allotment received in case some amount is not received and same person we have . So the following entry will pass Share capital Account Debit (called up amount of forfeited shares Share forfeited Account Credit (Amount received of forfeited shares) Share call in arrear Account Credit (Amount did not receive of forfeited shares) 2nd Situation When shares issue on discount and premium Dear friend if shares are issue on premium or on discount.

Calculate the net amount of allotment received Total amount of allotment money due xxxxxx Less Adjustment with application Money xxxxxx _________________ Xxxxxx Less Amount not received As forfeited shares Xxxxxxx Less (-) xxxx Perportion in Not received amount Of adjusted application Money which is We received in advance Total not receive allotment = ------------------------------.adjust some amount of share application. for calculation of this amount you must understand and use above formula) Share Call in Arrear Credit (if you are not received any call money of share forfeited) 4th situation When shares fully reissue Reissue means sale to any other person after .x Total adjustment of application money Total Allotment money ________________________________ Net amount not received In the form of allotment xxxxxxx (-) xxxx ______________________________ ____________ Net Amount received in the form of Allotment xxxxx The following journal entry will passed Share capital account Debit (Called up capital) Share forfeiture Account Credit (Total Amount received of forfeited shares) Share Allotment Account Credit (Net amount not received in the form of allotment.

5th situation When Shares partly reissue It is most difficult situation when you will see the question paper and you found the sum where is pro-rata situation . then share holder did not pay and then these forfeited shares party reissue to another share holder because Above 4 situations will cover but in the 4th situation’s last journal entry will pass after making forfeiture account in working note because only the amount go to capital reserve which is sold or reissue gain other will go to balance of share forfeiture account upto that date until we reissue all shares. In this situation we can reissue of share in discount or premium. Share forfeiture Account Credit Side of this account By share capital Account 2000 Suppose we get 100 shares forfeiture money received Rs.20 per share . For doing this we have to pass the following journal entry Bank Account Debit Discount on issue of shares Debit Share forfeiture account Debit (Discount on reissue of shares) Share capital account Credit (Face value of reissue of shares) Security premium Account Credit (If shares reissue at premium So difference between amount received from forfeiture and discount on reissue share will go to capital reserve account and following entry will passed Share forfeited account Debit Capital reserve account credit This capital reserve account will show in liability side of balance sheet of company.forfeiting from previous share holder.

For this company issue debentures._________ 2000 ________ _ Debit Side of this account To share capital account 250 Suppose we have reissue of 50 shares at reissue discount Rs. It means that company converts debenture in to share if company issued convertible debenture but if company issued non convertible. This is just like a paper on which company has written that company is taking loan from debenture holder with given term. There are many type of debenture which can be issued by company. company has no right to convert debentures into shares. Company has to decide the rate of interest and repayment amount and time of repayment of debenture. These terms must be written in debenture paper at the time of issue of debenture. . It may convertible or non convertible. you should know debenture and what is use of debenture in any corporate. Debenture is just long term loan which is taken by company.5 To capital Reserve account We will calculate this amount after deducting the proportion of of this gain according to sold shares 2000 x 50/100 – 250 = 750 To balance C/d 1000 _____________________________ 2000 Then following journal entry will pass Share forfeiture account Debit 750 To capital Reserve Account Credit 750 Corporate Accounting Part-III Accounting treatment of Issue of debenture For rendering the accounting treatment of issue of debenture.

company will not repay in his life time. Because of this is important transaction relating to company. A – Issue of Debenture at Par 1st journal Entry When company receives application money of debentures Bank account Debit Debenture Application Account Credit 2nd Journal Entry When company accepts the applications Debenture Application Account Debit Debenture Account Credit 3rd Journal Entry When Allotment money of debenture due Debenture Allotment Account Debit Debenture Account Credit 4th Journal Entry When Allotment money of debenture received Bank Account Debit Debenture Allotment Account Credit 5th Journal Entry When Call money of debenture is payable Debenture Calls Account Debit Debenture Account Credit 6th Journal Entry When Call money of debenture is received Bank Account Debit Debenture Calls Account Credit . Let us start the accounting treatment of issue of debenture. These debentures only will redeem after the winding up of company.Company can also redeemable and non redeemable debenture . so it is very necessary to record in the books of company.It means that company repays the full amount of debenture holder after some time if company has issued redeemable debentures but if company issued non redeemable debentures.

There following . Because earlier we told that debentures are long term loan so it is very necessary to redeem the debentures. 1st Method Lumbsum method It means when company repay the Lumbsum amount to debenture holder .B.When Company issue of debenture at premium If premium is receivable with application money 1st Journal Entry When amount of application received with premium Bank Account Debit Debenture Application account Credit 2nd Journal Entry Debenture Application Account Debit Debenture Account Credit Security premium Account credit If premium receivable on allotment then Debenture Allotment account debit Debenture Account Credit Security Premium Account Credit And allotment money received with premium Bank account Debit Debenture Allotment Account Credit When Debenture Issued At discount Debenture Allotment Account Debit Discount on Issue of Debenture Account Debit Debenture Allotment Account Credit When discounted amount of debenture is received Bank Account Debit Debenture Allotment Account Credit Redemption of Debenture and method of redemption Redemption of Debenture means repayment at the maturity of debenture.

This is very popular and scientific method of redemption of debenture. This is calculated with sinking fund table. Sinking fund’s other name is also Debenture Redemption Fund Account.sub method of this method A) Without Provision According to Company law . it is necessary to make reserve of debenture redemption reserve with 50% of total amount of debenture so that company can easily repay the debenture without any provision at the time of redemption the following journal entry will pass. In this method we open the sinking fund and sinking fund investment account. This is invested in such scheme which gives us Lumbsum amount so that we can easily repay the debenture without any tension. The following accounting treatment is done by the accountant of company when the company follow this method . Sinking fund means take one part of profit for repayment of debenture. . if you have to redeem without any provision . Debenture Account Debit Debenture holder Account Credit 2nd journal Entry Profit and loss Appropriation Account Debit Debenture Redemption Reserve Account Credit 3rd Journal Entry Debenture holder Account Debit Bank Account Credit 4th Journal Entry Debenture redemption Reserve account Debit General Reserve Account Credit Sinking Fund – Method of redemption of Debenture This is very important method of redemption of debenture.

In the end of first year 1st journal entry for taking reserve from profit Profit and loss appropriation account Debit Sinking Fund Account Credit 2nd Journal Entry for invest the sinking fund Sinking fund investment Account Debit Bank Account Credit In the end of next years but not end last year 3rd Journal Entry for receiving interest on investment Bank Account Debit Interest on sinking fund investment Account Credit 4th Journal Entry for transferring interest to sinking fund Interest on Sinking fund investment account Debit Sinking fund Account Credit 5st journal entry for taking reserve from profit Profit and loss appropriation account Debit Sinking Fund Account Credit 6th Journal Entry for invest the sinking fund Sinking fund investment Account Debit Bank Account Credit At the end of last year Bank Account Debit Interest on sinking fund investment Account Credit 7th Journal Entry for transferring interest to sinking fund Interest on Sinking fund investment account Debit Sinking fund Account Credit 8st journal entry for taking reserve from profit Profit and loss appropriation account Debit Sinking Fund Account Credit 9th Journal Entry for receiving the money .

Actually this type of provision is needed in Corporate type business . No other treatment is done in sole trade or partner ship Now In Case of Company or Corporate I am giving you full detail of accounting treatment . it is deemed as drawing or other words we can say that his capital will reduce if you pick some amount for paying any income tax . I have already read on it see . Ist Step Understanding the meaning of Company . I have studied deeply several books of accounting . if you have to do this type of work in any company . it is the duty of business man to pay income tax personally . So in above situation if he take any fund from business for paying income tax . Because in the sole trade and partnership firm there is no treatment of provision for income tax and income tax paid because above two type business level . 2nd Step .from sale of investment Bank account Debit Sinking fund investment account Credit 10th journal entry for any profit on sale Sinking Fund investment Account Debit Sinking fund account Credit 11th journal entry for repayment to debenture holders Debenture Account debit Bank account credit 12th journal entry for balance of sinking fund transferred to general reserve account Sinking fund account debit General reserve account credit Accounting Treatment of Provision for Income Tax Before writing this article .

company submit his advance income tax return to income tax department . •Adjustment of actual income tax with provision Actual income tax will adjust with provision of income tax by passing following adjustment entry Provision for income tax account Debit . we all company pay income tax of previous year income . then pass the following entry Advance Income tax account debit Bank Account credit After one year when income tax department calculate the real income tax by providing the real income position of company in previous year . 5 crore in this year . Means what we earn in last year we have to pay tax on next year that is called assessment year. This is called provision for income tax . So on this advance guess company make his reserve or provision of income . For Example Suppose company can guess that it will earn RS. But Under the law of Income tax . So without actual earning we starts to estimate earning . all company have to pay tax in advance .Understanding the meaning of provision of Income tax In India . it may be the 5% or 10% or 15% or 30% on his estimated income. Now company Make the voucher entry of this provision by providing amount from profit and loss account Profit and loss account Debit Provision for income tax account Credit After provision or estimated income tax .

then income tax department demand more tax from you . and 217 binds board of directors of company to show profit and loss account and balance sheet of company and auditor's report's copies in annual general meeting of Company . then income tax department return your excess tax paid At this time two general entries will pass 1st transfer advance tax and tds to income tax account Income tax account debit Advance tax account Credit Tds account Credit 2nd journal entry will pass for return the amount Bank account debit Income tax account credit If advance and tds is less than actual tax . 216. All these reports are called annual reports of company . .Income tax Account ( Actual after assessment ) credit •We must calculate the difference between actual paid tax and ( advance + tds ) If advance and tds is more than actual tax . It is also compulsory for company to publish both in print and now in website also . These reports show the performance of company to public . and you will pay by following journal entry 1st transfer advance tax and tds to income tax account Income tax account debit Advance tax account Credit Tds account Credit 2nd journal entry will pass for return the amount Recent Trends in published accounts Indian Company law 1956's section 210 .

Because . Many charts are so popular and be successful for comparison of financial data of company . For learning point of view I have made some chart of company's data . all these reports are made in excel or in online with Docs spreadsheet. sale .These days many companies are using charts and graphs for publishing their final accounts . . it is attractive and gives good impression to customers and interested people of company . •Due to advancement of Internet technology you can make charts and Graphs of production cost . income and expenses classification and distribution of income into dividend and tax and present in website of Company .